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URBAN RENEWAL AS A TOOL FOR HOUSING REDEVELOPMENT

(A CASE STUDY OF IBADAN NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT, OYO STATE)


CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The most visible and obvious consequences of urbanisation in
developing countries, such as Nigeria, is often rapid deterioration of urban
housing and living conditions (Lewin, 2002). This is traceable to the fact that
urbanisation leads to explosive population growth, which is occasioned by a
phenomenal leap in the quantitative housing needs of the populace (Diogu,
2002). The housing needs are not matched by effective demand since the
large majority of the populace does not have the wherewithal for adequate
housing.
In Nigeria, the rate of provision of new housing stock has lagged
severely behind the rate of population growth resulting in staggering housing
deficit (Adejumo, 2008) requiring an annual production of more than 70,000
housing units to cope with the population trend (Okedele, Adebayo, Iweka
and Uduma-Olugu, 2009). The rapid increase in the population of urban
centres has resulted in an increase in the cost of living because of higher
demand on urban commodities. There is a dearth and high cost of urban
land, and high cost of housing, which is often in short supply and out of the
economic reach of the majority of the urban households (Oladapo and
Olotuah, 2007). The urban centres are populated by a large mass of people
on low wage and who face irregular employment. This segment of the urban
population is indeed poor, and is constrained to limited, insufficient,


crowded, cold and dirty shelter and a generally degraded environment
(Galbraith, 2008; Mabogunje, 2000). These are the urban poor who are
subjected to a life characterized by precarious conditions of nutrition and
health, little or poor material possessions (Sada, 2005; Mabogunje, 2005).
Filani (2007) has succinctly shown that most urban centres in Nigeria
are characterized by high densities of buildings, the crowding of large
numbers of people into those buildings, lack of space for open air living
between houses, poor health, substandard housing, and acute
environmental and sanitary problems. The shortage of affordable and decent
accommodation for the urban poor is thus a major housing problem in
Nigeria. Studies have shown the deplorable conditions of urban housing in
Nigeria (Olotuah, 2007). The studies affirm that 75% of the dwelling units in
urban centres in Nigeria are substandard and the dwellings are sited in
slums. The inadequacy of the quality of most of urban housing stems mainly
from the poor physical state of the buildings. The studies further show that
the buildings are often unsafe and insecure and do not provide adequate
shelter from the elements of weather.
Sustainable urbanization seeks to pursue development in harmony
with the protection of environmental quality. Providing an effective housing
policy framework constitutes one of the major instruments required for
Sustainable urbanization. In recent decades, it has been observed that the
phenomenal rise in population, spontaneous increases in size of cities have
led to acute shortage of habitable dwelling units in Nigeria. This scenario has
resulted to diverse urban problems like overcrowding, deplorable
environment, poor living conditions, inadequate and poor infrastructure,


homelessness, increased rate of poverty and social vices among several
others. The need to stimulate progressive urbanization through adequate
housing delivery thus constitutes a critical challenge to development. Thus,
this paper examines the need for urban renewal as a tool for housing
redevelopment in Nigeria.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been established that urban growth in any particular society,
especially in the developing world is not just due to the natural increase in
population hut also due to the immigration from the rural environment to
the urban centers. Due to unequal distribution of facilities, job opportunities
and glowing glamour cities there is constant influx of people from rural areas
into the urban centers.

However, clue to the present economic problems the rate at which
properties and the necessary infrastructural facilities are being left
unmaintained are on a steady increase, rent passing on majority of property
especially the residential stock are not true representation of their networth
and capital value. Also, the necessary infrastructural facilities such as road,
electricity, water, sewage system and drainages are left unmaintained and
they will get diminished in quality in no time.

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY.
The physical ugly look of Mokola area in Ibadan North Local
government prompted this research work. The area has been growing for


long in all direction. Residential property are being built with inadequate
infrastructural and street service, and even the condition of people living in
the area is nothing to write home about.
Despite the fact that the ugly physical development of the core area in
Ibadan city. In recent past the State Government in collaboration with World
Bank rehabilitated major roads within the case study area instead of
carrying out total renewal of the whole area.
Therefore, this study will focus on how urban renewal could be
implemented in such a way that it will be effective in all the nooks and crane
of Mokola in Ibadan North LGA. This is also determined to review methods
and procedures at which urban renewal can be carried out that make it
more effective especially total renewal.
It is hoped that this study will make a contribution to scholarly
literature on the subject and will stimulate further research on the topic.

1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to investigate on how urban renewal serves as
a tool for housing redevelopment in Nigeria. Specific objectives are to:
To identify various tools of urban renewal necessary for the
redevelopment of decaying cities.
To examine urban renewal programme in decaying neighbourhood of a
city.
To identify the problems associated with carrying out a comprehensive
urban renewal in decaying neighbourhood of a city.
To make probable recommendations to solve the identified problems.



1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is limited to the urban renewal as a tool for
housing redevelopment in Oyo state with reference to Mokola area in Ibadan
North Local government.
The peculiar features of Mokola area with respect to its buildings or
structures that have reached obsolescence favored its choice as the case
study area. This is with the fact that the area has residential, commercial
and recreational activities. The study area covers the socio cultural,
economic, physical and environmental problems.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY



1.7 STUDY AREA
This area consists of residential and commercial development that has
been in existence for a very long time in which most of buildings are ancient.
The case study has a high density population which has affected the sewage,
drainage and refuse disposal systems due to congestion of people in the
area. Mokola layout is said to have covered a total of about 0.74km
2
source
(data base of Ibadan North Local Government Areas). It is located on hill
within Mokola area that is one of the highest hills in Ibadan metropolis. In
accordance with 2006 census the population of male in this area was given


to be 15,964 while female population 16,012 and the total population of the
area was given to be 31,976.
The indigeneous settlers of the case study area are mostly Yorubas.
Specifically the Egbas, Ijebus, Ondos and Ekitis. The metropolitan nature of
Ibadan makes it a haven for all and sundry. All other tribes in Nigeria are
found in this area examples are: Igbos, Deltas, Edos and Benues etc.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Urban Renewal: Urban renewal is defined as a system of preventing the
premature obsolescence of urban neighbourhood and facilities for the
reformation of the declining area as well as the re-circulation of worn-out
areas.
Slum: Slum can be defined as area with an advance condition or stage of
blight where dwellings predominant which by reason of dilapidation,
overcrowding, facility arrangement of design, lack of ventilation or any
combination of these factors are determinant to safety, healthy or morals.
Urbanisation: This is a process of concentration of population in large
number in large population controls. It is the process of agglomeration of
population in urban centers since urban areas are made up of buildings.
Obsolescence: This is the stage when Old buildings and layout have little
value as they stand. In other words it is the decrease in value of real estate
property as result of old age.
Redevelopment: This is the process whereby an existing properties being
converted into a more suitable form just to increase its values.





CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF URBAN RENEWAL
According to Balchin and Chieve (2007) Urban renewal is to regenerate,
make new again, restore, and recover. Renewal focuses on the restoration of
vigour, strength and activity within a Community and encompasses the dual
potential of redevelopment. It has a scope for the demolishing of and the
rebuilding of communities and/or the physical environment. Harvey
(2000) defines urban renewal as the physical change, or change in the use or
intensity of use of land and buildings, that is the inevitable outcome of the
action of economic and social forces upon urban areas.
Urban renewal is a comprehensive scheme aim to redress a complex of
urban problems, including unsanitary, deficient or obsolete housing;
inadequate transportation, sanitation, and other services and facilities;
haphazard land use; traffic congestion; and the sociological correlates of
urban decay, such as crime (Igbokwe, 2006). Early efforts usually focused on
housing reform and sanitary and public-health measures, followed by
growing emphasis on slum clearance and the relocation of population and
industry from congested areas to less-crowded cities, as in the garden-city
and new-towns movements in Great Britain. Late 20th-century criticisms of
urban sprawl prompted new interest in the efficiencies of urban
centralization (Onibokun, 2005).
Mabogunje (2005) stated that urban renewal is happening in countries
across the World including the UK, USA, New Zealand, Belgium and
Australia. There are a number of commonalities between urban renewal


programs in the USA, UK and Australia. According to Okupe (2002), recent
urban renewal programmes in the UK are primarily (but not solely) intended
to arrest the decline of inner city neighbourhoods in areas with a high
density of people from low socioeconomic backgrounds and high
unemployment rate, it is also the inevitable outcome of political forces, as
governments play an instrumental role in defining areas for development as
well as funding and setting policy targets for renewal areas.
Olotuah and Bobadoye (2009) however, explains that each country
approaches urban renewal according to its means and its political and
administrative systems. One of the chief activities of urban renewal is
redevelopment, which is achieved through the clearance and rebuilding of
structures that are deteriorated or obsolete or are laid out in an
unsatisfactory way. Other aspects of urban renewal involve the reuse of the
land for new purposes, rehabilitation of structurally sound buildings that
have deteriorated or lost their original functions, and conservation-a
protective process designed to maintain the function and quality of an area,
for instance, by requiring or assisting adequate maintenance while
preventing inappropriate development or uncharacteristic changes in the use
of land and building. The purpose of urban renewal is to improve specific
areas of a city that are poorly developed or underdeveloped. These areas can
have old deteriorated buildings and bad streets and utilities or the areas can
lack streets and utilities altogether. It involves the demolition of and
destruction of business premises priceless historical structures and
relocation of people.


Agbaje (2013) reveals that the urban renewal programme is a two faced
projects. It has both negative and positive sides. On the positive side, stated
that, urban renewal may have economic benefits and improve the global
economic competitiveness of the city centre. It may also improve cultural and
social amenity, opportunities for safety and surveillance. Likewise, it may
increase tax revenue for the government which may lead to the creation or
renovation of housing stocks, educational and cultural opportunities.
However, despite the huge benefits that may accrue from urban renewal
development programmes, the negative side also abound to some categories
of people, especially, women, the poor and the disadvantaged in the society.
On the negative side, was of the opinion that the urban renewal programme
is a regressive mechanism for enriching the wealthy at the expenses of
taxpayers and the poor. It carries a high cost to the existing communities
and in many cases resulted in the destruction of vibrant neighbourhood.
Agbaje (2013) has also argued against urban development programme that
though the urban renewal process through renovated of a neighbourhood
generally increases its value, it rarely improves the living standard of its
current, low income residents who are usually forced to move out. In
addition, globally, during any development programmes, women's interests
are not usually taken into considerations
Aina (2009) argues that the urban renewal programme involves eviction
mechanism and trends that must be analysed with reference to the global
context and the persistent imbalance between demand and the supply of
land for housing, the scarcity of prime urban land for development,
Increases in the market value of urban land and increasing comodification of


informal land markets. Eviction usually takes place where there are dual or
conflicting property rights on the land. Evictions of each country have its
own specific characteristics. In Kenya for instance, in their studies found out
that public authorities recover land that had been allocated to occupants
under a temporary Permit to occupy regime in order to carry out a
development project. Occupants of this land were exposed to forced evictions
without compensation. Likewise in Zimbabwe, report that the largest scale
and possibly the most violent eviction of street traders in the continent was
carried in the year 2000. The UN Habitat mission to Zimbabwe estimated
that about 700,000 people who were displaced across the country. These
evicted people lost their homes and their source of livelihoods or both. Urban
renewal usually tends human more to poverty than reducing it. Poverty
reduction in developing countries is possible only by addressing the
disproportionate burden of poverty and increases human access to strategic
resources.

2.2 FACTORS THAT NECESSITATE URBAN RENEWAL
2.2.1 Slums
A rapid increase in urban population may result in the problem of
straining or breaking down of sanitary facilities and other infrastructure in
cities and towns. The local bodies are faced with the responsibility of
providing amenities with limited or often scant resource. The net result of
this incongruity between the resources and responsibility not only lead to
formation of new slums but also gives new dimensions to the problem of
slums (Balchin and Chieve, 2007).


Slum refers to a congested urban and suburban district characterized
by deteriorating and sanitary housing and highly noticeable poverty. It is
usually understood to be of overcrowded, squalid, closely built and
unhygienic housing.
Slums are a formidable problem, merely because the gap between
resources and demand for shelter tends to exist perpetually. Many slums are
situated in vulnerable locations like river margins, water loosed areas, road
margins etc. The slum population prefers to live in unhygienic conditions
and in areas prone to floods and accidents. Besides, the problems of over-
stretched infrastructures environmental degradation, seasonal flooding,
destruction of national vegetation, all resulting from increase in population
give rise to urban decay (Igbokwe, 2006).
Slums are construction of housing which overturn had fallen into a
state of disrepair and no longer provides the standard necessary for human
habitation and when this situation exists, urban renewal programme may be
the answer.
The existence of slum areas not only causes social problems but
actually results in sub-optional distribution of economic resources, this is
because urban renewal can improve resources utilization by reducing the
social cost on both inhabitant and non-inhabitants like improving the
quality of neighborhoods with the elimination of adjacent slums and blight
(Igbokwe, 2006).





