1. Hu.nminjeong-eum (~'2..!

~ ~nJII~iE~) -1997

2. Joseon wangjo sillok (±{j%±1iJ~/w.I~.3:.~~Jfj~)- 1997

3. Seungjeong-won ilgi (~~~~71/~j&J1C B ~c.)- 2001

4. 8aegun hwasang chorok buljo jikji simche yojeol (I;!!j~~~~ ~~~±~AI~~~IR~/EI~~Df;i}r.J>j~19IlJF!fli~HIH,'.JI~iiJ)- 2001

5. Joseon wangjo uigwe (~{j%±.Q.IT~I/~~~.3:.w.lfjUJt)- 2007

6. Goryeo Daejanggyeong-pan and Je-gyeong-pan (:il2=lCH~~B/~.H*iUt!l!~an~ A11~ffi/~~*.&) - 2007

7. Dong-ui bogam (~.Q.I.!i!.f{/JlfgJf~)- 2009

Note: The Goryeo Kingdom reigned on the Korean Peninsula for 475 years, frim 918 to 1392. Goryeo'f'_as J'Qllowed by Joseon, which lasted for 519 years, from 1392 W 1910.

KGJun: .culture and fnformirtlon SeMce ",o1Obu".SPOOlndTO!Ifhm

The Korean documentary heritage and tritdition bas contributed to the advancement of human civilization

~g with' the 8aegun hwasang chorilk btJlJo j1~ sfmche )'QJeot Often shottehed n Jikji. sin1Che ~I or jt.ISl1lkJ~ the warWJ's.ci1deSt eru.nt tbt printed WIth movable metal ~ UNESCO"Ms lnsalbed sewn documents or wltectiOns"Of dacum~fi'Om i<d!U on ItTI: ~dthBWoffd, ~lster. Thus; these unique flWQduru of ~·s S~r hiJt<:Jtt ~ .tlh{que ttadi1ional .cutnu'tare flOW' re«19Tl~~~(ln ll»et fof.al-,:tea~ ~i!(e. tn tbe futt.(~ i(Qteafis will c;antlnue u,.eanyon thmt lor;fg, ~taf)' !egaCy as part sf the ongofng effort to contrlbute to world hfstory and glebat culture.

King Sejong had the Hall of Worthies, a kind of royal research institute, installed on the grounds of the main palace, Gyeongbok-gung (?j -l!l--2}/-J-KIiii"g, Palace of Resplendent Happiness) and summoned scholars to assist in the project to create a new script to facilitate the writing of the Korean language. The building for the Hall of Worthies was located on the site of the present-day Sujeong-jeon (9-~ ~~jrUt Hall of Cultivated Administration), southeast of Gyeonghoe-ru (?j 21-'F-/a;;.a the two-story Pavilion of Joyous Meeting).

The invention of Han-geul is exceptional. Few other instances can be found in history where a group of specially-appointed people created, in a planned project, a new alphabet for shared use among an entire people. Moreover, Hunmin jeong-eum is the only example of a text written to describe and explain a newly-invented script. The principles behind the creation of Han-geul, the reasons for creating the alphabet, and the ways to use the letters are all explained in precise logic, clearly showing that the writing system was created scientifically and cogently.

Hunminjeong-eum 7

Originally, Han-geul consisted of seventeen consonants and eleven vowels, 28 letters in total. All the letters are based on five consonants (.." L, D, A and 0) and three vowels (0, - and I), with variations produced by adding strokes. The basic symbols were patterned after the shapes of the human speech organs. Over time, four of the letters have disappeared naturally as the pronunciation of the language evolved, and now 24 letters are in use.

The system is so simple that anyone can learn it quickly. The vowels and consonants can be combined to represent an extensive range of possible speech sounds. In the postface, Jeong In-ji states:

'Though only twenty-eight letters are used, their shifts and changes in functions are endless; they are simple and fine, reduced to the minimum yet universally applicable. Therefore, a wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; a stupid man can learn them in the space of ten days ... " (Translated by Gari Ledyard, 1966)

8 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

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10 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

Many linguists around the world agree that Han-geul is a brilliant script, the most scientific and rational writing system ever created.

