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Instrument

T f Transformers
Akhil Kumar Gupta Akhil Kumar Gupta
Sr. Faculty Member
CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS
Introduction
Selection of Current Transformers
Theory of Current Transformer
Theory and Selection of Voltage Transformer
Selection of Current Transformers
Conclusion
Introduction Introduction
Protection System Analogy
Brain
Relay
Eyes,Ears,Nose&Skin
CTs VTs
Hands&Legs
CTs,VTs
g
CircuitBreakers
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Protection System Analogy
Fault in the Power System FaultinthePowerSystem
SensedbyInstrument
Transformers&
communicatedtoRelay
RelayIssuesTrip
CommandToBreaker
BreakerTrips&
ClearsFault
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InstrumentTransformers
A Vital Part of the Protection and Metering System g y
Instrument Transformer transforms the high current or
high voltage connected to their primary windings to
the standard low values in the secondary within the
required accuracy limits which feed the metering and
t ti t protection apparatus
Provide insulation against High voltage (isolation)
Protect personnel and apparatus from high voltages
Provide possibilities of standardizing the relays and
iinstruments
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Cl assi f i c at i on of I nst r ument Tr ansf or mer s
Based on application Basedonapplication
Metering
Protection Protection
Basedonuse
I d Indoor
Outdoor
T f I T f TypesofInstrumentTransformer
CurrentTransformer(CT)
VoltageTransformer(VT)
ElectromagneticVoltageTransformer(EVT)
CapacitiveVoltageTransformer(CVT)
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Theoryof Theoryof yy
CurrentTransformers CurrentTransformers
What is Current Transformer
Direct use of high current (in the tune of 100A or more)
is not possible as protective relays and metering
devices are not designed to handle such huge amount
of current
Current Transformer is an instrument transformer
which transforms current from one level to another which transforms current from one level to another
level, such as, 1000A/1A (CT ratio) i.e. transforms
t f th l l f 1000A i t t f 1A l l current from the level of 1000A into current of 1A level
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S t h t b i i t
Why Current Transformer is required
System has two basic requirements
metering of energy sourced or consumed
Protection of the electrical system from
faults and disturbances
TypesofCurrentTransformer(CT)
MeasuringCTs
ProtectionCTs
ProtectionCTsforspecialapplications p pp
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When alternating current flows in the primary
Current Transformer Theory
When alternating current flows in the primary
winding, that current creates a MMF which results in a
alternating flux in the core, which in turn induces an alternating flux in the core, which in turn induces an
EMF in the primary winding and in any other winding
wound on, or linked with, the core
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It has a primary winding and one or more secondary windings
How Current Transformer is connected
It has a primary winding and one or more secondary windings
wound on core of magnetic material
Metering and Protection devices are connected to the
secondaries of the CT
Primary winding connected in series and transforms the line
current to the standard 1A or 5A suitable for the meter or relay current to the standard 1A or 5A suitable for the meter or relay
PRIMARY WIN DI NG
OR BUSHING
PRIMARY WIN DI NG
OR BUSHING
MAGNET IC
CORE
SECONDARY
MAGNET IC
CORE
SECONDARY SECONDARY
WINDING
SECONDARY
WINDING
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I i i
How Current Transformer is connected
In current operation or series
mode, the primary winding is
connected in series with the
power system whose relatively
high impedance determines the
magnitude of primary winding magnitude of primary winding
current which is independent of
the secondary winding load
The current transformer has
assigned rated output termed as
burden in VA which are invariably burden in VA which are invariably
small as against the high outputs
in KVA or MVA of power
transformers transformers
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F h t i it d t f th f ll i
Current Transformer Theory
For a shortcircuited transformer the following
relation holds good
Primary Ampere turns (I
1
N
1
) = Secondary Ampere Turns (I
2
N
2
)
2 1
I N
=
An ideal current transformer is a shortcircuited
1 2
N I
=
An ideal current transformer is a shortcircuited
transformer where the secondary terminal voltage is
zero and the magnetizing current is negligible
The voltage across the secondary is very small, It is The voltage across the secondary is very small, It is
minimum when the secondary is short circuited and
maximum when open circuited
Current Transformer Theory
SimplifiedCTequivalentcircuit
I
p
I
s
Z Z
I
p
Z
p
Z
s
I
e
V
E
s
V
Z
B

