You are on page 1of 10

The EL pulverizer is a medium speed ball-and-race mill

working on the ball bearing principle. EL pulverizers are


manufactured in 18 sizes ranging from EL-17 to EL-76.
The numeric specification on EL pulverizers indicates the
pitch circle of the balls in inches. EL pulverizers operate at
capacities between 1 (EL-17) to 20 (EL-76) tons per
hour based on 50 H.G.I. coal. Most electric utility
installations utilize the EL-50, EL-64, EL-70 or EL-76. The
Babcock and Wilcox EL pulverizers can provide
outstanding pulverizer performance when optimum
operational and maintenance practices are adhered to.
Optimum operation of the EL pulverizer requires the
following:

Coal fineness of 75% passing 200 mesh and <0.1%
remaining on 50 mesh. EL pulverizers that utilize ball
bearing type grinding achieve very high 50 mesh
fineness much easier than other types of pulverizers.
A maximum imbalance of 5% deviation from the
mean dirty airflow between each pulverizers separate
fuel lines.
A maximum imbalance 10% deviation from the
mean fuel flow between each pulverizers separate
fuel lines.
Pipe to pipe clean air balance within 2% of the mean
pipe velocity.
Air to fuel ratio of 1.75 to 1.8 pounds of air per pound
of fuel.
Pulverizer to pulverizer mass air and fuel balance
within 5%.
Pulverizer outlet temperature of 160F or higher.
Minimum fuel line velocity of 3,300 Fpm.
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com

Operation within these parameters is critical to the
following items:
Ensuring stable burner flames
Prevention of fuel line stoppages, pulsation or
slugging
Ensuring full design pulverizer capacity is achieved
Obtaining acceptable levels on unburned carbon in
Flyash
Uniform release and absorption of heat across of the
furnace
Reduction in furnace slagging and fouling
propensities
Maintaining furnace and boiler exit gas temperatures
within design tolerances
Prevention of water-wall wastage and tube metal
overheating
Maintaining design or better unit heat rate
Numerous variables influence distribution of air and fuel
between a pulverizers separate fuel lines. These
variables are as follows:
Size of pulverizer coal particles leaving the pulverizer
(Fineness)
System resistance of each individual fuel conduit
Total airflow through the pulverizer which is controlled
on a ratio of weight of air to fuel
Velocity of air/coal mixture passing through each
burner line
Maintenance of critical components such as the
classifier, classifier cone, grinding rings, balls,
cabbage cutter, orifices and burner components
Coal Fineness and Fuel Balance
Utilization of Pre-NSPS burners required 70% passing
200 mesh and <1% remaining on 50 mesh. Many
operators today are forced to utilize Low NOx burners.
Low NOx burners require a higher degree of precision in
delivery of fuel and air to the furnace. To compensate for
fuel and air imbalances and lower exposure time of fuel
carbon to free oxygen at temperatures above ignition
points, coal fineness standards required reevaluation. Low
NOx burner firing configurations require >75% passing
200 mesh with >99.9% passing 50 mesh. Coal fineness is
not always required for acceptable NOx emissions.
However, optimum combustion and flyash with <6%
unburned Carbon (L.O.I.), requires improved fineness.
Fineness levels of 75% passing 200 mesh and 99.9%
passing 50 mesh improves fuel distribution as well as
flyash unburned carbon. Higher coal fineness level will
also promote flame stability at lower loads, increasing
boiler turn down without the support of oil flames.
Figure 1 - B & W El Pulverizer
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
2
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
Coal Fineness and Fuel Balance
As fineness increases, fuel balance improves. The finer
the coal, the coal and air mixture characteristics are closer
to a fluid than solids in suspension. The more fluid coal/air
mixture makes achieving complete homogenization of the
mixture leaving the pulverizer much easier. A more
homogenous mixture of air and coal results is more even
distribution between burner lines. EL Pulverizers utilize a
classifier employing centrifugal separation to return coarse
coal particles to the grinding zone for regrinding. The
Swirl imparted by centrifugal classification separates
coarse and fine coal particles. Homogenization of the
stratified mixture leaving the pulverizer can be achieved
with intense swirl. More massive coal particles (lower
fineness) have more momentum when entrained in air at a
certain velocity and are more easily stratified than finer
coal particles that have less mass thus lower momentum.
After separation of coarse and fine coal particles, fuel and
air balance is further aggravated by airflow imbalance.
Typically, burner lines that receive the largest quantity of
coarse coal particles have the lowest air velocities. The
graph below illustrates data collected on a unit with (5)
separate pulverizers with differing maintenance intervals
and classifier setting. This graph indicates improving fuel
balance with higher fineness level despite other
parametric differences.
1. Increase the raw coal feed to the pulverizer to the
maximum pulverizer capacity.
2. Make the transition from hot to cold air operation.
Avoid making sudden changes in air flow through the
pulverizer.
3. Monitor pulverizer outlet temperature. After outlet
temperature has returned to normal, continue
operation until temperature stabilizes. Coal flow then
may be reduced according to pulverizer demand.
Ensure reductions in fuel flow are accompanied by
proportional decreases in air flow to maintain a fuel
rich mixture.
Pulverizer Skidding
Pulverizer skidding is the sliding or skidding of pulverizer
balls rather than rotation with upper and lower grinding
rings. Skidding happens immediately without any type of
warning. Skidding is usually the result of insufficient spring
compression, also causing poor fineness, fuel balance
and capacity. Skidding pulverizers are indicated by
extreme noise in the immediate area of the pulverizer,
sudden and large increase in pulverizer motor current
(amps) and increased mill differential indicating a plugged
mill. Suspension of pulverizer skidding warrants
immediate pulverizer tripping. Heat generated by skidding
can crack or break balls or the top grinding ring. Besides
insufficient spring compression, flat spotted or banded
balls and/or large coal chunks or tramp metal (from raw
coal feed) jammed under the balls can cause skidding.
Relationship Between Fuel Line Distribution and Coal Fineness
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
30.00%
35.00%
40.00%
62.00% 64.00% 66.00% 68.00% 70.00% 72.00% 74.00% 76.00% 78.00% 80.00% 82.00%
Weighted Average Pulverizer Coal Fineness - %Passing 200 Mesh
M
a
x
.