Nature of slum area
Slum has its own characteristics ranging frond its residents to both
physical and social characteristic, which would be divided into subheading
for clarity:
(i) Economic characteristics
In terms of income, over 85% of the inhabitant of slum, by virtue of
their occupation tends to fall within low income group. In -Beirut, Lebanon,
most inhabitants of the slum existing in the old high density area in the
central city are working employees of the railways some of several industries
within the city hut unsettled.
(ii) Housing characteristics
Housing in slum area is generally poor. The housing standard with
their unit density, occupancy rate, quality of housing units plans are
nothing to write home about (Onibokun, 2005). Apart from these, the housing
units are not well oriented despite the fact that it accommodates thousands
of millions of people all over the globe due to the geometrical increase in
population in the core are against the arithmetic increase in the number of
available habitable space, there is subsequent overcrowding and shortage of
suitable living accommodation creating pressure or available community
facilities.
There were neither good road network nor adequate spaces around the
;houses, what served as circulation routes are narrow valley ways, facilities
like pipeborne water, electricity and adequate ventilation were also lacking.
The room density or occupancy rates was thick and such an unhealthy,


overcrowded and poor environmental conditions in existence favoured
spread of communicable disease.
The United State Urban Renewal Administration (USURA) has specified
that one or two primary conditions must exist before an area is considered
suitable for total slum clearance.
(a) More than 50% must be sub-standard or old
(b) Inadequate street layout, obnoxious land use overcrowding of building,
excessive dwelling units unsuitable for repairs or any other factor identified
as hazards to health
(iii) Social characteristics
Each slum resident is influenced by the general culture of slum
dwellers in varying degrees. Majority of these inhabitants tend to take the
fact that they are slum dwellers for granted and so behave in an unjust
manner. Life in the slum is usually gregarious largely centered on the
immediate areas where friends shops and possible credit are found. There is
little privacy confusion and wise seldomly abated, life however is more
unrestrained then in the middle class area. There also constant struggle for
economic survival and the area serves as abode for unscrupf3lous persons.

Types of slum dwellers
Abiodun (2003) identified various types of slum dwellers based on the
ways in which the slum dwellers based on the way in which the slum
dwellers thought about themselves. Quite obviously for many, the slum
constitutes a set of opportunity for undesirable behaviors which they want to
indulge in, some are in the slum areas on a temporary basis only while
others, are there to stay.


However, Abiodun (2003) identified four major types of slum dwellers.
They are:
(i) The permanent necessitarians
(ii) The temporary necessitarians
(iii) The permanent opportunist
(iv) The temporary opportunist
The permanent Necessitarians
These are those in the slum by necessity, and they include the poor,
the social out cast and indolent. The indolent are those whose most striking
characteristic is generally immobility whether inherited characteristic
disease, malnutrition and maleducation.
The Temporary Necessitarians
These are those in the slum by necessity, but whose residence there
are temporary, they spend a part of their lives there while all their values
and identification and most of their association are outside. Another set of
people that belongs to this category are the people referred to as the trapped.
In most cases they occupy house left to them by a parent or relative at a time
when the area was most rundown one day they find themselves living right
in the middle of a slum.
Permanent Opportunist
These groups are those who live in the slum to stay primarily because
of the opportunity it affords them, they include fugitives whose slums afer
sandinary or asylum as a cover or protection from the too prossing inquiries
of the more respectable world.



The Temporary Opportunist
They are of three types and they include the beginners, the climbers,
the entrepreneurs. The beginners are mostly immigrants who found slum,
the area as first settlements, found job and learn the element of urban living,
the climbers on the other hand are in most cases the apprentice who might
have been in the city for sometimes and because of long term plan
apprenticeship, they decided to live in the slum so as to be able to
accumulate enough food, money and know-how to leap later into a much
better area. And finally, the entrepreneurs who are a set of people that
established a small business and even make slum itself their business.

2.2.2 Obsolescence
This is a stage where the useful life of a building is reducing in value.
Obsolescence with regards to building is a relative term and it indicates that
a property is less suitable for use. It also occurs when a development is
needed to bring about a new life cycle.
(a) Physical Obsolescence
This is the easiest to appreciate and relates to the wear and tear on the
fabric of a building. It occurs as a result of the use and use intensity of a
building and also as a result of climate influence on the property. Physical
obsolescence or deterioration also results from combined effects of natural
agency of building and the effects of neglect and lack maintenance or wrong
use of development of land.
Until the buildings reach old age in their life cycle, physical
obsolescence is not a severe problem as it usually can be taken care of by
proper maintenance.


(b) Functional Obsolescence
This is a deficiency in design, equipment or layout that makes a
building less suitable for use. On the other hand, the loss of value on a
property may be due to change in style, tastes, technology and demand.
Okupe (2002) says that the size of a building to meet modern demand is one
of the important causes of functional obsolescence. Thus a building becomes
functionally obsolete if it becomes contained any of its functional component
in the fulfilling of the purposes for which it was installed or if it (Ices not
meet users requirements).
(c) Economic Obsolescence
This is the utility of life of a property arising from economic force such
as changes in the highest and best use. It is also known as location
obsolescence e.g. sitting of factory in a residential area.
The causes of economic obsolescence is deep within economy as a
whole and include changes in size and age structure of the population,
migrants and the number and size of household, technological improvements
especially those affecting transportation, changes in fashion and taste and
rises or fall in the standard of living either the whole or part of the economy.
All these and other changes in the economy affect the demand for the use of
properties (Mabogunje, 2005).
(d) Social Obsolescence
This is a process where the social costs rather than the social
benefits of keeping a property in its present use supercedes any economic
value that may have been accruable to private individual enjoying a property
to the detriment of the larger society or neighbourhood. This form of


obsolescence is reviewed from the point of the community at large as
regarding the cost benefit weight of the property being in continuous
existence (Mabogunje, 2005).
With respect to social obsolescence, the main factors taken into
consideration are dangerous to health, lack of essential amenities and the
high social cost involved in retaining the premises in question.

2.2.3 Congestion
Threat to the future convenience and prosperity of every town carrier is
traffic congestion. Most town centers have grown up around generating of
two or more traffic routes. This often means that today long distance traffic
routes, local cross town traffic and town center traffic all crowd into the
center areas because that is where the main road leads to and with the vast
increase in commercial roads transportation and private car ownership, the
result is intolerable. The town center cannot survive unless it is rescued
from this condition and adopted to the middle age. The town center is
usually the oldest part of the town, which means it has not grown beyond
proportion with the outward expansion of the town. Today, the town center
may contain a greatly increased population particularly if the town is being
expanded to relative congestion in the great cities. The town centers needs
room to grow but it can seldom do so without reading for change existing
pattern (World Bank, 2008).

2.2.4 Road Construction
This is the construction of new roads as a result of old town getting on
enhanced status e.g. becoming a state capital. The existing road may be


expanded to allow for a dual carriage way. Also, there may be need to allow
access into built areas which were impenetrable before. This invariably leads
to the renewal system in most urban area (World Bank, 2008).

2.2.5 Continuity
The fact that traditional town center is threatened with obsolescence
does not mean that it can or should be turned apart. Even if the physical
conditions as a such that a cleans sweep should be made, there may he
features which should be retained, or quantities, which should be
reactivated. Usually, a traditional town center with variety if uses has
developed over the country as a market place and a meeting point (World
Bank, 2008).