I
m
I
w
V
p
E
s
V
s
Z
B

Current Transformer Theory


Phasor Diagram
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Current Transformer Theory
Primary current has two components, first is secondary
current which is transformed in inverse of the turns
ratio and an exciting current which supplies the eddy & g pp y
hysteresis losses and magnetize the core
Exciting current is not transformed and causes errors
The exciting current determines the maximum The exciting current determines the maximum
accuracy that can be achieved with a current
transformer
I
p
= I
e
+ I
s
, or
I
s
= I
p
I
e
Current Transformer Theory
The error in the reproduction will appear both in
amplitude and phase. The error in amplitude is called
t ti d th i h i ll d current or ratio error and the error in phase is called
phase error or phase displacement
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Current Transformer Theory
Primary
I
pp
I
Kn
I
p
: Phase error
Secondary
I
Kn.I
s
: Phase error
Secondary
I
s
Kn =
I
p
I
s
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Since is a very small angle the current error and the phase
Current Transformer Theory
Since is a very small angle, the current error and the phase
error could be directly read in percent on the axis
( = 1% = 1 centiradian = 0.572 dgree = 34.4 minutes)
the current error is positive if the secondary current is too high,
and the phase error is positive if the secondary current is
leading the primary leading the primary
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h ll ?
Current Transformer Accuracy
Why at all CTs are inaccurate?
The culprit is core loss and magnetizing current, which
introduces ratio error as well as phase error introduces ratio error as well as phase error
What is inaccuracy? What is inaccuracy?
The secondary current which we get is not true
reflection of its primary current. for example, for a CT p y p
with CT ratio of 1000/1 amps, if we get 0.99 amps in
secondary leading primary current by 15 minutes (0.25
degree) for primary current of 1000 amps so the CT degree) for primary current of 1000 amps, so the CT
has ratio error of (0.991)/1 x 100= 1% and phase
error of 15 minutes
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Th i i I i d i hi h i d fi d
Current Transformer Theory
The exciting current I
e
introduces ratio error, which is defined
as the difference in magnitude of the primary and secondary
current expressed as percentage of primary current
100
.
) (

=
p s n
I
I I K
Error Ratio Current
K
n
= Rated transformation ratio
I A t l i t
p
I
I
p
= Actual primary current
I
s
= Actual secondary current
The Phase angle error is the phase angle difference between
the primary current and the reversed secondary current
vectors vectors
C it
Current Transformer Theory
Composite error
Under steadystate conditions, the r.m.s. value of the difference between
the instantaneous values of the actual primary current, and the
instantaneous values of the actual secondary current multiplied by the rated
transformation ratio, integrated over one cycle including the effects of phase
displacement and harmonics of excitation current
C it i ll d t f l f Composite error is generally expressed as a percentage of r.m.s. value of
primary current according to the formula
( )

T
1 100
( )