F
u
e
l

I
m
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
%
D
e
v
.

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

M
e
a
n
MaximumFuel Imbalance - %Dev. fromthe Mean Linear (MaximumFuel Imbalance - %Dev. fromthe Mean)
Coal Size
Maintaining optimum sizing of raw coal to the pulverizer is
mandatory in achieving capacity and fineness. Optimum
raw coal feed size for EL pulverizers is to 1. Raw coal
feed should never exceed 1, raw coal this size can plug
throats and cause vibration. Raw coal that is too fine can
plug the pulverizer or delivery components upstream of
the pulverizer. Regular yard crusher inspection and
maintenance is required to maintain optimum raw coal
sizing.
Mill Fires
Sudden and large increase in pulverizer outlet
temperature usually indicate a mill fire. External inspection
during mill fires will reveal a hot mill housing that may peel
or char off housing paint. Mill fires require immediate
action to prevent further combustion. To extinguish a mill
fire, air available for combustion must be reduced.
During a mill fire, pulverizer air flow should not be
increased. Increased air flow could result in explosion.
The procedure applied to extinguish a fire on an in-service
pulverizer is as follows:
Figure 2 - Grinding Ball Banding and
Flat Spotting
Figure 3 - Normal Ball rotation and dur-
ing skidding
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
3
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
Spring Compression
Springs provide compressive force required to grind coal
and prevent rotation of the top ring. Insufficient spring
tension decreases capacity, decreases fineness and could
cause a grinding ring failure. Too much spring tension can
cause unnecessary increase in mill power consumption.
Spring compression (vertical length under load) decreases
as grinding elements wear, this decreases force exerted
on the top ring and requires periodical adjustment of
spring bolts. Adjustment is facilitated by tightening spring
adjusting nuts that move spring bolts up or down. During
inspection, spring settings are determined by direct
measurement from the pulverizer interior. Before and after
each spring adjustment, spring setting and external spring
bolt dimension shall be recorded. External measurement
of the spring bolt is an indication of ring and ball total
wear. This also allows determination and spring
adjustment with the pulverizer on-line. Figure 4
documents required spring compressions.
Spring Compression
Accurate maintenance and inspection records may
facilitate prediction of spring compression change based
on hours of operation. When adjusting spring setting by
spring bolt external measurement, counter-clockwise
turning of the spring bolt adjustment nut increases spring
compression. One counter-clockwise turn of the adjusting
nut will compress the spring bolts approximately 1/8.
Figure 6 illustrates a theoretical situation where records
indicate an increase in total wear measurement every
1000 hours of operation.
Pulver-
izer Size
Total
Spring
Force
(lbs)
Spring
Setting
(inches)
Wire
Diameter
(inches)
Spring
Free
Length
(inches)
Number
of
Springs
EL-50 20,400 4 23/32 1 8 4
EL-53 22,100 4 3/8 1 8 4
EL-56 22,100 4 3/8 1 8 4
EL-64 25,500 5 5/16 1 8 6
EL-70 28,900 4 29/32 1 8 6
EL-76 30,500 4 29/32 1 8 6
Figure 4 - Desired Spring Compression for El Mills
Compressed Length of Spring in Inches
Pulverizer
Size 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800
Number
of Balls
Ball
Diameter
EL-50 5 31/32 5 3/4 5 9/16 5 11/32 5 1/8 4 15/16 4 23/32 4 1/2 12 12 1/4
EL-53 5 3/4 5 17/32 5 5/16 5 1/16 4 27/32 4 5/8 4 3/8 13 12 1/4
EL-56 5 3/4 5 17/32 5 5/16 5 1/16 4 27/32 4 5/8 4 3/8 13 12 1/4
EL-64 6 5/16 6 5/32 6 5 13/16 5 5/8 5 15/32 5 5/16 5 1/8 15 12 1/4
EL-70 6 3/32 5 7/8 5 11/16 5 1/2 5 5/16 5 1/8 4 29/32 4 23/32 17 12 1/4
EL-76 5 31/32 5 3/4 5 9/16 5 11/32 5 1/8 4 15/16 4 23/32 4 1/2 18 12 1/4
Not Recommended