There are more than 6,000 different languages in use worldwide, but only around 700 of them include a writing system. Most of the languages of minority peoples around the world are only spoken. As Han-geul is easy to learn and can be used to represent virtually any sound, it could be a useful tool for the people who have no writing system of their own. In fact, the Indonesian minority Cia-Cia recently adopted Han-geul as their official alphabet.

Han-geul is also an advantage in the digital age. The consonants can be arrayed on the left side of the computer keyboard, and vowels placed on the right side, enabling words to be inputted quickly and easily by pressing consonant keys and vowel keys alternately. Perhaps the unique way in which Han-geul syllables are formed has helped Korea to become an IT powerhouse. Also, Han-geul is highly efficient for sound recognition and voice synthesis because each letter represents only one sound. This could become a strong point for Korea in the future, when machines are activated by voice commands.


Honggiidonjeon(The tale of Hong Gil-dong, the first novel published in Hangeul) is a work of social criticism that scathingly attacked the inequities of Joseon with its discriminatory treatment of illegitimate offspring and its differences based on wealth.

I, _


The work eulogizies the virtues of the ancestors of the house of Yi, the founding family of the Joseon Kingdom, likening them to a deep-rooted tree and a spring of deepwater.

Hunminjeong-eum 11

Hunmin jeong-eum means "correct sounds for the instruction of the people." The use of this phrase as the title of the text that introduces and explains the Korean alphabet shows the compassion and love King Sejong showed for his subjects. The modern name, Han-geul, was coined early in the 20th century. Sejong is Koreans' most respected monarch of all time because of his wisdom, scholarship, diligence, and moral character. Thus, Sejong-no, the main avenue in the heart of Seoul, is named after him. Meanwhile, UNESCO awards the annual "King Sejong Literacy Prize" to those who make exemplary contributions to the eradication of illiteracy.

12 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

Hunminjeong-eum 13

Once a king had died and a new one had ascended to the throne, an ad hoc Veritable Records Office ({;! ~~I'Jfi*a Sillok-cheong) was established, and the work began on compiling the official annals of the previous reign. The primary materials for the annals came from two sources: (7) the court chroniclers' daily records or drafts (Af~~1j[, sacho) and (2) the administrative records (AI~PI/ ~ iE.!!:~, sijeonggi). The chroniclers, or historians (Af-N/.Ie ~, sagwan), were officials appointed specifically to remain in the king's presence and record faithfully, on a daily basis, the details of his audiences with others, the contents of memorials delivered to him, and his assessments of other persons. The administrative records were a summary of the documents (such as memorials, edicts, administrative reports and the appointments and dismissals of officials) produced by the various government offices

Joseon wangjosillok 17

The court chroniclers were allowed to witness every royal audience as well as every private meeting between the king and top officials. They wrote down every word that was uttered, and they were strictly forbidden to divulge any of the contents of their daily drafts; even the king was not allowed to view their records with impunity. The king might have been wary of the chroniclers, but he recognized their key role as protectors of the truth and would normally respect their duties.

The annuals passed through three editing stages prior to completion. The manuscripts of the first and second handwritten versions were washed clean at Segeom-jeong (Ail ~ ~/)j'c ftlJ ~ ), a pavilion immediately north of the capital, to prevent the unauthorized spread of sensitive information.

18 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

'ilok 19 'OSI



The final four or five sets of the annals were printed with moveable type starting in the mid-15th century. Each set was then stored in a different history repository. There were four of these archives around the kingdom in early Joseon, but three were destroyed during the Imjin War with Japan, which invaded the Korean Peninsula twice between 1592 and 1598. Only the records at Jeonju were spared. After the war, the contents at the Jeonju repository were reproduced, and a total of five sets were then stored at five different locations. The Joseon annals extant today total 2, 124 volumes, including 1,181 volumes from the Mt. Jeongjok repository, 848 volumes from the Mt. Taebaek repository, 74 volumes from the Mt. Odae repository, and 21 volumes from the other locations. (In addition, some volumes from the Mt. Jeoksang repository in present-day North Korea are housed at Kim If-Sung University in Pyongyang.)