=
p s n
p
c
dt i i K
T I
0
2
1 100

K
n
istheratedtransformationratio
I
p
isther.m.s.valueoftheprimarycurrent
i
p
istheinstantaneousvalueortheprimarycurrent
i
s
is theinstantaneousvalueofthesecondarycurrent
Tisthedurationofonecycle
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Knee Point Voltage The point on magnetizing
Knee Point Voltage (KPV)
Knee Point Voltage The point on magnetizing
characteristic (plot between secondary applied
voltage and the corresponding magnetizing current) voltage and the corresponding magnetizing current)
at which an increase of 10% in exciting e.m.f.
produces an increase of 50% in the exciting current
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Burden
Burden of Current Transformer
Burden
The external load (e.g. meters, transducers, relays etc)
connected to the secondary of a CT is called the burden
The burden can be expressed in voltamperes or in ohms p p
VA = I
2
x Z
Z = Total CT secondary impedance
I = Secondary current (Generally 1A or 5A)
Total burden is the sum of
1 D i ( d l ) B d F i h d b 1. Device (transducer, meter, relay etc) Burden Furnished by
the manufacturer
2. Burden of Interconnecting Leads can be calculated by using
the above formula, use conductor resistance (total to the device , (
and back) for Z
3. Internal Burden of CT Windings This is so small that it can
generally be ignored or specified by manufacturer
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Magnetization Curve
TheexcitationofCT
dependon
a) Crosssectionalarea
b) Lengthofmagneticpath
ofcore
c) Numberofturnsinthe
winding
d) Magneticcharacteristics
f h ofthecore
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Basic Induced Voltage equation
Current Transformer Theory
BasicInducedVoltageequation
E
s
=4.44*B
m
*A
eff
*f*N
s
where B flux density = /A whereB
m
fluxdensity=
m
/A
eff
A
eff
Coreeffectivearea
f frequency
N secondary turns N
s
secondaryturns
E
s
Inducedvoltageinthesecondary
A component of primary current excites the core to the flux density
necessary to induce in the secondary winding an e m f sufficient to drive the necessary to induce in the secondary winding an e.m.f. sufficient to drive the
secondary current through total impedance of secondary circuit
Hence core flux density is dependent on the magnitude of primary current
and the impedance of secondary circuit
E
s
isdecidedbythetotalburden
E
s
=Totalburden(VA+leadburden+sec.windingburden)*I
s
N i d id d b th ti i N I I
and the impedance of secondary circuit
N
s
isdecidedbytheratioi.e.N
p
,I
p
,I
s
N
s
=N
p
I
p
/I
s
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Current Transformer Theory
A b d fl d i i di l h At constant burden, core flux density varies directly as the
secondary current, hence, as the primary and consequently
secondary current increases, a point is reached when core
B is decided by the required error Lower B for better
material start saturating and exciting current becomes
excessive, thus resulting in excessive current error
B
m
isdecidedbytherequirederror.LowerB
m
forbetter
accuracy.
LowertheB
m
loweristheexcitationcurrentyieldingbetter
b t l accuracybutlargercorearea
Rewritingtheequation
A
eff
=E
s
/(4.44*B
m
*f*N
s
)
eff s
/(
m s
)
Highercoreareaisrequiredfor
betteraccuracy(lowerB
m
,lowerI
e
Excitationcurrent),
lower ampturns (lower N ) lowerampturns(lowerN
s
),
andhigherburden(higherE
s
)
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Effect of Secondary Open Circuiting
E.M.F. induced in secondary winding is that required to drive
secondary current through total impedance of secondary
circuit, and core flux inducing this e.m.f. is provided by a small circuit, and core flux inducing this e.m.f. is provided by a small
difference between primary and secondary m.m.f. (ampere
turns)
With secondary open circuited, there are no secondary ampere
turns to oppose those due to primary current and whole of
primary m.m.f. act on the core as an excessive exciting force, p y g ,
which drive core into saturation on each half wave of the
current
Thi hi h t f h f fl i th i f i t This high rate of change of flux in the region of primary current
zero induces an e.m.f., E
s
of high peak value in the secondary
winding
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Effect of Secondary Open Circuiting
With rated primary current, peak value may be as low as few
hundred volts in small measuring CT with 5A secondary
winding, but it might reach many kilovolts, in the case of, say
2000/1A protective CT with a large core section / p g
With system fault currents flowing in primary, even higher
voltages would be induced and not only constitute hazard to
i l ti f CT it lf d t d i t t l d insulation of CT itself and connected instruments, relays and
associated wiring, but also to life
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Selectionof Selectionof
CurrentTransformers CurrentTransformers
Current Transformer Secondary Rating
Choice of CT secondary rating
5A Secondary
Preferred where lead burden is insignificant (e g indoor Preferred where lead burden is insignificant (e.g. indoor
switchgear cubicles with closely located relays)
Preferred where primary current ratings are very high
Comparatively low peak voltage when secondary gets
open
Fine turns ratio adjustment is not possible when primary j p p y
rating is low
1A Secondary
P f d h CT td d l d b d hi h Preferred when CTs are outdoor and lead burden are high
