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MAGMASOFT

Version 4.4
MAGMAhpdc Module
Simulation of the High Pressure Die Casting Process
Manual
2 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
This manual supports MAGMASOFT

4.4. No part of this document may be reproduced in any


form or by any means without prior written consent of MAGMA GmbH.
The use of the software described herein is restricted by a license agreement between MAGMA
GmbH and the licensee.
MAGMA and MAGMASOFT

, MAGMAiron, MAGMAdisa, MAGMAlpdc, MAGMAhpdc and similar


names are registered trademarks of MAGMA GmbH. The trademarks of all other products in this
document are claimed as the trademarks of their respective owners.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice.
The information in this publication is believed to be accurate in all aspects; however, MAGMA
does not assume responsibility for any consequential damages resulting from its use. The infor-
mation contained herein is subject to change. Such changes may be incorporated through revi-
sions and / or new editions.
Copyright 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005
MAGMA GIESSEREITECHNOLOGIE GMBH
KACKERTSTRASSE 11
D-52072 AACHEN
GERMANY
TEL.: +49 / 241 / 88 90 1- 0
FAX: +49 / 241 / 88 90 1- 60
EMAIL: MAIL@MAGMASOFT.DE
INTERNET: WWW.MAGMASOFT.COM
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
Table of Contents
1 MAGMAhpdc................................................................................................................... 7
2 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 9
2.1 The High Pressure Die Casting Process.......................................................... 9
2.2 Simulation Using MAGMAhpdc ...................................................................... 10
2.3 Mold Filling ....................................................................................................... 13
2.4 Solidification..................................................................................................... 15
2.5 Mold Preparation.............................................................................................. 16
3 How to Use MAGMAhpdc ............................................................................................ 17
3.1 HPDC Machine Parameters in the Database.................................................. 17
3.1.1 Machine Parameters.............................................................................. 17
3.1.2 Datasets................................................................................................. 20
3.2 Modeling of the Geometry............................................................................... 21
3.2.1 Special Material Groups......................................................................... 21
3.2.2 Modeling of the HPDC System .............................................................. 22
Complete Modeling ................................................................................ 22
Reduced Modeling ................................................................................. 25
3.3 Defining Simulation Parameters..................................................................... 26
3.3.1 Overview................................................................................................ 26
3.3.2 Defining Heat Transfers / 'heat transfer definitions' ............................... 27
3.3.3 Calculating a Shot Profile / 'HPDC calculator' ........................................ 28
Overview................................................................................................ 29
Geometry Data....................................................................................... 31
Machine Data......................................................................................... 33
Shot Sleeve Data ................................................................................... 35
Process Data.......................................................................................... 37
Optimal Slow Shot Profile ...................................................................... 40
Shot Profile............................................................................................. 42
4 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
PQ
2
Diagram.......................................................................................... 44
Shot Characteristics............................................................................... 45
Venting Options...................................................................................... 46
3.3.4 Window 'cycle definitions'....................................................................... 48
3.3.5 Window 'core open definitions' ............................................................... 51
Opening Control by Time ....................................................................... 53
Opening Control by Maximum Temperature.......................................... 54
Opening Control by Local Temperature / Thermocouple....................... 55
3.3.6 Window 'channel definitions' .................................................................. 56
Cooling Control by Time......................................................................... 60
Cooling Control by Maximum Temperature ........................................... 61
Cooling Control by Local Temperature / Thermocouple ........................ 62
3.3.7 Defining Filling Simulation Parameters .................................................. 63
3.3.8 Defining Solidification Simulation Parameters ....................................... 66
3.3.9 Local Squeezing..................................................................................... 67
3.4 HPDC-Specific Entries in the 'protocol listing'.............................................. 69
3.5 Heat Balance..................................................................................................... 70
4 MAGMAspray................................................................................................................ 71
4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 71
4.2 The 'spray definitions' Window....................................................................... 73
4.3 The 'spray options' Window............................................................................ 76
5 MAGMAcoat .................................................................................................................. 79
6 MAGMApressurize........................................................................................................ 83
6.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 83
6.2 Defining the Course of Pressure Using a Defined Curve............................. 85
6.2.1 Pressure Reduction Control by Time ..................................................... 86
6.2.2 Pressure Reduction Control by Maximum Temperature........................ 87
6.2.3 Pressure Reduction Control by Local Temperature / Thermocouple..... 88
6.3 Defining the Course of Pressure Using a Free Curve................................... 89
TABLE OF CONTENTS 5
7 Stresses in High Pressure Die Casting ...................................................................... 91
7.1 Overview ........................................................................................................... 91
7.2 Simulation......................................................................................................... 91
7.3 Results .............................................................................................................. 92
8 Summary What to Do ................................................................................................ 93
8.1 Project Definition.............................................................................................. 93
8.2 Data for HPDC machines................................................................................. 93
8.3 Geometry Modeling.......................................................................................... 93
8.4 Simulation Setup.............................................................................................. 93
8.5 Stresses in High Pressure Die Casting.......................................................... 94
8.6 Additional Information..................................................................................... 94
9 Table of Figures............................................................................................................ 97
10 Index .............................................................................................................................. 99
6 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
CH. 1: MAGMAHPDC 7
1 MAGMAhpdc
The add-on module MAGMAhpdc enables you to simulate High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC)
processes. All essential thermal and flow boundary conditions are considered. In addition to the
functions of standard MAGMASOFT

, you can make use of the following options:


Simulation of any number of casting cycles.
Control of each cooling channel independent from each other as a function of either time, tem-
perature or control thermocouple.
Definition of fixed and movable die parts independent from each other. You can assign a dif-
ferent function and control to each part.
Die opening either as a function of time, temperature or a control thermocouple.
Simulation of cooling effect during die coating.
Simulation of cooling effect during die spraying and blowing.
Definition of die closing as a function of time or temperature.
Definition of the filling conditions by pressure in the shot chamber or at the ingate, as well as
by time or volume flow; taking into consideration the particular conditions of HPDC.
Definition of different pressures for the separate filling stages.
Calculation of mold filling with special boundary conditions.
This manual explains the use of MAGMAhpdc. Please refer to the MAGMASOFT

Manual for an
explanation of the basic MAGMASOFT

functions.
8 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
CH. 2: INTRODUCTION 9
2 Introduction
2.1 The High Pressure Die Casting Process
Fig. 2-1: Schematic of an HPDC machine
Fig. 2-1 shows a schematic drawing of an HPDC machine. The melt is poured through the pour
hole into the shot chamber. During the first phase the plunger presses the melt into the shot cham-
ber, so that the whole cross section of the shot chamber, the runner and gate are filled. Then the
plunger is accelerated and presses the melt into the mold (the second phase).
10 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
2.2 Simulation Using MAGMAhpdc
A typical simulation cycle of the HPDC process with MAGMAhpdc consists of the simulation of
mold filling, solidification, casting removal and mold preparation. You can carry out the mold filling
optionally on any of the cycles simulated. Fig. 2-2 shows the general time sequence of a MAG-
MAhpdc simulation.
Fig. 2-2: Time sequence of the MAGMAhpdc simulation
CH. 2: INTRODUCTION 11
A clear understanding of the use of process data during simulation is an absolute must for an ef-
fective simulation of the HPDC process. There are differences between the terminology used in
the foundry and in simulation, which can easily lead to mistakes.
The following diagram (Fig. 2-3) supplies a concise overview of how the real process times are
connected to the simulation parameters. It is an extension of the above Fig. 2-2. Near the left mar-
gin there is a time indicator that shows the points of time that are characteristic for the HPDC cy-
cle. These times are defined by measures performed in the foundry. Further to the right you find
the time spans that you have to define during the HPDC simulation setup. In the right part of the
diagram you get an overview of sensible result files.
Mold filling Simulation of mold filling starts with the first movement of the piston (first
shot phase). Mold filling is described in detail in Ch. 2.3, page 13.
Solidification Solidification simulation starts when the mold is filled with melt. Solidifi-
cation simulation is the same as MAGMASOFT

standard. (Please note


that with HPDC machines the solidification time starts at the beginning
of switching from Phase I to Phase II).
Casting removal Casting removal starts when the first surfaces start separating from
casting and die. Casting removal ends when the last part of the die is
removed.
Mold preparation The mold preparation phase starts when the casting has been ejected
from the die. During mold preparation you can spray and blow the die,
as well as coat it. Mold preparation ends if the die is closed and the 'wait
time' and 'lead time' have elapsed. You can add the wait time individu-
ally at the end of each cycle. This enables you to consider e.g. addition-
al mold preparation times that do not occur in every cycle.
12 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 2-3: Relations between real process times and simulation parameters
CH. 2: INTRODUCTION 13
For result interpretation of a simulation, not only filling and solidification results are of interest, but
also those process steps during which the environment conditions of the die parts change signif-
icantly. These are also called characteristic process times:
Start of die opening
Start of side core removal
Start of ejection
Start and end of spraying and blowing periods
Moment of contact between die halves while die closing
2.3 Mold Filling
The mold filling is further divided into four separate time periods as shown in Fig. 2-4:
Fig. 2-4: Filling phase of hpdc process
Shot chamber dwell time The initial filling of the shot chamber is instantaneous in MAG-
MAhpdc. The shot chamber dwell time starts at shot chamber
pouring and ends with the beginning of the first (slow) shot phase.
14 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
You can calculated the so-called "shot profile" using the MAGMAhpdc 'high pressure die casting
calculator', using the geometry data entered in the preprocessor and the parameters defined by
you in the calculator.
The various stages of filling are shown in Fig. 2-5. The solid lines represent a non-accelerated shot
profile, the dashed lines stand for an accelerated shot profile. The accelerated shot profile is
sometimes called a "parashot". It simply represents an acceleration of the plunger through the first
shot phase as opposed to a constant velocity for the non-accelerated case. You can select both
options in the MAGMAhpdc module.
The cooling of the melt during this dwell time is not considered in
MAGMAhpdc. Therefore you must consider the temperature of
the melt in the chamber during the shot at simulation.
First shot phase Velocity during the first shot phase should prevent a wave on the
free surface, in order to avoid any air entrapments in the melt.
Therefore the piston moves slowly forward until the shot chamber
is 100% filled.
Plunger acceleration The first phase ends at the beginning of filling the running and
gating system, and the plunger is accelerated up to the velocity
of the second phase.
Filling of the casting cavity The plunger's velocity reaches its highest level in the second
phase, as the metal enters the die cavity, i.e. the melt is posi-
tioned at the ingate everywhere (theoretical approach) These
high velocities result in the thin wall sections of the casting being
completely filled.
CH. 2: INTRODUCTION 15
Fig. 2-5: Plunger position and velocity as function of time
2.4 Solidification
Solidification simulation is the same as in MAGMASOFT

