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1.1.1 Cover./e 0
API 570 covers inspection, repair, alteration, and rerating procedures for metallic
piping systems that have been in service.
Re1.r ; The or! necessary to restore a piping system to a condition suitable
for safe operation at the design condition.
A2ter.ton3 " A physical change in any component that has design implications
affecting the pressure containing capability or fle#ibility of a piping system
beyond the scope of its design. " A change in either or both the design temperature or the ma#imum
alloable or!ing pressure of a piping system. A rerating may consist of an
increase, a decrease, or a combination of both. $erating belo original design
conditions is a means to provide increased corrosion alloance.
API 570 shall not be used as a substitute for the original construction
re%uirements governing a piping system before it is placed in service.
1.%.1 Inc2uded F2ud Servce3 0
API 570 applies to piping systems for process fluids, hydrocarbons, and
similar flammable or to#ic fluid services, such as the folloing.
a. $a, intermediate, and finished petroleum products.
b. $a intermediate, and finished chemical products.
c. &atalyst lines.
d. 'ydrogen, natural gas, fuel gas, and flare systems.
e. (our ater and ha)ardous aste streams above threshold limits, as
defined by *urisdictional regulations.
f. 'a)ardous chemicals above threshold limits, as defined by
*urisdictional regulations.
1.%.% E4c2uded .nd O1ton.2 P1n/ Sy3te53 "
The fluid services and classes of piping systems listed belo are e#cluded from the
specific re%uirements of API 570 but may be included at the oner+s or user+s
,oner-user+s. option.
a. /luid services that are e#cluded or optional include the folloing.
0. 'a)ardous fluid services belo threshold limits, as defined by
*urisdictional regulations.
1. 2ater ,including fire protection systems. , steam, steam3condensate,
boiler feed ater, and &ategory 4 fluid services, as defined in A(56 7
b. &lasses of piping systems that are e#cluded or optional are as follos "
0. Piping systems on movable structures covered by *urisdictional
regulations, including piping systems on truc!s, ships, barges, and
other mobile e%uipment.
1. Piping systems that are an integral part or component or rotating or
reciprocating mechanical devices, such as pumps, compressors,
turbines, generators, engines, and hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders
here the primary design considerations and-or stresses are derived
from the functional re%uirements of the device.
8. Internal piping or tubing of fired heaters and boilers, including tubes,
tube headers, return bends, e#ternal crossovers, and manifolds.
9. Pressure vessels, heaters, furnaces, heat e#changers, and other fluid
handling or processing e%uipment, including internal piping and
connections for e#ternal piping.
5. Plumbing, sanitary seers, process aste seers, and storm seers.
:. Piping or tubing ith an outside diameter not e#ceeding that of ;P( <.
7. ;onmetallic piping and polymeric or glass3lined piping.
The code, code section, or other recogni)ed and generally accepted engineering
standard or practice to hich the piping system as built or hich is deemed by
the oner or user or the piping engineer to be most appropriate for the situation,
including but not limited to the latest edition of A(56 7 80.8
4efined as any of the folloing. "
a. The inspection organi)ation of the *urisdiction in hich the piping system is
b. The inspection organi)ation of an insurance company that is licensed or
registered to rite insurance for piping systems.
c. An oner or user of piping systems ho maintains an inspection
organi)ation for activities relating only to his e%uipment and not for piping
systems intended for sale or resale.
d. An independent inspection organi)ation employed by or under contract to
the oner or user of piping systems that are used only by the oner or
user and not for sale or resale.
e. An independent inspection organi)ation licensed or recogni)ed by the
*urisdiction in hich the piping system is used and employed by or under
contract to the oner or user.
An employee of an authori)ed inspection agency ho is %ualified and certified to
perform the functions specified in API 570. A nondestructive ,;46. e#aminer is
not re%uired to be an authori)ed piping inspector. 2henever the term inspector
is used in API 570, it refers to an authori)ed piping inspector.
Instrument and machinery piping, typically small3bore secondary process piping
that can be isolated from primary piping systems. 6#amples include flush lines,
seal oil lines, analy)er lines, balance lines, buffer gas lines, drains and vents.
%." CUI 0
&orrosion under insulation, including stress corrosion crac!ing under insulation.
%.* DEADLE-S "
&omponents of a piping system that normally have no significant flo. 6#amples
include the folloing " blan!ed branches, lines ith normally closed bloc!
valves, lines ith one end blan!ed, pressuri)ed dummy support legs, stagnant
control valve bypass piping, spare pump piping, level bridles, relief valve inlet
and outlet header piping, pump trim bypass lines, high point vents, sample
points, drains, bleeders, and instrument connections.
%.# DEFECT "
An imperfection of a type or magnitude e#ceeding the acceptable criteria.
%.8 E+A)INER "
A person ho assists the inspector by performing specific nondestructive
e#amination ,;46. on piping system components but does not evaluate the
results of those e#aminations in accordance ith API 570, unless specifically
trained and authori)ed to do so by the oner or user. The e#aminer need not be
%ualified in accordance ith API 570.
A point in the repair or alteration process beyond hich or! may not proceed
until the re%uired inspection has been performed and documented.
/las or other discontinuities noted during inspection that may be sub*ect to
acceptance criteria during an engineering and inspection analysis.
A response or evidence resulting from the application of a nondestructive
evaluation techni%ue.
=ocations here relatively small %uantities of materials are in*ected into process
streams to control chemistry or other process variables. In*ection points do not
include locations here to process streams *oin.
%.1( IN&SER,ICE "
$efers to piping systems that have been placed in operation, as opposed to ne
construction prior to being placed in service.
An authori)ed piping inspector.
A level gauge glass piping assembly attached to a vessel.
1.0: 5A>I5?5 A==@2A7=6 2@$AI;B P$6((?$6 ,5A2P.
The ma#imum internal pressure permitted in the piping system for continued
operation at the most severe condition of coincident internal or e#ternal pressure
and temperature ,ma#imum and minimum. e#pected during service. It is the
same as the design pressure, as defined in A(56 7 80.8 and other code
sections, and is sub*ect to the same rules relating to alloances for variations of
pressure or temperature or both.
%.1# ON&STREA) "
Piping containing any amount of process fluid.
A section of piping that has all points e#posed to an environment of similar
corrosivity and that is of similar design conditions and construction material.
Process piping in normal, active service that cannot be valved off or, if it ere
valved off, ould significantly affect unit operability. Primary process piping
normally includes all process piping greater than ;P( 1.
1.10 $6PAI$ @$BA;ICATI@; "
Any of the folloing "
a. An oner or user of piping systems ho repairs or alters his or her on
e%uipment in accordance ith API 570.
b. A contractor hose %ualifications are acceptable to the oner or user of
piping systems and ho ma!es repairs or alterations in accordance ith
API 570.
c. @ne ho is authori)ed by, acceptable to, or otherise not prohibited by
the *urisdiction and ho ma!es repairs in accordance ith API 570.
(mall3bore ,less than or e%ual to ;P( 1. process piping donstream of normally
closed bloc! valves.
Piping that is less than or e%ual to ;P( 1.
An area in hich e#ternal corrosion may occur on partially buried pipe. The )one
of the corrosion ill vary depending on factors such as moisture, o#ygen content
of the soil, and operating temperature. The )one generally is considered to be
from 01 inches ,805 mm. belo to : inches ,050 mm. above the soil surface.
Pipe running parallel ith the soil surface that contacts the soil is included.
%.%' SPOOL "
A section of piping encompassed by fianges or other connecting fittings such as
A loss of ductility and notch toughness in susceptible lo3alloy steels, such as 0
D &r and 1 D &r, due to prolonged e#posure to high3temperature service E700
/ ,870
&. F
$epairs made to piping systems in order to restore sufficient integrity to continue
safe operation until permanent repairs can be scheduled and accomplished
ithin a time period acceptable to the inspector or piping engineer.
An area defined by a circle having a diameter not greater than 1 inches ,50 mm.
for a line diameter not e#ceeding 00 inches ,150 mm. or not greater than 8
inches ,75 mm. for larger lines. Thic!ness readings may be averaged ithin this
area. A test point shall be ithin a thic!ness measurement location.
4esignated areas on piping systems here periodic inspections and thic!ness
measurement+s are conducted.
%.%9 ?F)T "
2et fluorescent magnetic 3particle testing.
Authori)ed piping inspectors shall have education and e#perience in accordance
ith Appendi# A of this inspection code. Authori)ed piping inspectors shall be
certified by the American Petroleum Institute in accordance ith the provisions of
Appendi# A. 2henever the term inspector is used in this document, it refers to
an authori)ed piping inspector.
8.1 $6(P@;(I7I=ITI6( "
(.%.1 An oner-user organi)ation is responsible for developing, documenting,
implementing, e#ecuting, and assessing piping inspection systems and
inspection procedures that ill meet the re%uirements of this inspection code.
These systems and procedures ill be contained in a %uality assurance
inspection manual or ritten procedures and shall include "
a. @rgani)ation and reporting structure for inspection personnel.
b. 4ocumenting and maintaining inspection and %uality assurance
c. 4ocumenting and reporting inspection and test results.
d. &orrective action for inspection and test results.
e. Internal auditing for compliance ith the %uality assurance inspection
f. $evie and approval of draings, design calculations, and specifications
for repairs, alterations, and re3ratings.
g. 6nsuring that all *urisdictional re%uirements for piping inspection, repairs,
alterations, and re3rating are continuously met.
h. $eporting to the authori)ed piping inspector any process changes that
could affect piping integrity.
i. Training re%uirements for inspection personnel regarding inspection tools,
techni%ues, and technical !noledge base.
*. &ontrols necessary so that only %ualified elders and procedures are
used for all repairs and alterations.
!. &ontrols necessary so that only %ualified nondestructive e#amination
,;46. personnel and procedures are utili)ed.
l. &ontrols necessary so that only materials conforming to the applicable
section of the A(56 &ode are utili)ed for repairs and alterations.
m. &ontrols necessary so that all inspection measurement and test
e%uipment are properly maintained and calibrated.
n. &ontrols necessary so that the or! of contract inspection or repair
organi)ations meet the same inspection re%uirements as the oner-user
o. Internal auditing re%uirements for the %uality control system for pressure3
relieving devoices.
The piping engineer is responsible to the oner-user for activities involving
design, engineering revie, analysis, or evaluation of piping systems covered by
API 570.
The repair organi)ation shall be responsible to the oner-user and shall provide
the materials, e%uipment, %uality control, and or!manship necessary to
maintain and repair the piping systems in accordance ith the re%uirements of
API 570.
2hen inspections, repairs, or alterations are being conducted on piping systems,
an API authori)ed piping inspector shall be responsible to the oner-user for
determining that the re%uirements of API 570 on inspection, e#amination, and
testing are met, and shall be directly involved in the inspection activities. The API
authori)ed piping inspector may be assisted in performing visual inspections by
other properly trained and %ualified individuals, ho may or may not be certified
piping inspectors. Personnel performing nondestructive e#aminations shall meet
the %ualifications identified in 8.01, but need not be API authori)ed piping
inspectors. 'oever, all e#amination results must be evaluated and accepted by
the API3 authori)ed piping inspector.
@perating, maintenance, or other personnel ho have special !noledge or
e#pertise related to particular piping systems shall be responsible for promptly
ma!ing the inspector or piping engineer aare of any unusual conditions that
may develop and for providing other assistance, here appropriate.
$7I is identifying and evaluating potential degradation conse%uence of hich
may be a ris! of creation of unsafe conditions ,for plant, process, people . and -
or li!ely failure of component.
$7I involves folloing essential elements "
6#pected type of degradation i.e. type of degradation process as ell as
environmental factors may cause.
=i!ely areas affected i.e. identifying the most prone areas and possible
locations to loo! for the type of degradation.
5easurement of degradation i.e. %uantifying the amount of degradation.
Assessment and evaluation i.e. analysis of degradation and li!ely
Above all effectiveness of inspection practices, tools techni%ues employed
have a great bearing of success of $7I program.
Prior to actual inspection proper preparation and safety precautions are essential
particularly if components are to be inspected internally. This essentially involves
Isolating and segregating the piping system, installing blan!s ,blids. etc.
$emoval of harmful li%uids, gases, vapors, flushing out and purging to bring
don residual content to safe levels.
@btain suitable permissions to or! i.e. cold or! permit ,&2P., 'otor!
Permits ,'2P. etc.
Protective e%uipment, clothing, mas!ing as re%uired.
(afety e%uipments shall be sub*ectto operating facilities safety re%uirements.
,e. g. electrical re%uirements, flame arrester etc..


6ach oner- user should provide specific attention to the need for
inspection of piping system that are susceptible to the folloing specific
types G areas of deterioration "
a. In*ection points.
b. 4eadlegs.
c. &orrosion under insulation , &?I ..
d. (oil3to3air ,(-A . interfaces. .
e. (ervices specific G locali)ed corrosion.
f. 6rosion Gc orrosion-erosion.
g. 6nvironmental crac!ing.
h. &orrosion beneath linings G deposits.
i. /atigue crac!ing .
*. &reep crac!ing.
!. 7rittle fracture.
l. /ree)e damage.
8.0 InAecton Pont3 " In*ection points are sometimes sub*ect to accelerated or
locali)ed corrosion.
2hen designating an in*ection point circuit for the purposes of inspection, the
recommended upstream limit of the in*ection point circuit is a minimum of 01
inches ,800. or three pipe diameters upstream of the in*ection point, hichever is
greater. The recommended donstream limit of the in*ection point circuit is the
seconed change in flo direction past the in*ection point, or 15 feet ,7.: m.
beyond the first change in flo direction, hichever is less. In some cases, it may
be more appropriate to e#tend this circuit to the ne#t piece of pressure
Buide =ines /or (electing T5=( "
a. 6stablish T5=s on appropriate fittings ithin the in*ection point
b. 6stablish T5=s on the pipe all at the location of e#pected pipe
all impingement of in*ected fiuid.
c. T5=s at intermediate locations along the longer straight piping
ithin the in*ection point circuit may be re%uired.
d. 6stablish T5=s at both the upstream G donstream limit of the in*ection
point circuit.
The preferred methods of inspecting in*ection points are radiography and-or
ultrasonics, as appropriate, to establish the minimum thic!ness at each T5=.
/or some applications, it is beneficial to remove piping spools to facilitate a visual
inspection of the inside surface. 'oever, thic!ness measurements ill still be
re%uired to determine the remaining thic!ness.
4uring periodic scheduled inspections, more e#tensive inspection should be
applied to an area beginning 01 inches ,800 mm. upstream of the in*ection
no))le and continuing for at least ten pipe diameters donstream of the in*ection
point. Additionally, measure and record the thic!ness at all T5=s ithin the
in*ection point circuit.
8.1 De.d2e/3 " The corrosion rate in deadlegs can vary significantly from the
ad*acent active piping. The inspector should monitor all thic!ness on selected
deadlegs, including both the stagnant end and at the connection to an active line.
In hot piping systems, the high3point area may corrode due to convective
currents set up in the deadlegs. &onsideration should be given to removing
deadlegs that serve no further process purpose.
8.8. Corro3on Under In3u2.ton 0 6#ternal inspection of insulated piping systems
should include a revie of the integrity of the insulation system for conditions that
cold lead to corrosion under insulation ,&?I. and for signs of ongoing &?I.
(ources of moisture may include rain, ater lea!s, condensation and deluge
systems. The most common forms of &?I are locali)ed corrosion of carbon steel
and chloride stress corrosion crac!ing of austenitic stainless steels.
7elo are the guidelines for indentifying potential &?I areas for inspection. The
e#tent of a &?I inspection program may vary depending on the local climate H
armer marine locations may re%uire a very active program; hereas cooler,
drier, mid3continent locations may not need as e#tensive a program.