2.3 THE PHASES OF URBAN DECAY IN NIGERIA
Urban decay can be described as the physicals effect including
facilities that are poorly monitored and in disrepair, deterioration of
buildings and improvements, visual and aesthetic impacts, increase in
property crime and increased demand for emergency services, which result
from increase in retail closures and long-term vacancies (Jiboye, 2009). The
built environment in many developing countries particular Nigeria is fast
decaying. The factors responsible for this can be attributed to rapid
urbanization, rural urban migration, and decades of speedy economic
downturn, decay of urban infrastructure and negligent urban housekeeping
(World Bank, 2008). Within the Nigeria contexts, the phases of urban decay
are identified in the following areas which agree with features outlined
elsewhere (Onibokun, 2005):


A. Environmental, Health Issues and Living conditions.
(i) Poor waste management: Rapid population growth in urban cities like
Lagos, Ibadan, Onitsha, Kano, Kaduna, Awka, Port Harcourt etc has placed
immense pressure on solid waste management systems. Solid waste is
generated in almost all parts of the urban areas and solid waste
management becomes complicated in bigger cities. In most cities/towns, the
refuse is dumped in an unsatisfactory and haphazard manner without
sanitary landfill. The failure of such systems to cope has contributed to
water pollution, environmental degradation and the spread of communicable
disease and fatalities.
(ii) Poor air quality: Air pollution is one of the key contributors to disease
and fatalities globally, and is a significant problem in urban areas in Nigeria.
The main sources are industrial plants, residential and commercial
buildings, concentrations of hazardous waste and motor vehicles.
(iii) Environmental degradation: Rapid urbanization has resulted in
deteriorating environmental conditions, including from illegal occupation of
open spaces, loss of tree cover, reclamation of water bodies and construction
on river flood plains.
(iv) Inadequate urban utility services (water, sanitation and sewage,
electricity, fuel etc): The cause of Nigeria urban decay can be attributed to
the inadequacy and uneven distribution of service in the cities. Evidence of
this scenario is shown when making a comparison with some selected
countries in Africa. Table 1 below show the summary. Table 2 presents the
distribution of households by type of toilet facilities (%). Table 2 further


outlined the deficiency and inadequacy of basic infrastructural amenities in
Nigeria urban centres (Onibokun, 2005).
Table 1: Distribution of water and improved sanitation in Africa

Source: Onibokun (2005)
Table 2: Types of Toilet in the Urban Household in Nigeria 2003 (in percentage)
Source: Onibokun (2005)

B. Crime and Insecurity:
This is a major problem today in Nigeria urban centres. The
proliferation of hooliganism, tuggery, criminality and other social vices have
become eyesore in Nigeria. And this has been associated to the cause of: (i)
Economic cost: Crime and violence in urban areas has been associated with
various economic costs. These include: Costs related to medical treatment,
foregone earnings, loss of productivity due to injuries, loss of
competitiveness, losses through thefts and muggings, cost on private
security, and costs to the judicial system. (ii) Social cost: Crime and violence
can also have significant non-monetary costs in terms of increased morbidity
and mortality, erosion of social capital and higher levels of fear, in trust and
anxiety.


C. Poor Productivity and Market Inefficiencies
(i) Informal and inefficient property markets: Uncertainty over land tenure
and urban planning and management in many Nigeria cities has resulted in
efficient operation of land and property markets, excessive speculation and
high levels of dispute and litigation in the cities. The property market is
characterized with infiltration of quacks in Benin, Lagos, Ibadan, Port
Harcourt, Kano etc.
(ii) Limited incentives: Urban workers who are self-employed or working in
low paid informal jobs are often unable to earn more, regardless of their
efforts, which can undermine productivity. (iii) Fragmented production
chains: High rent in urban centres has resulted in the location of suppliers
away from producers. This can result in inefficient supply chains
distribution structure and high local transaction costs in manufacturing
industries (Mabogunje, 2005).

D. Housing Problem: Quantity and Quality
This has remained an unresolved problem in the cities. Substandard
housing in Nigeria urban centres is a major problem of our cities. The
problems of most of our urban cities like Lagos, Ibadan, Kano, Enugu and
Benin City etc resulted from the fact that they were never planned by experts
(Mabogunje, 2005). The problem is particularly serious for those in the lower
income strata.

E. Traffic Congestion
The rapid expansion of cities and improper transport planning has
produced significant traffic congestion in Nigeria cities. This has resulted in



financial costs for urban residents due to lengthy travel times to work and
time wasted; and higher transaction costs to business in moving goods and
services.
The foregoing situations have made the urban areas breeding places
for crimes and defiant behaviours, thus, making the urban centres unsafe
for people, unattractive to investors, unconducive to economic activities and
inimical to good governance.

2.4 AN APPRAISAL OF HOUSING DELIVERY POLICIES IN NIGERIA
There is no doubt that some of the past policies and programmes
relating to housing and urban development in Nigeria were contextually and
practically relevant in addressing popular needs. Undeniably, some of the
policies initiated by the government at both the federal and states levels in
meeting the housing needs of the people are moves in the positive direction,
as such actions, however minimal, have alleviated the problems of the grave
inadequacies of services and facilities in housing, as well as defusing the
persistent housing tension among the low-income group in the major urban
areas. However, considering the scope and magnitude of the housing
problems necessitated by spontaneous urbanization, the slow speed and
weak content of official intervention in addressing the developmental
challenge, it is apparent that some of the outcomes of these actions are




almost unidentifiable. Some of the reasons identified as responsible for these
shortcomings are outlined as follows.
In Nigeria, it is evident that the planning, programming and
implementation of the mass housing policy and programmes suffer grossly
from planning inconsistency and weak organizational structures due to
political instability, and over centralized mechanism of decision making and
execution. For instance, most of the houses built by government tagged low-
income housing are rather too expensive and out of the reach the targeted
low-income group. Also, many of the housing units were located many
kilometers away from those who require them and from the functionally
active boundaries where socio-economic activities take place within the
cities. The involvement of the public sector in housing in Nigeria has been
more of policy formulation than housing delivery. Despite huge allocations of
money to the housing sector in the National Development Plans, very little
was achieved in terms of meeting specified targets in housing construction.
This is especially true for direct house construction programme. A number of
reasons can be adduced for this, which include: wrong perception of the
housing needs of the lowincome earners, who incidentally constitute the vast
majority of urban dwellers; the proposal of typical housing that is not rooted
in the different Nigerias climatic, cultural and socio-economic environments;
improper planning and poor execution of housing policies and programmes;
undue politicizing of government housing programmes and the lack of the
political will and astuteness to carry out government housing programmes to
logical conclusions, and insensitivity of government to the operations of the
private sector in housing delivery (Olotuah and Bobadoye, 2009).


There is no doubt that the magnitude of the quantitative housing
needs of Nigerians is enormous considering the rapid increase in population,
and the rate at which urbanization is occurring in the country. Also to be
considered is the level of inconsistency by the government in its approach
and strategies aimed at achieving the goal of the National Housing Policy, as
housing matters are constantly transferred to different government
ministries from one government regime to the other. For instance, the
housing reforms embarked upon by the Federal Government (1999 2007)
involved the establishment of the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban
Development. The ministry was, inter alia, to supervise the Federal Mortgage
Bank of Nigeria, especially in the disbursement of loans from contributions
into the National Housing Trust Fund. The ministry has now been scrapped,
and in its place, a new Federal Ministry of Works and Housing has recently
been created (Olotuah and Bobadoye, 2009).
Despite various inadequacies in the existing housing policy framework
in Nigeria, the indispensability of Public sector intervention in housing
delivery must be emphasized, especially for low-income earners. Since
housing is essential for mans existence and the development of human
potential; its adequacy, both qualitatively and numerically enhances the
health, welfare and productivity of the individual and consequently the
wealth of the nation. Government has a social responsibility therefore to
ensure adequate housing provision for the people. In other to achieve this
goal, there is the need for a redirection and redefinition of existing policy
framework which should be made relevant to the present developmental


needs and realities, and formed within the context of global sustainable
housing and urban development realities (Igbokwe, 2006).