. The temperature distribution at the end


of the mold filling simulation is automatically transferred to the solidification simulation. You have
to enter the various times and periods of the result distributions in different windows explained in
Ch. 3.3.1, page 26. You must note carefully to which time point (the beginning of the cycle, the
end of filling or end of casting removal) each entry refers.
Please note that with HPDC machines the solidification time starts at the beginning of switching
from Phase I to Phase II.
16 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
2.5 Mold Preparation
After casting removal you can prepare the mold for the next casting cycle by spraying and/or coat-
ing. See Ch. 4, page 71 and Ch. 5, page 79 for further information.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 17
3 How to Use MAGMAhpdc
If you create a new project or a new version of an existing project, using the 'create project' or 'cre-
ate version' functions, you must choose the 'High Pressure Die Casting' entry in the list 'Project
Mode'.
3.1 HPDC Machine Parameters in the Database
3.1.1 Machine Parameters
The 'HPDC-Machine' datasets serve to administrate the parameters of high pressure die casting
machines. You can define an individual dataset for each machine type. In the database, datasets
for all commonly used machines by several producers are stored. Hoever, the data can only be
regarded as standard values, as the machines are normally modified before delivery. Please refer
also to Ch. 3.1.2, page 20.
Fig. 3-1 shows the parameters that must be defined in the database in order to access the HPDC
machines for the simulation with MAGMAhpdc.
18 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
The entries mean the following:
Fig. 3-1: Defining machine parameters
database
'Database' menu
Select database
'Dataset' menu
'HPDC - Machine'
'Edit'
'Edit' menu
'Machine Parameters'
'Machine type' Machine type and machine name
'Max length of shot chamber' Maximum length of shot chamber (mm)
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 19
'Min. piston diameter' Minimum piston diameter (mm)
'Max piston diameter' Maximum piston diameter (mm)
'Max. piston speed' Maximum piston speed without melt in empty shot for machine
demo picture (m/s)
'Max. piston acceleration' Maximum piston acceleration (m/s
2
). We highly recommend to
adapt the acceleration values for the maximum piston accelera-
tion in the database to the conditions found in your foundry. You
can define the parameter 'Max. piston acceleration' using record-
ed pouring curves as follows:
Equation 3-1
= Maximum piston acceleration
= Velocity difference phase 2 phase 1
= Time difference between end of acceleration (phase 2) mi-
nus begin of acceleration (phase 1)
'Locking force' Nominal locking force (kN)
'Distance between tie bars' Distance between tie bars (mm)
'Input of hydraulic parameters' 'yes' Input of hydraulic parameters is activated (see the
three following entries).
'no' Input of hydraulic parameters is deactivated.
'Max. injection (hydraulic)
pressure'
Maximum injection pressure (piston-type accumulator) (bar)
'Diameter of hydraulic cylinder' Diameter of hydraulic cylinder (mm)
'Calculate injection force' If you activate this button, MAGMAhpdc calculates the dynamic
injection force and the maximum final pressure from the hydraulic
parameters (see the two next entries). You must activate the 'yes'
button under 'Input of hydraulic parameters', if you want to calcu-
late this.
'Max. dynamic injection force' Maximum dynamic injection force (kN)
'Max. multi injection force'
Relation of translation, multiplied with this force (kN)
(=maximum final pressure)

v
t
------- =

v
t
20 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
3.1.2 Datasets
The following list contains the HPDC machines of the 'MAGMA' database. Please note the follow-
ing:
We recommend to use a demo machine if you want to create datasets to your needs.
The data in the 'MAGMA' database cannot be used immediately, but must be imported to at
least one of the 'User', 'Global' or 'Project' databases and maybe corrected there. The 'Ready
to use' function is deactivated in all datasets of the 'MAGMA' database.
You can perform user specific modifications of the HPDC machines. Please check, however,
that the data correspond exactly to your respective machine parameters.
The datasets for HPDC machines from MAGMAhpdc Release 3.x are not compatible to those
of Release 4.4. Please take care to modify or complete the data accordingly.
Demo HPDC machines:
Demo_100 Demo_250 Demo_4000
Demo_1000 Demo_3000 Demo_700
Demo_1500 Demo_400
Mller-Weingarten HPDC machines:
GDK1000 GDK2500 GDK520
GDK1200 GDK2800 GDK630
GDK1350 GDK320 GDK750
GDK1600 GDK3500 GDK850
GDK2000 GDK400
GDK2200 GDK4100
Bhler HPDC machines:
SC_D105 SC_F105 SC_N105
SC_D105L SC_F105L SC_N105L
SC_D140 SC_F140 SC_N140
SC_D140L SC_F140L SC_N140L
SC_D180 SC_F180 SC_N180
SC_D180L SC_F180L SC_N180L
SC_D220 SC_F220 SC_N220
SC_D220L SC_F220L SC_N220L
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 21
3.2 Modeling of the Geometry
For the modeling of the geometry in the MAGMASOFT

preprocessor you can use all standard


functions. Please refer to the MAGMASOFT

Manual for further information.


3.2.1 Special Material Groups
In addition to the normal material groups in MAGMASOFT

, MAGMAhpdc also contains the fol-


lowing special material groups, which you use to describe the system elements of a die casting
process. The names in brackets correspond to those used in the preprocessor:
SC_D26 SC_F26 SC_N26
SC_D270 SC_F270 SC_N270
SC_D270L SC_F270L SC_N270L
SC_D320 SC_F320 SC_N320
SC_D320L SC_F320L SC_N320L
SC_D34 SC_F34 SC_N34
SC_D42 SC_F42 SC_N42
SC_D53 SC_F53 SC_N53
SC_D66 SC_F66 SC_N66
SC_D84 SC_F84 SC_N84
SC_D84L SC_F84L SC_N84L
Italpresse HPDC machines:
IP1100_SC IP2700_SC IP4100_SC
IP1350_SC IP300_SC IP550_SC
IP1650_SC IP3300_SC IP750_SC
IP200_SC IP3700_SC IP900_SC
IP2150_SC IP400_SC
No. Material group
21 Movable part of the die (Side core / 'SIDEC')
22 Movable part of the die (Ejector die / 'EJECTOR')
22 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
The piston is modelled with the material group 23. For the process definition, the piston diameter
is determined by the diameter of the biscuit. This is why you should define the biscuit as a cylinder
(SET CYL x
1
y
1
z
1
x
2
y
2
z
2
R
1
R
2
). Relevant here is the diameter defined for the first point.
All die parts apart from the fixed half of the die are movable. Generally the movable half of the die,
the casting and the side cores go up together first, then the side cores are moved back, and finally
the casting is ejected. The definition of the die opening process is described in Ch. 3.3.5, page 51.
If you want to simulate local squeezing with the 'local squeezing' function, the material groups 32
and 33 are available. You can construct several squeezing systems; make sure, however, that
you always allocate unambigous, separate MAT IDs. A squeeze reservoir together with a squeeze
stamp always form one squeezing system, in which the contact area determines the squeezing
direction. This is because you must always define both material groups! Make also sure that
you use the MAT IDs correctly and consistently, because the MAT IDs are used for the following
activation of the squeeze reservoirs in the simulation setup. Please refer to Ch. 3.3.9, page 67 for
details on this.
3.2.2 Modeling of the HPDC System
Complete Modeling
When you model the casting, running and gating geometry in the preprocessor, you must take
care to use the material groups according to their functions in the HPDC process. A complete
model contains the volumes as displayed in Fig. 3-3, which means that biscuit and runners are
included in the model. The complete model is quite clear since it represents the casting as it is
produced by the machine, but requires more calculation time than the reduced modeling does (
page 25). You should use the following material groups (the names in brackets correspond to Fig.
3-2):
Inlet (I
n
)
Biscuit (S)
23 Fixed part of the die (Cover die / 'COVER')
25 Biscuit (without Inlet) ('BISCUIT')
32 Squeeze stamp ('STAMP')
33 Squeeze reservoir ('RESVR')
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 23
Gating (G)
Ingate (I
g
)
Cast (C)
Note the following:
You must model the overflows and the casting as material group 1 ('Cast Alloy'). If these are
modeled as material group 'Gating' or 'Ingate', the calculation of the shot profile will be done
incorrectly.
The total volume of the material groups 'Inlet' and 'Biscuit' (modeled biscuit) should be equal
to the volume of the biscuit of the actual casting. This ensures that the thermal history of the
die in the region of the biscuit is correctly modeled. If the combined 'Inlet' plus 'Biscuit' volume
is bigger than the volume of the shot sleeve at the end of the first shot phase (i.e.shot sleeve
is 100% filled), the filling simulation will not start.
The enmeshment of the 'Inlet' and 'Biscuit' should result in a minimum of 2 layers of elements
along the length of the 'Inlet' and 3 layers along the length of the 'Biscuit'. This ensures that
the filling simulation is carried out correctly.
The general usage of the material groups are shown in Fig. 3-3 and Fig. 3-4. Normally the material
groups shown in Fig. 3-3 are used, thus taking the biscuit into consideration.
!
If the HPDC calculator is used for determining a pouring rate (shot curve), the volume
of the material group 'Biscuit', that is, of the whole biscuit, must correspond to the biscuit
minus the 'Inlet' volume (Fig. 3-2):
24 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-2: Layout of material groups
Fig. 3-3: Shot profile depending on the selected material groups with complete modeling
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 25
Reduced Modeling
The reduced modeling of the HPDC system as shown in Fig. 3-4 is used if you have to focus sim-
ulation of the casting on special parts of the system and not on the casting as a whole. You can
also apply it if simulation of the complete model would exceed the available computer capacity.
Note that for calculation of parameters and starting points, MAGMASOFT

always uses the com-


plete model according ( page 22), which represents the casting as it is produced by the ma-
chine.
For example, in a reduced model you can neglect parts of the gating or parts of a sophisticated
vacuum system. If you are interested only in the early stages of filling dependent on the gating
system selected, it is also possible to neglect the rest of the casting.
!
If a reduced model is used, MAGMASOFT

is not able to correctly calculate the weights


and volumes of the material groups involved from the preprocessor. You have to correct
the values accordingly in this case. You can define the correct values of the volumes
using the fields 'biscuit', ' runners' and 'cavity+overflows'.
26 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-4: Shot profile depending on the selected material groups with reduced modeling
3.3 Defining Simulation Parameters
3.3.1 Overview
After geometry modeling and enmeshment you can enter the parameters for simulation as follows:
Open the menu 'simulation'.
The window 'high pressure die casting' appears. Choose the type of simulation you want to
carry out.
The window 'material definitions' opens. This window corresponds to MAGMASOFT

stan-
dard. Note that in MAGMAhpdc you have to define three additional material groups ( Ch.
3.2.1, page 21).
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 27
The window 'heat transfer definitions' opens. Define the heat transfers between the different
material groups of your casting system as used from MAGMASOFT

standard ( Ch. 3.3.2,


page 27).
The window 'high pressure die casting' appears. Starting from this window, you can calculate
a flow rate for mold filling ( Ch. 3.3.3, page 28). You can skip this window in case of redef-
inition using the 'skip' command.
The window 'cycle definitions' opens. Define the number of casting cycles to be calculated and
if mold filling is to be taken into account ( Ch. 3.3.4, page 48).
The window 'core open definitions' appears, where you define the opening of the die and side
cores after solidification of the casting ( Ch. 3.3.5, page 51).
The window 'channel definitions' opens. Here you define the control of cooling channels in
case you have modeled cooling channels in the preprocessor ( Ch. 3.3.6, page 56).
The window 'options' appears, where you can define simulation of coating of the die as well
as pressurized solidification. These options are described in Ch. 5, page 79 and Ch. 6, page
83.
The window 'filling definitions' appears. Here you define the parameters for the simulation of
mold filling ( Ch. 3.3.7, page 63).
The window 'solidification definitions' opens, where you define the parameters for the simula-
tion of solidification ( Ch. 3.3.8, page 66; note the information on feeding given there). Here
you can also define the simulation of a spraying process ( Ch. 4, page 71) and the settings
for local squeezing ( Ch. 3.3.9, page 67).
The window 'online job simulation control' appears. Start and control the calculation from this
window as usual.
3.3.2 Defining Heat Transfers / 'heat transfer definitions'
After the material definitions, define the heat transfer in the 'heat transfer definitions' window as
used from MAGMASOFT

.
There is a constant heat transfer coefficient available in the 'MAGMA' database, which is called
'MERGEMATERIALS'. You can use it to define an ideal heat transfer between two volumes, which
have the same material group but different MAT IDs. This is useful with materials that are not
physically separated in reality (this is why 'MERGEMATERIALS' is very high), but for which you
28 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
want to simulate different boundary conditions. Example: Materials that are sprayed or coated
when the die opens. If you use the 'core open definitions' function ( Ch. 3.3.5, page 51) to open
the parts of the die, take care to perform the same definitions for the neighboring geometry ele-
ments for which you use 'MERGEMATERIALS'.
3.3.3 Calculating a Shot Profile / 'HPDC calculator'
Starting with this window, you can calculate the flow rate for mold filling:
Fig. 3-5: Available options when starting the HPDC calculator
The following options are available:
If you confirm with 'ok', the windows described below appear. Here you define the parameters
needed for the HPDC process. The parameters are used to calculate the shot profile, i.e. the
progress of the poured metal volume in dependence on time.
'ok' MAGMASOFT

offers a shot profile (boundary condition for filling simulation)


based on the data determined by MAGMAhpdc and a given HPDC machine
whose machine specific data are taken into account. The shot profile offered
by the program can be modified.
Please refer to the following paragraphs for details.
'skip' No new shot profile is determined. A shot profile that you have already defined
in this project version is kept. This can be advantageous, e.g. when you want
to restart a filling simulation with 'restart'.
Please refer to Ch. 3.3.7, page 63 for further information.
'cancel' By selecting 'cancel' you abort the entire input of simulation parameters and
return to the main user interface of MAGMASOFT