8.9 In3u2.ted Pi1n/ Sy3te53 Su3ce1tb2e to CUI " &ertain areas and types of
piping systems are potentially more susceptible to &?I, including the folloing "
a. Areas e#posed to mist overspray from cooling ater toers.
b. Areas e#posed to steam vents.
c. Areas e#posed to deluge systems
d. Areas sub*ect to process spills, ingress of moisture , or acid vapors.
e. &arbon steel piping systems, including those insulated for personnel
protection, operation beteen 15
/3 150
/ ,39
&.. &?I is
particularly aggressive here operating temperatures cause fre%uent or
continuous condensation and re3evaporation of atmospheric moisture.
f. &arbon steel piping systems that normally operate in3service above 150

/ ,010
&. but are in intermittent service.
g. 4eadlegs and attachments that protrude from insulated piping and operate
at a different temperature than the operating temperature of the active
h. Austenitic stainless steel piping systems operating 050
/3 900
/ ,:5
&.. ,These systems are susceptible to chloride crac!ing. .
i. Iibrating piping systems that have a tendency to inflict damage to
insulation *ac!eting providing a path for ater ingress.
*. (team traced piping systems that may e#perience tracing lea!s, especially
at tubing fitting beneath the insulation.
!. Piping systems ith deteriorated coatings and-or rappings.
8.5 Co55on Loc.ton3 on P1n/ Sy3te53 Su3ce1tb2e to CUI " The areas of
piping systems listed above may have specific locations ithin them that are
more susceptible to &?I, including the folloing "
a. All penetrations or breaches in the insulation *ac!eting systems, such as "
0. 4eadlegs ,vents, drains, and other similar items.
1. Pipe hangers and other supports.
8. Ialves and fittings ,irregular insulation surfaces.
9. 7olted3on pipe shoes.
5. (team tracer tubing penetrations.
b. Termination of insulation at flangers and other piping components.
c. 4amaged or missing insulation *ac!eting
d. Insulation *ac!eting seams located on the top of hori)ontal piping or
imporperty lapped or sealed insulation *ac!eting.
e. Termination of insulation in a vertical pipe.
f. &aul!ing that has hardened, has separated, or is missing.
g. 7ulges or staining of the insulation or *ac!eting system or missing bands
,7ulges may indicate corrosion product buildup..
h. =o points in piping systems that have a !non breach in the insulation
system, including lo points in long unsupported piping runs.
i. &arbon or lo3alloy steel flanges, bolting, and other components under
insulation in high3alloy piping systems.
8.: So2&to3Ar Inter!.ce " (oil3to3air ,(-A. interfaces for buried piping ithout
ade%uate cathodic protection shall be included in scheduled e#ternal piping
Thic!ness measurements and e#cavation may be re%uired to assess hether the
corrosion is locali)ed to the (-A interface or e#tends to the buried system.
Thic!ness readings at (-A interfaces may e#pose the metal and accelerate
corrosion if coatings and rappings are not properly restored.
If the buried piping is uncoated at grade, consideration should be given to
e#cavating : inches to 01 inches ,050 mm to 800 mm. deep to assess the
potential for hidden damage.
8.7 Servce S1ec!c B Loc.2Ced Corro3on " An effective inspection program
includes the folloing three elements, hich help identify the potential for service
specific G locali)ed corrosion G select appropriate T5=s "
a. An inspector ith !noledge of the service G here corrosion is
li!ely to occur.
b. 6#tensive use of nondestructive e#amination ,;46..
c. &ommunication from operating personnel hen process upsets occur that
may affect corrosion rates.
4e point corrosion in condensing streams.
5i#ed grades of carbon steel piping in hot corrosive oil service ,950 deg /
E180 degF&. or higher temperature G sulfur content in the oil greater than 0.5
percent by eight.
;on silicon !iled steel pipe, such as A358 G API 5=, may corrode at higher
rates than does silicon !illed steel pipe, such as A300: especially in high H
temperature sulfidic environments.
8.7 Ero3on B corro3on= ero3on " 6rosion can be defined as the removal of
surface material by the action of numerous individual impacts of solid or li%uid
particles. It can be characteri)ed by grooves, rounded holes, aves, G vallys in a
directional pattern. 6rosion usually occurs in areas of turbulent flo, such as at
change of direction in a piping system or donstream of control valves here
vapori)ation may ta!e place.
8.J 6rosion damage is usually increased in streams ith large %uantities of solid or
li%uid particles floing at high velocities. A combination of corrosion G erosion
, corrosion-erosion .results in significantly greater metal loss than can be
e#pected from corrosion occurs at high velocity G high turbulence areas.
6#amples of places to inspect include the folloing "
a. 4onstream of control valves, especially hen flashing is
b. 4onstream of orifices.
c. 4onstream of pump discharges.
d. At any point of flo direction change, such as the inside G outside radii of
8.K Envron5ent.2 Cr.cDn/ " Piping system construction materials are normally
selected to resist the various forms of stress corrosion crac!ing ,(&&.. 'oever,
some piping system may be susceptible to environmental crac!ing due to upset
process conditions, &?I unanticipated condensation, or e#posure to et
hydrogen sulfide or carbonates.
6#amples of environmental crac!ing include "
a. &hloride (&& of austenitic stainless steels due to moisture G
chlorides under insulation, under deposits , under gas!ets, or in crevices.
b. &austic (&& , sometimes !non as caustic embrittlement ..
c. (cc in environments here et hydrogen sulfide e#ists, such as systems
containing sour ater.
d. 'ydrogen blistering G hydrogen induced crac!ing , 'I& . damage .
'.1 -ener.20
If e#ternal or internal coatings, refractory linings, and corrosion3resistant linings
are in good condition and there is no reason to suspect a deteriorated condition
behind them, it is usually not necessary to remove them for inspection of the
piping system.
The linings should be inspected for separation, brea!s, holes, and blisters. If any
of these conditions are noted, it may be necessary to remove portions of the
internal lining to investigate the effectiveness of the lining and the condition of the
metal piping beneath the lining.
&orrosion beneath refractory linings can result in separation and bulging of the
refractory. If bulging or separation of the refractory lining is detected, portions of
the refractory may be removed to permit inspection of the piping beneath the
/atigue crac!ing of piping systems may result from e#cessive cyclic stresses that
are often ell belo the static yield strength of the material. The onset of lo3
cycle fatigue crac!ing is often directly related to the number of heat3up and cool3
don cycles e#perienced. 6#cessive piping system vibration ,such as machine
or flo3induced vibrations. also can cause high3cycle fatigue damage.
/atigue crac!ing can typically be first detected at points of high3stress
intensification such as branch connections. =ocations here metals having
different coefficients of thermal e#pansion are *oined by elding may be
susceptible to thermal fatigue. Preferred ;46 methods of detecting fatigue
crac!ing include li%uid3penetrant testing ,PT. or magnetic3particle testing ,5T..
Acoustic emission also may be used to detect the presence of crac!s that are
activated by test pressures of stresses generated during the test.
It is important that the oner-user and the inspector understand that fatigue
crac!ing is li!ely to cause piping failure before it is detected ith any ;46
methods. @f the total number of fatigue cycles re%uired to produce a failure, the
vast ma*ority are re%uired to initiate a crac! and relatively feer cycles are
re%uired to propagate the crac! to failure. Therefore, proper design and
installation in order to prevent the initiation of fatigue crac!ing are important.
'.%.1% CREEP CRAC>IN- "
&reep is dependent on time, temperature, and stress. &rac!ing is accelerated by
creep and fatigue interaction hen operating conditions in the creep range are
cycle. If e#cessive temperatures are encountered, mechanical property and
microstructural changes in metals also may ta!e place.
;46 methods of detecting creep crac!ing include li%uid3penetrant testing,
magnetic3particle testing, ultrasonic testing, radiographic testing, and in3situ
metallography. Acoustic emission testing also may be used to detect the
presence of crac!s that are activated by test pressures or stresses generated
during the test.
&arbon lo3alloy, and other ferritic steels may be susceptible to brittle failure at
or belo ambient temperatures. 7rittle fracture usually is not a concern ith
relatively thinall piping. 5ost brittle fractures have occurred on the first
application of a particular stress level ,that is, the first hydrotest or overload.
unless critical defects are introduced during service. The potential for a brittle
failure shall be considered hen rehydrotesting.
'.%.1' FREE6E DA)A-E "
At subfree)ing temperatures, ater and a%ueous solutions in piping systems may
free)e and cause failure because of the e#pansion of these materials. After
une#pectedly severe free)ing eather, it is important to chec! for free)e damage
to e#posed piping components before the system thas. If rupture has occurred,
lea!age may be temporarily prevented by the fro)en fluid. =o points, riplegs,
and deadlegs of piping systems containing ater should be carefully e#amined for
4ifferent types of inspection and surveillance are appropriate depending on the
circumstances and the piping system . These include the folloing "
a. Internal visual inspection.
b. Thic!ness measurement inspection.
c. 6#ternal visual inspection.
d. Iibrating piping inspection
e. (upplemental inspection.
Internal visual inspections are not normally performed on piping. 2hen possible
and practical, internal visual inspections may be scheduled for systems such as
large3diameter transfer lines, ducts, or other large3diameter piping systems.
(uch inspections are similar in nature to pressure vessel inspections and should
be conducted ith methods and procedures similar to those outlined in API 500.
A thic!ness measurement inspection is performed to determine the internal
condition and remaining thic!ness of the piping components. Thic!ness
measurements may be obtained hen the piping system is in or out of operation
and shall be performed by the inspector or e#aminer.
In addition to these scheduled e#ternal inspections that are documented in
inspection records, it is beneficial for personnel ho fre%uent the area to report
deterioration or changes to the inspector.
@ther inspections may be scheduled as appropriate or necessary. 6#amples of
such inspections include periodic use of radiography and-or thermography to
chec! for fouling or internal plugging, thermography to chec! for hot spots in
refractory lined systems, or inspection for environmental crac!ing. Acoustic
emission, acoustic lea! detection, and thermography can be used or remote lea!
detection and surveillance. ?ltrasonics and-or radiography can be used for
detecting locali)ed corrosion.
'.'.1 -ENERAL "
Thic!ness measurement locations ,T5=+s. are specific areas along the piping
circuit here inspections are to be made. The nature of the T5= varies
according to its location in the piping system. The selection of T5=+s shall
consider the potential for locali)ed corrosion and service3specific corrosion as
described in 5.8
'.'.% T)L )ONITORIN- "
6ach piping system shall be monitored by ta!ing thic!ness measurements at
T5=+s. Piping circuits ith high potential conse%uences if failure should occur
and those sub*ect to higher corrosion rates or locali)ed corrosion ill normally
have more T5=s and be monitored more fre%uently.
The minimum thic!ness at each T5= can be located by ultrasonic scanning or
radiography. 6lectromagnetic techni%ues also can be used to identify thin areas
that may then be measured by ultrasonics or radiography. 2hen accomplished
ith ultrasonics, scanning consists of ta!ing several thic!ness measurement at
the T5= searching for locali)ed thinning. The thinnest reading or an average of
several measurement readings ta!en ithin the area of a test point shall be
recorded and used to calculate corrosion rates, remaining life, and the ne#t
inspection date.
2here appropriate, thic!ness measurements should include measurements at
each of the four %uadrants on pipe and fittings, ith special attention to the inside
and outside radius of elbos and tees here corrosion-erosion could increase
corrosion rates. As a minimum, the thinnest reading and its location shall be
T5=+s should be established for areas ith continuing &?I, corrosion at (-A
interfaces, or other locations of potential locali)ed corrosion as ell as for
general uniform corrosion.
T5=s should be mar!ed on inspection draings and on the piping system to
allo repetitive measurements at the same T5=s. This recording procedure
provides data for more accurate corrosion rate determination.
In selecting or ad*usting the number and locations of T5=s the inspector should
ta!e unto account the patterns of corrosion that ould be e#pected and have
been e#perienced in the process unit.
5ore T5=s should be selected for piping systems ith any of the folloing
characteristics "
a. 'igher potential for creating a safety or environmental emergency in the
event of a lea!.
b. 'igher e#pected or e#perienced corrosion rates.
c. 'igher potential for locali)ed corrosion.
d. 5ore comple#ity in terms of fittings, branches, deadlegs in*ection points,
and other similar items.
e. 'igher potential for &?I
/eer T5=s can be selected for piping systems ith any of the folloing three
characteristics "
a. =o potential for creating a safety or environmental emergency in the
event of a lea!.
b. $elatively non3corosive piping systems.
c. =ong, straight3run piping systems.
T5=s can be eliminated for piping systems ith either of the folloing to
characteristics "
a. 6#tremely lo potential for creating a safety or environmental emergency
in the event of a lea!.
b. ;on3corrosive systems, as demonstrated by history or similar service, and
systems not sub*ect to changes that could cause corrosion.
?ltrasonic thic!ness measuring instruments usually are the most accurate mean
for obtaining thic!ness measurements on installed pipe larger than ;P( 0.
$adiographic profile techni%ues are preferred for pipe diameters of ;P( 0 and
smaller. $adiographic profile techni%ues may be used for locating areas to be
measured, particularly in insulted systems or here non3uniform or locali)ed
corrosion is suspected.
2here practical , ultrasonics can then be used to obtain the actual thic!ness of
the areas to be recorded. /olloing ultrasonic readings at T5=s, proper repair of
insulation and insulation eather coating is recommended to reduce the potential
for &?I.
$adiographic profile techni%ues, hich do not re%uire removing insulation, may
be considered as an alternative.
2hen ultrasonic measurements are ta!en above 050
/ ,:5
&., instruments,
couplants, and procedures should be used that ill result in accurate
measurements at the higher temperatures.
5easurements should be ad*usted by the appropriate temperature correction
a. Improper instrument calibration.
b. 6#ternal coatings or scale.
c. 6#cessive surface roughness.
d. 6#cessive Lroc!ingM of the probe ,on the curved surface.
e. (ubsurface material flas, such as laminations.
f. Temperature effects Eat temperatures above 050
/ ,:5
g. (mall fla detector screens.
h. Thic!ness of less than 0-J inch ,8.1 mm. for typical digital thic!ness
In addition, it must be !ept in mind that the pattern of corrosion can be non3
/or corrosion rate determinations to be valid, it is important that measurements
on the thinnest point be repeated as closely as possible to the same location.
Alternatively, the minimum reading or an average of several readings at a test
point may be considered.
2hen piping systems are out of service, thic!ness measurements may be ta!en
through openings using calipers. &alipers are useful in determining appro#imate
thic!nesses of castings, forgings, and valve bodies, as ell as pit depth
appro#imations from &?I on pipe.
Pit depth measuring devices also may be used to determine the depth of
locali)ed metal loss.
Pressure tests are not normally conducted as part of a routine inspection.
6#ceptions to this include re%uirements of local *urisdictions, after elded
alterations or hen specified by the inspector or piping engineer. 2hen they are
conducted , pressure tests shall be performed in accordance ith the
re%uirements of A(56 7 80.8
If a pressure test is to be maintained for a period of time and the test fluid in the
system is sub*ect to thermal e#pansion, precautions shall be ta!en to avoid
e#cessive pressure.
2hen a pressure test is re%uired, it shall be conducted after any heat treatment.
A pneumatic pressure test may be used hen it is impracticable to hydrostatically
test due to temperature, structural, or process limitations. 'oever, the potential
ris!s to personnel and property of pneumatic testing shall be considered hen
carrying out such a test. As a minimum, the inspection precautions contained in
A(56 7 80.8 shall be applied in any pneumatic testing.
4uring a pressure test, here the test pressure ill e#ceed the set pressure of
the safety valve on a piping system, the safety relief valve or valves should be
removed or blan!ed for the duration of the test. As an alternative, each valve
dis! must be held don by a suitably designed test clamp.
The application of an additional load to the valve spring by turning the ad*usting
scre is not recommended. @ther appurtenances that are incapable of
ithstanding the test pressure, such as gage glasses, pressure gages,
e#pansion *oints, and rupture dis!s, should be removed or blan!ed. =ines
containing e#pansion *oints that cannot be removed or isolated may be tested at
a reduced pressure in accordance ith the principles of A(56 7 80.8. If bloc!
valves are used to isolate a piping system for a pressure test, caution should be
used to not e#ceed the permissible seat pressure as described in A(56 7 0:.89
or applicable valve manufacturer data.
?pon completion of the pressure test, pressure relief devices of the proper
settings and other appurtenances removed or made inoperable during the
pressure test shall be reinstalled or reactivated.
