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Definitions: Convergent and divergent series

1. A series is an infinite sum, written


0
k
k
a

. It doesnt have to start at k = 0.


2. The nth partial sum of the series is
0 1 2
.....
n n
S a a a a = + + + +
3. The series
0
k
k
a

converges to a numer ! means:


"im
n
n
S L

=
. In other words, for n "arge
enough,
n
S
is the same as ! to an# numer of de$ima" %"a$es #ou "ike.
4. If
0
k
k
a

$onverges to !, we sometimes write


0
k
k
a

= ! . In other words, the sum is as $"ose


to ! as #ou want if #ou take enough terms.
5. &ometimes there is no numer ! with
"im
n
n
S L

=
. In su$h a $ase we sa# that the series
0
k
k
a

diverges. This $ou"d ha%%en e$ause the %artia" sums


n
S
oun$e around, or, in the $ase of
a series "ike
0
1
k
k

, e$ause the numers


n
S
get igger and igger without ound.

6. Types of series:
a)
0
k
k
a

is a positive term series means that


0
k
a
for a"" k.
b) An alternating series has terms that swit$h signs. 'ver# a"ternating series $an e written as
either
0
( 1)
k
k
k
a

or as
0
( 1)
k
k
k
a

where
0
k
a
for a"" k.
c) A series
0
k
k
a

is absolutely convergent if the %ositive term series


0
* *
k
k
a

is $onvergent.
f a series is absolutely convergent! it is convergent. The reverse might not e true. +or
e,am%"e, if
1
( 1)
k
k
a
k
= , then
0
k
k
a

$onverges ut is not aso"ute $onvergent, sin$e


0
* *
k
k
a

=
0
1
k
k

diverges. There is a name for this situation, as fo""ows:


d) A series
0
k
k
a

is conditionally convergent if
0
k
k
a

$onverges ut
0
* *
k
k
a

diverges.
&ome asi$ ti%s for doing %ower series %ro"ems
1. "ou #$%T start each convergence &uestion 'ith the (th term test: The series is
divergent if
"im
k
k
a

a) does not e)ist or b) is not *. f that limit is *! you must continue


'ith other tests. %o you need to (no' stuff about limits! as follo's.
i) e)ponential functions gro' faster than polynomials.
-0
"im 0
2
k
k
k

= and
-0
2
"im
k
k
k

=
ii) factorials gro' faster than e)ponential functions:
2
"im 0
.
k
k k
= and
-0
.
"im
2
k
k

=

iii) limits pull inside functions:
2 2
"im $os $os "im $os(0) 1
. .
k k
k k k k

= = =



.
+)ample:
2
$os
.
k
k



diverges by the nth term test. since


"im
k
k
a

is 1! not *.

2. ,emember that
$os 1 x
and
* sin * 1 x
for all ).
+)ample: -oes
0
k
k
a

=
2
0
$os 12sin
k
k k
k

=
+

$onverge/ 0one of the ovious tests work, so first


see if the series is absolutely $onvergent # "ooking at and ounding the numerator
* $os 12sin * * $os * * 12sin * 1 12 11 k k k k + + + =
. Thus
2
11
k
a
k

.
2ut
2 2
11 1
11
k k
=

$onverges # the %3test (sin$e % = 2 41) and therefore
0
k
k
a

=
2
0
$os 12sin
k
k k
k

=
+

$onvergen$es # the asi$ $om%arison test.


3. I said in $"ass that #ou might need to take the derivative of the fun$tion
( )
k
f k a =
to a%%"#
the A"ternating &eries test to
0
( 1)
k
k
k
a

. It turns out #ou never have to do that if


( )
k
f k a =
is
a 5uotient of %o"#nomia"s.
6e$a"": the degree of a %o"#nomia" is its highest %ower. If ( )
m
p x x = . "ower %owers and
( )
n
q x x = . "ower %owers, then m = degree(%) and n = degree(5).
/lever fact: if the degree of % is "ess than the degree of 5, then for "arge ,, the fun$tion
( )
( )
p x
q x

has negative derivative and is therefore de$reasing. (Convin$e #ourse"f of this # using the
5uotient ru"e). The A"ternating &eries Test therefore a%%"ies, %rovided
"im
k
k
a

0 *.

%ome conse&uences:
a)
0
( )
( 1)
( )
k
k
p k
q k

is aso"ute"# $onvergent if degree(%) 7 degree(5) 8 1 (same as n 8 m 4 1) .


This fo""ows from the ratio test and the %3test sin$e
( )
( )
p x
q x
ehaves "ike the 5uotient
1
m
n n m
x
x x

=
of the "eading terms of p and q.
b)
0
( 1)
k
k
k
a

=
0
( )
( 1)
( )
k
k
p k
q k

is $onvergent # the A&T if degree(%) 7 degree(5)


c)
0
( )
( 1)
( )
k
k
p k
q k

is divergent # the nth term test if degree(%) 4= degree(5). Thats e$ause


"im
k
k
a

0
( )
"im
( ) k
p k
q k
0 "im "im
m
m n
n
k k
k
k
k


= is 1 if m = n and is infinit# if m 4n .

+)ample:
2
9
1: -00 12
( 1)
-00 12
n
n n
n n
+ +

+ +

is aso"ute"# $onvergent, sin$e


2
9
1: -00 12
-00 12
n n
n n
+ +
+ +


ehaves "ike
2
9 9
1: 1: n
n n
=

whi$h $onverges # the %3test with % = 2.
+)ample:
2
1
1: -00 12
( 1)
-00 12
n
n n
n n
+ +

+ +

is not aso"ute"# $onvergent, sin$e


2
1
1: -00 12
-00 12
n n
n n
+ +
+ +


ehaves "ike
2
1
1: 1: n
n n
=

whi$h diverges # the %3test with % = 1. ;owever, the A&T does
a%%"# (degree(to%) =2 is "ess than degree(ottom) = 1) and so the A"ternating &eries is
$onvergent. Therefore the origina" series is $onditiona""# $onvergent.
4. 1e 'illing to brea( up fractions 'hose numerator is a sum! and remember that 'hen
you add series:
convergent . convergent 0 convergent
divergent . convergent 0 divergent
divergent . divergent: no conclusion is possible! try another method. 2o'ever
3ositive divergent . 3ositive 0 -ivergent.
+)ample:
0
k
k
a

=
10 10 10 10
2
0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2 2 2
9 9
2 9 9 9 9
n n
n n n
n n n n n
k k k k k
n n n n

= = = = =
+ +
= + = + = +



+irst series:
0
2
9
n
k

is a geometri$ series with ratio r = 2<9 7 1 and is $onvergent


&e$ond series:
10
0 0
9
k
n
k k
n
b

= =
=

is a series whi$h is a good $andidate for the ratio test, sin$e it is
a fra$tion of %owers. Ca"$u"ate ! =
10
1
1
1 10
1 ( 1) 9
"im "im "im
9
k
k
k
k
k k k
k k
b k
b
b b
k
+
+
+

+
= = =



10
10
1 10
9 ( 1) 1 1 1
"im "im
9 9
9
k
k
k k
k k
k
k
+

+ +
= =


7 1 and so
10
0 0
9
k
n
k k
n
b

= =
=

# the ratio test.
4ns'er:
0
k
k
a

is the sum of two $onvergent series and is therefore $onvergent.