Recommended
~Pounds of Force per Ball
Figure 5 - Spring Dimensions on El Pulverizers
Figure 6 - Spring Adjustment by External Measurement
As a result of wear, balls become smaller and wear
deeper pockets into the grinding rings. As balls wear and
become smaller, available grinding surface decreases and
space between the balls increases. Average gap between
grinding balls should be approximately 5/8. Fill-in balls
are added when additional space between balls becomes
large enough to accommodate extra balls to increase total
grinding surface. EL-50 through EL-76 pulverizer grinding
balls are 12 when new. Worn balls, or sets of balls, of
various size are usually classified and kept on hand.
When balls are added, balls inserted must be within of
the average diameter of other balls in the pulverizer.
When average ball size is smaller than 9 diameter, the
pulverizer should be overhauled and all balls replaced
with 12 diameter balls.
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
4
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
Common Pulverizer Modifications
Less than desired pulverizer performance after
mechanical and maintenance variables have been
addressed may be due to marginal pulverizer capacity or
coal quality different from the pulverizer design. Pulverizer
modification is often required to achieve desired fineness
and fuel balance.
Extended classifier blades. Increased blade length
increases swirl rejecting more coarse particles and
improving fuel distribution. Extended classifier blades
can improve fineness between 5% and 15% passing
200 mesh. Figure 7 illustrates typical classifier blade
extensions for an EL pulverizer and improvement in
fuel distribution.
or more will complicate pulverizer disassembly during
routine maintenance.
Installation of raw coal deflectors. If raw coal
deflectors are absent on EL pulverizers, raw coal is
dumped on the outside of the grinding ring. This
prevents coal from passing from the inside to the
outside diameter of the grinding ring as required for
efficient pulverization. The lower pulverizer ring
rotates at approximately 90 Rpm on an EL-64,70 or
76 and 100 Rpm on an EL-50 at the shaft. Coal
dumped on the outside of the grinding ring will not be
able to overcome the centrifugal acceleration to pass
through the balls. When this occurs, coal must be
transported to the classifier by air through the throat
and then circulated to the grinding zone through the
tailing discharge. Improper circulation through the mill
results in reduced capacity, high mill differential and
reduced fineness. Figure 10 illustrates a typical raw
coal deflector installed in an EL Pulverizer.
ORIGINAL VANES
8.75" IN LENGTH
NEW VANES
12.75" IN LENGTH
4" LONGER THAN
ORIGINAL
PRE-MODIFICATION TESTING POST-MODIFICATION TESTING
DIRTY AIR
VELOCITIES
RECOVERED
SAMPLE (g) VELOCITIES
DIRTY AIR RECOVERED
SAMPLE (g)
MAXIMUM DEVIATION
MINIMUM DEVIATION
+8.27%
-6.07%
+13.2%
-18.3%
+1.55% +5.45%
-2.33% -6.05%
DEVIATIONS ARE %DEVIATION FROM MEAN VELOCITY OR RECOVERY WEIGHT
Installation of angled classifier blades will improve
coal fineness by changing the diameter of the swirl.
Blades are angled further towards the outside of the
mill and the back of other classifier blades. Larger
coal particles, which are accelerated more than fines
due to higher momentum collide with classifier blades
and are rejected.
Figure 8 - Angled Classifier Blades on an EL
Pulverizer
Figure 7 - Improvement in Fuel Balance with Ex-
tended Classifier Blades
Extension of classifier outlet skirts or inverted top
hat. This is performed to change the direction of the
coal particles in a downward direction towards the
classifier reject area. The increased downward
momentum and 180 turn of the particles
with higher mass allows less of these large particles
to be carried to the fuel lines. A 1 extension of the
inverted top hat is usually sufficient. Extension of 2
Figure 9 - Inverted Top Hat Extension
Figure 10 - Raw Coal Deflector for EL Pulverizer
RAWCOAL
FEED
CLASSIFIER
OUTLET
CLASSIFIER
BLADES
SEAL WELDACROSS
TOP BAFFLE
TWO 3/8THICK
GUSSETS
TOTAL OF THREE 3/4ROUND
RODBRACES AT ENDS AND
CENTER OF DEFLECTOR
PULVERIZER
HOUSING
16 FEED PIPE
1 EXTENSION OF
DEFLECTOR RING
COAL-AIR
MIXTURE
INCREASED DOWNWARD MOMENTUM
RETURNS HIGHER PERCENTAGE OF
COARSE PARTICLES TO GRINDING
ZONES OF PULVERIZER
OUTLET TO
EXHAUSTER
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
5
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
Pulverizer Vibration
Non-optimum pulverizer air flow can sometimes cause EL
pulverizers to vibrate. The mill level also plays a factor in
vibration. Pulverizers that are operating fuel lean will
vibrate much more than a pulverizer operating at correct
air/fuel ratio. Excessive vibration after verification of mill
coal level and air flow warrants an internal inspection.
Mechanical factors that can cause excessive vibration are
as follows:

Ball flat spotting or banding
Foreign objects in the pulverizer
Broken grinding rings
Excessive ring run-out
Large raw coal sizing

Clean Air Balancing
Balancing system resistance of fuel lines on clean air is
the first step of an empirically derived approach to
balancing pulverizer fuel and air. Clean air balance is
defined as balance of airflow between a pulverizers fuel
lines in the absence of fuel. This is achieved by forcing air
through the pulverizer at normal operating mill outlet
temperatures with primary air fans while the feeder
remains off-line. Clean air balance is determined by
measuring the velocity of air flowing through each
individual fuel line with a standard Pitot tube. Primary
airflow optimization will be discussed later in this report. In
most cases, primary airflow is higher than desired and will
be reduced to optimize performance. Prior to optimization
of primary airflow it is prudent to perform clean air
balancing. This will insure minimum fuel line velocities are
maintained after optimization of primary airflow. Air
velocity in all fuel lines must exceed 3,300 feet/minute
(Fpm). Fuel line velocities above 3,300 Fpm will insure
coal entrainment in primary air. Velocities below 3,000
Fpm allow coal to fall out, accumulate or dune in
horizontal runs of fuel lines. The 3,300 Fpm minimum
velocity includes a 10% safety margin above the absolute
minimum line velocity of 3,000 Fpm allowing for some
imbalance in air flow between pipes. Coal line
accumulations may cause burner pulsations, flame
instabilities and possible stoppages. Fuel lines are
balanced by an iterative process utilizing 10 Gauge
carbon steel trial orifices. Clean air balance with a
maximum of 2% deviation from the mean between all
fuel lines on a pulverizer must be achieved. After optimum
orifice configuration is determined, permanent 400 Series
stainless orifices are installed. Typical coal line orifices are
illustrated by Figure 12.