4uring repairs or alterations of lo3 to high alloy piping systems, the inspector
shall verify the installation of the correct ne materials. At the discretion of the
oner-user or the inspector, this verification can be either by 000 percent
chec!ing or testing in certain critical situations or by sampling a percentage of the
Testing can be accomplished by the inspector or the e#aminer ith the use of
suitable portable methods, such as chemical spot testing, optical spectrographic
analy)ers, or >3ray fluorescent analy)ers. &hec!ing can involve verifying test
reports on materials, mar!ings on piping components and bolting, and !ey
If a piping system component should fail because an incorrect material as
inadvertently substituted for the proper piping material, the inspector shall
consider the need for further verification of e#isting piping materials.
The e#tent of further verification ill depend upon circumstances such as the
conse%uences of failure and the li!elihood of further material errors.
;ormally, thic!ness measurements are not routinely ta!en on valves in piping
circuits. The body of a valve is normally thic!er than other piping components for
design reasons. 'oever, hen valves are dismantlted for servicing and repair,
the shop should be attentive to any unusual corrosion patterns or thinning and,
hen noted, report that information to the inspector.
If gate valves are !non to be or are suspected of being e#posed to
corrosion-erosion, thic!ness readings should be ta!en beteen the seats, since
this is an area of high turbulence and high stress.
&ontrol valves or other throttling valves, particularly in high pressure drop3and3
slurry services, can be susceptible to locali)ed corrosion-erosion of the body
donstream of the orifice. If such metal loss is suspected, the valve should be
removed from the line for internal inspection. The inside of the donstream
mating flange and piping also should be inspected for local metal loss.
&ritical chec! valves should be visually and internally inspected to ensure that they
ill stop flo reversals.
An e#ample of a critical chec! valve may be the chec! valve located on the outlet of
a multistage, high head hydro3processing charge pump. /ailure of such a chec!
valve to operate correctly could result in over pressuring the piping during a flo
reversal. The normal visual inspection method should include "
a. &hec!ing to insure that the flapper is free to move, as re%uired, ithout
e#cessive looseness from ear.
b. The flapper stop should not have e#cessive ear. This ill minimi)e the
li!elihood that the flapper ill move past the top dead central position and
remain in an open position hen the chec! valve is mounted in a vertical
c. The flapper nut should be secured to the flapper bolt to avoid bac!ing off in
=ea! chec!s of critical chec! valves are normally not re%uired.
Inspection for piping eld %uality is normally accomplished as a part of the
re%uirements for ne construction, repairs, or alterations. 'oever, elds are
often inspected for corrosion as part of a radiographic profile inspection or as part
of internal inspection. 2hen preferential eld corrosion is noted, additional
elds in the same circuit or system should be e#amined for corrosion.
If the noted imperfections are a result of original eld fabrication, inspection
and-or engineering analysis is re%uired to assess the impact of the eld %uality
on piping integrity. This analysis may be one or more of the folloing
a. Inspector *udgment.
b. &ertified elding inspector *udgment.
c. Piping engineer *udgment.
d. 6ngineering fitness3for3service analysis.
Issues to consider hen assessing the %uality of e#isting elds include the
a. @riginal fabrication inspection acceptance criteria.
b. 6#tent, magnitude, and orientation of imperfections.
c. =ength of time in3service.
d. @perating versus design conditions.
e. Presence of secondary piping stresses ,residual and thermal.
f. Potential for fatigue loads ,mechanical and thermal..
g. Primary or secondary piping system.
h. Potential for impact or transient loads.
i. Potential for environmental crac!ing.
*. 2eld hardness.
In many cases for in3service elds, it is not appropriate to use the random or
spot radiography acceptance criteria for eld %uality in A(56 7 80.8 These
acceptance criteria are intended to apply to ne construction on a sampling of
elds, not *ust the elds e#amined, in order to assess the probable %uality of all
elds ,or elders. in the system.
(ome elds may e#ist that ill not meet these criteria but ill still perform
satisfactorily in service.
The mar!ings on a representative sample of nely installed fasteners and
gas!ets should be e#amined to determine hether they meet the material
specification. The mar!ings are identified in the applicable A(56 and A(T5
standards. Nuestionable fasteners should be verified or reneed.
/asteners should e#tend completely through their nuts. Any fastener failing to do
so is considered acceptably engaged if the lac! of complete engagement is not
more than one thread.
/langed and valve bonnet *oints should be e#amined for evidence of lea!age,
such as stains, deposits, or drips. Process lea!s onto flange and bonnet
fasteners may result in corrosion or environmental crac!ing.
This e#amination should include those flanges enclosed ith flange or splash3
and3spray guards.
".1 -ENERAL 0
The fre%uency and e#tent of inspection piping circuits depend on the forms of
degradation that can affect the piping and conse%uence of a piping failure.
Inspection strategy based on li!elihood and conse%uence of failure, is referred to
as ris!3based inspection. Piping classification scheme in (ection given belo is
based on the conse%uence of a failure. The classification is used to establish
fre%uency and e#tent of inspection. The oner-user may devise a more
e#tensive classification scheme that more accurately assesses conse%uence for
certain piping circuits. The conse%uence assessment ould consider the
potential for e#plosion, fire, to#icity, environmental impact and other potential
effects associated ith a failure.
After an effective assessment is conducted, the results can be used to establish
a piping circuit inspection strategy and more specifically better define the
folloing "
a. The most appropriate inspection methods, scope, tools and techni%ues to
be utili)ed based on the e#pected forms of degradation;
b. The appropriate inspection fre%uency;
c. The need for pressure testing after damage has been incurred or after
repairs or modifications have been completed; and
d. The prevention and mitigation steps to reduce the li!elihood and
conse%uence of a piping failure.
All process piping systems shall be categori)ed into different classes. (uch a
classification system allos e#tra inspection efforts to be focused on piping
systems that may have the highest potential conse%uences if failure or loss of
containment should occur. In general, the higher classified systems re%uire more
e#tensive inspection at shorter intervals in order to affirm their integrity for
continued safe operation. &lassifications should be based on potential safety
and environmental effects should a lea! occur.
".%.1 CLASS 1 0
(ervices ith the heist potential of resulting in an immediate emergency if a lea!
ere to occur are in &lass 0. (uch an emergency may be safety or
environmental in nature. 6#amples of &lass0 piping include, but are not
necessarily limited to, those containing the folloing "
a. /lammable services that may auto3refrigerate and lead to brittle fracture.
b. Pressuri)ed services that may rapidly vapori)e during release, creating
vapors that may collect and form an e#plosive mi#ture, such as &1, &8
and &9 streams.
c. 'ydrogen sulfide ,greater than 8 percent eight . in a gaseous stream.
d. Anhydrous hydrogen chloride.
e. 'ydrofluoric acid.
f. Piping over or ad*acent to ater and piping over public through ays.
".%.% CLASS % 0
(ervices not included in other classes are in &lass 1. This classification includes
the ma*ority of unit process piping and selected off3site piping . Typical e#amples
of these services include those containing the folloing "
a. @n3site hydrocarbons that ill sloly vapori)e during release.
b. 'ydrogen, fuel gas and natural gas
c. @n3site strong acids and caustics.
".%.( CLASS ( 0
(ervices that are flammable but do not significantly vapori)e hen they lea! and
are not located in high activity areas are in &lass 8 . (ervices that dare
potentially harmful to human tissue but are located in remote areas may be
included din this class. 6#amples of &lass 8 service are as follos "
a. @n site hydrocarbons that ill not significantly vapori)e during release.
b. 4istillate and product lines to and from storage and loading.
c. @ff3site acids and caustics.
The interval beteen piping inspections shall be established and maintained
using the folloing criteria "
a. &orrosion rate and remaining life calculations.
b. Piping service classification.
c. Applicable *urisdictional re%uirements
d. Oudgment of the inspector, the piping engineer, the piping engineer
supervisor, or a corrosion specialist, based don operating conditions,
previous inspection history, current inspection results, and conditions that
may arrant supplemental inspections covered in 5.9.5 of code.
Thic!ness measurements should be scheduled based on the calculation of not
more than half the remaining life determined from corrosion rates indicated or at
the ma#imum intervals suggested in Table :30, hichever is shorter. (horter
intervals may be appropriate under certain circumstances. Prior to using Table :3
0, corrosion rates should be calculated in accordance ith 7.08 of code.
The inspection interval must be revieed and ad*usted as necessary after each
inspection or significant change in operating conditions. Beneral corrosion,
locali)ed corrosion, pitting, environmental crac!ing, and other forms of
deterioration must be considered hen establishing the various inspection
6#ternal visual inspections, including inspections for corrosion under insulation
,&?I., should be conducted at ma#imum intervals listed in Table :30 to evaluate
items such as those in Appendi# 4. The e#ternal visual inspection on bare piping
is to assess the condition of paint and coating systems, to chec! for e#ternal
corrosion, and to chec! for other forms of deterioration. This e#ternal visual
inspection for potential &?I is also to assess insulation condition and shall be
conducted on all piping systems susceptible to &?I listed in of code
/olloing the e#ternal visual inspection of susceptible systems, additional
e#amination is re%uired for the inspection of &?I. The e#tent and type of the
additional &?I inspection are listed in Table :31 . 4amaged insulation at higher
elevations may result in &?I in loer areas remote from the damage. ;46
inspection for &?I should also be conducted as listed in Table :31 at suspect
locations of ,e#cluding c . meeting the temperature criteria for
$adiographic e#amination or insulation removal and visual inspection is normally
re%uired for this inspection at damaged or suspect locations. @ther ;46
assessment methods may be used here applicable. If the inspection of the
damaged or suspect areas has located significant &?I, additional area should be
inspected and, here arranted, up to 000 percent of the circuit should be
The e#tent of the &?I program described in Table :31 should be considered as
target levels for piping systems and locations ith no &?I inspection e#perience.
It is recogni)ed that several factors may affect the li!elihood of &?I to include "
a. =ocal climatic conditions
b. Insulation design.
c. &oating %uality.
d. (ervice conditions.
/acilities ith &?I inspection e#perience may increase or reduce the &?I
inspection targets of Table :31. An e#act accounting of the &?I inspection target
is not re%uired. The oner-user may confirm inspection targets ith operational
history or other documentation.
Piping systems that are !non to have a remaining life of over 00 years or that
are ade%uately protected against e#ternal corrosion need not be included for the
;46 inspection recommended in Table :31. 'oever, the condition of the
insulating system or the outer *ac!eting, such as a cold3bo# shell, should be
observed periodically by operating or other personnel. If deterioration is noted, it
should be reported to the inspector. The folloing are e#amples of these
systems "
a. Piping systems insulated effectively to preclude the entrance of moisture.
b. Oac!eted cryogenic piping systems
c. Piping systems installed in a cold bo# in hich the atmosphere is purged
ith an inert gas.
d. Piping systems in hich the temperature being maintained is sufficiently
lo or sufficiently high to preclude the presence of ater.
To satisfy inspection interval re%uirements, each thic!ness measurement
inspection should obtain thic!ness readings on a representative sampling of
T5=s on each circuit . This representative sampling should include data for all
the various types of components and orientations ,hori)ontal and vertical. found
in each circuit. This sampling also must include T5=s ith the earliest reneal
date as of the previous inspection. The more T5=s measured for each circuit,
the more accurately the ne#t inspection date ill be pro*ected. Therefore,
scheduled inspection of circuits should obtain as many measurements as
The e#tent of inspection for in*ection points is covered in 5.8.0 of code.
5.: 6>T6;T @/ (5A==37@$6, A?>I=IA$P PIPI;B, A;4 T'$6A464 3
&@;;6&TI@;( I;(P6&TI@;( "
(mall bore piping ,(7P. that is primary process piping should be
inspected in accordance ith all the re%uirements of this document.
(7P that is secondary process piping has different minimum re%uirements
depending upon service classification. &lass0 secondary (7P shall be
inspected to the same re%uirements as primary process piping. Inspection
of &lass1 and &lass 8 secondary (7P is optional. (7P deadlegs ,such
das level bridles. in &lass 1 and &lass 8 systems should be inspected
here corrosion has been e#perienced or is anticipated.
Inspection of secondary, au#iliary (7P associated ith instruments and
machinery is optional. &riteria to consider in determining hether au#iliary
(7P ill need some form of inspection include the folloing "
a. &lassification.
b. Potential for environmental or fatigue crac!ing.
c. Potential for corrosion based on e#perience ith ad*acent primary
d. Potential for &?I.
Inspection of threaded connections ill be according to the re%uirements
listed above for small3bore and au#iliary piping. 2hen selecting T5=s on
threaded connection, include only those that can be radio3graphed during
scheduled inspection.
Threaded connections associated ith machinery and sub*ect to fatigue
damage should be periodically assessed and considered for possible
reneal ith a thic!er all or upgrading to elded components. The
schedule for such reneal ill depend on several issues, including the
folloing "
a. &lassification piping
b. 5agnitude and fre%uency of vibration.
c. Amount of unsupported eight.
d. &urrent piping all thic!ness.
e. 2hether or not the system can be maintained on stream.
f. &orrosion rate.
g. Intermittent service.
Ty1e3 o! Crcut TEcDne33
,3u.2 E4tern.2
&lass 0 5 years 5 years
&lass 1 00 years 5 years
&lass 8 00 years 00 years
In*ection points 8 years 7y &lass
(oil3to3air interfaces 3333 7y &lass
Note " Thic!ness measurements apply to systems for hich T5=s have been
established in accordance ith 5.5
A11ro45.te A5ount o! Fo22owu1
E4.5n.ton wtE NDE or In3u2.ton
Re5ov.2 .t Are.3 wtE
D.5./ed In3u2.ton
A11ro45.te A5ount o! CUI
In31ecton by NDE .t Su31ect
Are.3 ; ".(.(.% < on P1n/ Sy3te53
wtEn Su3ce1tb2e Te51er.ture
R.n/e3 ; ".(.(.% e.!.E <
P1e C2.33
0 75Q 50Q
1 50Q 88Q
8 15Q 00Q
The dreaming life of the piping system shall be calculated from the folloing
formula "
actual H
$emaining life ,years. R 33333333333333333333333333333
&orrosion rate
Einches ,mm. per yearF
here "
actual R the actual minimum thic!ness, in inches ,mm.,determined at the
time of inspection as specified 5.:
minimum R the minimum re%uired thic!ness, in inches ,mm. for the limiting
section or )one.
The long term ,=.T.. corrosion rate of piping circuits shall be calculated from the
folloing formula "
&orrosion rate ,=.T.. R
initial 3
time ,years. beteen last
and initial inspections
The short term ,(.T.. corrosion rate of piping circuits shall be calculated from the
folloing formula "
&orrosion rate ,(.T.. R
previous H
time ,years. beteen last
and previous inspections
=ong term and short term corrosion rates should be compared to see hich
results in the shortest remaining life.
&orrosion rates shall be calculated on either a short term or a long term basis.
/or the short term calculation, readings from the to most recent inspections
shall be used. /or the long term calculation, all thic!nesses from the most
recent and initial ,or nominal. inspections shall be used. In most cases, the
higher of these to rates should be used to estimate remaining life and so set the
ne#t inspection interval.
If calculations indicate that an inaccurate rate of corrosion has been assumed,
the rate to be used for the ne#t period shall be ad*usted to agree ith the actual
rate found.
The ma#imum alloable or!ing pressure ,5A2P. for the continued use of
piping systems shall be established using the applicable code. &omputations
may be made for !non materials if all the folloing essential details are !non
to comply ith the principles of the applicable code "
a. ?pper and-or loer temperature limits for specific materials.
b. Nuality of materials and or!manship.
c. Inspection re%uirements.
d. $einforcement of openings.
e. Any cyclical service re%uirements.
/or un!non materials, computations may be made assuming the loest grade
material and *oint efficiency in the applicable code. 2hen the 5A2P is
recalculated, the all thic!ness used in these computations shall be the actual
thic!ness as determined by inspection ,see definition. minus tice the estimated
corrosion loss before the date of the ne#t inspection. Alloance shall be made
for the other loadings in accordance ith the applicable code. The applicable
code alloances for pressure and temperature variations from 5A2P are
permitted provided all of the associated code criteria are satisfied.