20 Korean Documents on UNESCO's Memoryofthe World Register

The annals and other documents stored at the history archives were regularly inspected and maintained. For example, the texts were opened up and aired out once every two to five years to eliminate moisture, thereby preventing the paper from rotting or being eaten by insects.

The archives at the Jeonju repository were in danger of destruction during the Imjin War, and their preservation is attributed largely to the efforts of two Confucians, An Eui (~£I / ~~, 7529 -7596) and Son Hong-rok(l!:-~~ / ~~f,*, 7537-7670). Once the war erupted, these two country scholars realized that the powers in the capital would be unable to protect the Jeonju records. They mobilized the people and resources at their disposal to relocate more than 60 chests filled with the copies of the annals and assorted royal portraits to a place deep within the recesses of Mt. Naejang. The two men took turns for over a year guarding the treasured items. Their valiant efforts during such troubled times are why the annals from early Joseon are still around for people to appreciate today.

Joseon wangjosillok 21

_i.., II

22 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

The Joseon wangjo sillok contains much more than records of the king's daily routine, events at court or appointments of high officials. The annals also include many interesting stories that provide insights into the everyday affairs of Joseon society as a whole. The stories of numerous personalities from Joseon have been dramatized such as the life of Janggeum, a woman physician who attended the king, as recorded in the Annals of King Jungjong. The tale has been popularly received in more than 60 countries. Thus, the wealth of information found within the Joseon wangjo sillok can be adapted for modern entertainment, adding both cultural and economic value to it. The contents of the Joseon Annals are also available to the public via the Internet (http://sillok.history.go.kr.).

Seonjeong-jeon Holl ond Seungjeong-won shown on Donggwoldo (Mop of the Eastern Palace)

The diary was written each day, and at the end of every lunar month, or half month, they were bound and stored at the Royal Secretariat. The size of the pages normally measure about 28cm wide x 40cm long, but they are not all of a uniform size. The number of pages for each volume ranges between 70 and 200.

The name for the Royal Secretariat was changed several times between 1894 and 1910. As a result, the name for the Diary also changed from Seungjeong-won i/gi (.g.~ ~ ~ 71/7J:iE.!!:i!it El ~c.) to Seungseon-won i/gi (.g.{:j ~ ~ 71/]J;]i_1!iG El ~), Gungnae-bu i/gi (~Ljj ¥ 'g,P Ita' 1AJJf.f El ~c.), Biseogam i/gi (1:11 Am'~p 1A!'l.~ El ~c.), and Gyujang-gak i/gi (Tr~zt~71!¥li!:OO El ~). Such frequent name changes for a very important government office in less than 20 years reflect the chaotic times at the end of Joseon.

Seungjeong-won ilgi 27

The Royal Secretariat building was located between the royal audience hall (for example Injeong-jeon, '2.l~~:!!1=i&~ at Changdeok Palace), where formal events were held, and the council hall (for example Seonjeong-jeon, ~ ~ ~!!1!:i&~ at Changdeok Palace), where routine matters of government were conducted. The close proximity of the Royal Secretariat to the king indicates the importance of its duties.

The extant Seungjeong-won ilgi details events each day from the early 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century, a period that spans 288 years. The weather for each of those days is noted with phrases such as ''sunny,'' "cloudy:' "rain" and "snow." Sometimes changes in the weather are even indicated such as "sunny in the morning and snowy in the afternoon." For rainy days, the amount of precipitation, as measured by a rain gauge, is included. Therefore, the Seungjeong-won ilgi also serves as a valuable source for studies on climate change and weather cycles during Joseon.

28 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register


eong-won ilgi 29

30 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

The Seungjeong-won i1gi is an official record of the Joseon royal court, but it is not an edited history book. Rather, it is a primary source material that covers on the spot the written and spoken exchanges between the king and his ministers. As such it is prized for its historical value. The contents of the Diary were easily accessible, so kings and officials would refer to precedents recorded in it when they faced political difficulties.

Seungjeong-won ilgi 31


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l I I

In terms of the Joseon historical record, the Diary of the Royal Secretariat and the Annals of the Dynasty of Joseon complement one another. Take, for example, an incident when scholars from Pyeongan Province appealed for the appointment of a civil official in the year 1700. The Seungjeong-won ilgi records this event in great detail (3,800 characters), from the background, motivation and process to the exchanges between the official and the King. By contrast, the Joseon wangjo sillok summarized the event in just 300 words. The history of the Joseon period can be reconstructed more accurately when the contents of both documents are combined.