.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 29
Overview
Navigation through the windows
At the bottom of each main window of the HPDC calculator there are the following buttons:
Data Fields
The data fields of the main windows are divided into two columns. The fields of the first (left) col-
umn are colored white and cannot be edited, they are display only fields. Here you find the data
that MAGMAhpdc takes from geometry modeling and enmeshment. If the resulting values are ex-
ceeding sensible ranges or theoretical knowledge respectively, the data field is colored red.
In the second (right) column you find light gray colored fields. Here you can modify the data given
by the program. The corresponding units for the values to be input are listed as well. As default,
the values of the first column appear here; i.e. where fields exist in both columns, the values are
identical. Proceed as follows to edit input fields:
Move the mouse pointer to the field you want to edit and press the left mouse button. The field
activated for input is colored blue now. Alternatively, you can move from one field to another
by pressing the TAB key.
Enter the desired value and press the RETURN key. Now the old value is replaced by the new
one.
By clicking with the mouse on the arrow-shaped buttons next to the input fields, you can in-
voke a list in which several user-defined values for the corresponding function are saved and
may be invoked again (history). By clicking again on the wanted value you take it over into the
field, and the list is closed. This, however, works only within one calculator session. If you
'cancel' 'cancel' aborts the parameter input and leads you back to the initial window of
the HPDC calculator, 'high pressure die casting'.
'<prev' '<prev' leads you back to the respective former window. This button is deacti-
vated in the first window.
'next>' 'next>' leads you to the respective next window. This button is deactivated in
the last window.
By selecting the buttons '<prev' and 'next>' you can switch at random between
all main windows of the HPDC calculator.
'ok' By selecting 'ok' you terminate the parameter definition (assuming that you
have passed through all of the input dialogues) and get to the window 'cycle
definitions'.
30 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
leave the calculator and enter it again, or if you use '<prev' to navigate within the calculator,
the value that has been saved last appears in the corresponding field, and the history is de-
leted.
If for some parameters several values are automatically shown in the history list immediately
after the start of MAGMAhpdc, these depend on previously entered data. Example: For 'dia-
meter of plunger' in the 'shot sleeve data' window ( page 35), the minimum, the current and
the maximum value are always shown. In this case the minimum and maximum values de-
pend on the chosen HPDC machine and will be updated accordingly by the program.
Often there are several sensible input possibilities that have been stored by the program. By
clicking with the left mouse button on the arrow buttons next to the input fields you can invoke
a list containing the corresponding values. By clicking on the desired value you take it to the
field. The list closes at the same time.
The editing of the input fields is optional; you can but do not have to edit the fields. If you enter
values that are beyond the limit values stored in the database, the data field changes its color to
yellow.
Sometimes there are white display only fields also in the second column, e.g. in Fig. 3-6. In these
fields, values that are derived from values in input fields are calculated. When you change values
in input fields, these display fields automatically change correspondingly.
!
In this case, the calculations are neither carried out nor updated!
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 31
Geometry Data
Fig. 3-6: Defining geometry data
Volumes:
'biscuit' Volume of the biscuit
The biscuit is the melt volume that stays and solidifies in the shot
chamber after the plunger movement (plunger end position).
During geometry modeling, this biscuit consists of the volumes
assigned to the material groups 'Biscuit' and 'Inlet'. The volume is
calculated from preprocessor data.
'runners' Volume of the running and gating system
The volume of the running and gating system is the sum of the
volumes assigned to the material groups 'Gating' and 'ingate'.
The calculation is based on preprocessor data.
'cavity+overflows' Volume of casting and overflows
32 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
This field displays the sum of all volumes assigned to the material
group 'Cast 'Alloy' (1). These are the volumes of the casting and
the overflows. The calculation is based on preprocessor values.
'molten metal ladled' Total melt volume
Sum of all metal volumes needed for the casting process (= sum
of the values in the fields 'biscuit', 'runners' and 'cavity+over-
flows').
Please note that you may have to correct the volume if the re-
duced model (Fig. 3-4) has been used for geometry modeling.
'ingate area' Cross section area of the ingate
This cross section area is calculated using preprocessor data.
Please note that, depending on the spatial position of the ingate
cross section, the calculation of the cross section area from ge-
ometry data may be inaccurate. If the ingate cross section is par-
allel to the coordinate system, the area is calculated accurately.
In addition, it is required that the ingate is cut off by the casting
exactly at the transition to the casting. Deviations from this posi-
tion can lead to inaccuracies. Please be careful with overlapping
cross sections as well.
As the ingate cross section is a crucial initial value for the calcu-
lation of the shot profile and also an orientation value for the
foundryman, this value always has to be checked and replaced
by the actual value if necessary.
'projected area' Projected area
Projected casting area in the die parting plane. In the list next to
the input field there are also the projected areas of the other prin-
cipal planes. As default, the projected areas are active towards
the inlet. The projected areas for possible side cores / sliders are
not taken into account. You must correct them manually (see the
explanations of Fig. 3-7).
!
You can only determine a flow rate that corresponds to practice if you have modeled the
volumes in the way described above.
In the case of a reduced model ( page 25), you have to correct the volumes as de-
scribed above to make them correspond to the volumes of the entire casting system.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 33
Machine Data
Fig. 3-7: Defining HPDC machine data
The list on the left of the window shows the datasets of all HPDC machines that exist in the MAG-
MASOFT

databases and lie within the values defined at 'closing force'. By clicking on the register
cards 'database', 'filename' and 'closing force', you can sort the datasets by the database, the file
name of the dataset or the level of closing force. Using the three parameters listed on the right
side of the window below 'closing force', you can filter datasets concertedly from the list (for ex-
planations see below at 'security factor' and 'lower/upper limit').
'characteristic wall thickness' Characteristic wall thickness of the casting
This value is not taken from preprocessor data but has to be de-
fined by you.
'quality' Quality requirement
Choose 'standard', 'technical' or 'high' (pressure-tight). The
choice of quality requirement serves the selection of the specific
final pressure ('required specific pressure') in the following win-
dow.
34 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Please refer also to Ch. 3.1, page 17.
In the following, the entries of the 'machine data' window are explained:
Tab. 3-1: Specific casting pressures [bar]
'required specific pressure' Specific casting pressure
This value depends on the selected alloy and quality requirement
for the casting. You have to define the quality in the window 'ge-
ometry data' at 'quality' ( Fig. 3-6, page 31).
'selected specific pressure' Specific casting pressure
Valid values lie within the interval of 'required specific pressure'.
The value that you define here is used as default for the 'working
pressure' value within the MAGMApressurize option ( Ch. 6.2,
page 85).
'min. required closing force' Minimum required closing force
Product value of 'projected area' and 'selected specific pressure'
!
The minimum required closing force is only valid for a die without side cores. If you use
dies with side cores, the minimum required closing force can be much higher due to the
additional locking forces of the side cores! You should carry out the calculation of the
effective projected area of the side cores following the usual procedure in your foundry.
You must add the determined additional area in the field 'projected area' of the window
'geometry data' ( Fig. 3-6, page 31).
'security factor' Security factor
The closing force of the machine must be higher than the explo-
sive force ('min. required closing force'). If you use molds with
side cores, a further increase is necessary.
'lower/upper limit' Lower or upper limit for the displayed machines
Aluminium Zinc Magnesium Brass
Standard 200-400 100-200 200-400 300-400
Technical 400-600 200-300 400-600 400-500
Pressure-tight 800-1000 250-400 800-1000 800-1000
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 35
Shot Sleeve Data
Fig. 3-8: Defining shot sleeve data
'die casting machine' Machine type and denomination
'diameter of plunger' Diameter of the plunger
When you open the HPDC calculator, the value that you have de-
fined in the preprocessor appears first. The plunger diameter
should correspond to the biscuit diameter in case you have mod-
eled the biscuit using the material group 'Biscuit'.
'active length of shot sleeve' Length of the shot sleeve or maximum active plunger stroke up
to the end position on the ejector side. Please keep the limitation
due to the machine type when entering this value ('Max. length of
shot sleeve').
'shot sleeve filling' Filling degree of the shot sleeve in percent. This value is automat-
ically calculated from the length of the shot sleeve and the plung-
er diameter, and is given here as information. The field cannot be
edited.
36 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
When the values lie below 10% or above 100%, an error mes-
sage appears.
'area of plunger' Plunger area
'volume of shot sleeve' Volume of the shot sleeve up to plunger end position
'accelerated first phase' 'on' MAGMAhpdc calculates an accelerated shot profile
('filling phase', Ch. 2.3, page 13). In this case, the
button 'opt. slow shot' is deactivated.
'off' MAGMAhpdc calculates a non-accelerated shot profile.
'opt. slow shot' Optimization of the shot profile for cold chamber HPDC machines
in the first (slow) phase. Please refer also to page 40.
'shot profile' You can use this option to invoke a graph of the calculated shot
profile. Displayed is the pouring rate (i.e. position of the piston),
dependent on time. The user-defined pouring rate is displayed in
relation to the curve proposed by the HPDC calculator. You gain
a visual control that displays too big differences between the two
curves.
Please refer also to page 42.
'PQ
2
' Display of the PQ
2
diagram
A picture is invoked that shows the melt flow situation for the liq-
uid metal within the casting system up to the runners and gating.
It shows the connection between metal pressure P and the metal
volume flow Q, or piston velocity, dependent on the gating's cross
section and the density of the chosen alloy ( Fig. 3-15, page
44).
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 37
Process Data
Fig. 3-9: Defining process data
'die casting machine' Machine type and machine name
'slow shot velocity' Velocity of the plunger during the first phase, v
I
= constant. If the
options 'accelerated first phase' or 'opt. slow shot...' (see below)
are active, the maximum velocity during the first phase is shown.
'theoretical cavity filling time' Theoretical time for filling (from ingate)
This value is calculated from the 'characteristic wall thickness'
value and the chosen alloy.
'fast shot velocity' Velocity of the plunger during the second phase, v
II
= constant.
'cavity filling time' Filling time that is calculated again in case parameters have been
changed ( Tab. 3-2, page 38)
'velocity at the ingate' Velocity at the ingate ( Tab. 3-3, page 39)
38 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
For the values' display of the last two functions, please note the following: If you define too high
velocities and too long times, these are hightlighted red. If you define too slow velocities and too
short times, these are highlighted blue.
Tab. 3-2: Standard values for filling (according to F.C.Bennett)
'accelerated first phase' 'yes' MAGMAhpdc calculates an accelerated shot profile (
Fig. 3-13, page 43).
'no' MAGMAhpdc calculates a non-accelerated shot profile.
'opt. slow shot' Optimization of the shot curve in the first (slow) phase for cold
chamber machines ( Fig. 3-10, page 40).
'shot profile' You can invoke a graph of the calculated shot profile using this
option ( Fig. 3-12, page 42).
'PQ
2
' Display of the PQ
2
diagram
A picture is invoked that shows the melt flow situation for the liq-
uid metal within the casting system up to the runners and gating.
It shows the connection between metal pressure P and the metal
volume flow Q, or piston velocity, dependent on the gating's cross
section and the density of the chosen alloy ( Fig. 3-15, page
44).
Wall thickness [mm] Filling time [ms]
1,5 10-30
1,8 20-40
2,0 20-60
2,3 30-70
2,5 40-90
3,0 50-100
3,8 50-120
5,0 60-200
6,4 80-300
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 39
You should choose big values for aluminium, medium values for zinc and small values for mag-
nesium.
Tab. 3-3: Standard values for velocities at ingate [m/s] (according to F.C. Bennett)
Alloy Velocity at ingate
Aluminium 20-60
Zinc 30-50
Magnesium 40-90
Brass 20-50
40 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Optimal Slow Shot Profile
Fig. 3-10: Optimizing the slow shot wave profile ('best')
You can invoke the window for optimizing the shot profile using the 'opt. slow shot...' buttons of
the windows 'shot sleeve data' and 'process data'. The default setting is 'best' (Fig. 3-10). Here
you can control shot profile optimization during the first (slow) phase for cold chamber machines.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 41
Fig. 3-11: Optimizing the slow shot wave profile ('optimal')
The calculations are based on the following study:
'level' Level of optimization
Arrow buttons for
animation
Single arrow to right: start animation
Square: stop animation
Double arrow to right: jump to end of animation
Arrow to right pointing on surface: fast forward run
Arrow to left pointing on surface: fast backward run
'ok' The calculated values are taken, and the window closes.
'apply' The calculated values are taken, and the window remains open.
'cancel' Optimization is deactivated, and the window closes.
42 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Marilyn C. Thome, and Dr. Jerald R. Brevick, "Optimal Slow Shot Profiles in Cold Chamber Die
Casting", Report No. ERC/NSM-C-95-14, The Ohio State University, March 1995
Shot Profile
You can invoke the graph of the calculated shot profile using the 'shot profile' buttons of the win-
dows 'shot sleeve data' and 'process data'. The pouring rate (piston position) is shown dependent
on time (Fig. 3-12, Fig. 3-13 and Fig. 3-14). The user-defined pouring rate is displayed in relation
to the curve proposed by the HPDC calculator. You gain a visual control that displays too big dif-
ferences between the two curves. Use 'dismiss' to return to the respective window of the HPDC
calculator.
Fig. 3-12: Shot profile (constant velocity, first phase)
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 43
Fig. 3-13: Shot profile (accelerated first phase)
Fig. 3-14: Shot profile ('opt. slow shot' activated)
44 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
PQ
2
Diagram
Fig. 3-15: Defining the operating point
Using the 'PQ
2
...' button of the windows 'shot sleeve data' and 'process data' you can invoke a
picture that shows the melt flow situation for the liquid metal within the casting system up to the
runners and gating. It shows the connection between metal pressure P and the metal volume flow
!
Depending on your geometry and the selected HPDC machine, the velocity in the first
phase (slow shot) may be higher than the velocity in the second phase (fast shot) due
to settings for calculation. This leads to unsensible results in the 'shot profile' window.
This error is not handled by the program in the moment. Please modify your geometry
(e.g. piston diameter) or change the velocity in the second phase.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 45
Q, or piston velocity, dependent on the gating's cross section and the density of the chosen alloy
(Fig. 3-15). Use the 'dismiss' button to return to the respective window of the HPDC calculator.
The lines show the situation at
1) maximum theoretical filling time
2) maximum velocity at the ingate
3) minimum velocity at the ingate
Shot Characteristics
Fig. 3-16: Defining the switching point
'switch over stage 1-2' Start of acceleration phase (switching point)
Up to this plunger position, the die is filled with the velocity of the
first phase ('slow shot velocity'). If the plunger in the shot cham-
ber has reached this position, it is accelerated up to the velocity
of the second phase ('fast shot velocity').
'plunger, start of stage 2' Position of the plunger if the second phase is reached.
46 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
For the values' display of the two functions 'cavity filling time' and 'velocity at the ingate', please
note the following: If you define too high velocities and too long times, these are hightlighted red.
If you define too slow velocities and too short times, these are highlighted blue.
Venting Options
The options available under 'vents' in the 'venting options' windos (Fig. 3-17) have the following
meaning:
'plunger, runner full position' Position of the plunger if the running system is filled (metal at in-
gate)
'slow shot velocity' Velocity of the plunger in the first phase, v
I
= constant
'fast shot velocity' Velocity of the plunger in the second phase, v
II
= constant
'cavity filling time' Filling time, counted from ingate
'optimal ingate area' Optimal cross section area of the ingate, proposed by the HPDC
calculator
This cross section area is calculated based on the data. It does
not necessarily reflect the real area.
'velocity at the ingate' Velocity of the melt if it enters the ingate
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 47
Fig. 3-17: 'vacuum' option for venting
'no vents defined' No vents have been defined. The window is empty. No venting model is
being simulated.
'vents: off' Vents have been defined, but they are not active. No venting model is
being simulated.
'vents: on' In the mold cavity there is atmospheric pressure. If filling proceeds, this
pressure increases. The resulting high pressure can be partially re-
leased by vents.
Defined vents are taken into consideration during simulation.
'vents: vaccum' The entries shown in Fig. 3-17 appear. You can define a time depen-
dent low pressure curve at the outer point of the vent by entering value
pairs in the 'new value pair' field (<s>(blank)<mbar>). The pressure field
corresponds to the pressure field at the tank side of the vacuum valve.
Use 'insert' to insert value pairs into the list in the left part of the win-
dow.
48 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
If you choose 'on' or 'vacuum', there will be additional results of the 'AirPressure' type in the MAG-
MAhpdc postprocessor, which will show the air pressure as absolute pressure ('Results' tab, fol-
lowing the filling results).
Please refer to the MAGMAventing documentation within the MAGMASOFT