Computer modeling is sometimes performed to determine
orifice sizing. Following installation of orifices, clean air
balance should always been verified by Pitot traverse of
fuel lines. Clean air tests by Pitot traverse is also required
to ascertain if any fuel line resistances not shown by
drawings are present. Boilers with EL pulverizers utilizing
pre-NSPS burners typically utilize a concentric ring coal
diffuser. If so equipped, diffusers on all burners must be at
uniform position to ensure differences in fuel line system
resistances are not caused by dissimilar positions. Proper
diffuser position is also required to maximize diffuser
effectiveness and to promote efficient mixing of fuel and
air at the burner. Optimum diffuser position is achieved
when the diffuser is centered in the coal nozzle with 1/8
tolerance and the diffusers trailing edge is 1 beyond the
coal nozzle tip. (Figure 11)
xx
FLANGE ORIFICE PLATE
FLANGE
ORIFICE
STAMPED W/ORIFICE SIZE
Trial Orifice - 10 Ga. CS
Perm Orifice - 3/8" 400 Series S.S.
NOTE: ORIFICES MUST BE AS
FAR UPSTREAM OR DOWNSTREAM
OF TEST TAPS AS POSSIBLE.
>10 PIPE DIAMETERS PREFERRED
Figure 11 - Proper Position of B&W Con Ring Diffuser
Figure 12 - Typical Coal Lines Orifices
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
6
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
Pulverizer Airflow
High primary airflow can cause poor coal fineness as well
as poor fuel balance. Primary airflow should be ramped
against fuel flow. Optimum pulverizer airflow for a EL
pulverizer is 1.75 to 1.8 pounds of air per pound of coal.
The graph below illustrates a typical air to fuel relationship
for EL pulverizers. Characterization of P.A. flow requires
accurate control and measurement of primary air and fuel.
Pulverizer throat clearance must be verified prior to
primary air flow optimization. Accumulation of pulverizer
operating hours will result in throat gap enlargement as
throat plates and lower grinding ring wear. As the gap
becomes wider, velocity decreases, allowing smaller coal
particles to fall through the throat. If throat gap is not
closely monitored, serious coal dribble can result. If throat
gaps are too small, mill differential will be high, possibly
causing reduced capacity and trapping of pyrites such as
rocks or tramp metal in the throat. Excessive coal dribble
can be temporarily avoided with fineness and
performance penalties by increasing primary air flow.
Operation with increased primary air flow should only be
used until proper maintenance can be performed.
Figure 14 documents desired throat opening on EL
pulverizers, sizes EL-50 through EL-76.
Figure 13 - Typical Primary Airflow Ramp
Seal ring clearance is critical too prevent air from
bypassing the throat to the pyrite section. Design seal ring
clearances are as follows:
EL-21 to EL-56: 3/32 Maximum 1/16 Minimum
EL-64 to EL-76: 1/8 Maximum 1/16 Minimum

Pulverizer Size
Throat Opening
32
nd
of Inch Open Area Ft
2

EL-50 20 1.03
EL-53 20 1.14
EL-56 20 1.25
EL-64 22 1.48
EL-70 24 1.70
EL-76 30 2.00
Nominal Throat Size
Flow nozzles or venturis usually provide the most
accurate and reliable means to measure and control
primary airflow. In many cases, the averaging Pitot tubes
provide adequate accuracy for measurement of primary
air flow. The much endorsed procedure of calibration by
cold clean air flow should be abandoned. Calibration
should be performed by measuring air flow at the P.A. fan
discharge upstream of the averaging Pitot tube. At this
location, Pitot calibration will be achieved at operating
temperature of ~325F rather than clean air at ~150F.
Figure 15 - EL Throat and Seal ring clearance
Figure 14 - EL Pulverizer Throat Openings
Figure 16 - Typical EL Pulverizer Averaging Pitot Tubes
Optimum Primary Air Flow Ramp
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
45,000
50,000
55,000
60,000
65,000
70,000
75,000
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000
Coal Flow Pounds per Hour
P
r
i
m
a
r
y

A
i
r
f
l
o
w

-

l
b
s
.
/
h
o
u
r
Recommended -- 1.8 Air to Fuel Ratio
Minimum Primary Airflow to
Maintain Minimum Fuel Line
Velocity at 3,250 Fpm
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
7
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
Pulverizer Airflow
High primary airflow contributes to poor coal fineness by
increasing classifier air velocities and reducing overall
coal retention time in the grinding zone. Increased primary
air flow increases velocities at the classifier outlet. Higher
classifier outlet velocities will have sufficient energy to
entrap larger coal particles. Lower velocities allow larger
particles to be returned to the grinding zones. At higher
velocity, coal particles have higher kinetic energy or
momentum, increasing stratification of coal and air when
centrifugal forces are imparted on coal particles by the
classifier. The combined effect of poor fineness and
separation of coarse and fine coal particles causes poor
fuel balance. High primary air will also result in the
following:

Poor flame stability at low load and flame ignition
points unattached to burner nozzles. Primary airflow
of 1.8 Lbs. air/Lb. fuel will maintain coal nozzle tip
velocities within the best range of flame propagation
speed for flame stability and improved combustion.
Increased air heater exit gas temperatures. Higher
dry gas losses are the result of increased tempering
air usage. Higher air to fuel ratio requires lower
pulverizer inlet temperature to maintain outlet
temperature, decreasing hot air from the air
preheaters. Additional dry gas losses are incurred by
heat loss to heat additional ambient (tempering) air
after injection into the boiler boundary."
Increased furnace exit gas temperatures. High
primary air increases the differential in velocity
between the primary air/fuel mixture and the
secondary (combustion) air. This stages or delays
combustion allowing increased heat release above
the burner belt zone. Lower heat release in the burner
belt zone results in lower waterwall heat absorption
and a subsequent increase in furnace exit gas
temperature.
Higher mill fire or explosion propensity
Higher slagging or fouling propensity
Increased coal line and burner nozzle wear
Increased auxiliary power, due to increased P.A. Fan
horsepower demand to convey additional primary
airflow
Higher Nitrous Oxide emissions. Increased Nitrous
Oxide emissions are facilitated by injecting more of
the total air, for a given excess air, as primary air in
the high temperature root of the burner flame rather
than secondary (combustion) air.

EL Pulverizer - Critical Inspection Items
Pulverizers should be inspected on a monthly basis.
During pulverizer inspection, verify the following items:
Pulverizer throat gap. Throat gap variation around the
circumference should be less than 1/16 to ensure
equal air distribution around the grinding zone
perimeter. Throat gap should be measured with a
taper gage for accurate measurement.
All mating surfaces between the classifier and
classifier cone sections must seal with no gaps. Gaps
in mating surfaces will allow coal and air to bypass
the classifier louvers thereby reducing classifier
efficiency.
Verify seal ring clearance. Air escaping through
excessive clearance open will reduce air flow across
the throat and could result in coal spillage or dribble.
Insure all segments of the seal ring are securely
fastened to the housing unit. The loss of a segment
will allow air to bypass the throat and cause non-
uniform distribution of air around the periphery of
grinding zone. The resulting friction from a loose
segment in contact with a grinding ring will generate
extreme heat possibly causing the ring to be
damaged or a mill fire.
Ensure the reject gate functions properly.
Verify tailings discharge (cabbage cutter) seals with
tailing section. Clearance between cabbage cutter
and tailings discharge should be less then 1/8.
Inspect the grinding rings and balls for wear.
Document the number and size of balls.
Document the vertical height between the grinding
rings.
Insure all spring bolts are properly adjusted and
uniform. Dissimilar compressions of different springs
will cause uneven loading of the grinding elements
and poor grinding performance. Poor grinding
performance could result in fineness and capacity
reduction.
Verify no retaining bolts are missing from the spring
bolt shoes. These bolts hold springs and spring bolts
in their sockets. Missing bolts will allow extra motion
between the spring bolts, springs and shoes,
contributing to excessive wear of these components.
Inspect spring bolt shoes. Excessively worn shoes
may allow springs to push through the shoe
eliminating proper spring setting.
Insure spring bolts are vertical. Out of line spring bolts
may result in bent or broken spring bolts.
Inspect the condition of the housing liners. Excessive
erosion of the consumable housing liners may result
in erosion of the mill housing.
Closely inspect the top and bottom rings for cracks.
Cracks may worsen during operation that can
ultimately lead to a broken grinding ring that can lead
to breaking of the pulverizers main shaft.
Inspect the classifier blades. Make sure all the
adjustable portion (thin gauge) of each blade or
louver is at uniform insertion into the classifier.
Ensure all nuts that secure the adjustable portion of
the classifier blade to the stationary blade are tight.
Nuts that loosen with vibration may result in
dislodging of blades. Dislodged blades can damage
the pulverizer, cause excessive vibration and
decrease coal fineness.
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
8
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
Inspect the inverted top hat and ensure it is not
excessively worn.
Ensure all swing valves open fully and seal securely
in the closed position. Swing valves that do not open
fully may bias dirty air flow and fuel flow between
pipes. Air flow through a single pipe with a partially
opened swing valve may result in low pipe velocities
insufficient to maintain suspension of coal, causing a
coal line stoppage.
Inspect the primary air fan blades and inlet bells.
Verify the inlet bell to fan wheel clearances. Inlet bell
to fan wheel clearance should be 1/8 at bottom and
1/4 at top.
Inspect the primary air averaging Pitots tubes. Make
sure the impact and static holes are perpendicular to
the flow direction. Ensure the Pitots are not distorted
and no holes are plugged.