Comparatively high peak voltage when secondary is open
Fine turns ratio adjustment possible
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Current Transformer Accuracy
Measuring CTs are required to be accurate over
normal working range of current, while protective CTs
required to maintain the accuracy up to several times required to maintain the accuracy up to several times
of the rated current
Metering if we want to measure current for metering
purpose, we desire that
whatever current we measure, that should be very
accurate as the metered data may be used for tariff accurate as the metered data may be used for tariff
purpose
Accuracy Class
A designation assigned to a current transformer, the
errors of which remains within specified limits under
prescribed condition of use prescribed condition of use
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Classification of Current Transformer
MeteringClassCTs
0.1class:Highprecisiontesting
0.2class:Laboratoryclass
0 5 class : industrial metering 0.5class:industrialmetering
1.0class:Firstgradeindicatingwattmeter
l l / 3.0&5.0class:Forgeneraluse/WTI
ProtectionClassCTs
5P,10P,15P
PS class PSclass
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D i ti f M t i CT
Measuring Current Transformer
Designation of Metering CTs
Metering CTs are specified in terms of
R i A l B d (VA i ) ISF Ratio, Accuracy class, Burden (VA rating), ISF
(Instrument Security Factor)
Example: 2000/1 Class 0 2 20VA ISF 5 Example: 2000/1, Class 0.2, 20VA, ISF 5
Standard Error Class 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 Standard Error Class 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0
The errors are specified between 5120% of rated
current and 25100% of rated burden connected
Higher errors are permitted at lower currents
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Current Transformer Accuracy Limits
IEC 600441 Limits of error for accuracy Class of metering cores
Metering Cores
Class 5% of
t d I
20% of
t d I
100% of
t d I
120% of
t d I
IEC 60044 1 Limits of error for accuracy Class of metering cores
rated I rated I rated I rated I
0 2 0 75 0 35 0 2 0 2 0.2 0.75 0.35 0.2 0.2
0.5 1.5 0.75 0.5 0.5
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Current Transformer Accuracy Limits
IEC600441 has laid down standards on this
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Th i d h d f CT h ld b
Instrument Security factor (ISF)
The instruments connected to the secondary of a CT should be
protected from getting damaged during primary fault condition,
when primary current is many times higher than the rated value,
the core should get saturated
For this purposes, Instrument Security Factor (ISF) for Metering
CTs has been defined CTs has been defined
The CT cores should be such that it saturates at its instrument
security factor (ISF) for safeguarding the instrument from getting
d d d f lt t diti damaged under fault current condition
ISF is defined as the ratio of rated instrument security
primary current to rated primary current primary current to rated primary current
ISF is expressed as 3,5,7 or 10 (it shall be chosen as
small as possible)
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Protection Current Transformer
Protection Class
During fault condition, value of primary current may
be 10 to 20 times the rated primary current
Here, main requirement is ability of CT to faithfully
f h i d i f l di i transform the primary current during fault condition
At such high level of primary current, if CT is not
l d i d it t t d l ill properly designed, it may saturate and relay will
receive very less current and, therefore, would not
make right decision make right decision
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D i ti f P t ti CT
Protection Current Transformer
Designation of Protection CTs
Protection CT are specified in terms of
R i A l B d (VA i ) ALF (A Ratio, Accuracy class, Burden (VA rating), ALF (Accuracy
Limit Factor)
Example: 200/1 5P20 10VA Example: 200/1, 5P20, 10VA
Standard Error Class/ALF/VA rating Standard Error Class/ALF/VA rating
Error Class 5P, 10P, 15P
ALF 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
VA rating 5, 10, 15, 30
The errors are specified at rated current and ALF times
rated current with rated burden connected rated current with rated burden connected
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Protection Current Transformer
.
Current Transformer Accuracy Limits
Protection Cores
BS 3938:1973 Limits of error for accuracy Class 5P and 10P
Accuracy
Class
Current Error
at rated
Phase displacement
error at rated
Composite Error
at rated accuracy
BS 3938:1973 Limits of error for accuracy Class 5P and 10P
Class at rated
Primary
Current
error at rated
Primary Current
at rated accuracy
limit (ALF)
Primary Current
P 1% 60 i 1 8 5% 5P 1% 60 min 1.8
centiradians
5%
10P 3% 10% 10P 3% - - 10%
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U lik i CT hi h i d b
Accuracy Limiting Factor (ALF)
Unlike measuring CTs, which are required to be accurate over
the normal working range of currents, protective CTs are usually
required to maintain their ratio up to several times the rated
primary current
At some value of primary current above the rated value, core
commence to saturate resulting in increase in secondary commence to saturate, resulting in increase in secondary
current error