2.5 URBAN RENEWAL STRATEGY
Urban renewal process is perceived to overhaul the congestion in
the city centres (Newman, 2001). Urban renewal comprises some numbers
of strategies such as; Filtration, social planning, the boot-strap strategy,
replacement, guiding urban growth through investment and local
government strategy.
Filtration is based on the out migration of households and
employment followed by the clearance and redevelopment of vacated sites.
It was potentially the most system oriented of the approaches. Out-
migration resulted from both planned decentralization and market forces.
This is achieved with the creation of new towns to provide overspill
housing and employment to eliminate difficult journeys to work. It can
also be in the form of expanded towns or satellite towns. The expanded
towns received even less overspill than the new towns. Newman (2001)
underlines the importance of peripheral development around metro cities.
He argues that in case of fast growing urban centres, peri-urban areas
have experienced rapid economic growth as that is the easiest
environment in which new communities and manufacturing structures
can be built, absorbing large numbers of migrants. This approach,
however, calls for the resuscitation of new town creations in the time past
in Nigeria such as satellite town, Lagos; Ajoda New Town, Ibadan etc.


Social planning, as described by (Balchin and Chieve, 2007),
governments have regarded this as being secondary to physical and
economic planning. Social planning focuses on people rather than on
urban space or property, and should first involve analyses of the basic
causes of deprivation as a prelude to the application of needs related
policies.
The boot strap strategy entails rehabilitation and is mainly
confined to housing. It does not (or should not) involve the displacement
of occupant and it is often thought that in economic terms, it is less
costly than redevelopment, although evidence is conflicting. Needlemans
renewal theory thus suggested that the comparative economics of
redevelopment and rehabilitation depends on (Newman, 2001):
(i) the rate of interest (ii) the future life of the rehabilitated property and
(iii) the differences between the running costs of the new and rehabilitated
property. Normally, rehabilitation would be worthwhile if the present cost
of clearance and building exceeds the sum of the cost of rehabilitation,
the present value of the cost of rebuilding, and the present value of the
difference in annual running costs.
Mathematically, rehabilitation would be more economic than
redevelopment if: b > m + b (1+ i)- + r [ 1 (1+1)- (Balchin and Chieve,
2007) i Where, b = cost of demolition and rebuilding m = cost of
rehabilitation i = the rate of interest = useful life of the rehabilitated
property in years r = difference in annual repair costs Further researches


in the model seemed to suggest that rehabilitation was cheaper than
redevelopment although the question of timing have been ignored.
Replacement: Here clearance is followed by sound redevelopment
schemes. Usually there are many social problems that need to be solved
especially if redevelopment does not occur immediately after clearance,
therefore it is essential that, not just for economic reasons, schemes are
carefully selected, priorities determined and work sensitively programmed
(Harvey, 2000). Development is undertaken by either the public or private
sector or by a partnership of both. This approached had been adopted
both in the US and UK.
Guiding urban growth through investment: This method combines
the replacement strategy with market forces. Areas are initially ranked
according to their renewal potential, related infrastructure might be
improved and private investment is attracted.

2.6 DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE HOUSING POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR
SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.
High quality and well-managed housing is a cornerstone of sustainable
communities. The location, planning, layout and design of housing make an
important contribution to sustainable development. The quality and
condition of housing has a major impact on health and well-being.
Significantly, two of the eight action oriented goals outlined in Agenda of the
United Nations World Summit on Environment and Development centered
on the promotion of adequate shelter for all, and the improvement of human
settlement management in less developed countries (Abiodun, 2003).


These goals among others are in consonance with the principle of
sustainable development, which according to The World Commission on
Environment and Development, also known as Our Common Future refers
to as development that meets the need of the present without compromising
the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable
housing provision is thus the gradual, continual and replicable process of
meeting the housing needs of the populace, the vast majority of who are poor
and are incapable of providing adequately for themselves. It ensures housing
strategies that are stable and are not subject to vagaries in the political
circumstances of the country. Providing adequate housing therefore
constitutes one of the major constituents of sustainable urban development.
The issue with providing adequate shelter in Nigeria does not seem to
rest on the absence or search for feasible and viable policies and
programmes; neither does it reside in the incessant changes of
administrative or institutional identity as witnessed in Nigeria. It however
lies on ensuring an appropriate operational framework for its
implementation. It also lies on imbibing the right political will, economic
determination, organized and democratic approaches in the resolution of the
housing crisis. A recent World Bank report notes that two of the most critical
urban development issues facing Nigeria are the financing of urban
infrastructure and the institutional arrangements for housing delivery in
urban centres. Of all the myriads of problems faced by urban dwellers,
particularly in large urban centers like Lagos, is that of housing. The need to
develop an effective and operational framework for housing delivery in
Nigeria is therefore central to the achievement of sustainable housing and


urban development. Since the process of urbanization also involves the
improvement of urban quality including renewing the city, optimizing urban
spatial organization and improving urban function; achieving sustainability
in housing provision therefore requires major societal changes, restructuring
of institutions and management approaches. It requires the appropriate
political will based on the conviction of the responsibility of government to its
citizens, and the need to create humane and decent environment for
dignified living (Olotuah and Bobadoye, 2009).
The lack of consistency and continuity of policies is often the bane of
the execution of government programmes. Sustainability in housing
provision can only be achieved if government policies are based on the real
needs of the people and not informed by selfish political reasons. As such,
housing programmes should be vehicles for improved living conditions of
people, with serious implications on their health, welfare and productivity.
Meeting set targets should be a priority concern of government at every point
in time irrespective of the political leaning of the initiator of the policy. The
quantitative housing needs of the urban poor have to be realistically
estimated, and their multidimensional nature taken into consideration. This
is an important component of strategies for policy formulation and decision-
making which forms a basis for setting targets for housing development
programmes (Aina, 2009).
Nigeria as a nation operates a three-tier system of government, made
up of the federal, state and local. Rather than concentrating the mechanism
of urban governance in terms of decision making and executions to only the
center as it is the current practice, each tier should be saddled with clearly