4.4 Manual for de-


tails (on page 6-17 pp there, the 'AirPressure' results are explained, too). Please note that the ac-
cess to this option in MAGMAhpdc differs from standard MAGMASOFT

. The former uses the


HPDC calculator, while you have to go to the 'options' window in the latter.
3.3.4 Window 'cycle definitions'
In addition to the calculation of individual castings MAGMASOFT

enables you to simulate multi-


cycle casting in permanent molds. During subsequent cycles a temperature profile results as it ex-
ists in real casting. So if mold filling is calculated in the last cycle, a realistic temperature profile of
the mold is used for simulation. If enough cycles are calculated, the temperature profile is nearly
steady.
You must set the parameters defining this multi-cycle process in the following window:
Use 'delete' to delete a value pair, which has been marked in the list
before.
Use 'delete all' to delete all value pairs from the list.
Use 'undo' to undo the last action made (e.g. deleting a value pair).
If you choose 'default', the programm calculates a pressure curve.
Based on the presently active shot profile, the mold cavity is com-
pletely ventilated before the melt reaches the ingate.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 49
Fig. 3-18: Defining casting cycles
The separate fields in this window have the following meaning:
'number of cycles' Number of cycles that you want to simulate.
'cycle number' This number identifies the cycle.
'do filling' Simulation of mold filling is optional during each cycle. If mold fill-
ing is calculated ('yes'), the calculated temperature field at the
end of mold filling is used to start solidification simulation. As long
as no other filling simulation is calculated ('no'), the temperature
field for cast alloy is used for all further solidification simulations.
50 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Just perform a mouse click on the respective field if you want to change between 'yes' and 'no' in
the last four columns.
'fill results' 'fill results' defines if the results of filling simulation are stored
('yes') or not ('no'). In the postprocessor you can only view results
that you have stored. Use the left mouse button to switch be-
tween 'yes' and 'no'.
'solid results' 'solid results' defines if the results of solidification simulation are
stored ('yes') or not ('no'). In the postprocessor you can only view
results that you have stored.
'consider casting' 'yes' After casting ejection in this cycle, the casting as well as
the mold is included in simulation.
'no' After casting ejection in this cycle, only the mold is in-
cluded in simulation. Use this option to save computing
time, if you are interested in casting results only for later
cycles, e.g. steady state conditions.
If the mold is closed, simulation is always carried out with the
casting and the mold.
'wait time' 'wait time' is an additional time (idle time) that you can define at the end
of each cycle. You can use 'wait time' to simulate the effects of produc-
tion stops or of additional preparation of the next cycle. During the 'wait
time' the mold is open. The closing of the die as defined in the field 'die
closing' is displaced according to 'wait time'.
The default setting is '0.00'. This unit is seconds. If you want to define a
different wait time, click on the field of the respective cycle. A small win-
dow opens, which is called 'wait time defines'. Enter the wanted wait
time and confirm with 'ok'. The window closes, and the defined time ap-
pears in the 'wait time' column.
'die opening' This parameter is not used here. You have to define die opening using
the window 'core open definitions' ( Ch. 3.3.5, page 51).
'opening parameter' This parameter is not used here. In MAGMAhpdc you have to define pa-
rameters for die opening using the window 'core open definitions' (
Ch. 3.3.5, page 51).
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 51
3.3.5 Window 'core open definitions'
Use this function to define the times after which the different die parts are opened during the
HPDC process. You can do this in three ways:
'die closing' 'die closing' specifies the parameter for closing the die. The die can be
closed depending on time or temperature. You must define the corre-
sponding time / temperature in the field 'closing parameter'.
'closing parameter' Parameter that determines the closing of the die:
If die closing depends on time (option 'time' in the field 'die closing'), en-
ter the time when the die is closed. Keep in mind that this time is count-
ed from the time of ejection.
If die closing depends on temperature (option 'temperature' in field 'die
closing'), enter the temperature of the mold core in [C]: If the maximum
temperature of the die pieces falls below this temperature, the die will
be closed.
If 'wait time' is not equal '0' for any cycle, closing of the die is delayed
for this cycle corresponding to 'wait time'.
'lead time' This parameter defines the time in [s] that the process needs from die
closing up to the beginning of the next shot ( Fig. 2-2, page 10 and
Fig. 2-4, page 13).
'time' A time, measured from the beginning of mold filling, controls opening.
'temperature' A temperature as a criterion for opening. If the calculated maximum
temperature in the specified material group is below this temperature,
the mold opens.
'thermocouple' When the temperature at a control point falls below the predefined val-
ue, the die opens. Note that you must define the control points in the
preprocessor ( Ch. 3.10, page 3-98 of the MAGMASOFT

4.4 Man-
ual).
52 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-19: Defining mold opening
On the left side of the window all die parts (material groups) that require a definition of opening
times are shown. Mark the corresponding line, if you want to see or define movable die half ('Side-
Core') or fixed die half ('Cover-Die'). If you have already defined any parameters, the correspond-
ing data are shown in the area above.
'core identifier' This field shows the part of the system for which you have defined
the opening time (e.g. 'Side Core, 2').
'controlled by' The type of control is shown. This may be time, temperature or
thermocouple.
'control value (open)' The first parameter which controls the opening is shown. The pa-
rameter depends on the type of control:
'time' time[sec]
'temperature' temperature[C]
'thermocouple' temperature [C]
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 53
Proceed as follows if you want to enter new data or change data:
Select the die part ('Side-Core' (movable die half), 'Cover-Die' (fixed die half)) in the list that
requires new or changed data for die opening by clicking the left mouse button in the corre-
sponding line.
Click on the 'options' button or press the middle mouse button to open a new window 'open
options'. This enables you to define control parameters for opening the die part.
A second window 'open options' appears. Choose 'controlled by'. The possible types for con-
trol appear ('time', 'temperature', 'thermocouple'). Choose one of these with the left mouse
button.
Depending on your choice for opening control ('time', 'temperature' or 'thermocouple') carry
out the steps described in the following three chapters.
Opening Control by Time
Choose 'controlled by' and the option 'time'.
Enter the time for opening of the specified core in the field 'control value (on)'.
'control parameter' The second parameter that controls the opening is shown. As be-
fore, the parameter depends on the type of control:
'time' not used
'temperature' material group / MAT ID, in which the maxi-
mum temperature is used
'thermocouple' coordinates and number of the control point /
thermocouple
54 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-20: Controlling mold opening by time
Confirm your choice with 'ok'. The new parameters are saved for the selected mold.
Opening Control by Maximum Temperature
Choose 'controlled by' and the option 'temperature'.
First enter the temperature limit in the field 'control value (open)' that will control opening.
Select a material group in the list below by clicking the left mouse button in the corresponding
line. The material group is then shown in the field 'control parameter'.
If the calculated maximum temperature in this material group falls below the temperature limit
entered in the field 'control value (open)', the selected die part opens.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 55
Fig. 3-21: Controlling mold opening by maximum temperature
Confirm your choice with 'ok'. The new parameters are saved for the selected die part.
Opening Control by Local Temperature / Thermocouple
Choose 'controlled by' and the option 'thermocouple'.
First enter the temperature limit in the field 'control value (open)' that will control opening.
Select a control point in the list below by clicking the left mouse button in the corresponding
line (The coordinates of the control point are shown). Your choice is shown in the field 'control
parameter'.
If the calculated temperature at the selected point (thermocouple) falls below the temperature
limit defined as 'control value (open)', the selected die part opens.
56 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-22: Controlling mold opening by local temperature
Confirm your choice with 'ok'. The new parameters are saved for the selected die part.
3.3.6 Window 'channel definitions'
In this window you can define the control of the cooling channels in the die. If, during modeling of
the geometry, you have defined parts of your geometry as material group 'Cooling', you will now
find these cooling channels listed at the bottom of this window on the left hand side. There are
three types of control for the cooling channels, each of which you must define via the 'options' but-
ton:
'time' You can directly enter a point of time for the beginning and for the end
of the contol (cooling or heating). The times refer to the beginning of the
cycle.
'temperature' You can define temperature limits as the criterion for control. You have
two options, cooling and heating:
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 57
Cooling: If the calculated maximum temperature in the specified mate-
rial group reaches the temperature 'control value on', cooling starts. If
the calculated maximum temperature in the specified material group
falls below another defined temperature limit ('control value (off)'), cool-
ing is stopped in the specified cooling channel. The temperature that
you define for 'control value on' must be higher than the one defined for
'control value (off)'.
The start temperature within the chosen material group must lie below
the temperature value for 'control value on'. Only then the cooling will
be activated if the 'control value on' temperature value is reached.
Heating: If the calculated minimum temperature in the specified mate-
rial group falls belowe the temperature 'control value on', heating starts.
If the calculated maximum temperature in the specified material group
reaches another defined temperature limit ('control value (off)'), heating
is stopped in the specified cooling channel. The temperature that you
define for 'control value on' must be lower than the one defined for 'con-
trol value (off)'.
The start temperature within the chosen material group must lie above
the temperature value for 'control value on'. Only then the heating will
be activated if the temperature falls below the 'control value on' value.
'thermocouple' You can define a temperature limit at specific points (control points,
thermocouples) for controlling. Here, too, you can choose cooling and
heating. This works the same way as 'temperature', however, the cho-
sen control points are considered as the medium, not the material
group(s).
Note that you must define control points in the preprocessor ( Ch.
3.10, page 3-98 of the MAGMASOFT