Protection Class CTs cores should not get saturated below its
A Li iti F t (ALF) t hi h th i t Accuracy Limiting Factor (ALF) up to which the primary current
should be faithfully transformed to the secondary side,
maintaining the specified accuracy
ALF is defined as the ratio of the rated accuracy limit
primary current to the rated primary current
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For a given CT, VA and ALF are inversely related, for example, if
Protection Current Transformer
For a given CT, VA and ALF are inversely related, for example, if
connected burden is less than rated then ALF would increase
Applications of this CT are Over current relay, Inverse relay,
earth fault protection, Phase fault protection etc.
While selecting 5P10 class CT for IDMT O/C or Earth fault relays
CT should have optimum ALF/VA rating, so that they do not
saturate up to at least 20 times current rating (either by
selecting low burden relays or by selecting a ratio of selecting low burden relays or by selecting a ratio of
appropriate high value)
Over rated CTs having high VA rating and ALF may produce Over rated CTs having high VA rating and ALF may produce
high secondary currents during severe faults (in excess of 20
times setting) that may cause thermal stressing of relay
current coils and eventual failures current coils and eventual failures
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f f l l
Protection Current Transformer
Designation of Protection CTs for special applications
For protection like circulating current differential, restricted
earth fault etc where balanced of current/turns is required earth fault etc. where balanced of current/turns is required
between associated CTs with close tolerance
Special class Protection CT of are specified in terms of
1) R ti 1) Ratio
2) Accuracy class
3) Knee Point Voltage (V
k
)
) d i di i ( ) d
O
4) CT Secondary winding resistance (R
CT
) corrected to75
O
C
5) Excitation current (I
e
) usually at Knee Point Voltage or a stated
percentage thereof
Example 200/1, PS Class, V
k
> 200V, R
CT
< 2.0 ohms, I
e
< 30mA at V
k
/4
The turn ratio error are limited to +0.25% which helps in
maintaining balance between the protection system during g p y g
maximum through fault condition
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Which Current Transformer is connected
Substation to be protected
External/Through Fault
Internal Fault
Which Current Transformer is connected
Equipment to be protected
I1
I1
Equipment to be protected
I2
i1
i1
i1 i1
i2
S bili i
i1 + i2
Stabilising
Resistance
Operating
relay
UNIT PROTECTION UNIT PROTECTION
Which Current Transformer is connected
ForUnitTypeProtection
Here, requirements are rather stringent as we
compare current of two or more CTs and rely on the compare current of two or more CTs and rely on the
their mutual faithfulness, moreover, our aim is that
the protection must be stable for even worst through
fault condition and fast acting for internal fault
condition
F d ti f l it i ll d i bl t For speedy operation of relay, it is usually desirable to
make the knee point voltage of the CT magnetizing
curve not less than twice the relay operating voltage y p g g
F hi h i d i l ti t diff ti l
Which Current Transformer is connected
Forhighimpedancecirculatingcurrentdifferential
scheme
volts R R I V
lead CT f K
) 2 ( 2 +
R
CT
= CT secondary winding resistance
R = lead resistance of the farthest CT in parallel R
lead
= lead resistance of the farthest CT in parallel
group
I
f
= Maximum through fault current up to which relay I
f
Maximum through fault current up to which relay
should remain stable (referred to CT secondary)
F T f I M i th h f lt t
Which Current Transformer is connected
ForTransformers, I
f
=Maximumthroughfaultcurrent
limitedbyleakageimpedanceoftransformer
For Busbar I
f
= Maximum through fault current limited ForBusbar,I
f
=Maximumthroughfaultcurrentlimited
toswitchgearbreakingcapacity
ForGenerator, I
f
=Maximumthroughfaultcurrent
f
g
limitedbysubtransientreactance(X
d
)ofthe
generator
F M t I M i t ti t ( b t 6 ForMotor, I
f
=Maximumstartingcurrent(about6x
loadcurrentforDOLMotors)
For Shunt reactors I = Maximum charging current of ForShuntreactors,I
f
=Maximumchargingcurrentof
reactor
ForShortfeeders,I
f
=Maximumthroughfaultcurrent ,
f
g
forfaultatbusbar
F bi d diff ti l l
Which Current Transformer is connected
Forbiaseddifferentialrelay
volts R R I K V )] 2 ( 2 [ +
I Relay rated current
volts R R I K V
lead CT R K
)] 2 ( 2 [ +
I
R
= Relay rated current
K = Constant specified by the manufacturer usually
based on conjunction test (the constant is usually based on conjunction test (the constant is usually
chosen to ensure positive operation of highest
differential unit on severe internal fault with extreme
CT saturation)
F Di t P t ti
Which Current Transformer is connected
ForDistanceProtection
volts nR R Z I
X
V )] ( )[ 1 ( + + +
X/R Primary system reactance/resistance ratio (to
volts nR R Z I
R
V
lead CT relay f K
)] ( )[ 1 ( + + +
X/R = Primary system reactance/resistance ratio (to
account for the DC component of the fault current)
I = Maximum CT secondary current for fault at zone1 I
f
= Maximum CT secondary current for fault at zone1
reach point
Z = Relay ohmic burden Z
relay
= Relay ohmic burden
R
CT
= CT secondary winding resistance
nR = Lead resistance nR
lead
= Lead resistance
Outdoor Current Transformer
OutdoorCTsarebasicallyof3typesof
Construction