Pulverizer Outlet Temperature
Maintaining optimum mill outlet temperature is required to
insure evaporation of fuel moisture and for proper ignition
of coal at the burners. Pulverizer outlet temperature
should be >160F on EL pulverizers. Temperatures less
than 160F will not promote complete evaporation of fuel
moisture. Low outlet temperature can lead to coal
accumulation on fuel line pipe walls, poor combustion and
poor fineness. Pulverizer ability to grind coal to fines is
debilitated by fuel moisture resulting in undesirable
fineness. Low outlet temperature results in a higher
percentage of total primary airflow as tempering airflow
rather than hot air. Tempering air is at ambient
temperature and introduced through atmospheric damper
or ducting from the forced draft fans.
Tempering air that has not been heated by the air heaters,
is injected into the boiler boundary resulting in higher dry
gas losses. This also facilitates less air passing across
the air heater which in turn results in a slight increase in
air heater exit gas temperature. In some cases, low outlet
temperature can result in lower than minimum fuel line
velocities due to differential in velocity at varying
temperature for a given weighted flow. When low outlet
temperature is observed the following action should be
taken:

1. Verify calibration and functional checks of the
temperature sensing devices.
2. Verify stroke and functional checks of the hot and
tempering air dampers.
3. Collect a raw coal sample and perform a proximate
fuel analysis. Calculate the required temperature at
the pulverizer inlet to maintain desired outlet
temperature. Compare the required outlet
temperature to actual pulverizer inlet temperature. If
there are gross differences verify pulverizer air flow.

In some cases low pulverizer outlet temperature may be
caused by insufficient air flow or extremely wet coal. This
situation would be indicated by functional dampers that
result in a fully open hot air damper and fully closed
tempering air damper. If air flow is verified to be optimum
and low outlet temperature is still experienced, available
hot air temperature may be insufficient for the moisture
content of a particular fuel. Required temperature can be
calculated using the method shown in Figure 21. If the
required temperature is not available, corrective action
would require coal flow to be reduced or primary air flow
increased. Higher air flow may cause decreased coal
fineness, however, these cases are the exception and not
the norm and should be implemented to prevent low outlet
temperature.

Input Parameters
Coal Flow: 35,000 Lbs./hr. Ambient Temp. of Coal : 100F
Air to Fuel Ratio : 1.80 #air/ #Coal Coal Moisture : 7.5%
PrimaryAir Flow: 63,000Lbs./hr. Cp of air : 0.24
Mill Oultet Temperature : 160 F Cp of Coal : 0.30
h(water) @ ambient = 68 Btu/Lb.
h(vapor) @ mill outlet = 1130Btu/Lb.
EnthalpyRise = 1062Btu/Lb.
Heat Required to Dry Coal (Btu's)
EnthalpyRise of Coal =Coal Flow[ 0.30(Tin - Tout) +{Coal Moisture (EnthalpyRise)}]
= 3,417,750Btu/hr.
Heat Content of Primary Air (Btu's)
Heat Req'd. toDry Coal =Cp(air) Mass PA Flow(Tin- Tout) Cp(air) Mass PA Flow(Tin- Tout)
= 386.04F
Steam Properties Table - Data Taken From 1967 ASME Steam Tables
Enthalpy of Vapor @ 1Atmosphere
Enthalpy of Water (Liquid) @ 1 Atmosphere
(14.7 PSIA)
Enthalpy(Btu/Lb.) Temp. (F) Temp. (F) Enthalpy(Btu/Lb.)
1124 145 40 8
1126 150 50 18
1128 155 60 28
1130 160 70 38
1132 165 80 48
1134 170 90 58
1136 175 100 68
1138 180 110 78
1140 185 120 88
1142 190 130 98
Figure 21 - Pulverizer Heat Balance
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
9
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
The graph below illustrates increases in required
pulverizer inlet temperature to maintain 160F outlet
temperature as coal moisture increases. This graph also
illustrates increased pulverizer inlet temperature with
lower pulverizer air to fuel ratio. In most cases 100% hot
air will result in a maximum temperature of ~550F.
Examination of the graph will indicate that low air flow (1.5
air to fuel ratio, as an example) will result in low outlet
temperature due to insufficient hot air temperature. At
optimum air flow (1.8 air to fuel ratio), outlet temperature
will likely not be achieved at coal moisture contents
greater than 13%.
Effect of Coal Grindability (H.G.I.)
Design capacity of EL pulverizers is based on coal
grindability index of 50 H.G.I. Pulverizer capacity for a
specified coal fineness will vary directly with coal
grindability below 50 H.G.I. As an example, an EL-76
rated at 40,000 Lbs./Hr. coal flow capacity with 50 H.G.I.
coal will have a 32,000 Lbs./Hr. coal capacity with 40
H.G.I. coal. The converse is also true, that is, increased
capacity can be achieved with higher coal grindability.
Capacity correction for grindability above 50 H.G.I. is
slightly less than proportional. The graph provided as
Figure 22 illustrates the relationship of pulverizer capacity
and coal grindability. As an example a capacity of 46,800
Lbs./Hr. coal flow could be achieved with 60 H.G.I. coal on
an EL-76 with than design coal H.G.I. will require
reduction in pulverizer capacity unless the pulverizer is
modified to compensate for lower coal grindability. In
some cases, design capacity can be achieved with lower
grindability coal by increasing primary air to fuel ratio. This
will achieve pulverizer capacity and unit electrical
generation but with reduced fineness and boiler efficiency.
Increasing air flow on coals that have both low H.G.I. and
low volatile coal (20 to 29% V.M.) will cause significant
flame instability requiring alternative actions.
P.A. Temperature Required with Varying Coal Moisture
300F
400F
500F
600F
700F
6% 8% 10% 12% 14%
% Moisture Contentof Coal
P
u
l
v
.