32 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

The type-printed version of Jikji was produced in two volumes. Today only a single copy of Volume 2 is known to exist, and it is kept in the Manuscrits Orientaux Division of the BibliotMque Nationale de France (National Library). Joseon and France concluded a treaty of defense and commerce in 7886, and Victor Emile Marie Joseph Collin de Plancy (7853-7924) came to Seoul in 7888 as the first French consul. He acquired the Jikji text and took it back to France with him. Subsequently, the rare document was purchased at auction by Henri Vever (7854- 7943), who donated it to the French National Library upon his death.

Jikji was first displayed publicly at the World Expo 7900 in Paris, and knowledge of it became widespread after exhibitions of the International Book Year in 7972 and the 29th International Congress on Oriental Studies in 7973. However, no solid evidence was available at the time on the actual spot where the text had been printed or whether Heungdeok Temple had ever existed. Thus, the significance of this, the oldest known book printed with metal type, remained unclear. However, an archeological dig at an old temple site in Uncheon-dong, Cheongju in 7985 unearthed some fragments of bronze instruments and bronze bowls for making offerings to the Buddha with engravings clearly indicating the name Heungdeoksa, proving that the temple had actually existed.

Jikji simcheyojeol 37

Jikji was entered on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register on September 4,200 7, as it is the world's oldest extant text printed with metal type and a valuable artifact in the history of printing and printing techniques. Thus, the significance of the text is now recognized worldwide. The book is registered with "Republic of Korea" as its origin despite its being in France. This precedent has paved the way for third world countries to have articles registered in their names no matter where they may be kept at the present time.

Meanwhile, starting in 2005, UNESCO awards the biennial Jikji Memory of the World Prize to individuals, institutions and organizations that have made exemplary contributions to the preservation of the world's documentary heritage.

38 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

The size of the Uigwe pages varied somewhat, but they usually measured around 35cm wide x 50cm long, about twice as large as the pages for other texts and documents produced in Joseon. Certain Uigwe covering the taesil (EH~/%'i', the stone chambers that housed urns containing the placenta and umbilical cord of the king's newborn child) have pages 90cm long. Given their unusually large size, the covers of these Uigwe were altered as well. Attached to most of them is a brass hinge called byeoncheol (~~/ if" edge iron), which is secured by 3-5 nails. A metal ring called won-hwan (~!!/IIUi), which is connected to the center of this hinge, was used to hang the book volume on the wall because its large size would make it more susceptible to water damage when laid flat on the floor.

Joseon wangjo uigwe 43

The Uigwe contain every detail, from preparation to the procedures for carrying out ceremonies and other projects. Precise facts and figures are provided such as the name lists for the government officials in attendance as well as the workers who were assigned to the project in question. Other details include the sizes, colors and materials of the various ceremonial items required; the number of such items; the total expenditure for them, and the names of the artisans who made or repaired them.

44 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

Joseon wangjO uigwe 45

The records even include lists of the materials that were returned to the government storehouses after the project was finished. Such meticulous coverage of each state-sponsored ceremony or project has enabled modern Koreans to reconstruct accurately structures or events that were built or carried out centuries ago. For example, Hwaseong Fortress at Suwon was badly damaged in the Korean War. However, the Hwaseong seongyeok uigwe (§j-~ ~ 9:f £1 i'~II¥:IJ£:iJt~~. fJL, Record of the Hwaseong Fortress Construction) describes every aspect of the construction project that took place between 7794 and 7796. Using this text, the fortress was restored completely in a project that began in 7975 and was completed in 7978. Hwaseong Fortress today is listed as a World Heritage Site because of its architectural beauty as well as its superb representation of contemporary theories regarding military installations in the late 78th century.