4.4 Manual). Here, too, the val-


ues for the control points must lie out of the range of the "'control value
(on)' to 'control value (off)'" interval, as explained for 'temperature'
above.
58 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-23: The window 'channel definitions'
All geometry elements that you have modeled as cooling channels (labelled here as 'channel') are
listed at the bottom left of the window (Fig. 3-23). If required, click on 'expand' to make sure that
you can view all channels. Besides each channel, its MAT ID, the defined control parameter and
the way of controling ('cooling' or 'heating'; if you choose the 'time' parameter, the last column for
this channel is empty) are listed.
Mark its line if you want to view or define the control of a specific cooling channel. The correspond-
ing data are shown in the upper part of the window.
'channel' This field identifies the cooling channel with its MAT ID.
'control type' The type of control is shown. This may be 'time', 'temperature' or 'ther-
mocouple'.
'control value (on)' The first parameter for cooling control is shown. The parameter de-
pends on the type of control that you have defined with 'options':
'time' time [sec]
'temperature' temperature limit 'on' [C]
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 59
Proceed as follows if you want to enter new data or change parameters:
Select the cooling channel in the list that requires new or changed control data. Select the cor-
responding line with the left mouse button.
If you have defined several cooling channels, you must choose 'expand' in order to edit each
individual channel (the 'expand' button is thereupon deactivated, as in Fig. 3-23). If you want
to assign the same control to all cooling channels, you can choose 'hide'. In this case you need
to define the parameters (as explained later) only once; the definitions are then automatically
assigned to all channels.
Click on the 'options' button to change or enter new data.
Choose 'controlled by' in the window that appears now, 'channel options'. The possible types
for the control appear ('time', 'temperature', 'thermocouple'). Choose one of these.
Depending on your choice for control ('time', 'temperature' or 'thermocouple') proceed as de-
scribed in the next three chapters.
'thermocouple' temperature limit 'on' [C]
'control value (off)' The second parameter is shown that controls cooling. As before, the pa-
rameter depends on the type of control:
'time' not in use
'temperature' temperature for cooling 'off' [C]
'thermocouple' temperature for cooling 'off' [C]
'control parameter' The third parameter that controls cooling is shown in this field. As be-
fore, the parameter depends on the type of control:
'time' not in use
'temperature' material group / MAT ID in which the criterion 'tem-
perature' is used. The temperature must lie out of
the range of the "'control value (on)' to 'control value
(off)'" interval, as explained above.
'thermocouple' coordinates and number of the control point / ther-
mocouple. The thermocouple must lie out of the
range of the "'control value (on)' to 'control value
(off)'" interval, as explained above. The start tem-
perature of the thermocouple must be smaller (in
case of heating) or bigger (in case of cooling) than
the respective limit value of the control interval.
60 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Confirm with 'ok' in the 'channel definitions' window. This leads you to the next window of the
simulation setup.
Example of a definition: In Fig. 3-23, the following control has been defined for the marked cooling
channel: The cooling channel with MAT ID 5 starts heating the die if the minimum calculated tem-
perature in the 'Cast Alloy' material group, MAT ID 1, falls below 100 C. The heating stops if the
minimum calculated temperature in this material group reaches again 250 C.
Remarks:
Although a control in both directions cooling and heating is possible, the terms "cooling
channel" and "Cooling" (material) are always applied.
There are several datasets in the 'MAGMA' database that have been adapted to the special
requirements on cooling channels ('Cooling' material group). You should always select one of
these datasets when assigning the materials with 'material definitions'. Take also care to se-
lect the dataset for the wanted control under consideration of the defined temperatures.
Please refer to Ch. 8.2.7, page 8-47 of the MAGMASOFT

4.4 Manual.
For the temperature of the cooling medium (heat balance) please refer also to Ch. 3.5, page
70.
Cooling Control by Time
Choose 'controlled by' in the 'channel options' window and the option 'time'.
Enter the time after beginning of each cycle when the control is to start in the field 'control val-
ue (on)'.
Enter the time after beginning of each cycle when the control is to stop in the field 'control val-
ue (off)'.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 61
Fig. 3-24: Cooling channel control by time
Confirm your choice with 'ok'. The parameters for the chosen cooling channel are stored, and
you return to the 'channel definitions' window.
Cooling Control by Maximum Temperature
Choose 'controlled by' in the 'channel options' window and the option 'temperature'.
Enter the first temperature limit in the field 'control value (on)'. If the maximum calculated tem-
perature in a specified material group (selected in the list below) exceeds or falls below this
value, cooling or heating will start.
Enter the second temperature limit in the field 'control value (off)'. If the maximum calculated
temperature in the specified material group falls below or exceeds this value, cooling or heat-
ing will stop.
For a control as cooling, the first temperature limit must be higher than the second one. On
the other hand, for a control as heating, the first temperature limit must be lower than the sec-
ond one (as in Fig. 3-25).
62 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
In the list in the lower part of the window, select the material group whose temperature is to
be considered for control. The material group is shown in the field 'control parameter'. For a
better control of the temperatures, its initial temperature is listed behind each material group.
Fig. 3-25: Cooling channel control by maximum temperature
Confirm your choice with 'ok'. The parameters for the chosen cooling channel are stored, and
you return to the 'channel definitions' window.
Cooling Control by Local Temperature / Thermocouple
Choose 'controlled by' in the 'channel options' window and the option 'thermocouple'.
Enter the first temperature limit in the field 'control value (on)'. If the maximum calculated tem-
perature in a specified thermocouple (selected in the list below) exceeds or falls below this
value, cooling or heating will start.
Enter the second temperature limit in the field 'control value (off)'. If the maximum calculated
temperature in the specified thermocouple falls below or exceeds this value, cooling or heat-
ing will stop.
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 63
For a control as cooling, the first temperature limit must be higher than the second one (as in
Fig. 3-26). On the other hand, for a control as heating, the first temperature limit must be lower
than the second one.
Select the control point (thermocouple) in the list below, whose calculated temperature is to
be considered for control. The point's coordinates are then shown in the field 'control param-
eter'.
Fig. 3-26: Cooling channel control by local temperature
Confirm your choice with 'ok'. The parameters for the chosen cooling channel are stored, and
you return to the 'channel definitions' window.
3.3.7 Defining Filling Simulation Parameters
In MAGMAhpdc, the function 'filling depends on' in the 'filling definitions' window offers three
additional options (Fig. 3-27). Please take care not to choose 'pressure' here.
64 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-27: Defining filling parameters in MAGMAhpdc
'HPDC calculated flow rate' The pouring rate calculated in the HPDC calculator is shown in
this window. Please refer also to Ch. 3.3.3, page 28. Note that
you are not able to modify the pouring rate here.
'HPDC user1 flow rate' With this option you also reach a window that shows the pouring
rate calculated in the HPDC calculator. Here, however, you can
edit the pouring rate. At first import the calculated pouring rate us-
ing the 'import data' button (Fig. 3-28).
For more information refer to the MAGMASOFT

4.4 Manual,
Ch. 5.2.5, page 5-21.
'HPDC user2 flow rate' If you have not used the HPDC calculator ( 'skip' button in the
window 'high pressure die casting'), you can manually edit a
pouring rate at this point. This can be useful for example to enter
data directly measured at your HPDC machine.
The window is empty if invoked for the first time. You can now
enter a self-defined curve using value pairs or
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 65
Fig. 3-28: Editing the pouring rate under 'filling depends on'
import the values from 'HPDC user1 flow rate', if you have
used the HPDC calculator before. Choose again the 'import'
button to do so.
!
Take care not to mistake the terms 'user1' and 'user2' appearing here for the identical
material descriptions used in the preprocessor.
!
There is a vital difference between the pouring rates with and without HPDC module. If
the HPDC module is not active, melt flow starts at 0.0 seconds. The inlet is filled first,
then the gating system and the ingate. The point of time 0.0 corresponds to the moment
when the first drops of melt flow into the inlet. The standard option 'pouring rate' for 'filling
depends on' exactly corresponds to this pouring rate curve without HPDC module.
The last defined coordinate of the pouring rate curves of the three above-mentioned
HPDC specific options corresponds to the point of time when the whole geometry is
filled. Thereupon, the program specifies the starting point of the simulation by means of
backward integration. The starting point (not the time 0.0 as without the HPDC module!)
corresponds to the time when the melt starts filling the inlet. For the HPDC module, the
time 0.0 corresponds to the moment when the plunger starts to move into the shot
sleeve (after the lead time).
66 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
You should always have a look on the mold erosion criterion in the postprocessor, due to the
high flow velocities in the HPDC process ( Ch. 4.4.2, page 59 of the Postprocessor on Ge-
ometry 4.4 Manual). In the window 'filling definitions', activate the function 'calculate erosion'
( 'yes') in order to activate the calculation of this criterion.
3.3.8 Defining Solidification Simulation Parameters
Define the parameters in the 'solidification definitions' window as used from MAGMASOFT

.
Please note the following:
If you want to display the 'FEEDING' criterion in the postprocessor, you must calculate the fi-
nal pressure (for pressurized solidification), using the MAGMApressurize option ( Ch. 6,
page 83).
In this case, you have to activate the calculation of feeding ('calculate feeding' 'yes') and
choose a 'feeding effectivity' value of about 90 %. A value like this indicates that pressurized
solidification will take place as long as there is an "open" connection to the inlet. If the ingate
is frozen off, the program will consider the 'feeding effectivity' value from the database. Only
if you perform these steps you will receive realistic 'FEEDING' results.
Fig. 3-29: Warning message regarding feeding
If you have indeed activated 'calculate feeding', but not the MAGMApressurize option, a warn-
ing message appears (Fig. 3-29) after confirming with 'ok' in the 'solidification definitions' win-
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 67
dow. Choose 'no', return to the 'options' window and activate the calculation of final pressure
with MAGMApressurize.
In case you have changed material definitions via the databases within the 'Cast Alloy' mate-
rial class in the 'material definitions' window, another warning message appears. It says that
you must check and maybe change the criteria temperatures and the value for the feeding
effectivity. For details, please refer to page 5-59 of the MAGMASOFT