The minimum re%uired pipe all thic!ness, or retirement thic!ness, shall be
based on pressure, mechanical, and structural considerations using the
appropriate design formulas and code alloable stress. &onsideration of both
general and locali)ed corrosion shall be included. /or services ith high
potential conse%uences if failure ere to occur, the piping engineer should
consider increasing the re%uired minimum thic!ness above the calculated
minimum thic!ness to provide for unanticipated or un!non loadings,
undiscovered metal loss, or resistance to normal abuse.
Any significant increase in corrosion rates shall be reported to the oner-user for
appropriate action.
The oner-user shall maintain appropriate permanent and progressive records of
each piping system covered by API 570. These records shall contain pertinent
data such as piping system service; classification; identification numbers;
inspection intervals; and documents necessary to record the name of the
individual performing the testing, the date, the types of testing, the results of
thic!ness measurements and other tests, inspections, repairs ,temporary and
permanent., alterations, or rerating. 4esign information and piping draings may
be included. Information on maintenance activities and events affecting piping
system integrity also should be included. The date and results of re%uired
e#ternal inspections shall be recorded. ,see API $P 579 for guidance on piping
inspection records..
The use of a computer based system for storing, calculating, and analy)ing data
should be considered in vie of the volume of data that ill be generated as part
of a piping test3point program. &omputer programs are particularly useful for the
folloing "
a. (toring the actual thic!ness reading.
b. &alculating short and long term corrosion rates, retirement dates, 5A2P,
and reinspection intervals on a test point by test point basis.
c. 'ighlighting areas of high corrosion rates, circuits over3due for inspection,
close to retirement thic!ness, and other information.
The principles of A(56 780.8 or the code to hich the piping system as built
shall be folloed.
All repair and alteration or! must be done by a repair organi)ation as defined in
(ection 8 and must be authori)ed by the inspector prior to its commencement.
Authori)ation for alteration or! to a piping system may not be given ithout
prior consultation ith, and approval by, the piping engineer. The inspector ill
designate any inspection hold points re%uired during the repair or alteration
se%uence. The inspector may give prior general authori)ation for limited or
routine repairs and procedures, provided the inspector is satisfied ith the
competency of the repair organi)ation.
#.1.% APPRO,AL "
All proposed methods of design, e#ecution, materials, elding procedures,
e#amination, and testing must be approved by the inspector or by the piping
engineer, as appropriate. @ner-user approval of on stream elding is re%uired.
2elding repairs of crac!s that occurred in service should not be attempted
ithout prior consultation ith the piping engineer in order to identify and correct
the cause of the crac!ing. 6#amples are crac!s suspected of being caused by
vibration, thermal cycling, thermal e#pansion problems, and environmental
The inspector shall approve all repair and alteration or! at designated hold
points and after the repairs and alterations have been satisfactorily completed in
accordance ith the re%uirements of API 570
/or temporary repairs, including on steam, a full encirclement
elded split sleeve or bo# type enclosure designed by the piping
engineer may be applied over the damaged or corroded area.
=ongitudinal crac!s shall not be repaired in this manner unless the
piping engineer has determined that crac!s ould not be e#pected
to propagate from under the sleeve. In some cases, the piping
engineer ill need to consult ith a fracture analyst.
If the repair area is locali)ed ,for e#ample, pitting or pinholes. and
the specified minimum yield strength ,(5P(. of the pipe is not
more than 90,000 psig ,175,J00 !Pa., a temporary repair may be
made by fillet elding a properly designed split coupling or plate
patch over the pitted area ,(ee 7.1.8 for design considerations and
Appendi# & for an e#ample . The material for the repair shall
match the base metal unless approved by the piping engineer.
/or minor lea!s, properly designed enclosures may be elded over
the lea! hile the piping system is in service, provided the
inspector is satisfied that ade%uate thic!ness remains in the vicinity
of the eld and the piping component can ithstand elding
ithout the li!elihood of further material damage, such as form
caustic service.
Temporary repairs should be removed and replaced ith a suitable
permanent repair at the ne#t available maintenance opportunity.
Temporary repairs may remain in place for a longer period of time
only if approved and documented by the piping engineer.
$epairs to defects found in piping components may be made by
preparing a elding groove that completely removes the defect and
then filling the groove ith eld metal deposited din accordance
ith 7.1
&orroded areas may be restored ith eld metal deposited din
accordance ith 7.1 (urface irregularities and contamination shall
be removed before elding. Appropriate ;46 methods shall be
applied after completion of the eld.
If it is feasible to ta!e the piping system out of service, the defective
area may be removed by cutting out a cylindrical section and
replacing it ith a piping component that meets the applicable
Insert patches ,flush patches. may be used to repair damaged or
corroded areas if the folloing re%uirements are met "
a. /ull penetration groove elds are provided.
b. /or &lass 0 and &lass 1 piping systems, the elds shall be
000 percent radio3graphed or ultrasonically tested using
;46 procedures that are approved by the inspector.
c. Patches may be any shape but shall have rounded corners
,0 inch ,15mm. minimum radius.
Temporary repairs of locally thinned sections or circumferential linear defects
may be made on stream by installing a properly designed and fabricated bolted
lea! clamp. The design shall include control of a#ial thrust loads if the piping
component being clamped is ,or may become. insufficient to control pressure
thrust. The effect of clamping ,crushing. forces on the component also shall be
4uring turnarounds or other appropriate opportunities, temporary lea! sealing
and lea! dissipating devices, including valves, shall be removed and appropriate
actions ta!en to tSrestore the original integrity of the piping system. The inspector
and-or dipping engineer shall be involved in determining repair methods and
Procedures that include lea! sealing fluids ,pumping. for process piping should
be revieed for acceptance by the inspector or piping engineer. The revie
should ta!e into consideration the compatibility of the sealant ith the lea!ing
material; the pumping pressure on the clamp ,especially hen reEpumping.; the
ris! of sealant affecting donstream flo meters, relief valves, or machinery, the
ris! of subse%uent lea!age at bolt threads causing corrosion or stress corrosion
crac!ing of bolts; and the number of times the seal area is re3pumped.
All repair and alteration elding shall be done in accordance ith the principles
of A(56 7 80.8 or the code to hich the piping system as built.
Any elding conducted on piping components in operation must be done in
accordance ith API Publ 1100. The inspector shall use as a minimum the T
(uggested 'ot Tap &hec!listM contained in API Publication 1100 for hot tapping
performed on piping components.
The repair organi)ation shall use elders and elding procedures %ualified in
accordance ith A(56 780.8 or the code to hich the piping as built.
The repair organi)ation shall maintain records of elding procedures and elder
performance %ualifications. These records shall be available to the inspector
prior to the start of elding.
#.%.%.1 PREHEATIN- "
Preheat temperature used in mas!ing elding repairs shall be in
accordance ith the applicable code and %ualified elding
procedure. 6#ceptions for temporary repairs must be approved by
the piping engineer.
Preheating to not less that 800
/ ,050
&. may be considered as an
alternative to posteld heat treatment ,P2'T. for alterations or
repairs of piping systems initially posteld heat heated as a code
re%uirement ,see note.. This applies to piping constructed of the P3
0 steels listed in A(56 780.8. P38 steels , ith the e#ception of
5n35o steels, also may receive the 800
&. minimum preheat
alternative hen the piping system operating temperature is high
enough to provide reasonable toughness and hen there is no
identifiable ha)ard associated ith pressure testing , shutdon, and
startup. The inspector should determine that the mKinimum
preheat temperature is measured and maintained. After elding,
the *oint should immediately be covered ith insulation to slo the
cooling rate.
NOTE " Preheating may not be considered as an alternative to environmental
crac!ing prevention.
Piping systems constructed of other steel initially re%uiring P2'T normally
are posteld heat treated if alterations or repairs involving pressure
retaining elding are performed. The use of the preheat alternative
re%uires consultation ith the piping engineer ho should consider the
potential for environmental crac!ing and hether the elding procedure
ill provide ade%uate toughness. 6#amples of situations here this
alternative could be considered include seal elds, eld metal buildup of
thin area, and elding support clips.
P2'T of piping system repairs or alterations should be made using
the applicable re%uirements of A(56 780.8 or the code to hich
the piping as built. (ee for an alternative preheat
procedure for some P2'T re%uirements. 6#ceptions for temporary
repair must be approved by the piping engineer.
=ocal P2'T may be substituted for 8:03 degree banding on local
repairs on all materials, provided the folloing precautions and
re%uirements are applied.
a. The application is revieed, and a procedure is developed
by the piping engineer.
b. In evaluating the suitability of a procedure, consideration
shall be given to applicable factors, such as base metal
thic!ness, thermal gradients, material properties, changes
resulting from P2'T, the need for full penetration elds, and
surface and volumetric e#aminations after P2'T.
Additionally, the overall and local strains and distortions
resulting from the heating of a local restrained area of the
piping all shall be considered in developing and evaluating
P2'T procedures.
c. A preheat of 800
/ ,050
&., or higher as specified by
specific elding procedures, is maintained hile elding.
d. The re%uired P2'T temperature shall be maintained for a
distance of not less than to times the base metal thic!ness
measured form the eld. The P2'T temperature shall be
monitored by a suitable number of thermocouples ,a
minimum of to. based on the si)e and shape of the area
being heat treated.
e. &ontrolled heat also shall be applied to any branch
connection or other attachment ithin the P2'T area.
f. The P2'T is performed for code compliance and not for
environmental crac!ing resistance.
#.%.( DESI-N "
7utt *oints shall be full penetration groove elds.
Piping components shall be replaced hen repair is li!ely to be inade%uate. ;e
connections and replacement s shall be designed and fabricated according to
the principles of the applicable code. The design of temporary enclosures and
repairs shall be approved by the piping engineer.
;e connections may be installed on piping systems provided the design,
location, and method of attachment conform to the principles of the applicable
/illet3elded patches re%uire special design considerations, especially relating to
eld3*oint efficiency and crevice corrosion. /illet3elded patches shall be
designed by the piping engineer. A patch may be applied to the e#ternal surfaces
of piping, provided it is in accordance ith 7.0.8 and meets either of the folloing
re%uirements. "
a. The proposed patch provides design strength e%uivalent to a reinforced
opening designed according to the applicable code.
b. The proposed patch is designed to absorb the membrane strain of the part
in a manner that is in accordance ith the principles of the applicable
code, if the folloing criteria are met "
0. The alloable membrane stress is not e#ceeded in the piping part
or the patch.
1. The strain in the patch does not result in fillet eld stresses e#ceeding
alloable stresses for such elds.
8. An overlay patch shall have rounded corners ,se Appendi# &.
#.%.' )ATERIALS "
The materials used in ma!ing repairs or alterations shall be of !non eldable
%uality, shall conform to the applicable code, and shall be compatible ith the
original materials. /or material verification re%uirements see 9.J
Acceptance of a elded repair or alteration shall include ;46 in accordance ith
the applicable code and the oner-user+s specification, unless otherise
specified in API 570
After elding is completed, pressure test in accordance ith 9.7 shall be
performed if practical and deemed necessary by the inspector. Pressure tests
are normally re%uired after alterations and ma*or repairs. 2hen a pressure test
is not necessary or practical, ;46 shall be utili)ed in lieu of a pressure test.
(ubstituting special procedures for a pressure test after an alteration or repair
may b e done only after consultation ith the inspector and the piping engineer.
2hen it is not practical to perform a pressure test of a final closure eld that *oins
a ne or replacement section of piping to an e#isting system, all of the folloing
re%uirements shall be satisfied "
a. The ne or replacement piping is pressure tested.
b. The closure eld is a full penetration butt3eld beteen a eld nec! flange
and standard piping component or straight sections of pipe of e%ual
diameter and thic!ness, a#ially aligned , not miter cut ., and of e%uivalent
materials. Acceptable alternatives are
0. slip3on flanges for design cases upto &lass 050 and 500
&. and
1. soc!et elded flanges or soc!et elded unions for si)es ;P( 1 or
less and design cases upto &lass 050 and 500
/ ,1:0
&.. A spacer
designed for soc!et elding or some other means shall be used to
establish a minimum 0-0: inch ,0.: mm . gap. (oc!et elds shall
be per A(56 780.8 and shall be a minimum of to passes.
c. Any final closure butt3eld shall be of 000 percent radiographic %uality;
@$ angle beam ultrasonics fla detection may be used, provided the
appropriate acceptance criteria have been established.
d. 5T or PT shall be performed on the root pass and the completed eld for
butt3elds and on the completed eld for fillet elds.
$erating piping systems by changing the temperature rating or the 5A2P may
be done only after all of the folloing re%uirements have been met "
a. &alculations are performed by the piping engineer or the inspector.
b. All ratings shall be established in accordance ith the re%uirements of the
code to hich the piping system as built or by computation using the
appropriate methods in the latest edition of the applicable code.
c. &urrent inspection records verify that the piping system is satisfactory for the
proposed service conditions and that the appropriate corrosion alloance
is provided.
d. $erated piping systems shall be lea! tested in accordance ith the code
to hich the piping system as built or the latest edition of the applicable
code for the ne service conditions, unless documented records indicate
a previous lea! test as performed at greater than or e%ual to the test
pressure for the ne condition. An increase in the rating temperature that
does not affect alloable tenside stress does not re%uire a lea! test.
e. The piping system is chec!ed to affirm that the re%uired pressure relieving
devices are present, are set at the appropriate pressure, and have the
appropriate capacity at set pressure.
f. The piping system rerating is acceptable to the inspector or piping
g. All piping components in the system ,such as valves, flanges, bolts,
gas!ets, pac!ing, and e#pansion *oints. are ade%uate for the ne
combination of pressure and temperature.
E. P1n/ !2e4b2ty 3 .deGu.te !or de3/n te51er.ture cE.n/e3.
i. Appropriate engineering records are updated.
*. A decrease in minimum operating temperature is *ustified by impact test
results, if re%uired by the applicable code.
Inspection of buried process piping is different from other process piping inspection
because significant e#ternal deterioration can be caused by corrosive soil conditions.
(ince the inspection is hindered by the inaccessibility of the affected areas of the piping,
the inspection of buried piping is treated in a separate section of API 570.
8.1.1 Above ,3u.2 Surve22.nce 0
Indications of lea!s in buried piping may include a change in the surface contour
of the ground, discoloration of the soil, softening of paving asphalt, pool
formation, bubbling ater puddles, or noticeable odor. (urveying the route of
buried piping is one method of identifying problem areas.
8.1.% C2o3e Interv.2 Potent.2 Survey 0
The close interval potential survey performed at ground level over the buried pipe
can be used to locate active corrosion points on the pipe+s surface.
&orrosion cells can form on both bare and coated pipe here the bare steel
contacts the soil. (ince the potential at the area of corrosion ill be measurably
different from an ad*acent area on the pipe, the location of the corrosion activity
can be determined by this survey techni%ue.
8.1.( P1e Ho2d.y Survey 0
The pipe coating holiday survey can be used to locate coating defects on buried
coated pipes, and it can be used on nely constructed pipe systems to ensure
that the coating is intact and holiday free. 5ore often it is used to evaluate
coating serviceability for buried piping that has been in service for an e#tended
period of time.
8.1.' So2 Re33tvty "
&orrosion of bare or poorly coated piping is often caused by a mi#ture of different
soils in contact ith the pipe surface. The corrosiveness of the soils can be
determined by a measurement of the soil resistivity. =oer levels of resistivity
are relatively more corrosive than higher levels, especially in areas here the
pipe is e#posed to significant changers in soil resistivity.
8.1." C.tEodc Protecton )ontorn/ 0
&athodicallyJ protected buried piping should be monitored regularly to assure
ade%uate levels of protection. 5onitoring should include periodic measurement
and analysis of pipe to soil potentials by personnel trained and e#perienced in
cathodic protection system operation. 5ore fre%uent monitoring of critical
cathodic protection components, such as impressed current rectifiers, is re%uired
to ensure reliable system operation.