46 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

King jeongjo gukjong dogam uigwe

The Uigwe contain not only comprehensive written texts but also numerous detailed illustrations of items used in the projects or ceremonies as well as scenes depicting the event as it happened. These illustrations are of two different categories: (1) doseol (5:. ~1Ii~, explanatory diagram), which depicted the required tools or implements, and (2) banchado Mj;:f.£/IH~1j, rank sequence chart), which showed the placement of each participant in the ceremony or procession. The illustrations were produced by professional painters (~~IJIi~ hwa-won), who were employed by the Royal Bureau of Paintings (5:.~Aill!l.~, Dohwaseo), a government office. Their work provides a realistic look at how the event appeared and the atmosphere it created at the time, and even the colors of the drawings have not faded after hundreds of years have passed.

48 Korean Documents on UNESCO's Memoryofthe World Register

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Of special interest among all the various Uigwe are those classified as "for the king's personal perusal" (OiW-§2IT~I/m~FIliUlL, Eoram-yong uigwe). Normally between five and nine copies of each Uigwe text were produced; one was made especially for the king and the others were stored at the various royal archives or concerned government offices. The Eoramyong uigwe was produced using the highest quality paper, called chojuji (35. 2)S-Almj1*!O; carefully written in block-style script (6"HA~ j:llAi _1l1 haeseo-che) that was then outlined in red; and the cover was wrapped in green or blue silk featuring a cloud motif. Hinges of the best quality brass were attached, and the cover was adorned with the beautiful image of a chrysanthemum as a finishing touch, ensuring the product was "fit for a king."

From the 78th century, the Eoram-yong uigwe copies were stored in the repository on Ganghwa Island, but that institution was pillaged during a raid by French troops in 7866, and the texts were taken to France.

Joseon Wangjo Uigwe 49

The text is written in the clean and simple calligraphic style of Ou Yang Xun (.:r~'i!:-~~~, a Tang Confucian scholar and calligrapher), which was popular among the aristocracy in early Goryeo. The tens of millions of characters are remarkably uniform, as if produced by a single person, and they remain nearly legible after many centuries. As such the text itself is a precious work of art.

The monks who carved the characters would bathe carefully before beginning work each day. They are said to have bowed three times upon the completion of each character. With devotion such as this, virtually no errors were made.

Goryeo Daejanggyeong-pan andJegyeong-pan 53

The printing blocks are made of wood, which means they are vulnerable to fires, moisture and insects. Their successful maintenance over the centuries is testimony to exceptional preservation techniques by the monks. First, the wood was soaked in seawater for three years, then cut into blocks and boiled in salt water. They were then dried in the shade and exposed to the open air for another three years before planing the surface smooth. Then the elaborate work of writing and carving began. After the text was engraved, the blocks were given two or three coats of a poisonous lacquer coating to repel harmful insects. The edges are thicker than the carved portion, and the corners are reinforced with plates of 99.6 percent pure copper to prevent warping. The plating also provides a space for air to pass between the woodblocks while in storage. The dimensions (width, length and thickness) among the woodblocks vary little, despite the vast number in the collection.

Goryeo Daejanggyeong-pan andJegyeong-pan 55

Another important factor contributing to the preservation of the woodblocks has been the special depositories in which they are housed. Janggyeong Pan-jeon (g?!lB-t:!~if@!!~ is the name of twin buildings at Haein-sa (15H '2l Aff~EP ~), the temple where the Goryeo Daejanggyeong-pan have been kept since early Joseon. These unique buildings were built with the express purpose of storing the woodblocks. The topography of Mt. Gaya, where Haein-sa is located, as well as the wind direction and weather condi tions of the area were all taken into account when the buildings were designed so that factors such as ventilation, insects, humidity and interior temperature could be controlled scientifically and systematically with precision. In December 1995, the Janggyeong Pan-jeon was registered by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage.

In addition to the Goryeo Tripitaka woodblocks, Janggyeong Pan-jeon houses an additional 5,000 or so woodblocks called Jegyeong-pan (Ail?!l B~ @~ miscellaneous scripture woodblocks), which are also inscribed on the Memory of the World Register. Among these are a set called Hwa-eomgyeong-pan (§f'i1:l?!lBI¥Mif@!!*&" woodblocks for the Avatamsaka-siitra, Flower Garland Sutra) that was carved in 1098, prior to the Goryeo Tripitaka project.