DeadTank withU(HairPin)shaped
primary primary
DeadTankwithEyeBoltprimary
Live Tank or Inverted primary CT LiveTankorInvertedprimaryCT
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P P
Bus
Feeder
Dead Tank Current Transformer
P P
CB
Bus
Feeder
Insulator
Primary winding
Secondary winding
Core
Terminal Box
S
S
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Dead Tank Current Transformer
1) Eye Bolt Type 2) Hair Pin Type
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Dead Tank Current Transformer
P2 P1
CORE 5 CORE 1
CORE 2
CORE 4
CORE 3
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Dead Tank Current Transformer
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Outdoor Current Transformer
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Manufacturing of Current Transformer Manufacturing of Current Transformer
CT Secondary in Progress
Manufacturing of Current Transformer Manufacturing of Current Transformer
Shell Preparation & Assembly
Manufacturing of Current Transformer Manufacturing of Current Transformer
CT Tank Assembly & Welding
Dead Tank Current Transformer
This type construction, cores situated in a
tank close to the ground, the primary
conductor is Ushaped (hair pin) or coil conductor is Ushaped (hair pin) or coil
shaped (eye bolt)
low centre of gravity & high earth quake g y g q
withstand
using heavy cores without stressing the
porcelain insulator porcelain insulator
Oil circulation in the primary conductor (tube)
gives even temperature and not hot spots gives even temperature and not hot spots
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420kVdeadTankCT
(HairPinDesign) ( g )
TheheatinCTismainlyproducedinthe
primarywinding.Thethickinsulation
P2 P1
encirclinghairpinprimarypreventsheat
transferfrommostofthistube
P l i i h f Porcelaincasingpreventsheattransferto
airasitisabadconductorofheat.Theoil
carries heat from inside the primary copper carriesheatfrominsidetheprimarycopper
tubetotopwherecoolingtakesplace
Therefore, the cooling area is severely Therefore,thecoolingareaisseverely
restrained.Duetolimitedcoolingareaat
thetop,raisingtheCTcurrentratingis
CORE 5
CORE 4
CORE 1
CORE 2
CORE 3
difficult
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Live Tank Current Transformer
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Live Tank Current Transformer
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420 kV Live Tank CT 420kVLiveTankCT
The heat in CT is produced only in the TheheatinCTisproducedonlyinthe
shortconductorlengthofprimary
winding.Theheattransferiseasily
doneatthetopchamberlevelas
comparedtopresentHairpindesign
Therefore the cooling area is Therefore,thecoolingareais
adequateforsmallerlosses.Raising
theCTcurrentratingismucheasier
AllovertheworldCTs>3000Amps
areproducedwithInverteddesign
only only
3/4/20137:29:24PM 66
k d d k
420kVLiveTankCT
420kVdeadTankCT
(HairPinDesign)
3/4/20137:29:24PM 67
Theoryof Theoryof yy
VoltageTransformers VoltageTransformers gg
What is Voltage Transformer
Voltage Transformer is an instrument
transformer which transforms voltage
f l l t th l l h from one level to another level such as
400KV/3:110V/3 (VT ratio) i.e.
transforms voltage from the level of transforms voltage from the level of
400KV/3 into voltage of 110V/3 level
Direct measurement of high voltage (in Direct measurement of high voltage (in
the tune of 3.3kV or more) is not
possible as devices used for
measurement of voltage are not
designed to handle such high level of
lt voltage
3/4/20137:29:24PM 69
h b
Why Voltage Transformer is Required
Systemhastwobasic
requirements
t i f metering ofenergy
sourcedorconsumed
protection of the protection ofthe
electricalsystemfrom
faults and faultsand
disturbances
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Why Voltage Transformer is Required
Faults can be of many kinds, some faults such as O/C
can be detected solely on current measurement, but
t d t id di ti b t t d current does not provide discretion about nature and
location of the fault
Therefore when voltage is also measured along with Therefore, when voltage is also measured along with
current during faults, we can in a way compute power
or impedance of system along with its direction g
Moreover O/V, U/V, O/F, U/F and over fluxing
protections are also configured from VTs
Voltage signal also used for synchronizing, Disturbance
recorders and event logs
3/4/20137:29:24PM 71
h d d
How Voltage Transformer is connected
VT has a primary and one or more secondary
windings
M t i d P t ti d i t d t Metering and Protection devices are connected to
the secondaries of the VT
In voltage operation or shunt mode the primary In voltage operation or shunt mode, the primary
winding is connected in parallel with the power
system to transform the phase voltage to usually 63.5 system to transform the phase voltage to usually 63.5
volts suitable for the meter or relay
3/4/20137:29:24PM 72
f l d h f ll l d
Voltage Transformer Theory
For a transformer in no load the following is valid
Voltage transformation is proportional to the ratio of primary
and secondary turns and secondary turns
1 1
E
E
N
N
=
An ideal voltage transformer is a transformer under noload
2 2
E N
conditions where the load current is zero and the voltage drop is
only caused by the magnetizing current and is thus negligible
Voltage Transformer Theory
SimplifiedVTequivalentcircuit
I
p
I
s
Z Z
I
p
Z
p
Z
s
I
e
V
E
s
V
Z
B