8.1.* In31ecton )etEod3 0
(everal inspection methods are available. (ome methods can indicate the
e#ternal or all condition of the piping, hereas other methods indicate only the
internal condition. 6#amples are as follos "
a. Intelligent pigging. This method involves the movement of a
device ,pig. through the piping either hile it is in service or after it has
been removed from service. (everal types of devices are available
employing different methods of inspection.
b. Iideo cameras. Television cameras are available that cana be
inserted into the piping. These cameras may provide visual inspection
information on the internal condition of the line.
c. 6#cavation. In many cases, the only available inspection
method that can be performed is unearthing the piping in order to visually
inspect the e#ternal condition of the piping and to evaluate its thic!ness
and internal condition.
8.%.1 Above& ,3u.2 Surve22.nce "
The oner- user should, at appro#imately : month intervals survey the surface
conditions on and ad*acent to each pipeline path.
8.%.% P1e to So2 Potent.2 Survey "
A close interval potential survey on a cathodically protected line may be used to
verify that the buried piping has a protective potential throughout its length. /or
poorly coated pipes here cathodic protection potentials are inconsistent, the
survey may be conducted at 5 year intervals for veritication of continuous
corrosion control.
/or piping ith no cathodic protection or in areas here lea!s have occurred due
to e#ternal corrosion, a pipe to soil potential survey may be conducted along the
pipe route. The pipe should be e#cavated at sites here active corrosion cells
have been located to determine the e#tent of corrosion damage.
8.%.( P1e Ho2d.y Survey "
The fre%uency of pipe coating holiday surveys is usually based on indications
that other forms of corrosion control are ineffective. /or e#ample, on a coated
pipe here there is gradual loss of cathodic protection potentials or an e#ternal
corrosion lea! occurs at a coating defect, a pipe coating holiday survey may be
used to evaluate the coating.
8.%.' So2 Corro3vty "
/or piping buried in lengths greater than 000 feet , 80 m . and not cathodically
protected, evaluations of soil corrosivity should be performed at 5 year intervals.
(oil resistivity measurements may be used for relative classification of the soil
8.%." C.tEodc Protecton "
If the piping is cathodically protected, the system should be monitored at intervals
in accordance ith (ection 00 of ;A&6 $P00:K or (ection 00 of API $P :50.
8.%.* E4tern.2 .nd Intern.2 In31ecton Interv.23 "
If internal corrosion of buried piping is e#pected as a result of inspection on the
above grade portion of the line, inspection intervals and methods for the buried
portion should be ad*usted accordingly. The inspector should be aare of and
consider the possibility of accelerated internal corrosion in deadlegs.
The e#ternal condition of buried piping that is not cathodically protected should
be determined by either pigging, hich can measure all thic!ness or by
e#cavating according to the fre%uency given in Table K30. (ignificant e#ternal
corrosion detected by pigging or by other means may re%uire e#cavation and
evaluation even if the piping is cathodically protected.
Piping inspected periodically by e#cavation shall be inspected in lengths of : feet
HJ feet , 1.0 m31.5 m . at one or more locations *udged to be most suspectible to
corrosion. 6#cavated piping should be inspected full circumference for the type
and e#tent of corrosion , pitting or general . and the condition of the coating.
If inspection reveals damaged coating or corroded piping, additional piping shall
be e#cavated until the e#tent of the condition is identified. If the average all
thic!ness is at or belo retirement thic!ness, it shall be repaired or replaced.
If the piping is contained inside a casing pipe, the conditional of the casing
should be inspected to determine if ater and- or soil has entered the casing.
The inspector should verify the folloing "
a. both ends of the casing e#tend beyond the ground line;
b. the ends of the casing are sealed if the casing is not self3draining; and
c. the pressure carrying pipe is properly coated and rapped.
8.%.# Le.D Te3tn/ Interv.23 "
An alternative or supplement to inspection is lea! testing ith li%uid at a pressure
atleast 00 percent greater than ma#imum operating pressure at intervals one3half
the length of those shon in Table K30 for piping not cathodically protected and at
the same intervals as shon in Table K30 for cathodically protected piping. The
lea! test should be maintained for a period of J hours.
/our hours after the initial pressuri)ation of the piping system, the pressure
should be noted and, if necessary, the line repressuri)ed to original test pressure
and isolated from the pressure source.
If, during the remainder of the test period, the pressure decreases more than 5
percent, the piping should be visually inspected e#ternally and- or inspected
internally to find the lea! and assess the e#tent of corrosion. (onic
measurements may be helpful in locating lea!s during lea! testing.
7uried piping also may be surveyed for integrity by using temperature3corrected
volumetric or pressure test methods.
Table K30 /re%uency of Inspection for 7uried Piping
2ithout 6ffective &athodic Protection
So2 Re33tvty; oE5&c5 < In31ecton Interv.2 ; ye.r3 <
U 1,000 5
1,000 to 00,000 00
V 00,000 05

@ther alternative lea! test methods involve acoustic emission e#amination and
the addition of a tracer fluid to the pressuri)ed line , such as helium or sulfur
he#afloride .. If the tracer is added to the service fluid, the oner- user shall
confirm suitability for process and product.
8.(.1 Re1.r3 to "
Any coating removed for inspection shall be reneed and inspected
/or coating repairs, the inspector should be assured that the coating meets the
folloing criteria "
a. It has sufficient adhesion to the pipe to prevent under film migration of
b. It is sufficiently ductile to resist crac!ing.
c. It is free of voids and gaps in the coating , holidays ..
d. It has sufficient strength to resist damage due to handling and soil
e. It can support any supplemental cathodic protection.
In addition, coating repairs may be tested using a high voltage holiday detector.
The detector voltage shall be ad*usted to the appropriate value for the coating
material and thic!ness. Any holidays fould shall be repaired and retested.
8.(.% C2.51 Re1.r3 0
If piping lea!s are clamped and reburied, the location of the clamp shall be
logged in the inspection record and may be surface mar!ed.
7oth the mar!er and the record shall note the date of installation and the
location of the clamp. All clamps shall be considered temporary. The piping
should be permanently repaired at the first opportunity.
8.(.( ?e2ded Re1.r3 0
2elded repairs shall be made in accordance in J.1 of &ode.
8.(.' Record3 0
$ecord systems for buried piping should be maintained in accordance ith 7.: of
&ode. In addition, a record of the location and date of installation of temporary
clamps shall be maintained.
0. The primary purpose of inspection is to identify active deterioration
mechanisms and to specify repair, replacement, or future inspections for
affected piping.
1. 7y developing a database of inspection history, the user may predict
and recommend future repairs and replacements.
8. The user can act to prevent or retard further deterioration and, most
importantly, prevent loss of containment.
9. This should result in increased operating safety, reduced maintenance
cost, and more reliable and efficient operations.
5. API 570, Piping Inspection &ode provides the basic re%uirements for
such an inspection program. This recommended practice supplements
API 570 by providing piping inspectors ith information that can improve
s!ill and increase basic !noledge and practices.
0. A lea! or failure in a piping system may be only a minor inconvenience, or
it may become a potential source of fire or e#plosion, depending on the
temperature, pressure, contents, and location of the piping.
1. Ade%uate inspection is a prere%uisite for maintaining the lines containing
flammable fluids and to#ic chemicals in a safe operable condition.
8. (everal safety regulations mandate piping, that carries ha)ardous
chemicals be inspected according to accepted codes and standards,
hich includes API 570.
0. Thorough inspection and analysis and the use of historical records of
piping systems are essential to the attainment of acceptable reliability,
efficient operation, and optimum on stream service.
1. Piping replacement schedules can be developed to coincide ith planned
maintenance turnaround schedules through methodical forecasting of
piping service life.
0. $egulatory re%uirements usually cover only those conditions that affect
safety and environmental concerns.
1. Inspection groups in the Petrochemical industry familiar ith the industry+s
problems inspect for other conditions that adversely affect plant operation.
8. 6ach plant should be familiar ith the local re%uirements for process
piping inspection.
0. The single most fre%uent reason for replacing piping is thinning due to
1. The !ey to the effective monitoring of piping corrosion is identifying and
establishing thic!ness monitoring locations ,T5=s. .
8. T5=s are designated areas in the piping system here thic!ness
measurements are periodically ta!en. 7y ta!ing repeated measurements and
recording at the same points over e#tended periods, corrosion rates can more
accurately be calculated.
(ome of the factors to consider hen establishing the corrosion monitoring plan
for process piping are "
a. &lassifying the piping in accordance ith API 570.
b. &ategorising the piping into circuits of similar corrosion behavior.
c. Identifying susceptible locations here accelerated corrosion is e#pected.
d. Accessibility of the T5=s for monitoring.
0. A piping circuit is a section of piping of hich all points are e#posed to an
environment of similar corrosivity and hich is of similar design conditions and
construction material.
1. 7y identifying li!e environments as circuits, the spread of calculated corrosion
rates of the T5=s in each circuit is reduced.
8. &orrosion rates are normally increased at areas of increased velocity and- or
turbulence. 6lbos, reducers, tees, control valves, and orifices are e#amples of
piping components here accelerated corrosion may occur because of increased
velocity and - or turbulence.
9. (uch components are normally areas to locate additional T5=s in a piping circuit.
5. Areas of no flo, such as deadlegs , (ection :.8.1 . may cause accelerated
corrosion and may need additional T5=s.
0. In*ection points are some times sub*ect to accelerate or locali)ed corrosion.
1. In*ection points may be treated as separate inspection circuits and need to be
inspected thoroughly on a regular schedule.
The fre%uency of piping inspections should be determined by the folloing conditions "
a. The conse%uence of a failure , piping classification .,
b. The degree of ris! , li!elihood and conse%uence of a
failure .
c. The amount of corrosion alloance remaining
d. The historical data available
e. $egulatory re%uirements.
API 570 re%uires classifying piping systems according to the conse%uences of failure.
The fre%uency and thoroughness of piping inspections ill range from often and
e#tensive in lo piping classes here deterioration is e#treme, to seldom and cursory in
high piping classes in non3corrosive services.
An effective, program of piping inspection ill include obtaining as many of the re%uired
all thic!ness measurements as possible hile a plant is on stream. 7oth ambient and
high temperature ultrasonic thic!ness measurements may be ta!en. @n most piping,
all thic!ness radiographs can be ta!en independently through undisturbed insulation.
$adiographs can also be used to identify corroded areas.
@n stream inspection can reduce dontime by the folloing means "
6#tending process runs by assuring piping conditions are suitable for continued
Permitting fabrication of replacement piping before a shutdon.
6liminating unnecessary or! and reducing shutdon personnel re%uirements;
for e#ample, personnel ho are otherise used to remove insulation and brea!
flanges for inspection during the turnaround can be made available for other
Aiding maintenance planning to reduce surges in or!3load, thus, stabili)ing
personnel re%uirements.
Inspections that cannot be made hile the e%uipment is operating must be made hen
the system is shut don. In addition, hen piping is opened for any reason, it should be
inspected internally as far as accessibility permits. Ade%uate follo up inspections
should be conducted to determine the causes of defects, such as lea!s, misalignment,
vibration, and saying that ere detected hile the unit as operating.
, API 579 H &'APT6$ J .
Procedures for segregation of piping, installation of blinds etc. shall be integral
part of safety practices of the plant. In general piping to be opened shall be "
- Isolated from all sources of harmful li%uids and gases, vapours.
- Purging to remove all oil and to#ic gases
- Precautions should be ta!en before hammer testing hich may cause
crac!s, failures, or allo contents to be released.
All possible preparatory or! should be done before scheduled start of
inspection hich include "
- (caffolds erection
- 6#cavation of buried piping at inspection points
- &hec! availability and or!ing condition of inspection tools re%uired
- Availability and condition of e%uipments and clothing for personnel
- ;ecessary arning signs
- 7arricades
, API3579 H &'APT6$ 00 .
a. =ea!age spots , corrosion product build up at pipe support and clamps
contact area .
b. (igns of misalignment, vibrations
c. (upports and vibrations
d 6#ternal condition of piping insulation
. < Le.D./e 31ot30 "
=ea!s in utility piping may not be ha)ardous.
=ea!s in hot to#ic, volatile gases may be dangerous. lea! drippings may corrode
piping belo. attention shall be given to flange *oints, pac!ing glands,
e#pansion *oints, valve bonnets etc. =ea!s may be stopped or reduced by
tightening flanges, pac!ing glands. Isolate the piping and attend to it if situation
b < )3.2/n5ent
- Pipes dislodged from supports,
- (hifting of base plate, brea!ing of foundation
- Pipe supports forced out of plumb
- 6#pansion *oints e#cessively damaged
- 6%uipment alls at terminal points shoing deformation
- 6#cessive repair of bearings of rotating machinery to hich piping is
c < Su11ort3 B ,br.ton3
- Physical damage, distortion , movement of supports, failure or loosening of
foundation bolts
- $estricted operations of pipe rollers, slide plates
- 7ro!en pipe anchors
- 4amage to small branch line due to thermal movement of larger lines , >3P3C
directions .
- If e#cessive vibrations are observed in a piping elds shall be inspected for
crac!s, especially at points of restraints, anchors
- Additional supports may be considered for poorly supported lines
- (ee! advice of &onsultant - Piping 6ngineer to eliminate - dampen the
d < E4tern.2 Corro3on
- 4ue to defects in &oating, painting or damaged insulation
- (urvey for &?I shall be done in operation to the e#tent possible
- =ines that seat, li%uid spills, condensate ,relief valves don stream . may
cause e#ternal corrosion
- 'ot spots due to damage of internal refractory lining.
- ;ight glo or balding of pipes may be seen
- To arrest balding e#ternal cooling by ater, air, may be used till system is
removed for maintenance
0. Iisual inspection after pipe is opened at various flanged *oints and valves.
, /lash light and e#tension lights and mirrors magnifying glasses may be used .
may reveal folloing "
a . 6#cessive corrosion - 6rosion, fouling
b . &rac!s , elds are most prone areas . investigate crac!s further by blast
cleaning and et fluorescent 5PI, =PI and ?T
c . Bas!et faces of flanges shall be chec!ed for scratches, cuts, pitting etc
, $ef. A(56 7 0:.5 Para :.0 .
d . Ialves, bodies to be chec!ed for thic!ness, flanged ends for defects X
above and other parts , seat stem spring for damage and brea!age, chec!
studs and nuts for deformation, shaving of threads etc.
e . &hec! threaded *oints for loose threads, corrosing, cross threading,
ensure ne Teflon tapes are used hile putting bac! in place
f . Areas seen as hot spots e#ternally shall be inspected for damage
internally and repaired
g . 4amage to internal painting, coating, cladding shall be surveyed and
0 . Piping systems sub*ect to pr. Test include "
a. ?nderground lines and other inaccessible piping
b. 2ater and other non3ha)ardous utility lines
c. =ong oil3transfer lines in arcas here a lea! or spill ould not be
ha)ardous to personnel or harmful to the environment.
d. &omplicated manifold systems.
e. (mall piping and tubing systems.
f. All systems after a chemical cleaning operation.
1 . API 570 sec. 8.7 gives guidelines for preparing piping for pressure Testing.
8 . 4uring li%uid pressure Test, all air must be e#pelled, or else failure could be
more violent than li%uid3full system.
9 . Avod over 1re33ure
H yield limit may e#ceed. ?se calibrated pressure Bauges ,gauge range 0 < to 9
times test pressure.. 'oever, 1 to 8 times P
is preferred.
5 . F2ud3 u3ed 3
a. ater H ,preferred .
b. =i%uid products normally carried if not to#ic or inflammable
c. (team
d. Air, ;itrogen, 'elium
: . 2ater as test medium may not be suitable for
a. Acid lines
b. Iacuum lines , vertical lines .
c. &orrosion of Austentic (teels , (&& .
d. 5ay free)e in cold eather
7 . (team may be used particularly if it is used for heating or purging. 'oever,
- difficulty in draining condensate from all areas and
- &ompressibility ,unsafe .
- Inaccessibility and burn to personnel on lea!age could put severe
restrictions. All precautions of pneumatic testing stated in A(56 7 80.8
must be observed for steam testing as ell. te3t30
Pneumatic tests ith soap solutions are permissible. 'oever, best gaseous
mediums ould be inert gases li!e nitrogen 'elium etc.