4.4 Manual. If both


scenarios occur, both warning messages appear together in one window.
If you want to simulate the spraying and blowing of the die, you must activate the MAG-
MAspray option via 'spray process' 'yes'. Please refer to Ch. 4, page 71 for details.
If you want to simulate local squeezing, you must choose 'local squeezing' 'yes'. Please
refer to Ch. 3.3.9, page 67 for details.
If you simulate stresses with MAGMAstress, the selected solidification simulation results
serve as the basis for the stress calculation. Please refer to Ch. 7, page 91 for details.
3.3.9 Local Squeezing
You can use the function 'local squeezing' to simulate local squeezing via defined melt reservoirs.
To do so you must have correctly defined and positioned corresponding volumes of the material
group 32 (squeeze stamp) and 33 (squeeze reservoir) including the corresponding MAT IDs (
Ch. 3.2.1, page 21).
A reservoir together with a stamp form a squeezing system each. For each reservoir i.e. for each
MAT ID of all volumes of the group 33 you must define the starting time for the squeezing pro-
cess (calculated from the end of filling), the duration of the squeezing process and the correspond-
ing pressure.
Proceed as follows:
Invoke the 'solidification definitions' window (see also Ch. 3.3.8, page 66).
Choose 'local squeezing' 'yes'. The window 'local squeezing definitions' appears (Fig.
3-30).
68 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-30 Defining local squeezing
If you want to view or define the control of a particular squeeze reservoir, mark its line first of
all. The corrresponding data will be shown in the upper part of the window:
If you want to enter new data or change parameters, proceed as follows:
Select the squeeze reservoir from the list for which you want to enter new data or data that
must be changed. Mark the corresponding line with the left mouse button for doing so.
If you have defined several squeeze reservoirs, you must choose 'expand' in order to being
able to edit each individual reservoir (the 'expand' button will then be deactivated). If you want
to assign the same control to all squeeze reservoirs, you can choose 'hide'. In this case you
'squeezer' This field shows the squeeze reservoir including its MAT ID.
'squeeze start' Start of the squeezing process in s (after the end of filling)
'squeeze duration' Duration of the squeezing process
'squeeze pressure' Pressure during the squeezing process in bar
CH. 3: HOW TO USE MAGMAHPDC 69
need to define the parameters only once as described in the following; the definitions will then
be valid for all squeeze reservoirs automatically.
Choose 'options' to enter new data or to edit existing data. The window 'local squeezing opti-
ons' appears (Fig. 3-31).
Fig. 3-31: Defining parameters for local squeezing
Enter the described values for start, duration and pressure of the squeezing process and
press the RETURN key.
Confirm with 'ok'. This leads you back to the 'local squeezing definitions' window. The new or
edited parameters for the processed squeeze reservoir(s) appear in the fields and the list of
this window.
Confirm with 'ok' there. This leads you back to the 'solidification definitions' window.
The squeezing process is definitely terminated when the die is opened for the first time.
3.4 HPDC-Specific Entries in the 'protocol listing'
If you are performing a simulation with MAGMAhpdc, some additional information regarding the
HPDC process appears in the 'protocol listing' window ( main MAGMASOFT

interface 'info'
menu). Choose the 'Hpdc definitions' entry in this window. Thereupon all HPDC-specific data will
appear in the list in a convenient manner, as there are:
'geometry data'
'machine data'
70 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
'shot sleeve data'
'shot profile'
'process data'
'shot characteristics'
'venting process'
'cycle definitions'
'core open definitions'
'cooling channel definitions'
The window 'protocol listing' is explained in detail in Ch. 9.9, page 9-19 of the MAGMASOFT

4.4
Manual.
3.5 Heat Balance
You can display the heat flux of materials and defined partial processes, e.g. spraying of the die,
as well as of cooling channels. You can access the corresponding output of the program via three
functions of the 'info' menu. These are described in Ch. 9.8, page 9-14 of the MAGMASOFT

4.4
Manual.
CH. 4: MAGMASPRAY 71
4 MAGMAspray
4.1 Introduction
In batch production processes, especially HPDC processes, you can apply parting compounds on
the die by spraying and subsequent blowing between the individual casting cycles (Fig. 4-1). De-
pending on the used media and the time, a significant amount of heat is taken from the die, which
can lead to a shortening of process cycles.
Fig. 4-1: Die cooling by spraying
The MAGMASOFT

option MAGMAspray simulates cooling of the die caused by spraying and


blowing. "Spraying" simulates the application of common water-solutant parting compounds,
"blowing" simulates the subsequent drying of the die by compressed air. Cooling is considered for
all areas of the mold that have contact to the material groups 'Cast Alloy', 'Core', 'Feeder', 'Feed-
erneck', 'Gating', 'Filter' and 'Ingate'. Contact surfaces of the mold to the material groups 'Inlet',
72 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
'Stalk' and 'Biscuit' are not cooled. Tab. 4-1 shows the available material groups for the mold, de-
pending on the used MAGMASOFT

modules.
Tab. 4-1: Available die parts in MAGMASOFT

and various modules


To start MAGMAspray, proceed as follows:
Enter the simulation parameters as usual.
In the 'solidification definitions' window, there is a 'spray process' entry. If you activate the but-
ton at the right of 'spray process', a small submenu containing the entries 'yes' and 'no' ap-
pears. Activate 'yes'. If the entry is 'yes' already, you have to activate it again.
The 'spray definitions' window appears (Fig. 4-2).
Module Material group in the preprocessor
Standard MAGMASOFT

Permanent Mold 'PERMM' / 6


High pressure die casting
(MAGMAhpdc)
Permanent Mold 'PERMM' / 6
Side core 'SIDEC' / 21
Movable die half, 'EJECTOR' / 22
Fixed die half, 'COVER' / 23
Low pressure die casting
(MAGMAlpdc)
Permanent Mold 'PERMM' / 6
Side core 'SIDEC' / 21
Top core 'TOPC' / 22
Bottom core 'BOTTC' / 23
Wheel casting
(MAGMAwheel)
Permanent Mold 'PERMM' / 6
Side core 'SIDEC' / 21
Top core 'TOPC' / 22
Bottom core 'BOTTC' / 23
CH. 4: MAGMASPRAY 73
4.2 The 'spray definitions' Window
Fig. 4-2: Defining the spraying process
To use MAGMAspray, define the individual process steps as described in the following.
Please note that the fields in the 'spray definitions' window are displays only. If you want to edit
their contents, choose the buttons 'options', 'insert', 'add' or 'delete'. These buttons are described
at the end of this chapter.
You can define as many process steps as you like for the spraying process, which are all dis-
played in the 'step list'. To activate a process step, select the corresponding line in the list with the
left mouse button. The information given in the part of the window that is headlined with 'selection'
74 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
and lies above the list always refers to the process step that is currently active. This information
means the following:
For details on these functions please refer to Ch. 4.3, page 76.
When you open the window for the first time during simulation definition, a process step has al-
ready been defined by default, which you must edit first. Proceed as follows to delete, edit or add
process steps:
Mark the respective step in the list 'step list'.
If you want to delete a complete step with all entries, choose 'delete'.
If you want to edit the first step set by default or steps that have been defined later, choose
'options'. As an alternative, you can mark the step and press the middle mouse button.
'step' Serial number of the process step
'action' Type of the process step:
spraying (spray)
blowing (blow)
waiting (wait)
'controlled by' Parameter for controlling the process step (how long the process step
is to last):
time (time)
temperature (temperature)
temperature at thermocouple (thermocouple)
'control value' Value for controlling the process step (depending on the choice made
under 'controlled by'):
time (time)
temperature (temperature)
temperature at thermocouple (thermocouple)
'control parameter' Unit for controlling the process step (depending on the choice made un-
der 'controlled by'):
(empty)
controlling material group with MAT ID
control point with coordinates
'materials' Die materials groups that are involved in the process step
CH. 4: MAGMASPRAY 75
If you want to insert a step after an already defined step, choose 'add'.
If you want to insert a step before an already defined step, choose 'insert'.
Each of the last three actions leads you to the 'spray options' window (Fig. 4-3).
!
If you want to start the spraying process not immediately after the separation of the last
die part from the casting (ejection), you must define 'wait' as the first process step, in-
cluding the corresponding time. If e.g. you want to start spraying 4 seconds after sepa-
ration of the last die part, you must define 'wait' as the 'action' option, 'time' as the
'controlled by' option and '4' as the 'control value'.
76 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
4.3 The 'spray options' Window
Fig. 4-3: Editing process steps
Here you can edit the values displayed in the 'spray definitions' window. The first entry, 'step',
cannot be changed. It shows the process step that is currently active and to which all of the
following information refers:
'action' 'spray': Spraying of the die parts (material groups) defined
under 'materials' is defined as process step.
CH. 4: MAGMASPRAY 77
'blow': Blowing of the die parts (material groups) defined
under 'materials' is defined as process step.
'wait': Waiting for the next step (spraying or blowing) is de-
fined as process step.
'controlled by' 'time': The process step lasts for <n> seconds.
'temperature' The process step ends when the temperature of the
selected material group (see 'control parameter' and
'parameter list') falls below the given value.
'thermocouple' The process step ends when the temperature at the
selected control point (type 'THERMO') falls below
the given value.
Please refer also to Ch. 3.10, page 3-98 of the
MAGMASOFT

4.4 Manual regarding control


points.
'control value' '[s]' if you have chosen 'time'
'[C]' if you have chosen 'temperature' or 'thermocouple'
'control parameter' (empty) if you have chosen 'time'
controlling materi-
al group
if you have chosen 'temperature'. The list of avail-
able material groups is displayed at 'parameter list'.
control point coor-
dinates (x,y,z)
if you have chosen 'thermocouple'. The list of avail-
able thermocouples is displayed at 'parameter list'.
'parameter list' (empty) If you have chosen 'time', the list is deactivated.
material group list If you have chosen 'temperature', all material groups
appear here, including their MAT IDs (if defined). At
the right of each group, its initial temperature is list-
ed (as in Fig. 4-3). Choose one entry.
control point coor-
dinates (x,y,z)
If you have chosen 'thermocouple', all control point
coordinates defined in the preprocessor appear
here. Choose one entry.
'material list' Here you define the die material groups that are to be available for the
selected process step. If you want to select several material groups,
keep the SHIFT key pressed while clicking with the left mouse button.
The selection depends on the module that is currently active (please re-
fer also to the table above).
78 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Choose 'ok' to confirm your input. This leads you back to the 'spray definitions' window. All
entries that are new or modified are displayed in the 'step list'. If you choose 'cancel', your in-
put is not saved. This leads you also back to the 'spray definitions' window.
In the 'spray definitions' window, choose 'ok' to save and terminate your MAGMAspray defini-
tions. If you choose 'cancel', you abort the input without saving. In both cases you get back to
the 'solidification definitions' window.
In the two windows described in Ch. 4.2 and 4.3, the following has been defined:
Four process steps (chronological order: waiting, die spraying, waiting, die blowing).
The first process step, 'wait', is defined because spraying is to start only 4 seconds after sep-
aration of the last die part.
The second process step, die spraying ('spray'), is ended when the temperature of the mate-
rial group 'Permanent Mold', MAT ID 1, falls below 350 C.
The duration of the third and the fourth process step (waiting and die blowing) is defined by
the 'controlled by'-parameter 'time'.
!
If you have defined a spraying process and subsequently added new or changed mate-
rial groups, you must (re)define the corresponding parameters if necessary, if you rerun
the simulation setup. In case of both adding and removing material groups, you must
open the 'spray definitions' window and leave it again with 'ok', even if you do not per-
form any changes there. Otherwise, the simulation setup does not accept the changes.
CH. 5: MAGMACOAT 79
5 MAGMAcoat
In permanent mold processes you can apply a coating to prepare the mold surface for the next
casting. This coating helps to produce castings with optimized surfaces. Coating is performed at
the end of a production cycle when the casting has been removed from the mold and the mold
itself is open (Fig. 5-1).
Fig. 5-1: Coating in permanent mold casting
The coating of the mold surfaces has a cooling effect and influences the thermal behavior. This
effect is taken into account by the module MAGMAcoat. With MAGMAcoat you can simulate the
cooling effect of coating. This cooling is taken into account for all surfaces of the mold that have
contact with the material groups 'Cast Alloy', 'Feeder', 'Feederneck', 'Gating', 'Filter' and 'Ingate'
during solidification. Contact surfaces between 'Inlet', 'Stalk', 'Biscuit' and the mold are not cooled.
80 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Tab. 5-1 shows the available mold material groups for MAGMAhpdc, MAGMAlpdc and MAGMA-
wheel.
Tab. 5-1: Die parts available in MAGMASOFT

and various modules


Proceed as follows to calculate the cooling effect of coating during simulation:
Enter your simulation parameters as used from standard MAGMASOFT