56 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

The Goryeo Tripitaka woodblocks were actually carved at a temple on Ganghwa Island and housed there originally. They were moved to Haein-sa for security reasons in 7398 and 7399. The job of relocating the precious cargo was no mean feat, considering the conditions of the roads and transportation means available at the time as well as the sheer size of the woodblock collection. Haein-sa continues to celebrate this accomplishment every April by holding Palman Daejanggyeong Festival

Goryeo Daejanggyeong-pan andJegyeong-pan 57



The text consists of 25 volumes, which are classified into five disciplines: pathology, diagnosis, pharmacology, acupuncture, and moxibustion.

Four volumes are devoted to internal medicine, or the "internal landscape" (Lfl~;pq., nae-gyeong), explaining the basic factors that contribute to disease; four more cover "external forms" (!lJ ~/1'f.M, oe-hyeong), the observable functions of each body part. Eleven volumes are on "miscellaneous diseases" m~At~, japbyeong), or the basic principles for diagnosing and treating diseases. The three volumes on remedies, or "boiled liquids" ®Q!j/~~, tang-aek), explain how medical ingredients are to be prepared and ingested, and a single volume called "acupuncture and moxibustion" (~-=t-M1k, chim-gu) covers the meridians and acupuncture points of the body. Two more volumes list the various medical terms used in the Dong-ui bogam. The entire work covers more than 4,000 treatments; thousands of herbs, animal parts and minerals used in treatments; as well as dozens of different kinds of water that are good for body




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Dong-ui bogam 61

Portrait of'Heo Jun'

The first page of the Dong-ui bogam features an illustration of the internal organs and their features. The diagram does not just identify how the organs are positioned relative to one another, but also demonstrates that bodily functions are regulated according to the East Asian concepts of Yin and Yang and the Five Element Theory. As such, the text engenders a profoundly philosophical spirit, presenting the human body as a microcosm that reflects the microcosm of nature

The philosophical value of the Dong-ui bogam is evident in its holistic approach that stresses the importance that the mind plays in good health. The text discusses yangsaeng ('bI'~,1l1=,. nurturing life) as a way of staying healthy and preventing disease before treatment becomes necessary. Mental cultivation takes precedence over external methods such as ingesting medicine to cure ailments and live long.

62 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

Dong-ui bogam 63

64 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register


lrlj t~ fJf

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The Dong-ui bogam is intended to present the best medical solutions for Koreans. Heo Jun believed that herbs produced on his native soil would be the most efficacious for him, and he wrote all the names of the medicinal substances in the Korean language (rather than in Classical Chinese). His recommended dosages took into account the physical constitution of Koreans, and he included the titles of his references to help future students of his book.

The Dong-ui bogam is aptly described as a definitive work on traditional Asian medicine that is extremely helpful for doctors of all types. At the same time, it contains a wide range of useful information for specialists in physical education, nutrition, bibliography, comparative religion, Korean studies, East Asian philosophy, astronomy, the history of scientific methods, gastronomy and botany.

Dong-ui bogam 65

The Dong-ui bogam compilation project was commissioned by the Joseon king in the wake of the disastrous Imjin War with Japan. The king felt great compassion for the many people who were suffering from epidemic disease and other medical problems. As such, the text was designed to provide the common people, in an easy-to-understand format, medical knowledge, practical treatment methods, and a guide to medicinal herbs and other ingredients for medicines. Perhaps this was the first book of its kind ever published by a government to promote the psychological, physical and social health of the populace.

Heo Jun himself was the son of a concubine, which meant he had a low social status in Joseon. Yet, he managed to overcome numerous difficulties and devoted himself to learning with uncommon dedication to elevate himself to the position of royal physician, the highest honor in his profession at that time. He compiled other medical texts besides the Dong-ui bogam as well.

66 Korean Documents on UNESCO'sMemoryofthe World Register

In 2005, the Heo Jun Museum was established in Seoul to celebrate his achievements and spirit. On display are various items related to him and information on his life. The scene of his presenting the completed Dong-ui bogam to the King has been recreated here.

Donguibogam 67



The Korean documentary heritage and tradition has contributed to the advancement of human civilization.

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