defined goals and specific responsibilities toward ensuring effective housing
delivery. While the federal government is performing its primary role of
ensuring and providing the needed operational framework or modalities and
resource backing, it should also act as facilitator to other tiers of government
as well as the private sector and the individuals at the community level in
other to make them relevant in urban development and housing delivery
issues. To complement these efforts in an attempt to create viable cities for
the future generations, there is an urgent need for government to adopt
relevant urban renewal strategies for the improvement of the decaying
infrastructures in most Nigerian cities (Abiodun, 2003).
Among relevant steps required to realize sustainable housing provision
is how to put the housing needs of the Nigerian population into proper focus,
and a coordinated programme to achieve this should be thoroughly worked
out. Sustainable housing provision is thus contingent on such underlying
factors as policy formulation and decision making, policy execution and
monitoring, and social acceptability and economic feasibility. These factors
must take into cognizance the bottom-up participatory approach in housing
provision involving genuine local participation by people at the grassroots
level. The grassroots population in the bottom-up approach comprises the
local leaders (traditional chiefs, representatives of community groups),
women and youth organizations, community-based organizations (local
housing cooperatives, peer groups, social clubs, community associations),
and consultative assemblies. Without reference to the perceptions and
capabilities of local people, housing programmes often fail. This is because


local communities are in the best position to identify their needs, and order
their priorities (Aina, 2009).
Nigeria is a multi-ethnic nation with over 250 tribal groups. Despite
striking uniformity and sameness visible in the various house forms in the
country, each tribal group has created its own unique mode of housing,
which is sympathetic to its environment and mode of life of the people. For
this reason, decisions reached in the top-down approach to propose
prototype-housing design for the entire Nigerian population have never really
succeeded. Local communities have valuable experience, a special
understanding of their environment, their local building resources and the
ways of making the best uses of them. Thus, housing that will be properly
rooted in the cultural, climatic, socio-economic circumstances of the people
can only emanate from within the communities. At the level of planning and
decision-making, local participation is indispensable to sustainable housing;
this also contributes to building local capacity. The organ of government
responsible for housing development is expected to translate the inputs from
all the states in the country into a national action programme.




























































































REFERENCES

Abiodun, J. (2003). Housing problems in Nigerian Cities, Third World Planning
Review, 5(3), 33-37.

Agbaje, E.B. (2013). Modernisation, Urban Renewal and the Social Cost of
Development. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, MCSER
Publishing, Rome-Italy. Vol 4 No 10

Aina, T. (2009). Petty landlords and poor tenants in a low-income settlements in
Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria, P. Amis and P.C. Lloyd (eds), Housing Africas
Urban Poor, International African Institute, 87-102.

Balchin, H. and Chieve, S. (2007), Urban Land Economics and Public Policy.
Macmillan. London. pp. 76-123.

Igbokwe, J.I. (2006), Mapping and Spatial Classification of Major Urban
Centres in part of South Eastern Nigeria with Sat. 1 Imagery, 5th Fig
Regional Conference, Accra Ghana, March 8 11.

Jiboye, A.D. (2009). The challenges of sustainable housing and urban
development in Nigeria, Being a paper presented at fourth International
Conference on Research and Development. International Research and
Development Institute, Unilag, Akoka, Nigeria.

Harvey, M. (2000), Urban Land Economics, 5th edn., Palgrave Publishers Ltd
(pp. 270-275).Newyork.

Mabogunje, A. (2005). Towards an urban Policy in Nigeria, Onibokun P. (Ed),
Housing in Nigeria, A book of Readings, Ibadan, (1985), NISER.

Newman, P. (2001), Sustainable Urban Water Systems in Rich and Poor Cities
Steps Toward a New Approach, Water Science and Technology, 43 (4),
93 99.

Okupe, O. (2002). Problem of Real Estate Developers in Nigeria, A paper
presented at a workshop organized by the Nigerian Institute of Quantity
Surveyors, Abuja.

Olotuah, A.O. and Bobadoye, S.A. (2009). Sustainable Housing Provision for the
Urban Poor: A Review of Public Sector Intervention in Nigeria, The Built
and Human Environment Review, 2, 51- 63.

Onibokun, A.G. (2005) Public Housing Delivery System in Nigeria: A Critical
Review, Housing in Nigeria, Onibokun, A. G. (Ed.), Nigerian Institute of
Social and Economic Research, NISER, Ibadan, (1985), 429-446.

World Bank (2008), Urban poverty: a global view, Prepared by Judy L. Baker for
the World Bank Group, Washington D.C. www.worldbank.org/urban/




CHAPTER THREE
3.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY AREA
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Mokola, this is a very popular aspect of Ibadan metropolis and which
falls within the biggest local government within the metropolis that is Ibadan
North Local Government Area. It is in ward 9 of the local government area.
It being surrounded by areas like Bodija, Sango and Dugbe. The major
land uses existing in this area are: Residential use, commercial use and
recreational use. Majority of the streets in Mokola are not well laid out, but a
place is well laid out known as Mokola layout which is the case study area of
this dissertation.
In this case study area, it is well laid out, majority of the buildings are
ancient. In the area, there is congestion that is, they are too many living in
the area and it is situated on the hill.

3.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA
Due to the fact that the case study of this dissertation is within
Ibadan, most especially Ibadan North Local Government. A brief historically
development of Ibadan North Local Government will be examined.
By history, where Ibadan and its environs is today used to be known
as Igbo-Ipara (forest at manaders) not previously inhabited by anybody and
this was the situation before a Lagelu and founded Ibadan (Akinlolu, 2009).
The twenty seven descendants of Oduduwa who left to found their
own kingdom migrated for diverse reasons e.g. hunting and ambition to
found their own towns.


Lagelu did not give the town any names, its geographical position
made people refer it as ILUEBAODAN meaning town on the edge of
grassland. History had it that the first Ibadan was destroyed by the Yoruba
Army due to the violation of custom regarding Egungun festival. Inhabitants
during the reign of Alaafin Sango who dies in 1365 (Akinlolu, 2009). The
famous Lagelu and his army fought for more than three years to restore back
Ibadan to be the head but was defeated, as a result of this defect, Lagelu and
his children decided to settle in a place kown as Okebadan.
This went on for sometimes when he and his children became hungry
and started roaming about for food. They got to a place of fruits called Oro
and Lagelu and his children decided to settle at the place and that was how
the present Ibadan came to existence in 1829. Ibadan started with war camp
by Ife, Ijebu, Owo and Oyo soldiers who fought Owu people as they found
Ibadan to be a good defence out post.
Thus the population has been interrogenous from history late, Ibadan
became an administrators center, the administrative extent of Ibadan was
found to cover more than half of the entire Yoruba speaking people, due to
its power. The locational advantage of the city has given it prominence as a
favourable center for political, commercial, educational, industrial and social
activities (Akinlolu, 2009).
The scale of activities in Ibadan created job opportunities and
consequently influx of people to the city and as such is responsible for its
large population which is giving Ibadan problems like transportation and
most especially poor planning.


In the early part of 1970, Ibadan land was made up of two (2) councils
namely Ibadan City Council (I.C.C.) and Ibadan less city Area. The first was
referred to as Ibadan while the second was referred to as the rural settlement
of the region. This structure existed till 1976 when local government reform
was carried out. This led to the establishment of Ibadan Municipal
Government, namely Akinyele, Lagelu, and Oluyole (source Ibadan North
Local Government Area).
The present eleven local governments (five urban and six rural) came
into being in August 1991 during Babangida Regime. The structure of
Ibadan Municipal and three rural local governments of 1976 remained until
1991 when the Ibadan Municipal Government was divided into five local
government areas which brought about the existence of Ibadan North Local
Government where the case study of this dissertation is located.