.
Before you define the parameters for mold filling and solidification, the window 'options' ap-
pears (Fig. 5-2). (Note: If more than one option is installed, the other options are also dis-
played here). Choose the 'yes' setting for 'Die Coating'.
Module Material group in the preprocessor
Standard MAGMASOFT

Permanent Mold 'PERMM' / 6


High pressure die casting
(MAGMAhpdc)
Permanent Mold 'PERMM' / 6
Side core 'SIDEC' / 21
Movable die half, 'EJECTOR' / 22
Fixed die half, 'COVER' / 23
Low pressure die casting
(MAGMAlpdc)
Permanent Mold 'PERMM' / 6
Side core 'SIDEC' / 21
Top core 'TOPC' / 22
Bottom core 'BOTTC' / 23
Wheel casting
(MAGMAwheel)
Permanent Mold 'PERMM' / 6
Side core 'SIDEC' / 21
Top core 'TOPC' / 22
Bottom core 'BOTTC' / 23
CH. 5: MAGMACOAT 81
Fig. 5-2: Selecting 'Die Coating' option
In the window 'options' choose 'parameters' to set the times for coating. The window 'coating
parameters' appears (Fig. 5-3).
Fig. 5-3: Defining coating times
!
Use 'reset' to redefine the settings in the 'coating parameters' window to the original val-
ues.
'start coating at' Start time for coating [s]
This time is counted from the casting removal from the last part of the
die to the beginning of coating. For example, if coating is to be started
60 seconds after the last part of the die has been removed, enter the
value '60'.
'stop coating at' Stop time for coating [s]
82 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
The changed heat transfer rate due to coating is simulated in MAGMASOFT

using the dataset


'default.coat' (MAGMAdata data type 'Boundary'). Note that the cooling effect of coating is tak-
en into account in each cycle, if you simulate more than one cycle.
This time is counted from the casting removal from the last part of the
die to the end of coating. For example, if coating is started 60 seconds
after the casting removal and will be active for 30 seconds, enter the val-
ue '90'.
CH. 6: MAGMAPRESSURIZE 83
6 MAGMApressurize
6.1 Introduction
During solidification the volume of the melt is reduced. In most casting processes this volume
shrinkage is compensated by gravity driven feeding. In high pressure die casting processes, a fi-
nal pressure is admitted on the piston to enable feeding (Fig. 6-1). The melt is pressurized during
solidification.
Fig. 6-1: Pressurized solidification
With the option MAGMApressurize you can simulate the effect of pressurized solidification in
MAGMASOFT

. Proceed as follows:
84 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Enter the simulation parameters as used from MAGMASOFT

Standard.
Before you define the parameters for mold filling and solidification, the window 'options' ap-
pears (Fig. 6-2). (If other options have been installed, they are also displayed in this window.)
Fig. 6-2: Activating the 'Pressurize' option
Select 'yes' to activate the option 'Pressurize'. The creation of the final pressure will then be
taken into account during simulation.
Select 'parameters' to define the parameters for the admitted pressure. The window 'pressur-
ize parameters' appears.
Define the pattern of the pressure as a function of time.
CH. 6: MAGMAPRESSURIZE 85
Fig. 6-3: Defining pressurized solidification using defined points
There are two possibilities:
You can define the pattern of pressure using a curve with defined points and parameters. In
this case, select the 'Ramp' option at 'definition type' (Fig. 6-3; this is also the default setting).
Thereupon the same notations as in Fig. 6-1 appear in the window 'pressurize parameters'.
This is described in detail in Ch. 6.2, page 85.
You can also define the pattern of pressure using a free curve for which you must define the
coordinates yourself. In this case you have to select the 'Curve' option at 'definition type'. This
is described in detail in Ch. 6.3, page 89.
In both cases, you have to select 'ok' in the window 'pressurize parameters' to return to the 'op-
tions' window.
6.2 Defining the Course of Pressure Using a Defined Curve
If you select the 'Ramp' option at 'definition type' in the window 'pressurize parameters', you can
define the course of pressure using the parameters illustrated in Fig. 6-3. Proceed as follows:
86 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
The pressure increases from the 'starting pressure' up to the 'working pressure' within the
'pressure setup time'. Enter the corresponding values.
The 'working pressure' remains constant until a condition defined by you is reached. You must
define this condition in the field 'reduction controlled by'. You can control the pressure reduc-
tion by time, by a maximum temperature within a material group or by a local temperature
('thermocouple'). These options are described in the following three subchapters.
After you have defined the control of pressure reduction, you have to enter the period of pres-
sure reduction in the field 'pressure reduction time' (Fig. 6-1).
Confirm your input with 'ok'. This leads you back to the 'options' window.
6.2.1 Pressure Reduction Control by Time
Position the mouse pointer on the field 'reduction controlled by' and press the left mouse but-
ton. Choose the option 'Time' from the menu that appears now (Fig. 6-4).
Enter the start time for pressure reduction in the field 'start reduction after'. Note that this time
is counted from the end of the 'pressure setup time' ( Fig. 6-1, page 83).
Fig. 6-4: Pressure reduction control by time
CH. 6: MAGMAPRESSURIZE 87
Confirm your choice with 'ok'.
6.2.2 Pressure Reduction Control by Maximum Temperature
Position the mouse pointer on the field 'reduction controlled by' and press the left mouse but-
ton. Choose the option 'temperature' from the menu that appears now (Fig. 6-5).
Click on the button on the right of 'controlling material'. Select the material group for control of
pressure reduction in the window that appears now. Confirm your choice with 'ok'.
Enter the temperature limit which will control the start of pressure reduction in the field 'thresh-
old temperature'.
Fig. 6-5: Pressure reduction control by maximum temperature
If the calculated maximum temperature in the material group selected in the 'controlling ma-
terial' field falls below the temperature limit entered in the field 'threshold temperature', pres-
sure reduction starts.
Confirm your choice with 'ok'.
88 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
6.2.3 Pressure Reduction Control by Local Temperature / Thermocouple
Move the mouse pointer to the 'reduction controlled by' field and press the left mouse button.
Choose the option 'Thermocouple' from the menu that appears now (Fig. 6-6).
Click on the button on the right of 'controlling thermocouple'. Select the desired control point
for control of pressure reduction in the window that appears now. Confirm your selection with
'ok'.
Please note that you have to define the control points for control already in the preprocessor.
Please refer to Ch. 3.10, page 3-98 of the MAGMASOFT

4.4 Manual for further information.


Enter the temperature limit for the control of pressure reduction in the field 'threshold temper-
ature'.
Fig. 6-6: Pressure reduction control by local temperature
Pressure reduction begins when the temperature at the control point selected at 'controlling
thermocouple' falls below the 'threshold temperature'.
Confirm your choice with 'ok'.
CH. 6: MAGMAPRESSURIZE 89
6.3 Defining the Course of Pressure Using a Free Curve
If you select the option 'Curve' at 'definition type' in the window 'pressurize parameters', you can
freely define the course of pressure using your own curve. In this case, the parameters described
in Ch. 6.2, page 85 are of no importance. The following window appears (Fig. 6-7).
Fig. 6-7: Defining pressurized solidification as a free curve
Proceed as follows:
Select 'edit'. A window appears, in which you can define the individual coordinates of the curve
as value pairs (Fig. 6-8).
90 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 6-8: Defining value pairs for a free curve
Enter the value pairs of the curve at 'New value pair' (pressure in mbar / time in s). Separate
the two values by a blank and then select 'insert'. Thereupon the value pair appears in the list
at the top right of the window, and the coordinate appears in the diagram on the left.
If you want to delete a value pair, mark it in the list and choose 'delete'. Select 'delete all' if you
want to delete all value pairs.
Confirm with 'ok'. This leads you back to the window 'pressurize parameters'. Now select 'ok' to
get back to the 'options' window.
CH. 7: STRESSES IN HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING 91
7 Stresses in High Pressure Die Casting
7.1 Overview
You can simulate stresses and strains during the solidification of HPDC parts, using the MAGMAs-
tress module. A simulation like this is based on the temperature distribution, which is being calcu-
lated during the solidification simulation (time-dependent). What is more, you can simulate stress
the build-up within HPDC dies.
In the following, you find some information on HPDC-relevant functions of MAGMAstress.
7.2 Simulation
The stress simulation is based on the result files of the solidification simulation. Perform the
solidification simulation as usual, including several cycles.
In order to simulate the stress distribution within HPDC dies, choose the normal result files
from a cyclic calculation. If you are to calculate stresses and strains in an HPDC part, please
note the following:
In high pressure die casting processes you can start the stress calculation at the temperature
at which the die is opened. With standard settings the software automatically starts to calcu-
late at pouring temperature, even though the temperature interval between pouring tempera-
ture and die opening temperature is of no interest.
If you want to use this function, you must choose the result file 'DieOpen' in the window 'stress
input / output' in the simulation setup of MAGMAstress. Furthermore you must take care that
all other result files that you select are calculated after the 'DieOpen' result. So when you start
simulation, MAGMASOFT

calculates the stresses from the time of die opening and writes
the results according to the files you have selected in addition to 'DieOpen'. If you have not
chosen any other result but 'DieOpen', the program calculates residual stresses and deforma-
tions after ejection (cooling from ejection temperature to ambient temperature) and residual
stresses at ambient temperature for high pressure die casting.
Please refer to the simulation chapter of the MAGMAstress 4.4 Manual regarding details on the
result files.
92 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
7.3 Results
Please refer also to the postprocessor chapter of the MAGMAstress 4.4 Manual, where HPDC
stress results are analyzed in the postprocessor.
!
Please read the MAGMAstress Manual and the training material completely if you want
to simulate stresses.
CH. 8: SUMMARY WHAT TO DO 93
8 Summary What to Do
8.1 Project Definition
MAGMAhpdc projects must be created as 'High Pressure Die Casting' in the project adminis-
tration.
8.2 Data for HPDC machines
Select or create a data set for an HPDC machine in the MAGMASOFT

databases. Modify
the machine parameters if necessary. These must be exactly the same as the corresponding
parameters in reality.
8.3 Geometry Modeling
The side cores, the die parts and the biscuit must be modelled with the material groups that
are designed for this purpose. The plunger is modelled with the material group 23 ('COVER').
For the plunger, please refer also to Ch. 3.2.1, page 21.
The other parts of the casting system, too, must be defined according to their function in the
HPDC process.
You can model a complete or a reduced HPDC system. Please note, however, that the sim-
ulation represents the casting as it is produced by the machine only if you use the complete
model (refer also to Ch. 3.2.2, page 22).
8.4 Simulation Setup
Use the heat transfer coefficient 'MERGEMATERIALS' to define an ideal heat transfer be-
tween two volumes that are not physically separated in reality, but for which you want to sim-
ulate different boundary conditions (refer also to Ch. 3.3.2, page 27).
By using the integrated HPDC calculator you must define a a flow rate for mold filling.
94 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Use the last window of the HPDC calculator to simulate venting of the die (refer also to page
46).
Define the opening of the different die parts during the HPDC process via 'core open defini-
tions' (not via 'cycle definitions').
Define the control of the cooling channels in the die via 'channel definitions', provided you
have defined cooling channels in the geometry ('COOLING' material group).
For the filling simulation, three additional options are available under 'filling definitions' 'fil-
ling depends on'. You can use them to define a flow rate.
As high flow velocities occur in HPDC, you should always view the mold erosion criterion in
the postprocessor. Activate its calculation under 'filling definitions' ( 'calculate erosion'
'yes').
If necessary, simulate die cooling by applying a parting compound on the die surface with the
MAGMAcoat option ('options' 'Die Coating').
If necessary, simulate die cooling by spraying and blowing with the MAGMAspray option ('so-
lidification definitions' 'spray process').
If necessary, simulate local squeezing ('solidification definitions' 'local squeezing').
If you want to view feeding results in the postprocessor, you must calculate pressurized solid-
ification with the MAGMApressurize option ('options' 'Pressurize').
Then, after having activated the calculation of feeding, you must choose a value of about 90%
under 'solidification definitions' 'feeding effectivity'.
8.5 Stresses in High Pressure Die Casting
If necessary, perform stress calculations in the casting and in the HPDC die.
8.6 Additional Information
Use the 'info' menu to list all HPDC-specific data clearly ('protocol listing' 'Hpdc definitions').
CH. 8: SUMMARY WHAT TO DO 95
Use the 'info' menu if necessary to list the heat balance of materials and defined partial pro-
cesses as well as of cooling channels via three functions of the 'info' menu ( Ch. 9.8, page
9-14 of the MAGMASOFT