I
m
I
w
V
p
E
s
V
s
Z
B

Voltage Transformer Theory


I
p
R
p
V
p
V
I
s
R
s
E
s
V
p
I
p
I
I
e
R
p
V
s
I
s
I
e

Phasor diagram with referance to voltage error

0
3/4/20137:29:24PM 75
h h d f d h d ff
Voltage Transformer Theory
Ratio error, which is defined as the difference in
magnitude of the primary and secondary voltage
expressed as percentage of primary voltage expressed as percentage of primary voltage
100
.
) (

=
p n s
V K V
Error Ratio Voltage
K
n
= Rated transformation ratio
) (
p
V
g
V
p
= Actual primary voltage
V
s
= Actual secondary voltage
Phase Angle error is the difference between the
reversed secondary and the primary voltage vectors reversed secondary and the primary voltage vectors
V lt f t d t i th i ti lt f lt
Voltage Factor
Voltage factor determines the maximum operating voltage for voltage
transformers expressed in per unit of rated voltage, which in turn
dependent on the system and voltage transformer earthing conditions
VT d i ff ti l th d t h hi h lt f t i i VTs used in noneffectively earthed system have high voltage factor since in
the event of an earthed fault in one of the phases, the healthy phase
voltage may rise to phase to phase value
Voltage
FactorV
F
Duration Earthing conditions
V.T.primary
winding
System
1.2 Continuous Nonearthed Effectivelyornoneffectivelyearthed
1.5 30s Earthed Effectivelyearthed
1.9 30s Earthed Noneffectivelyearthedwith
automaticE/Ftripping
1.9 8h Earthed Isolatedneutralorresonantearthed
withoutautomaticE/Ftripping
3/4/20137:29:24PM 77
Protection of EVT from accidental overloads and short circuit
Protection of Voltage Transformer
Protection of EVT from accidental overloads and short circuit
across its secondary terminal is achieved by incorporating fuses
or MCB in secondary circuit located near to transformer as
possible
Normal secondary current is not more than 5A and short circuit
current in the range of 100A simple fuses can be employed current in the range of 100A, simple fuses can be employed
Short circuit on secondary winding gives only a few amperes in
primary winding and is not sufficient to rupture a high voltage
fuse at primary side (HRC fuses on primary side up to 66kV)
Hence high voltage fuse on primary side do not protect
transformer they protect only network in case of any short transformer, they protect only network in case of any short
circuit on the primary side
CVT invariably solidly connected to the system so that there is
no primary protection
3/4/20137:29:24PM 78
Voltage Transformer Accuracy
As stated for CT, we need it for
Metering voltage measurement, energy, power
measurement
Protection for distance protection, O/V, U/V, O/F
and U/F protections field failure overfluxing etc and U/F protections, field failure, overfluxing etc
For metering VTs we need high accuracy in the voltage
measurement during stable conditions i.e. 80% to g
120% of nominal system voltage with burdens from
25% to 100% of rated burden at power factor of 0.8
lagging lagging
Combination of magnitude and phase error depends
on the power factor of the burden on the power factor of the burden
3/4/20137:29:24PM 79
Voltage Transformer Accuracy
IEC600442and600445definesthisas
3/4/20137:29:24PM 80
Voltage Transformer Accuracy
For Protection VTs we need faithfulness of
voltage measurement in the higher range of voltage measurement in the higher range of
voltage such as from value as low as 2% of
nominal voltage to the rated voltage multiplied nominal voltage to the rated voltage multiplied
by rated voltage factors such as 1.2, 1.5, 1.9
with burden of 25% to 100% of rated burden with burden of 25% to 100% of rated burden
at 0.8 pf lagging
3/4/20137:29:24PM 81
d d f h
Voltage Transformer Accuracy
IEC600442and600445definesthisas
3/4/20137:29:24PM 82
Voltage Transformer Connections
There are three types of connections
VV connection
Star/Star connection
Star/Open delta connection
V V ti VV connection
Used for measurement and for those protections which do
not require phase to neutral voltage input (2 VTs are used) not require phase to neutral voltage input (2 VTs are used)
Primary of VTs is connected in V (one VT primary across RY
phase and other across YB phase) with identical V
connection for the secondary
In this connection zero sequence voltage can not be
produced produced
3/4/20137:29:24PM 83
Voltage Transformer Connections
Star/Star connection
Either 3 separate single phase
VT i l 3 h 3 li b VT VTs or a single 3 phase, 3 limb VT
is used
Both primary and secondaries p y
are connected in star with both
star neutrals solidly grounded
E h i h li b i th Each primary phase limb is thus
connected between phase to
earth of the supply circuit and
replicate similar phase to earth
voltage on the secondary
3/4/20137:29:24PM 84
S /O D l i
Voltage Transformer Connections
Star/Open Delta connection
Primary windings are connected in
star with star neutral solidlyy
grounded and the secondaries are
connected in series to form an
open delta connection p
This type of connection is called
residual connection and require
either 3 single phase VTs or a either 3 single phase VTs or a
single 3 phase 5 limb VT
This residual connection is used for
l i i di i l h f l polarising directional earth fault
relays or for earth fault detection
in noneffectively grounded or
isolated neutral system
3/4/20137:29:24PM 85
f l f ( )
Types of Voltage Transformer
TypesofVoltageTransformer(VT)
ElectromagneticVoltageTransformer(EVT)
C iti V lt T f (CVT) CapacitiveVoltageTransformer(CVT)
MM
P
P
M
P
P
P
INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER
CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER
3/4/20137:29:24PM 86
El t ti V lt T f i il t ll
Types of Voltage Transformer
Electromagnetic Voltage Transformers similar to a small power
transformer and differs only in details of design that control
ratio accuracy over the specified range of output, cooling
( t t t th 200 300 VA) i l ti (d i d f (output not more than 200300 VA), insulation (designed for
system impulse voltage level) and mechanical aspects
At high system voltages the cost of conventional potential At high system voltages the cost of conventional potential
transformer is high, due to prohibitive cost of insulation,
hence, at 132 kV and higher voltages, CVT may be more
economical than EVT particularly when the high voltage economical than EVT particularly when the high voltage
capacitors can serve also for carrier current coupling (PLCC),
but may be inferior in transient performance
C i ll h i j i f hi h f i l Capacitors allow the injection of high frequency signals onto
the power line conductor to provide endtoend
communications between substations for distance relays,
l / i d i i i telemetry/supervisory and voice communication
3/4/20137:29:24PM 87
Capacitive Voltage Transformer
D fi i i Definition
A CVT is a voltage transformer comprising of capacitor divider
unit and an electromagnetic unit so designed and unit and an electromagnetic unit so designed and
interconnected that the secondary voltage of the
electromagnetic unit is substantially proportional to and in
phase with the primary voltage applied to the capacitor divider phase with the primary voltage applied to the capacitor divider
unit (IEC 186)
What does a CVT do?
Inputs to measuring and protection devices
Galvanic isolation
Main Parts of a CVT
Capacitor Part Capacitor Stack, Insulator
Electromagnetic Unit PT, HV Choke, FR circuit
3/4/20137:29:24PM 88
Capacitive Voltage Transformer
Primary Terminal
Capacitor Part
Electromagnetic Unit
HF Terminal
Sec. Terminal Box
3/4/20137:29:24PM 89
CVT Internal Components
Tank
PT
Resistor
Capacitor
F
R
C
FR Choke
C
k
t.
HV Choke
3/4/20137:29:24PM 90
CVT Internal Components
3/4/20137:29:24PM 91
Why intermediate PT is required
Assumingtheintermediate
potentialtransformerisabsent
C
1
ExpressionforU
s
U
2
Z U
p
C
2
Burden
C
1
U
p
U
s
2 1
2
KR U
Z Z
U
p
p
s
+
=
R
1
2 1
1
Z and R Z
R
U
C j
C j
p
s
= =
+
=