3.3 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA
This area consists of Residential and Commercial development that
has been -in existence for a very long time in which most of buildings are
ancient. It is a well laid out area within Mokola Area as a whole. There are
well tarred roads with drainage and the case study has a high density
population which has affected the sewage, drainage and refuses disposal
systems due to congestion of people in the area.






3.3.1 SIZE AND RELIEF
Mokola layout that is community improvement programme area is said
to have covered a total of about 0.74km2 source (data base of Ibadan North
Local Government Areas).
It is located on hill within Mokola area that is one of the most highest
hill in Ibadan metropolis.
3.3.2 POPULATION
The population of male in this area was given to be 10,169 while
female population 9,942 and the total population of the area was given to be
20,111.
3.3.3 PEOPLE
The indigenous settlers of the case study area are mostly Yorubas.
Specifically the Egbas, Ijebus, Ondos and Ekitis.
The metropolitan nature of Ibadan makes it a haven for all and
sundry. All other tribes in Nigeria ore Ibadan in this area examples are:
Igbos, Deltas, Ondos and Benues etc.
3.3.4 ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONAL
The case study area is within Ibadan North Local Government Area.
The Headquarters of the local, government area is located at Agodi Gate.
3.3.5 LOCATION
It is located on the hill along Mokola Sango Road. It being hounded
by Premier Hotel, Cultural Centre, Agala forest and Mokola - Sango Road
3.3.6 LAND USE PATTERNS
Majority of the land uses in the study area are:
a) Residential


b) Commercial
c) Recreational
d) Educational
Residential: These are the building being used solely for residential purpose
that is buildings where people reside only all times. Meanwhile majority of
this land use is recently being converted to commercial use therefore
residential land use is now mixed with commercial. Examples are building
within the Mokola market, where people reside and at the same time used
for commercial purpose.
Commercial: These are buildings which are being used for shops, offices
and they are mostly converted from residential to commercial clue to its
economic value. We have others like shopping mall and complexes found by
the major road side of the case study area. For example Segilola Shopping
Mall along Mokola-Sango road.
Recreational: There are pockets of recreational uses in the case study area,
examples are the Popular Premier Hotel, Guest houses, e.g. Cultural Centre,
Inastrate food center etc.
Educational: We have a lot of educational institution within the case study
area such as Nursery and Primary Schools, Secondary Schools etc. examples
are: Alafia Institute Public School, Mokola, Alafia Institute Primary Nursery
and Primary School, other private secondary and primary schools, Oba
Akinbiyi School beside Cultural Centre, Pilphet N/P School at Adenle Street
and C & S mIen Primary School.




3.3.7 LEVEL OF SOCIAL AMENITIES
The quality and degree to which amenities are provided to a
neighbourhood enhance the conditions of living in that neighbourhood and
his also increases its standard and enhance the social value of occupants.
The public services and infrastructures therefore act as an index of
neighbourhood quality.
The roads in the case study area are well tarred with drainage, but
lack street light. Majority of the drainages are being abused by people in the
area which makes the drainages to be blocked and causes offensive odour.
Due to large number of people in the area majority of the containers
for refuse are being abused which causes bad odour that can lead to
epidemic and moreover majority of the occupants lack accessibility to
portable water.
3.3.8 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
As regard the case study of this dissertation the socio-economic
characteristic deals particularly with level of people that stays or resides in
the area. Majority of the people living in this area are tenants according to
interview carried out the area.
Many of the occupants are workers both male and female, some
working with the government, some private establishments and others self
employed income earners groups in this area are majorly middle and low
income by which majority are tenants and few others as owner occupiers.
3.3.9 ECONOMIC BASE OF STUDY AREA
In the case study area, majority of land uses are residential, of which
are being converted to commercial use which makes the study area


economically picking up. For example some buildings along Sango-Mokola
road and UCH Mokola road are being converted to commercial use such as
shops, offices, shopping complexes and shopping mall.
All these have added value economically to the study area and more
arc all these conversion from residential to commercial are being aided due
to improvement on infrastructural facilities in the area for example the road
rehabilitated by World bank Urban Renewal project.
Other things that makes the economic value of the study area are:
small scale industry such as, shoe making industry, carpenters, welder
industry electricians, bakery, Vulcanizers, Tailors, Babers etc. Moreover,
examples of commercial use buildings arc freedom process limited and photo
Clinic buildings along Sango-Mokola Road.





















THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF URBAN RENEWAL OF DECAYING
CITIES IN MOKOLA, IBADAN, OYO STATE.

THE CONCEPTS OF REDEVELOPMENT VIS-A-VIS PRINCIPLES OF
URBAN RENEWAL IN DECAYING CITIES.






2.7 ISSUES OF URBAN RENEWAL OR REDEVELOPMENT FOR URBAN
SUSTAINABILITY IN NIGERIA

Berg et. al (1998) opined that urban redevelopment is an issue that
has raised up the policy agenda of European member states since the mid
1990s. It is being increasingly recognized that cities are the motors of
regional economic growth within the European Union (EU) and often the
location of significant prosperity. The basic idea behind urban renewal is
simple: future tax revenues pay for revitalization efforts. Urban renewal
areas usually show evidence of some degree of blight, demonstrated by
conditions such as poorly constructed buildings, faulty planning, lacking
open spaces, deteriorated properties, an incompatible mix of uses and
improper utilization of land.
Huang, (2008) stated that the best strategy for sustainable urban
development and to limit urban decay is care for existing cities. This is
especially a challenge in rapid urbanizing countries like Nigeria. As put it by
Emudi and Osiki (2008), the houses are drab, dirty and recking with
unclean and decaying refuse. Water is scarce and must therefore, be


rationed, excreta disposal is inadequate with litters of human waste being a
common sight in a neighbourhood. (there) are inadequate drainage
facilities with waste water forming mini puddles within the compound where
mosquitoes and insect vectors exercise their reproductive potentials. The
situation agrees with the conclusion that most of the cities in Nigeria,
demonstrate the gradual villagization as a result of population explosion,
environmental degradation and the inability of the various governments and
urban councils to control the growth of cities (Emordi and Osiki, 2008).
Urban renewal or redevelopment has been considered as a tool to solving the
problem of squatter settlement (Aluko and Amidu, 2006).
Urban renewal theories were largely influenced by social, economic
and historical developments as well as city planning movements immediately
after the Second World War (WWII). Many countries embarked as rebuilding
efforts, characterized by demolition of old dilapidated areas, large-scale
clearance of city slums and construction of modern high- rises after the war.
Large-scale redevelopment created many social problems, and encouraged
many city planners and scholars to question its effects and functionalities.
Indeed, large scale renewal and redevelopment efforts have been criticized for
neglecting the complexities of the urban fabric; it is not only uneconomical,
but also damages the city's heritage and degrades various socio
environmental qualities.
Urban renewal process is increasingly expensive as the redevelopment
process involves not only building new structures but also resetting the
original residents. As described by Waque and Hirji (2005), urban
intensification produces a diversity of densely packaged, highly valued