4.4 Manual).
96 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
CH. 9: TABLE OF FIGURES 97
9 Table of Figures
Fig. 2-1: Schematic of an HPDC machine .................................................................................... 9
Fig. 2-2: Time sequence of the MAGMAhpdc simulation............................................................ 10
Fig. 2-3: Relations between real process times and simulation parameters............................... 12
Fig. 2-4: Filling phase of hpdc process ....................................................................................... 13
Fig. 2-5: Plunger position and velocity as function of time.......................................................... 15
Fig. 3-1: Defining machine parameters....................................................................................... 18
Fig. 3-2: Layout of material groups ............................................................................................. 24
Fig. 3-3: Shot profile depending on the selected material groups with complete modeling........ 24
Fig. 3-4: Shot profile depending on the selected material groups with reduced modeling.......... 26
Fig. 3-5: Available options when starting the HPDC calculator................................................... 28
Fig. 3-6: Defining geometry data................................................................................................. 31
Fig. 3-7: Defining HPDC machine data....................................................................................... 33
Fig. 3-8: Defining shot sleeve data ............................................................................................. 35
Fig. 3-9: Defining process data................................................................................................... 37
Fig. 3-10: Optimizing the slow shot wave profile ('best') ............................................................. 40
Fig. 3-11: Optimizing the slow shot wave profile ('optimal') ........................................................ 41
Fig. 3-12: Shot profile (constant velocity, first phase) ................................................................. 42
Fig. 3-13: Shot profile (accelerated first phase) .......................................................................... 43
Fig. 3-14: Shot profile ('opt. slow shot' activated) ....................................................................... 43
Fig. 3-15: Defining the operating point........................................................................................ 44
Fig. 3-16: Defining the switching point ........................................................................................ 45
Fig. 3-17: 'vacuum' option for venting ......................................................................................... 47
Fig. 3-18: Defining casting cycles ............................................................................................... 49
Fig. 3-19: Defining mold opening................................................................................................ 52
Fig. 3-20: Controlling mold opening by time ............................................................................... 54
Fig. 3-21: Controlling mold opening by maximum temperature .................................................. 55
Fig. 3-22: Controlling mold opening by local temperature .......................................................... 56
98 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Fig. 3-23: The window 'channel definitions' ................................................................................ 58
Fig. 3-24: Cooling channel control by time.................................................................................. 61
Fig. 3-25: Cooling channel control by maximum temperature .................................................... 62
Fig. 3-26: Cooling channel control by local temperature............................................................. 63
Fig. 3-27: Defining filling parameters in MAGMAhpdc................................................................ 64
Fig. 3-28: Editing the pouring rate under 'filling depends on' ...................................................... 65
Fig. 3-29: Warning message regarding feeding.......................................................................... 66
Fig. 3-30 Defining local squeezing.............................................................................................. 68
Fig. 3-31: Defining parameters for local squeezing .................................................................... 69
Fig. 4-1: Die cooling by spraying................................................................................................. 71
Fig. 4-2: Defining the spraying process ...................................................................................... 73
Fig. 4-3: Editing process steps.................................................................................................... 76
Fig. 5-1: Coating in permanent mold casting .............................................................................. 79
Fig. 5-2: Selecting 'Die Coating' option....................................................................................... 81
Fig. 5-3: Defining coating times .................................................................................................. 81
Fig. 6-1: Pressurized solidification .............................................................................................. 83
Fig. 6-2: Activating the 'Pressurize' option.................................................................................. 84
Fig. 6-3: Defining pressurized solidification using defined points ............................................... 85
Fig. 6-4: Pressure reduction control by time ............................................................................... 86
Fig. 6-5: Pressure reduction control by maximum temperature.................................................. 87
Fig. 6-6: Pressure reduction control by local temperature .......................................................... 88
Fig. 6-7: Defining pressurized solidification as a free curve........................................................ 89
Fig. 6-8: Defining value pairs for a free curve............................................................................. 90
CH. 10: INDEX 99
10 Index
A
air entrapments 14
'AirPressure' 48
ambient temperature 91
B
biscuit 22, 23, 31, 35, 93
blowing of the die (see also "MAG-
MAspray") 7, 11, 13, 67, 71, 74, 77, 78, 94
'Boundary' (data type) 82
boundary conditions 7, 28, 93
C
'calculate erosion' 66, 94
'calculate feeding' 66
casting cycles 7, 10, 27, 48, 49, 50, 71, 91
casting pressure 34
casting removal 10, 11, 15, 16, 81, 82
'channel definitions' 27, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62,
63, 94
closing force 33, 34
coating of the die (see also "MAGMA-
coat") 7, 16, 27, 28, 79 pp
'coating parameters' 81
computer capacity 25
computing time 50
control points 51, 57, 74, 77, 88
cooling 14, 91
'cooling channel definitions' 70
cooling channels 7, 27, 56, 58, 59, 60, 70,
94, 95
cooling of the die (see also "spraying of
the die") 7, 5663, 71, 79, 80, 82, 94
'core open definitions' 27, 28, 50, 51, 70,
94
cores 51, 53
bottom core 72, 80
side core 13, 21, 22, 27, 32, 34, 72, 80,
93
top core 72, 80
cover die 22
'create project' 17
100 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
'create version' 17
criteria temperatures 67
'cycle definitions' 27, 29, 48, 70, 94
D
database 17, 19, 20, 30, 33, 66, 67, 93
'MAGMA' 20, 27, 60
density 36, 38, 45
die closing 7, 13, 50, 51
'Die Coating' 80, 81, 94
die opening 7, 13, 22, 27, 28, 50, 53, 91
die parts 7, 11, 13, 21, 22, 32, 51, 52, 53,
54, 55, 56, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 93,
94
E
ejection 13, 50, 51, 75, 91
ejector die 21
enmeshment 23, 26, 29
F
feeding 27, 66, 67, 83, 94
'FEEDING' (criterion result) 66
'feeding effectivity' 66, 94
filling conditions 7
'filling definitions' 27, 63, 66, 94
filling degree 35
'filling depends on' 63, 65, 94
filling simulation 10, 11, 15, 23, 27, 28, 49,
50, 63, 94
filling stages 7
filling time 37, 38, 45, 46
final pressure (see also "MAGMApressur-
ize") 19, 33, 66, 67, 83 pp
flow rate (see also "pouring rate") 27, 28,
32, 64, 65, 93, 94
flow velocities 66, 94
G
gating system 14, 22, 23, 25, 31, 36, 38, 44,
45, 65
geometry data 14, 31, 32, 34, 69
geometry elements 28, 58
geometry modeling 14, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27,
29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 51, 56, 57, 65, 72, 77, 80,
88, 93
H
heat balance 60, 70, 95
CH. 10: INDEX 101
heat transfer 27, 82, 93
'heat transfer definitions' 27
heating of the die 5663
'High Pressure Die Casting' (project
mode) 17, 93
'HPDC calculated flow rate' 64
HPDC calculator 23, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 42,
45, 46, 48, 64, 65, 93, 94
'Hpdc definitions' ('protocol listing') 69, 94
HPDC machines 11, 15, 17, 20, 30, 33, 36,
93
HPDC system 22, 25
'HPDC user1 flow rate' 64, 65
'HPDC user2 flow rate' 64
'HPDC-Machine' (database) 17, 18
hydraulic parameters 19
I
'info' menu 69, 70, 94, 95
ingate 7, 14, 23, 31, 32, 37, 46, 48, 65, 66
ingate cross section 32, 46
velocity at the ingate 37, 39, 45, 46
initial temperature 77
injection force 19
inlet 22, 23, 31, 32, 65, 66, 71, 79
L
lead time 11, 51, 65
'local squeezing' 22, 67, 94
local squeezing 22, 27, 67, 68, 69, 94
squeeze reservoir 22, 67, 68, 69
squeeze stamp 22, 67
squeezing system 22, 67
'local squeezing definitions' 67, 69
'local squeezing options' 69
locking force 19, 34
M
machine data 33, 34, 69
machine parameters 17, 18, 20, 93
'Machine Parameters' (database) 18
machine type 17, 18, 35, 37
'MAGMA' database 20, 27, 60
MAGMAcoat 79 pp, 94
MAGMApressurize 34, 66, 67, 83 pp, 94
MAGMAspray 67, 71 pp, 94
MAGMAstress 67, 91, 92
102 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
MAGMAventing 48
MAT IDs 22, 27, 53, 58, 59, 60, 67, 68, 74,
77, 78
'material definitions' 26, 60, 67
material definitions 27, 67
material groups 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,
31, 32, 35, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61,
62, 67, 71, 72, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 86, 87,
93, 94
materials 27, 28, 60, 70, 95
melt volume 31, 32
'MERGEMATERIALS' 27, 28, 93
metal pressure 36, 38, 44
mold erosion 66, 94
mold preparation 10, 11, 16
O
operating point 44
'options' 80, 81, 84, 85, 86, 90, 94
overflows 23, 31, 32
P
permanent mold (see also "die ...") 48, 72,
78, 79, 80
piston see "plunger..."
plunger 9, 11, 14, 22, 31, 35, 36, 65, 93
acceleration 9, 14, 19
diameter 19, 22, 35, 44
position 15, 31, 42, 45, 46
velocity 14, 15, 19, 36, 37, 38, 45, 46
postprocessor 48, 50, 66, 92, 94
pouring rate (see also "flow rate") 23, 36,
42, 64, 65
pouring temperature 91
PQ
2
diagram 36, 38, 44
preprocessor see "geometry modeling"
pressure
casting pressure 34
metal pressure 36, 38, 44
pressure curve 47, 48
pressure field 47
pressure reduction 86, 87, 88
'Pressurize' 84, 94
'pressurize parameters' 84, 85, 89, 90
pressurized solidification (see also "MAG-
MApressurize") 27, 66, 83 pp, 94
process data 11, 37, 40, 42, 44, 70
process times 11, 12, 13
project version 17, 28
projected area 32, 34
CH. 10: INDEX 103
'protocol listing' 69, 70, 94
Q
quality requirement 33, 34
R
'Ready to use' 20
result files 11, 91
S
security factor 33, 34
shot chamber 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 31, 45
shot characteristics 45, 70
shot curve (see also "pouring rate") 23, 38
shot phase 11, 13, 14, 23
shot profile 14, 23, 24, 26, 28, 32, 36, 38,
40, 42, 43, 44, 48, 70
shot sleeve 23, 35, 36, 65
shot sleeve data 35, 40, 42, 44, 70
simulation parameters 11, 12, 26, 28, 63,
66, 72, 80, 84
simulation setup 11, 22, 60, 78, 91, 93
'solidification definitions' 27, 66, 67, 69,
72, 78, 94
solidification simulation 10, 11, 15, 27, 49,
50, 66, 67, 91
solidification time 11, 15
'spray definitions' 72, 73, 76, 78
'spray options' 75, 76
'spray process' 67, 72, 94
spraying of the die (see also "MAG-
MAspray") 7, 11, 13, 16, 27, 28, 67, 70, 71
pp, 94
squeeze reservoir 22, 67, 68, 69
squeeze stamp 22, 67
squeezing system 22, 67
'start coating at' 81
'stop coating at' 81
stress calculation 67, 91, 94
T
temperature distribution 15, 91
temperature field 49
temperature profile 48
thermocouples 7, 51, 52, 53, 55, 57, 58, 59,
62, 63, 74, 77, 86, 88
thin wall sections 14
104 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
V
venting 46, 47, 70, 94
vents 46, 47
W
wait time 11, 50, 51
wall thickness 33, 37, 38
NOTES 105
Notes
106 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Notes
NOTES 107
Notes
108 MAGMAHPDC 4.4 MANUAL
Notes