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0

k

k

a

2. The nth partial sum of the series is

0 1 2

.....

n n

S a a a a = + + + +

3. The series

0

k

k

a

"im

n

n

S L

=

. In other words, for n "arge

enough,

n

S

is the same as ! to an# numer of de$ima" %"a$es #ou "ike.

4. If

0

k

k

a

0

k

k

a

to ! as #ou want if #ou take enough terms.

5. &ometimes there is no numer ! with

"im

n

n

S L

=

. In su$h a $ase we sa# that the series

0

k

k

a

n

S

oun$e around, or, in the $ase of

a series "ike

0

1

k

k

n

S

get igger and igger without ound.

6. Types of series:

a)

0

k

k

a

0

k

a

for a"" k.

b) An alternating series has terms that swit$h signs. 'ver# a"ternating series $an e written as

either

0

( 1)

k

k

k

a

or as

0

( 1)

k

k

k

a

where

0

k

a

for a"" k.

c) A series

0

k

k

a

0

* *

k

k

a

is $onvergent.

f a series is absolutely convergent! it is convergent. The reverse might not e true. +or

e,am%"e, if

1

( 1)

k

k

a

k

= , then

0

k

k

a

0

* *

k

k

a

=

0

1

k

k

d) A series

0

k

k

a

is conditionally convergent if

0

k

k

a

$onverges ut

0

* *

k

k

a

diverges.

&ome asi$ ti%s for doing %ower series %ro"ems

1. "ou #$%T start each convergence &uestion 'ith the (th term test: The series is

divergent if

"im

k

k

a

'ith other tests. %o you need to (no' stuff about limits! as follo's.

i) e)ponential functions gro' faster than polynomials.

-0

"im 0

2

k

k

k

= and

-0

2

"im

k

k

k

=

ii) factorials gro' faster than e)ponential functions:

2

"im 0

.

k

k k

= and

-0

.

"im

2

k

k

=

iii) limits pull inside functions:

2 2

"im $os $os "im $os(0) 1

. .

k k

k k k k

= = =

.

+)ample:

2

$os

.

k

k

"im

k

k

a

is 1! not *.

2. ,emember that

$os 1 x

and

* sin * 1 x

for all ).

+)ample: -oes

0

k

k

a

=

2

0

$os 12sin

k

k k

k

=

+

see if the series is absolutely $onvergent # "ooking at and ounding the numerator

* $os 12sin * * $os * * 12sin * 1 12 11 k k k k + + + =

. Thus

2

11

k

a

k

.

2ut

2 2

11 1

11

k k

=

$onverges # the %3test (sin$e % = 2 41) and therefore

0

k

k

a

=

2

0

$os 12sin

k

k k

k

=

+

3. I said in $"ass that #ou might need to take the derivative of the fun$tion

( )

k

f k a =

to a%%"#

the A"ternating &eries test to

0

( 1)

k

k

k

a

( )

k

f k a =

is

a 5uotient of %o"#nomia"s.

6e$a"": the degree of a %o"#nomia" is its highest %ower. If ( )

m

p x x = . "ower %owers and

( )

n

q x x = . "ower %owers, then m = degree(%) and n = degree(5).

/lever fact: if the degree of % is "ess than the degree of 5, then for "arge ,, the fun$tion

( )

( )

p x

q x

has negative derivative and is therefore de$reasing. (Convin$e #ourse"f of this # using the

5uotient ru"e). The A"ternating &eries Test therefore a%%"ies, %rovided

"im

k

k

a

0 *.

%ome conse&uences:

a)

0

( )

( 1)

( )

k

k

p k

q k

This fo""ows from the ratio test and the %3test sin$e

( )

( )

p x

q x

ehaves "ike the 5uotient

1

m

n n m

x

x x

=

of the "eading terms of p and q.

b)

0

( 1)

k

k

k

a

=

0

( )

( 1)

( )

k

k

p k

q k

c)

0

( )

( 1)

( )

k

k

p k

q k

"im

k

k

a

0

( )

"im

( ) k

p k

q k

0 "im "im

m

m n

n

k k

k

k

k

= is 1 if m = n and is infinit# if m 4n .

+)ample:

2

9

1: -00 12

( 1)

-00 12

n

n n

n n

+ +

+ +

2

9

1: -00 12

-00 12

n n

n n

+ +

+ +

ehaves "ike

2

9 9

1: 1: n

n n

=

whi$h $onverges # the %3test with % = 2.

+)ample:

2

1

1: -00 12

( 1)

-00 12

n

n n

n n

+ +

+ +

2

1

1: -00 12

-00 12

n n

n n

+ +

+ +

ehaves "ike

2

1

1: 1: n

n n

=

whi$h diverges # the %3test with % = 1. ;owever, the A&T does

a%%"# (degree(to%) =2 is "ess than degree(ottom) = 1) and so the A"ternating &eries is

$onvergent. Therefore the origina" series is $onditiona""# $onvergent.

4. 1e 'illing to brea( up fractions 'hose numerator is a sum! and remember that 'hen

you add series:

convergent . convergent 0 convergent

divergent . convergent 0 divergent

divergent . divergent: no conclusion is possible! try another method. 2o'ever

3ositive divergent . 3ositive 0 -ivergent.

+)ample:

0

k

k

a

=

10 10 10 10

2

0 0 0 0 0

2 2 2 2 2

9 9

2 9 9 9 9

n n

n n n

n n n n n

k k k k k

n n n n

= = = = =

+ +

= + = + = +

+irst series:

0

2

9

n

k

&e$ond series:

10

0 0

9

k

n

k k

n

b

= =

=

is a series whi$h is a good $andidate for the ratio test, sin$e it is

a fra$tion of %owers. Ca"$u"ate ! =

10

1

1

1 10

1 ( 1) 9

"im "im "im

9

k

k

k

k

k k k

k k

b k

b

b b

k

+

+

+

+

= = =

10

10

1 10

9 ( 1) 1 1 1

"im "im

9 9

9

k

k

k k

k k

k

k

+

+ +

= =

7 1 and so

10

0 0

9

k

n

k k

n

b

= =

=

# the ratio test.

4ns'er:

0

k

k

a

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