1
2 1
2 1
C
K
C C C
and
C j
+ =

2 1
1
C C
C
K
+
=
3/4/20137:29:24PM 92
Why intermediate PT is required
Theperuniterroris
KU
U KU
p
s p


=
Considering
R
U
P
s
2
=
Onsimplifying
Thisleadstotheconclusionthatforgivenerrorthepower
K C U P
s
/ 2
1
2
=
g p
outputisproportionalto
SecondaryoutputvoltageU
s
Upper stack capacitance C UpperstackcapacitanceC
1
3/4/20137:29:24PM 93
Why intermediate PT is required
As the output voltage U
s
is usually constant, very large
capacitance (C
1
) is required to get sufficient power
output
This is economically unacceptable
Two modifications required to improve the situation
Introduction of an intermediate stepped potential
transformer to boost U
s
, it can be 20 kV primary, the burden
is connected at its secondary at Volts
li i i f h i f h l d
3
110
Elimination of the main source of phase angle error due to
the capacitance C(=C
1
+C
2
) by a series inductance tuned to
resonate with C at the system power frequency resonate with C at the system power frequency
3/4/20137:29:24PM 94
L i i bl
Why HV Choke is required
Lisvariable
inductivechokeused
forphaseangle C
1
L
errorcorrection
Itistunedto
resonate with C
C
2
U
p
R
L
resonatewithC
(=C
1
+C
2
)atnominal
powerfrequency
U
s
C
2
R
Wound PT
WoundPTisusedtoincreasetheavailableoutputpower,for
Wound PT
agivenmaximumerrorlimitandC
1
3/4/20137:29:24PM 95
Equivalent Circuit Diagram of CVT
L
eq
isthesumofchoke
inductanceandleakage
i d t f th
C
U
I
1
inductanceofthe
woundPT
Magnetizinginductance
C
1
U
p
L
eq
U
1
I
+ U
L
- g g
ofthePTisneglected
Itcanbeseenthatthe
h i f i bl
U
s
C
2
R U
2
I
2
U
L
choiceofasuitable
valueofLtendsto
reducethephaseangle
Wound
PT
error
3/4/20137:29:24PM 96
As the value of L increases
I
1
CVT Under Steady State
AsthevalueofLincreases
U
p
decreasesuntilitisin
phasewithU
s
andthen
1
I
increases
AtthefrequencywhenL
andCareresonantand

U
L
U
s
U
2
I
2
I
canceleachother,the
circuitwillbehave,under
steady state condition as a
U
p
U
2
steadystatecondition,asa
conventionaltransformer
p
U
1
If the burden is short circuited a considerable overvoltage Iftheburdenisshortcircuitedaconsiderableover voltage
appearsacrossC
2
,duetoresonanceofLandC
ThisvalueofU
2
ishowever,usuallylimitedbysparkgap
connected across C or by arranging the inductance L to saturate connectedacrossC
2
orbyarrangingtheinductanceLtosaturate
atcurrentsabovetheratedvalue
3/4/20137:29:24PM 97
A practical CVT consists of capacitance, tuning inductance and
Ferro-resonance
A practical CVT consists of capacitance, tuning inductance and
wound PT which is having exciting impedance of nonlinear
characteristics
Wh it d li i d t t d i Whenever a capacitor and nonlinear inductor are connected in
series, there is a danger of nonlinear energy interchanges at
subharmonic frequencies and causes sustained oscillation and
consequently large overvoltage in the circuit
Such oscillations are less likely to occur when the losses in the
circuit are high, hence resistive load is increased in CVT (it also circuit are high, hence resistive load is increased in CVT (it also
impair the transient response)
To avoid Ferroresonance the operating flux of iron parts is kept
at 1/2 to 1/3rd of the sat ration fl densit hich pre ents at 1/2 to 1/3rd of the saturation flux density, which prevents
high exciting currents during circuit transients
Alternately a special provision for damping the oscillations is
provided
3/4/20137:29:24PM 98
Capacitive Voltage Transformer
Coupling Capacitor
In Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC), Coupling
Capacitor (CC) is used as coupling device between
li d i i t ll hi h power line and carrier accessories to allow high
frequency (40500KHz.) carrier signals into/out of
carrier accessories (Line Matching Unit (LMU) etc ) carrier accessories (Line Matching Unit (LMU) etc.)
Some times, the capacitor part in CVT is used as CC in
PLCC
When CVT is used as CC the terminal HF will be
connected to carrier accessories (carrier coupling unit)
d f d instead of grounding it
3/4/20137:29:24PM 100
PowerLineCarrier(PLC)equipment
C1
Wave Trap
>500KHZ NOISE PICKUP
<30KHZ-HARMONIC
LIGHTENING,CORONA
C3 L3
L1
C4
C2
Carrier
oscillator
Matching
Transformer
Coupling capacitor
VT
L2
Transformer
Transmitter
and receiver
f
a
= 30kHz to 500 kHz
3/4/20137:29:24PM 101
3/4/20137:29:24PM 102