'elium is ideal as it can detect minutest crac!s hich otherise ould be missed
in ater, air, steam or ;itrogen testing.
'elium lea!age in ppm levels can be detected by 'elium sniffers.
'ence they are used hen service conditions are particularly critical.
'ammer testing is old method to detect une#pected thin sections.
&ast Irons and &austic lines inside coated lines should not be hammered
$e%uires personal e#pertise
'ammer test shall be folloed up by other methods li!e ?T at suspected areas.
0 In addition to product corrosion the ?nderground Piping is e#posed to soil
corrosion. /olloing methods are adopted in inspection of ?nderground Piping "
1. A survey above ground of the piping route could sho discoloration of soil,
pool formation, noticeable odor etc. for hich corrosion and lea! may be
probable cause.
All Pipes are inspected at and *ust belo the point here they enter earth,
concrete, asphalt etc. since these areas are more prone to corrosion.
8. &lose internal potential survey H This techni%ue measures the potential of the
pipe to the soil directly over pipe at fi#ed intervals , 5 ft, 00 ft. etc. .
Pipe contact can be made at an above ground attachment. (udden change of
P-( potential is location for further scrutiny , by e#cavation, if re%uired ..
9. 'oliday pipe coating survey is employed to ensure that coating is intact and
holiday free.This techni%ue is used for predicting corrosion activity in specific
area and coating replacement decisions.
5. (oil resistivity testing " This techni%ue is used for relative classification of the
soil resistivity.=oer levels of resistivity are more corrosive than higher levels.
:. &athodic Protection 5onitoring " This shall be carried out regularly to assure
ade%uate levels of protection.
Periodic monitoring includes chec!ing condition of sacrifical anodes or rectifier
currents in impressed current system.
7. Intelligent Pigging " This method involves movement of device ,pig. through
piping. 'oever, this techni%ue re%uires line to be free from restrictions ,i.e. full
bore valves, absence of reduces. and five diameter ban!ds. Iery effective
techni%ue in long distance piping. 'oever, blant piping has limited use.
J. Iideo &ameras " These provide direct visual information on internal
condition of pipe.
K. 6#cavation " (ometimes the only available method is unearthing of piping for
visual inspection of e#ternal condition of piping and evaluate its thic!ness.
00. =ea! testing " IIB lines that can not be visually inspected should be
a. Pressure decay method " Pressurise the line, bloc! it, remove
source of pressure, monitoring over a period of time ill provide indicating
of pressure tightness. Performance can be confirmed by lea! simulation.
b. Iolume in- volume out method uses volumetric measuring meter at
each end of the line. Performance can be determined by lea! simulation.
c. (ingle point volumetric method is similar to pressure decay method
e#cept that a graduated cylinder is employed to chec! level reduction by
d. 5a!er chemical ,tracer. may be added to line to detect lea! and
soil gas samples near line are tested for presence of ma!er chemicals.
e. Accoustic emission technology detects and locates lea!s by sound
created by lea! and detected by senser.
, API 579 Par. 00.0 .
0 . Thic!ness formulas from A(56 780.8 shall be used.
t R t
2here t
R 3333333333333333 Y A or,
1(6 Y1PP

R 33333333 Z , 7arlo formula.
, for t V 4-: or P-(6 V 0.8J5, special considerations
re%uired .
In practice t is generally higher due to rounding up of pipe
schedule to higher number.
1 . /or lo pressure and temperatures, above thic!nesses could be so small for
sufficient structural strength for span and other ?4= , insulation, sno etc. .
8 . Absolute minimum thic!ness , t
. shall be determined based on internal
pressure, sag, buc!ling etc.
Pipe should not be permitted to deteriorate belo this thic!ness , t
., hich is
called L$etirement Thic!nessM i.e. Pipe shall be retired , replaced . at this
9 . Above calculations shall be performed by or under direction of Piping 6ngineer.
, API 579 H Para 00.1 .
0.(tress pattern for valves and flanges in %uite comple# due to simultaneous effects of "
- Internal pressure
- 7olts load forces and movements
- (tress concentration due to shape
1. A(56 7 0:.89 determines that min. Ialve all thic!ness ,t
. shall be
R 0.5 # t Z.. for Ialve classes 050 H 1500
R 0.85 # t Z for Ialve class 9500
2here, t R Thic!ness of &ylinder ith ( R 7000 psi and Pressure same as that
from P H T ratings
Actual thic!ness , t
. given in 7 0:.89 R t
Y 0.0 In.,fi#ed.
Ialve thic!ness per API :00 have additional corrosion and erosion re%uirement
over , t
. from 7 0:.89
8. 2here corrosion - erosion is anticipated thic!ness measurements shall be
made to determine metal loss.
9. /ormula for calculating retirement thic!ness of pipe can be used for Ialves
and flanged fittings using factor 0.5 and 5 Ialves from A(56 7 80.8.
&alculations described above not re%uired for elded fittings. Pipe thic!ness can be
adopted for elded fittings using appropriate corrections for shape, if necessary.
, API 570 H &hapter 01 .
0. Inspection records provide "
- A comprehensive picture of general condition , i.e. health . of piping
- 4ecide on additional - supplementary inspections
- 6valuation of remaining useful life
- 4eciding on probable retirement and replacement programmes and ta!e
advance action for the same.
The data should be arranged on suitable forms so that successive inspection
records furnished a chronological picture.
1. (!etches " @riginal isometric s!etches may be used or ne s!etches made
to sho T5=s and other relevant information.
8. Thic!ness 4ata " $ecord of thic!ness data obtained from periodic or
scheduled inspections shall be shon on s!etches and tabulated and attached
s!etches . /ig. 89 sample form
9. $evie of $ecords " $ecords of previous inspection shall be revieed soon
after current data is available from field and follo3up action sheets shall be
prepared shoing "
- Approaching retirement thic!ness
- ;eed of further investigation based on past and present data , i.e.
e#cessive corrosion rates on both occasions .
- In other cases specific features to be monitored during on3stream or ne#t
shut don inspection.
- A list for predictable repairs and alterations shall be made so that
maintenance dept. can obtain materials, !eep components ready, if
nessary, fabricate ell ahead of ne#t shut don. This list ill also help to
plan manpoer for ne#t shut don.
1. -ener.2 0
Prior to study of Plant piping code, a %uic! revie of piping fundamentals is
essential for prper understanding of the code.
A 11e or . tube is hollo, longitudinal product. [A tube+ is a general term used
for hollo product having circular, elliptical or s%uare cross3section or for that
matter cross3section of any closed perimeter.
A 11e is tubular product of circular cross3section that has specific si)es and
thic!nesses governed by particular dimensional standard.
%. C2.33!c.ton 0
Pipe can be classified based on methods of manufacture or based on their
(. )etEod3 o!!.cture 0
(eamless pipes are manufactured by draing or e#trusion process. 6$2 pipes
, 6lectric resistance elded pipes . are formed from a strip hich is longitudinally
elded along its length. 2elding may be by 6lectric resistance, high fre%uency,
or induction elding, 6$2 pipes can also be dran for obtaining re%uired
dimensions and tolerances.
Pipes in small %uantities are manufactured by 6/2 , 6lectric fusion elding .
process here in instead of electric resistance elding, the longitudinal seam is
elded by manual or automatic electric arc process.
There are spiral seam elded pipes, hich are large dia pipes 500 ;7 and
above, and pipes are made by elding a spiral seam produced by forming
continuous steel s!elp into circular shape.
&entrifugally cast pipes are made by spraying molten metal along a rotating die
here the pipes are cast in shape due to centrifugal action.
C2.33!c.ton b.3ed on end u3e "
Pipes a re classified as "
- Pressure pipes or Process pipes
- =ine pipes
- (tructural pipes
0. Pressure pipes are those hich are sub*ected to fluid pressure and or
temperatures. /luid pressure in generally internal pressure due to fluid
being conveyed or may be e#ternal pressure , e.g. *ac!ed piping . and are
mainly used as plant piping.
1. =ine Pipes are mainly used for long distance conveying of the fluids and
are sub*ected to fluid pressures. These are generally not sub*ected to
high temperatures.
8. (tructural pipes are not used for conveying fluids and therefore not
sub*ected to fluid pressures or temperatures. They are used as structural
components , e.g. handrails, columns, sleeves etc. . and are sub*ected to
static loads only.
9. P1e3 D5en3on.2 St.nd.rd3 "
4iameters " Pipes are designated by ;ominal si)e, (tarting form 0-JM ;ominal
si)e, and increasing in steps.
0. Pipe si)es increases in steps of 0-JM fir 0-JM to <M " 0-JM, DM, 8-JM, <M
;ominal si)e.
1. (i)es in steps of DM " <M, \M, 0M, 0 DM, 0 <M
8. In steps of <M upto 9M " 0 <M, 1M, 1 <M, 8M, 8 <M, 9M
9. In steps of 0M upto :M " 9M. 5M, :M
5. In steps of 1M upto 8:M " :M, JM, 00M ZZ. 6tc.
/or the ;ominal si)e upto including 01M, there is one uni%ue @.4. , different from
nominal si)e . and I.4. ould vary depending on schedule number. /or ;ominal
si)es 09M and above, @.4. is same as ;ominal si)e.
". ScEedu2e No. "
Pipes are designated by schedule number or eight designation li!e Std. ,(.,
E4tr. Stron/ ,>(. and Doub2e E4tr. Stron/ ,>>(.
Pipe schedule number S is defined as "
(ch. ;@. ( R 0000 P-(
2here P R Internal Pressure ,psi.
( R Alloable tensile strength of material used.
&ommon pipe schedules are (ch 90, (ch J0, (ch 010, (ch 0:0, for larger pipe
si)es intermediate schedule numbers , (ch10, (ch 80 etc. . are also employed
, $ef. Pipe 4imension &hart .
/or &arbon steel, Pipe all thic!ness tolerance is Y 01 <Q i.e. Pipe all
thic!ness can vary 01 <Q from thic!ness obtained from dimension chart.
/or stainless steels schedule numbers are designated by suffi# S i.e. 00(, 90(,
J0( e tc.
=ength " Pipes are manufactured in [random length+ hich is Y 10+ H0M and in
double random length Y 90+ H0M.
*. Fttn/3
Pipe fittings are the components hich tie together pipe lines, valves, and other
parts of a piping system. They are used in Lma!ing upM a pipe line. /ittings may
come in screed, elded, soldered, or flanged varieties and are used to change
the si)e of the line or its direction and to *oin together the various parts that ma!e
up a piping system.
The ma*ority of pipe fittings are specified by the nominal pipe si)e, type, material
and the name of the fitting. 7esides the end connections mentions above
,screed, elded, soldered, flanged. it is also possible to order bell and spigot
fittings, hich are usually cast iron and used for lo pressure service.
In general, a fitting is any component in piping system that changes its direction,
alters its function, or simply ma!es end connections. A fitting is *oined to the
system by bolting, elding or screing, depending on many variables in the
*.1 Butt&?e2ded Fttn/3
2elded fittings are used primarily in systems meant to be permanent.
They have the same all thic!ness as the mating pipe. Among the many
advantages of butt elded systems are the folloing "
0. They have a smooth inner surface and offer gradual direction
change ith minimum turbulence.
1. They re%uire much less space for constructing and hanging the
pipe system.
8. They form lea!3proof constructions.
9. They are almost maintenance free.
5. They have a higher temperature and pressure limit.
:. They form a self3contained system.
7. They are easy to insulate
J. They offer a uniform all thic!ness through3out the system.
@ne of the ma*or disadvantages of butt3elded systems is that are not
easy to dismantle. Therefore, it is often advisable to provide the system
ith enough flanged *oints so that it can be bro!en don at intervals.
, @ne of the main uses of the butt3elded system, is for steam lines, hich
are usually in high3temperature- high3pressure service ..
*.% SocDet ?e2ded Fttn/3
(oc!et elded fittings have certain advantages over butt3elded fittings.
They are easier to use on small3si)e pipelines and the ends of the pipes
need not be beveled since the pipe end slips into the soc!et of the *oint.
2ith soc!et3elded fittings there is no danger of the eld protruding into
the pipeline and restricting flo or creating turbulence. Thus, the
advantages of the soc!et3elded system are "
0. The pipe does not need to be beveled.
1. ;o tac! elding is necessary for alignment since *oint and the
pipe are self 3aligning.
8. 2eld a material can not e#tend into the pipeline.
9. It can be used in place of threaded fittings, therefore, reducing the
li!elihood of lea!s, hich usually accompany the use of threaded
5. It is less e#pensive and easier to construct than other elded
@ne of the ma*or disadvantages of this type of fitting is the possibility of a
mismatch inside the fitting here improperly aligned or mated parts may
create a recess here corrosion could start.
(oc!et3elded fittings have the same inside diameter as standard
,(chedule 90., e#tra strong ,(chedule J0., and double e#tra strong
,(chedule 0:0. pipe, depending on the eight of the fitting and mating
pipe. (oc!et3elded fittings rare covered in A(A 70:.00. They are drilled
to match the internal diameter of schedule 90 or schedule J0 pipe.
*.( F2.n/ed Fttn/3
/langed connections are found on piping systems throughout the
petrochemical and poer generation fields on pipelines that are a
minimum of 1 in.,5.0J cm . in diameter. The ma*ority of flanged fittings are
made of cast steel or cast iron.
/langed steel fittings are used in place of cast iron here the system is
sub*ected to shoc! or high3temperature- high3pressure situations here
the danger of fire is prevalent, because cast iron has a tendency to c rac!
or rupture under certain stresses. A flange may be cast or forged onto the
ends of the fitting or valve and bolted to a connecting flange hich is
screed or elded onto the pipeline, thereby providing a tight *oint. An
assortment of facings, ring *oint grooves, and connections are available in
flange variations.
@ne advantage of flanged systems is that they are easily dismantled and
assembled. @ne of the disadvantages is that they are considerably than
an e%ually rated butt3elded system, because of the large amount of
metal that go into ma!ing up *oints and flanges. 5oreover, flanged fittings
occupy far more space than the butt3elded or screed e%uivalents.
7ecause of this higher eight load, a flanged system becomes far more
e#pensive to support or hang from the e#isting structure.

1.1 -ENERAL 0
The &ode sets forth engineering re%uirements deemed necessary for safe design
and construction of pressure piping.
?nless agreement is specifically made beteen contracting parties to use
another issue, or the regulatory body having *urisdiction imposes the use of
another issue, the latest 6dition and Addenda issued at least : months prior to
the original contract date for the first phase of activity covering a piping
installation shall be the governing document for all design, materials, fabrication
erection, e#amination, and testing for the piping until the completion of the or!
and initial operation.
1.% SCOPE 0
$ules for the Process Piping &ode (ection 780.8
have been developed
considering piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical,
pharmaceutical, te#tile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related
processing plants and terminals ithin the property limits.
This &ode prescribes re%uirements for materials and components, design,
fabrication, assembly, erection, e#amination, inspection, and testing of piping.
0.8.0 CEe5c.2 12.nt " an industrial plant for the manufacture or processing of
chemicals, or of ra materials or intermediates for such chemicals. A
chemical plant may include supporting and service facilities, such as
storage, utility, and aste treatment units.
0.8.1 F2ud 3ervce " a general term concerning the application of a piping
system, considering the combination of fluid properties, operating
conditions, and other factors hich establish the basis for design of the
piping system. (ee Appendi# 5.
a. C.te/ory D F2ud Servce " a fluid service in hich all the
folloing apply "
0. the fluid handled is nonflammable, nonto#ic, and not
damaging to human tissues as defined in para 800.1 ;
1. the design gage pressure does not e#ceed 0085 !PA ,050
psi. ; and
8. the design temperature is from H1K
& ,310
/. through 0J:
& ,8::
b. C.te/ory ) F2ud Servce " a fluid service in hich the potential
for personnel e#posure is *udged to be significant and in hich a
single e#posure to a very small %uantity of a to#ic fluid, caused by
lea!age, can produce serious irreversible harm to persons on
breathing or bodily contact, even hen prompt restorative
measures are ta!en.
c. H/E Pre33ure F2ud Servce " a fluid service for hich the oner
specifies the use of &hapter I> for piping design and construction;
see also para. A800
d. Nor5.2 F2ud Servce " a fluid service pertaining to most piping
covered by this &ode, i.e. not sub*ect to the rules for &ategory 4,
&ategory 5, or 'igh Pressure /luid (ervice.