I
n
l
e
t

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

f
o
r

1
6
0


O
u
t
l
e
t
1.8 Air-Fuel Ratio 1.5 Air-Fuel Ratio
Typical correction for EL pulverizer capacity for coal
grindability is illustrated by Figure 22.
EL Pulverizer Capacity Correction for
Coal H.G.I. at a Specified Fineness
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Coal Hardgrove Grindability Index
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

F
a
c
t
o
r

(


b
a
s
e

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

a
t

5
0

H
.
G
.
I
.
)
Figure 22 - Effect of Coal H.G.I. on Pulverizer
Capacity
Optimum Operation and Maintenance of El Pulverizers
10
Innovative Combustion Technologies, Inc. 2367 Lakeside Dr. Ste A-1, Birmingham, AL 35244
www.innovativecombustion.com
Pulverizer Airflow
Calibration of averaging Pitot tubes is performed to
establish a Pitot tube K factor. K factors are obtained
by measuring air flow while documenting differential
pressure across the averaging Pitot tubes. Determination
of K factors allow calculation of primary air flow for a
given differential pressure across the averaging Pitot
tubes. This should be performed at several pulverizer air
flows to generate a curve. Typical test points include:
100% full pulverizer load P.A. flow (based on a 1.8 air
to fuel ratio
75% of full pulverizer load P.A. flow
Minimum pulverizer air flow calculated to yield fuel
line velocities of 3,300 Fpm
After collection of data, Calculate K factors utilizing
the following formula:





Air Density at Pitot (Lbs./Ft)
W Mass Flow (Lbs. per Hour)
P Pitot Differential (w.c.)

Calculated K factor at each of the three different air flows
are averaged. No single K factor should deviate more
than 3% from the average. If K factors shift more than
3% deviation from the mean, P.A. ducting must be
modified to increase accuracy or Pitots must be replaced
with an alternate flow measurement element. After
determination of K factor, primary air flow can be
calculated for given Pitot differential by rearranging the
previous equation.

A primary air flow ramp can then be generated by
rearranging the equation once again to calculate required
Pitot differential for desired primary air flow.

Desired primary air flow is calculated by multiplying coal
flow by 1.8 above minimum fuel line velocity.
= P K W
( )
2

=
K
W
P
The figures below illustrate typical measures to improve
the accuracy of primary air flow measurement elements.
Flow nozzles, as shown by Figure 17, are the preferred
and most accurate means to measure primary flow.
Typical modifications to primary air ducting intended to
increase velocity and smooth flow profiles by use of dams
or angle iron are shown by Figures 19 and 20. If flow
nozzles are not installed, installation of venturi section, as
shown by Figure 18, is the preferred method to increase
accuracy of existing averaging Pitot tubes.

=
P
W
K
Coal Flow Vs. Primary Air Differential Utilizing P.A. K Factor of 2,746
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
12,000 17,000 22,000 27,000 32,000 37,000
Coal Fl ow - Pounds per Hour
P
.
A
.

D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
l


"
w
.
c
.
Recommended 1.8 Pounds of Air per Pound of Coal
Basis:
P.A. Fan Discharge
Conditions:
400F
10" w.c. Static Prs.
Density =0.04736 Lbs./ft Min. Air Flow to Yield
3300 Fpmin Pipes
Figure 17 - Flow Nozzle installed at PA fan inlet
Figure 18 - Venturi to Improve Avg Pitot Accuracy
Figure 19 - Typical Air Dam in EL P.A. Ducting
Figure 20 - Angle Iron to Increase Velocity and Smooth Flow
Profile Across Avg. Pitot