economic interests in real estate in terms of fee simple interests, limited
partnerships, ground leases, retail leases, joint ventures, mortgages,
etcetera.
According to Olusule (2010) five procedural steps are necessary to be
followed to accomplish a desirable urban renewal exercise for the
community. They are; acquisition of land in accordance with the plan,
relocation of residents from the acquired building into satisfactory quarters,
site clearance the razing of the structures on the land may be carried out
only after the quality of such structures have been determined, site
improvements and supporting facilities and services are undertaken by the
agency and land may be built upon by agency or sold to original owners if
compensations have been paid. Urban renewal has also been linked with the
sustainable provision of basic amenities such as water, and electricity
(Vander and Graaf, 2010; Larsen and Gujer, 1996; Zeeman and Lettinga,
1999; Newman, 2001; Ashley et. al. 2004). The provision and continuous
management of amenities are fundamental to the concept of sustainable
urban development.
In African urban housing in the fifties, two of the hallmarks of the
colonial approach were the redevelopment of decaying Core areas
combined with the renewal of slums or squatter areas and the construction
of large rental (sometimes tenant purchase) public housing estates. At the
start, the minister of Lagos Affairs appointed the Lagos Executive
Development Board (LEDB) in 1951, now known, as the Lagos State
Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC) to clear a slum area of
about 28.3 4 hectares (70 acres) in central Lagos within a triangle in the


variety of Broad Street Balogun and Martins Streets together with Nnamdi
Azikwe street and the area east of it. The sum of N5.90 million was granted
by then government to the LEDB for the clearance of the slum but actual
expenditure in 1962 had risen to about N6,932,886 despite the little cleared
(Aluko and Amidu, 2006). The amount of deposits received by government
from lots redeemed, amounted to only N1, 452.192 leaving a net balance of
expenditure of N5, 476,694. Land acquisition and structures, apart from the
Surulere rehousing site amounted to about N6, 232,360.
Furthermore, it is pertinent to state that various actions of urban
renewal programmes have been constraint with public criticism. However,
various factors have been considered as the motivators of the exercise; poor
drainage, poor environmental conditions, transport congestion etc. Adequate
provision of basic facilities such as electricity, water supply, good roads
school and other services is refund to entire the functioning of the any urban
neighbourhood as well as for the stability and development of individual
family life (Agbola and Jinadu, 1994).




















QUESTIONNAIRE

DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT
THE POLYTECHNIC, IBADAN


1
st
August, 2014.

Dear Respondents,
I am a final year student of the named institution and department carrying out an
academic research on Urban Renewal as a Tool for Housing Redevelopment in partial
fulfillment for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in the Department of Estate
Management, The Polytechnic Ibadan.
Your contribution and co- operation will be highly appreciated for the success of
this research.
The information you will provide shall be used for academic purpose ONLY and
will be treated with the strictest confidence.


Yours faithfully,


Ayakore Opeyemi













SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
INSTRUCTION: Please tick ( ) where appropriate
1. Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )
2. Age: 21- 30 ( ), 31-40 ( ), 41-50 ( ), 50 and above ( )
3. Marital Status: Single ( ), Married ( ), Divorced ( ), Widowed ( )
4. Education Qualification: SSCE ( ), OND ( ), Bsc/HND ( ), Masters ( ), Phd ( )
SECTION B: HOUSING
5. Type of Building (i)Bungalow ( ) (ii) Two storey( )(iii) More than 2 Storey ( )
(iv) Flat ( ) (v) Duplex ( ) (vi) A Storey ( )
6a. How satisfied are your house and neighbourhood before roads and drainages in
your neighborhood were rehabilitated?(i) Very satisfied ( )(ii) Somewhat satisfied ( )
(iii) Not satisfied ( )
b. How satisfied are you with your house and neighborhood after roads and drainages
in your neighborhood were rehabilitated? (i) Very satisfied ( ) (ii) Somewhat satisfied
(iii) Indifferent ( ) (iv) Not satisfied ( )
7a. Your property is of what use before roads and drainages in your neighborhood
were rehabilitated? (i) Residential ( ) (ii) Commercial ( ) (iii) Recreational ( )
(iv) Mixed use ( )
b. Your property is of what use after roads and drainages in your neighborhood were
rehabilitated? (i) Residential ( ) (ii) Commercial ( ) (iii) Recreational ( )
(iv) Mixed use ( )
8. Does this improvement on roads and drainages have any positive impact on your
property and your neighborhood as a whole? If, yes ( ), No ( )
Why .
9. What do you believe that is left to be done by government to enhance more
redevelopment in rehabilitation? (i) Improve level of infrastructure facilities ( )
(ii) To engage in totals clearance or demolition ( )
10. What do you believe will he the problem if another comprehensive improvement
is to be done in your neighborhood that is total clearance of buildings?
11. Do you believe this area has an ugly look? If, yes ( ), No ( ) why?



12. What are the factors responsible for change of use?


(i) Improvement on roads and drainages ( )
(ii) Improvement on Obsolescence ( )
13a. What is the rental value before renewal?
(i) Bungalow
(ii) Flat .
(iii) A story building .
(iv) 2 story building ..
(v) More than 2 storey building .
b. What is the rental value after renewal?
(i) Bungalow
(ii) Flat .
(iii) A storey building .
(iv) 2 storey building ..
(v) More than 2 storey building .
SECTION C: LEVEL OF INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES
14. Source of Domestic water
a. Private tap ( )
b. Well ( )
c. Public tap ( )
d. Other specify ..
Condition before there was improvement on road and drainages your neighbourhood
Available ( ), Not available ( )
Condition after there was improvement on road and drainages in your neighbuorhood
Available ( ), Not available ( )
15. Road network
a. Condition before improvement
(i) Good ( ) (ii) Pair ( ) (iii) Poor ( )
b. Condition after improvement
(i) Good ( ) (ii) Pair ( ) (iii) Poor ( )
3. Electricity (source)
(i) NEPA ( ) (ii) Generator ( ) (iii) Others specify ( )
Condition before improvement on roads and drainages in neighborhood
Good ( ), Pair ( ), Poor ( )


Condition after improvement of roads and drainages:
Good ( ), Pair ( ), Poor ( )
16. Drainage system
a. Available before improvement ( ) Not available before improvement ( )
Condition: Good ( ), Fair ( ), Poor ( )
b. Available after improvement ( ), Not available after improvement
Condition: Good ( ), Fair ( ), Poor ( )
17. Toilet facilities
(i) Septic tank (ii) Pit latrine (iii) None
Condition before improvement on your neighborhood
Good ( ), Fair ( ), Poor ( )
Condition after improvement on your neighborhood
Good ( ), Fair ( ), Poor ( )