0.8.8 Petro2eu5 re!nery H an industrial plant for processing or handling of
petroleum and products derived directly from petroleum. (uch a plant
may be an individual gasoline recovery plant, a treating plant, a gas
processing plant ,including li%uefaction., or an integrated refinery having
various process units and attendant facilities.
0.8.9 P1n/ co51onent3 H mechanical elements suitable for *oining or
assembly into pressure3tight fluid3containing piping systems. &omponents
include pipe, fittings, flanges, gas!ets, bolting, valves, and devices such
as e#pansion *oints, fle#ible *oints, pressure hoses, traps, strainers, in3line
portions of instruments, and separators.
This paragraph defines the temperatures, pressures, and forces applicable to the
design of piping, and states the considerations that shall be given to various
effects and their conse%uent loadings.
0.0.0 De3/n Pre33ure "
The design pressure of each component in a piping system shall be not
less than the pressure at the most severe condition of coincident internal
or e#ternal pressure and temperature ,minimum or ma#imum. e#pected
during service.
0.0.1 De3/n Te51er.ture "
The design temperature of each component in a piping system is the
temperature at hich, under the coincident pressure, the greatest
thic!ness or highest component rating is re%uired.
0.0.8 De3/n )n5u5 Te51er.ture "
The design minimum temperature is the loest component temperature
e#pected in service.
0.0.9 B.3e3 !or De3/n Stre33e3 "
The bases for establishing design stress values ,alloable stress values.
for metallic materials in this &ode are as follos.
7asic alloable stress values at temperature for materials not e#ceed the
loest of the folloing "
0. the loer of one3third of (5T( and one3third of tensile strength at
1. the loer of to3third of (5P( and to H thirds of yield strength at

7asic Nuality /actors. The eld *oint %uality factors 6
tabulated in Table A307
are basic factors for straight or spiral longitudinal elded *oints for pressure3
containing components as shon in Table 801.8.9
Increased Nuality /actors. Table 801.8.9 also indicates higher *oint %uality
factors hich may be substituted for those in Table A307 for certain !inds of
elds if additional e#amination is performed beyond that re%uired by the product
1.8.0 Str./Et P1e "
The re%uired thic!ness of straight sections of pipe shall be determined in
accordance ith folloing e%uation.
R t Y c
The minimum thic!ness T for the pipe selected considering manufacturer+s
minus tolerance, shall be not less than t
The folloing nomenclature is used in the e%uations for pressure design of
straight pipe.
R minimum re%uired thic!ness, including mechanical,
corrosion, and erosion alloances.
t R pressure design thic!ness.
c R the sum of the mechanical alloances ,thread or groove
depth. plus corrosion and erosion alloances.
T R pipe all thic!ness ,measured or minimum per purchase
d R inside diameter of pipe.
P R internal design gage pressure.
4 R outside diameter of pipe as listed in tables of standards or
specification or as measured.
6 R %uality factor from Table A30A or A307
( R stress value of materials.
P R coefficient from Table 809.0.0, valid for t U 4-: and for
materials shon. The value of P may be interpolated for
intermediate temperatures.
/or t V 4-:,
d Y 1c
P R 333333333333
4 Y dY1c
Str./Et P1e Under Intern.2 Pre33ure "
/or t U 4-:, the internal pressure design thic!ness for straight pipe shall
be not less than that calculated in accordance ith 6%. ,8a. "
t R 333333333333333
1,(6 Y PP.
/olloing 6%uation may be used instead of above e%uation
t R 3333333
/or t V 4-: or for P-(6 V 0.8J5, calculation of pressure design thic!ness
for straight pipe re%uires special consideration of factors such as theory of
failure, effects of fatigue, and thermal stress.
1.8.1 B2.nD3 "
The minimum re%uired thic!ness of a permanent blan! ,representative
configurations shon in /ig. 809.5.8. shall be calculated in accordance
ith 6%. ,05.
R d
333333333 Y c
R inside diameter of gas!et for raised or flat face flanges, or
the gas!et pitch diameter for ring *oint and fully retained
gas!eted flanges.
6 R same as defined earlier.
P R design gage pressure
( R same as defined earlier
c R sum of alloances defined earlier.
-enerc De3cr1ton0

&lassification of materials by generic description involves the grouping of materials into
broad categories according to certain attributes such as general composition,
mechanical properties, product form, or end use.
There are no precise rules governing hich attributes to apply in defining material
groups, and the level of detail afforded the classification system depends largely on the
level of detail needed to communicate specific ideas. &onse%uently, materials may be
generically grouped according to very broad characteristics, for e#ample metal or
nonmetal, ferrous or nonferrous, or cast or rought. Alternatively, materials may be
placed in more narroly defined generic groups such as mild steel, 8>> series stainless
steel, or ;i&r5o alloy.

2ith piping materials, generic grouping based on alloy content is most popular. These
groups usually reflect the primary alloy content, and may include varying levels of
comple#ity depending upon the e#tent to hich one needs to communicate specific
material needs. Table35.0 gives an indication of the progression from simple generic
descriptors, to comple# generic descriptors, hich may involve some elements of a
standardi)ed classification system ,e.g., 800 series austenitic stainless steel..

T.b2e ".1 Leve23 o! -enerc C2.33!c.ton o! ).ter.23
(imple Intermediate &omple#
&arbon (teel =o &arbon (teel /ully Ailled, =o &arbon (teel
=o Alloy (teel &r35o (teel 1 D &r305o (teel
(tainless (teel Austenitic (tainless (teel 800 (eries Austenitic (tainless
;ic!el Alloy 'igh ;ic!el Alloy ;i&r5o Alloy
Beneric material descriptions are fre%uently used during the early stages of a pro*ect,
including pro*ect definition, conceptual design, front end design, preliminary design,
process design, and-or budget estimation. /or materials selection purposes during
these stages, the user must be aare of &ode re%uirements, but is not loo!ing for a
precise solution for each piping system.
$ather, the user should be loo!ing at more global issues including resistance of generic
material groups to various forms of corrosion, material cost and availability for various
product forms, delivery times, need for %ualification testing, and e#istence of suitable
forming and *oining technology.
Trade ;ames and Proprietary 4esignations
Trade names are used by manufacturers to uni%uely identify their materials and
products. (ample trade names include Inconel :15, Incoloy J15, 'astelloy &3175,
&arpenter 10&b38, Allegheny3 =udlum Al3: >;, 5ather G Platt >eron 000, =incoln
/leeteld 5PY, and I45 0K15h5o.
Although there are definite commercial reasons for the e#istence of trade names ,e.g.,
typically to induce purchasers to specify and buy only the product of a particular
manufacturer., many manufacturers and trade associations publish trade name
e%uivalency charts. &onse%uently, there is usually no need to restrict material selections
through use of a single trade name. 'oever, to e#ceptions do e#ist here it may be
necessary to specify materials by trade name. The e#ceptions are"
a. 5aterials of very recent development, still be protected by patent right, and
b. (ophisticated materials re%uired for very severe service situations, here all
potential manufacturers may not be e%ually capable of ma!ing the same %uality of
product. ,/or certain high alloy materials, minor chemistry or processing
modifications can dramatically affect alloy performance..
Co55on AST) C.rbon Stee2 P1n/ ).ter.230
/or everyday or!, most piping systems are constructed from carbon steel. 5aterial
designations are seemingly inconsistent and random and, for the most part, !noledge
of specifications and grades can only be gained ith e#perience.
;evertheless, for practical guidance, specification and grade designations can be
grouped according to product form and notch toughness properties, as in Table 5.00.

T.b2e ".1$ Co55on AST) C.rbon Stee2 P1n/ ).ter.2 S1ec!c.ton3 B -r.de3
Product /orms (ee ;ote,s. A(T5 5aterials
ithout Impact Tests
A(T5 5aterials
ith Impact Tests
Pipe 1 A 58 Br. 7
A 00: Br.7
A 888 Br. 0
A 888 Br. :
/langes G /orged
8 A 005 A 850 Br. =/1
2rought /ittings A 189 Br. 2P7 A 910 Br. 2P=:
&astings A 10: Br. 2&7
A 10: Br. 2&&
A 851 Br. =&7
A 851 Br. =&&
7olts, (tuds, and
&ap (cres
9,5 A 0K8 Br. 77
A 0K8 Br. 775
A 810 Br. =7
A 810 Br. =75
;uts 9,5 A 0K9 Br. 1'
A 0K9 Br. 1'5
A 0K9 Br. 7
A 0K9 Br. 75
;otes to Table 5.00
0. &olumn headings refer to impact testing re%uirements of the material
manufacturing specifications.
1. /or A(T5 A 58, the type of pipe should also be specified, here ( R
(eamless, 6 R 6lectric $esistance 2elded, and / R /urnace 7utt 2elded.
;ote" Type ( is normally used for pressure piping, Type 6 is sometimes
used, but Type / is rarely used.
8. /orged fittings include eldolets, threadolets, and soc!olets ,2@T, T@=,
9. 775, 1'5, =75, A;4 75 refers to grades ith strength and hardness
control, typically for resistance to sulfide stress crac!ing in sour ,'
environments. (ee also ;A&6 5$@075.
5. Nuenched and tempered lo alloy bolting has e#cellent notch toughness at
loer temperatures. 780.8 permits use of lo alloy steel bolting to loer
temperatures than ould be e#pected for corresponding carbon steel piping
components. (ee the L5in. TempM. &olumn of 780.8 Table A31 for loer limit
of temperature.
).ter.2 ReGure5ent3 o! B(1.(0
5aterials considerations are specifically covered in 780.8 &hapter III, but there are also
material references in many other chapters. The &ode categorises various fluids as
belo , the material selection many times is governed by nature of fluid.
T.b2e ".11 F2ud Servce C.te/ore3
;ormal /luid (ervice
C.te/ory D Servce
&ategory 5 (ervice
'igh Pressure ,A. (ervice
Pertains to most piping covered by the &ode and
includes piping not classified ithin the other fluid
services listed belo E]800.1F.
(ervice in hich the fluid is nonflammable,
nonto#ic, and not damaging to human tissue; the
design pressure does not e#ceed 050 psig ,0080
!Pag.; and the design temperature is from 310^/
,31K^&. T@ 8::^/ ,0J:^&.E]800.1F.
(ervice in hich a single e#posure to a very small
%uantity of to#ic fluid can produce serious
irreversible harm on breathing or body contact,
even hen prompt restorative measures are
ta!en E]800.1F.
(ervice hich applies hen designated by the
oner, typically for pressures in e#cess of that
alloed by A(56 70:.5 &lass 1500 rating, for the
specified design temperature and material group
. ;otes to Table 5.00
a. /or e#act descriptions and classification of fluid service, refer to 780.8.
b. (evere cyclic conditions are defined by 780.8 as Lconditions hich are
vibrating, cyclic or fatigue in nature, ith (
e#ceeding 0.J (
and ith the
e%uivalent number of cycles e#ceeding 7000; or other conditions hich the
designer determines ill produce an e%uivalent effect E]800.1F.M 6ven though it
may appear that severe cyclic conditions satisfy the 780.8 definition for a Lfluid
serviceM, they have not been included as a separate fluid service in the above
table because, hen severe cyclic conditions e#ist, they are typically a subset
of one of the other four listed fluid services.
).ter.23 .nd S1ec!c.ton3 HI(%(.1J
780.8 classifies materials as listed, unlisted, un!non, or reclaimed, and places
conditions on the used of such materials. Table 5.01 summari)es the characteristics of
each material classification.
In most cases, &ode users deal ith listed materials. These may be considered as
materials, hich are Lpre%ualifiedM for &ode use based on inherent properties E]818F
and listed in 780.8 Tables A30 and A31. /or pressure design purposes, the &ode
provides stress values for the listed materials as a function of temperature ,since
mechanical behavior is temperature dependent.. 'oever, the suitability of a particular
material for a particular fluid service is beyond the scope of the &ode E]800,c.,:.F. A
materials specialist should be consulted to ensure correct materials selection for a fluid
Te51er.ture L5t.ton3 HI(%(.%J
780.8 recogni)es that material properties and behavior in service are temperature
dependent. A significant portion of b80.8 &hapter III deals ith temperature limitations
for materials, in particular loer temperature limits here impact testing may apply. The
&ode also imposes cautionary and restrictive temperature limits in Tables A30 and A31,
and re%uires designers to verify that materials are suitable for service throughout the
operating temperature range E]818.1F.
T.b2e ".1% ).ter.2 C2.33!c.ton3 H I(%(.1J
=isted 5aterials
?nlisted 5aterials
?n!non 5aterials
$eclaimed 5aterials
E]818.0.0F Those materials or components hich conform
to a specification listed in 780.8 Appendi# A, Appendi# 7,
or Appendi# A, or to a standard listed in 780.8 Table
81:.0, A81:.0 or A81:.0. for pressure design, listed
materials and alloable stress values are provided for
listed materials, these are most convenient to use.
E]818.0.1F Those materials hich conform to a published
specification covering chemistry, physical, and
mechanical properties, method and process of
manufacture, heat treatment, and %uality control, and
hich otherise meet the re%uirement of the &ode.
E]818.0.8F Those materials of un!non specifications, not
to be used for pressure containing piping components.
E]818.0.9F ?sed materials, hich have been salvaged
and properly identified, as conforming to a listed or
published specification.
?pper Temperature =imits E]818.1.0F
?pper temperature limits for listed limited materials are the ma#imum temperatures for
hich a stress value or rating is shon directly in or referenced by the &ode. The &ode
may also provide notes to the stress value tables, precautionary information in Appendi#
/, and -or restrictions ithin the te#t of &ode. /or e#ample, from Table A30, the upper
temperature limit for A(T5 A 00: Brade 7 pipe is 0000^/ even though there are to
notes pertaining to use of the material above J00^/ and K00^/, respectively. ]/818.9,a.
,1. and ]/818.9,a.,9. also discuss these notes.
@f course, the &ode does permit use of listed materials at temperatures above the
ma#imum indicated by the stress value or rating, provided there is no prohibition in the
&ode E]818.1.1,a.F and provided the designer verifies the serviceability of the material
E]818.1.0,b.F. Ierification ould typically involve material specialists ith an engineering
bac!ground and a Lsound scientific program carried out in accordance ith recogni)ed
technologyM E]818.1.9F.
=oer Temperature =imits and Impact Testing E]818.1.1F
=oer temperature limits for materials are established as a means of controlling ris! of
brittle fracture. Terms fre%uently used in loer temperature limit discussions include
notch sensitivity, impact testing, &harpy testing, and notch brittleness.
/or must &ode users, the basic %uestion to be ansered is" L4o I need to use impact
tested materialsM, ansering the %uestion can be comple# and convoluted; hoever, the
basic steps to determining the anser are listed belo and are discussed in detail in the
folloing paragraphs.
a. select the design minimum temperature for the piping. This may involve process
engineering and or heat transfer specialists, and consideration of ambient
temperature effects.
b. obtain the minimum permissible temperature for the proposed piping materials
according to 780.8 rules.
c. /ollo the instructions of 780.8 to determine hether impact tests are re%uired
,e.g., Table 818.1.1..
d. If impact tests are re%uired, consult the additional re%uirements of 780.8 regarding
impact test methods and acceptance criteria.
Co55on Code P.r./r.1E3 to NotcE Tou/Ene33 .nd Low Te51er.ture
/or the convenience of users of the guide, several clauses and tables applicable to
780.8 impact testing re%uirement are listed in Table 5.05 belo. ?sers are cautioned
that this guide is not a substitute for the A(56 780.8 &ode, hich should be consulted
for all re%uirements affecting pressure piping design and construction.
Table 5.05 780.8 &lauses and Tables Applicable to Impact Testing
&lause or
810.0.9,c .
Table 818.8.0
Table 818.1.1
Table 818.8.5
Table A30
Table A31
4esign 5inimum Temperature
4ynamic 6ffects H Impact
$educed 4uctility 6ffects
Alloances for Pressure and Temperature Iariations ,belo the
minimum temperature shon in Appendi# A.
&arbon (teel 7olting ,note that 775, =75, 77, =7, 1'5, 75,
1', and 7 are lo alloy steels, not carbon steels.
5aterials ,of un!non specification used for piping supports.
Temperature =imitations
=oer Temperature =imits, =isted 5aterials
Temperature =imits, ?nlisted 5aterials
Impact Testing 5ethods and Acceptance &riteria
4uctile Iron
@ther &ast Irons
Impact Testing $e%uirements for 5etals
$e%uirements for =o Temperature Toughness Tests for 5etals
5inimum $e%uired &harpy I3;otch Impact Ialues
7asic Alloable (tresses in Tension for 5etals ,see 5in. Temp.
column and ;ote : at the beginning of the table.
4esign (tress Ialues for 7olting 5aterials ,see 5in. Temp.
column and ;ote : at the beginning of the table.
).ter.23 Se2ecton
2hen selecting materials for plant piping systems, legal, code, commercial, and
technical considerations must be addressed.
Le/.2 Con3der.ton3
=egal considerations include understanding and appreciation of"
a. legislation applicable to the *urisdiction having authority over the design, construction
and operation of the piping system; and
b. contracts hich e#ist beteen various parties.
/or e#ample, many states, provinces, and countries have legislated the use of 780.8
rules for construction of piping systems, so the &ode essentially become a legal
document. =ocal *urisdictions may also operate under government acts and regulations,
hich impose additional re%uirements that, may be"
a. technical ,e.g., prohibitions concerning certain materials or design practices., or
b. organi)ational ,e.g., registration of designs, registration of elding procedures,
registration and accreditation of %uality control systems.
/or many pro*ects, contract documents, including specifications prepared by the oner
or oner+s engineer, impose restrictions on"
a. 5aterials ,e.g., %uality level, notch toughness properties, service environment,
product form., and
b. /abrication-construction methods ,e.g., bending, forming, elding, heat treating,
hydrotest ater %uality, cleaning chemicals.
B(1.( Code Con3der.ton3
As indicated earlier in this chapter, the 780.8 &ode is concerned ith pressure integrity
,safety.. This is manifest, for e#ample, through provision of alloable design stresses as
a function of temperature, rules for notch toughness evaluation and brittle fracture
avoidance, restrictions for various fluid service categories, re%uirements for eld
procedure %ualifications, restrictions on forming and bending practices, e#amination
re%uirements, and numerous prohibitions, limitations, conditions, and precautionary
measures scattered throughout the &ode.
Although &ode issues must be considered in the material selection process, the &ode
does not instruct the user on ho to select specific materials. ]800, c.,:. states"
L&ompatibility of materials ith the service and ha)ards from instability of contained
fluids are not ithin the scope of this &ode. (ee Para. /818M. The first sentence of
]/818,a. states" L(election of materials to resist deterioration in service is not ithin the
scope of this &odeM. &learly, the technical issues related to materials selection must be
considered by personnel ith specific training in this area.
Co55erc.2 Con3der.ton3
5aterials decisions invariably have an impact on pro*ect cost and schedule. &an the
material be purchased in the re%uirement form_ 2hat ill be the initial cost_ 2hen ill
the material be available_ 2hat is the life cycle cost relative to other material options_
2ho can fabricate the material into a piping system_ 2hen can it be delivered and at
hat cost_ 2hat are the anticipated maintenance costs ith the selected material_
These %uestions can be difficult to anser, but every materials decision has a
commercial impact, hich must be considered. The level of detail given to study of the
commercial impact is idely variable depending on pro*ect scope, technical comple#ity,
and management.
TecEnc.2 Con3der.ton3
Technical considerations begin ith an understanding of process and containment
re%uirements including pressure, temperature, fluid velocity, and fluid characteristics, as
ell as ris! and conse%uences of failure. 5aterial properties are then evaluated in light
of this understanding, and generally include consideration of chemical, mechanical, and
physical properties, as ell as corrosion resistance, eldability, and formability.
/undamentally, final materials selection involves the proper matching of material
properties ith process design conditions, mechanical design conditions, fabrication
and construction conditions, and operating conditions.
Table 5.0: provides and overvie of some material selection issues relative to other
pro*ect variables.
ProAect ,.r.b2e ).ter.23 Se2ecton I33ue3
Process 4esign
&onditions and &orrosion
Beneral eight loss corrosion
=ocali)ed corrosion ,pitting, crevice, fretting.
5echanical 4esign
&onditions and
5echanical Properties
(tress corrosion crac!ing ,a.!.a environmental
(trength ,i.e., re%uired thic!ness.
4uctility and resistance to brittle fracture
'ardness ,re%uirements usually lin!ed to process
design via stress corrosion crac!ing issues
=o temperature notch toughness ,in addition to
ambient temperature effects, can also be lin!ed to
process design such as significant Ooule3
Thompson effects on blodon of high pressure
gases, or handling of cryogenic fluids.
'igh temperature strength and creep resistance
Iibration and fatigue resistance
/abrication and
&onstruction &onditions
shop or field or!, including availability of
e%uipment and s!illed personnel
forming and bending needs
*oining needs ,elding, threading, bra)ing, and
@perating &onditions ease of maintenance and repair, including
availability of e%uipment and s!illed personnel
,e.g., manned or unmanned plant.
product delivery re%uirements, planned on H
stream efficiency, and proposed plant or unit
turnaround schedule
ade%uacy of pro*ect safeguards H e.g., prevention
of lea!age beteen streams ,one or to chec!
valves., ade%uacy of pressure and temperature
/rom Table 5.0:, one might correctly assume that selection of materials is an
evolutionary process, especially for technically comple# pro*ects. Benerally the
materials selection process involves a series of steps, separated in time, ith each step
narroing don possibilities until the best option is determined. As pro*ect details
unfold, this narroing of options is typically manifested by a change in the ay materials
are identified, going from very generic descriptions ,e.g., stainless steel. to
specifications, type, and grade ,e.g., A(T5 A 801 TP809=..
The level of detail applied during materials selection depends heavily on factors such as
the scope, si)e and comple#ity of the pro*ect, the stage of the pro*ect, the corporate
style of the participants, and the availability of materials specialists. Although the steps
sometimes overlap, careful analysis of several pro*ects ould sho at least three
distinct phases of materials selection ith the folloing characteristics"
a. &onceptual design 3 overvie of process technology
b. Process design H details of process technology
c. 5echanical design H primary scope of 780.8
&onceptual 4esign H overvie of Process Technology
4evelopment of a materials selection and corrosion control philosophy for a pro*ect
normally begins ith evaluation and understanding of the process technology. Although
this step in the materials selection process is not alays evident or obvious, and may
even be omitted hen the process is ell understood, it is a logical starting point for a
grass roots pro*ect.
As an e#ample, in the very early stages of pro*ect development, here Lballpar!M
economics are being thrashed out, the main interest of management is Lbig pictureM
material costs. That dreaded classic %uestion generally reaches the materials specialist.
'o much stainless steel do e have to buy_. @f course, at the conceptual stage
process details can be s!etchy at best, so there is much crystal ball ga)ing at this point.
;evertheless, best efforts are made to provide a very generic overvie of material
options, !noing that management doesn+t generally understand that there are at least
fifty different !inds of stainless steel, each ith its on uni%ue price and delivery terms,
and hundreds of material options that go by much stranger sounding names than
Lstainless steelM.
The *ob of the materials specialist, ho may also be called the corrosion specialist, is to
e#amine the proposed process for any ma*or issues, hich could *eopardi)e the pro*ect
in financial and-or schedule terms. This is normally done in consultation ith process
professionals ho have defined the process in terms of bloc! flo diagrams, process
stream compositions, and chemical reactions that may occur. A fe typical %uestions to
be ansered during conceptual design are listed belo.
a. Are carbon steels ade%uate_
b. &an coatings or chemicals be used economically to control corrosion_
c. If high alloy materials are re%uired, ho much ill they cost_
d. 'o ell is the interaction beteen the process environment and the material
e. Is there a re%uirement for materials testing prior to selection_
f. &ould re%uired materials testing *eopardi)e the pro*ect in financial or schedule
As an e#ample, consider conceptual design for a plant for handling high velocity et
natural gas at 0000psi, ith 15Q &@
and '
( AT 100^/. 7are carbon steel ould not
be a li!ely candidate material due to e#cessive eight loss corrosion. Inhibitors could be
considered, but ade%uate corrosion control may not be possible. The process is a bit
hot for conventional organic coatings or plastic liners. 7oth &@
and '
( could permeate
the coating and cause coating failure if the system ere sub*ect to rapid pressure
changes. Intermediate alloys containing chromium could or! ith ade%uate control
elding and heat treatment. 'igh alloy steels ,stainless steels. could also or!, but
there is a large increment in cost and there may be potential for chlorides and resultant
chloride stress corrosion crac!ing ,&I(&&..
Proce33 De3/n
If development economics favor further or!, the ne#t phase of material selection is
generally made coincident ith or slightly lagging behind process design. Process
information is e#amined in detail and materials are selected based on compatibility ith
process stream characteristics and other e#ternal variables if they are !non. 4ecisions
often re%uire consultation ith process engineers for clear understanding of process
conditions, including steady and non3steady state conditions such as start3up, upset,
planned shutdon, and unplanned shutdon.
As an e#ample of the material selection process for a given stream, one might
designate piping materials such as carbon steel ,&(. ith a suitable corrosion ere
important. 'oever, if it is also !non that the pipe might be e#posed to lo ambient
temperatures here impact properties ere re%uired, one might upgrade the material
selection to &(IT ,carbon steel, impact tested.
/or another stream, hich could be
considered very corrosive, one might specify 8>>= stainless steel, here L=M grade is
imposed to resist 'AC sensiti)ation during elding, and the possibility of intergranular
corrosion is service. If that same stream contained an a%ueous chloride phase at J0^&,
8>> ould be susceptible to &I(&&. In that case, one might specify a duple# stainless
steel or superduple# stainless steel, depending upon chloride level, o#ygen content and
2hile there is no single method for ma!ing and documenting materials selection
decisions, the normal output at this stage of a pro*ect is a &orrosion and 5aterials
$eport. The ord corrosion is generally included in the title of the report, since many of
the material selection decisions reflect a response to corrosion predictions. The report
typically contains the basis for decision ma!ing, as ell as narratives describing issues,
concerns, and limitations governing final materials selection for a given portion of the
5aterial selection diagrams ,5(4+s. and-or material selection tables are generally
included ith the &orrosion and 5aterials $eport. 5(4+s are typically modified process
flo diagrams ,P/4+s. shoing generic material choices and corrosion alloances for
each corrosion circuit. &orrosion circuits are elements of the process ith similar
corrosion characteristics, and are fre%uently e%uivalent to process streams defined on
the P/4, or to subsets of process streams. Presentation of materials selection data in
diagram is generally the most useful format for communication ith other design
professionals, ho ill use the information during completion of subse%uent or!. (uch
presentation also assists in maintaining materials engineering input on the pro*ect. A
simplified e#ample of a 5(4 for an amine seetening unit is shon in /igure 5.0
4uring the mechanical design stage, the process characteristics shon by process
simulations and P/4+s and the material re%uirements shon by the &orrosion and
5aterials $eport and 5(4+s, are carefully e#amined. Then a piping class, hich
summari)es detailed mechanical and material re%uirements, is generally assigned
to each line in the piping system. ;ote that the use of piping classes is not a 780.8
re%uirement; it is a typical approach to mechanical design ithin the pressure
piping industry.
An e#ample of a simple piping class is shon in /igure 5.1. It is a table of information
for a given pressure rating and service characteristic, hich describes acceptable piping
component types and dimensions, as ell as material specifications, types, classes,
and-or grades. Piping components include pipe, forgings, fittings, valves, bolting,
gas!ets, and other piping specials. ?sually the piping class contains information about
corrosion alloance, posteld heat treatment, and nondestructive e#amination. 2ithin a
corporation, piping classes often e#ist from previous pro*ects, or are supplied by the firm
contracted to complete the engineering. 2hen they do not e#ist, they are usually
developed on the basis of process, material, and mechanical re%uirements.
The piping class designator is typically an alphanumeric descriptor such s 41 or AA1?,
hich is shon on the piping draings ,collectively, a group of draings including P G
I4+s, 5/4+s, piping plans and sections, and isometrics., usually as part of the line
number. a typical line number ould be : in '&389101341, here : in. is the nominal
pipe si)e, '& is the commodity descriptor ,e.g., hydrocarbon., 89101 is the line serial
number, and 41 is the piping class. (pecification brea!s, hich may be for material or
pressure reasons, are also applied to piping draings.
4epending on pro*ect scope and technical comple#ity, the mechanical design stage may
also include preparation of detailed material specifications ,stand alone or
supplementary. to address issued such as material chemistry, processing re%uirements,
product form ,cast, forged, elded., fracture toughness, eldabilty, heat treatment,
nondestructive e#amination, and various forms of corrosion resistance.
&hapter I of the 780.8 &ode is devoted to the fabrication, assembly, and erection of
piping systems. These terms are defined by ]800.1 as follos.
a. /abrication is the preparation of piping for assembly, including cutting, threading,
grooving, forming, bending, and *oining of components into subassemblies.
/abrication may be performed in the shop or in the field.
b. Assembly is the *oining together of to or more piping components by bolting,
elding, bonding, screing, bra)ing, soldering, cementing, or use of pac!ing
devices as specified by the engineering design.
c. 6rection is the complete installation of a piping system in the locations and on the
supports designated by the engineering design, including any field assembly,
fabrication, e#amination, inspection, and testing of the system as re%uired by the
/abrication, assembly, and erection re%uire the use of many special processes
a. /orming and bending by cold and hot methods;
b. Ooining by elding, bra)ing, soldering, or mechanical methods including threading,
flanging, specialty high pressure connections, and mechanical interference fits
,5I/.; and
c. 'eat treatment by local methods, or by permanent or temporary furnaces.
780.8 assumes some understanding of the special processes used during fabrication,
assembly, and erection of piping systems. 'oever, as ith materials of construction,
the level of understanding is idely varied and often restricted to a fe processes in the
user+s repertoire of e#perience.
&onse%uently, the ob*ective of this chapter is to e#plore the basic technology behind
some of the special processes in relation to re%uirements of the &ode.

Bendn/ .nd For5n/ HI((%J
7ending and forming processes are sophisticated technical operations. An evaluation of
the effects of bending and forming on material properties is integral to the use of such
products in piping systems. In this light, the folloing &ode statements should be
considered as more than simple motherhood"
a. ]881.0 states" Lpipe may be bent and components may be formed by any hot or cold
method hich is suitable for the material, the fluid service, and the severity of the
bending or forming process.M
b. ]881.8 states" Lthe temperature range for forming shall be consistent ith material,
intended service, and specified heat treatmentM.
These &ode clauses are intended to trigger the engineering input necessary to verify
that final material properties ill be satisfactory for the intended service. And, even
though the &ode does impose re%uirement for design ,e.g., ]809.1. and fluid service
,e.g.,]80:.1., engineering input is still needed. The &ode does not and can not provide
rules to address the specific re%uirements of every situation.
As part of an engineering evaluation, belo are some useful starting %uestions
regarding the effects of bending and forming on material properties for a specific
a. 2hat effect ill the bending or forming temperature and deformation parameters
,e.g., cold, arm, or hot bending, strain rate and total strain. have on strength,
ductility, hardness and notch toughness of the resulting bend_
b. 2hat effect ill the resulting microstructure have on general corrosion, locali)ed
corrosion ,galvanic, pitting, and-or crevice corrosion., stress corrosion crac!ing, or
long3term mechanical properties_
c. 2hat are the ris!s relative to formation of hard spots, undesirable precipitation
effects, fatigue resistance, and creep resistance_
'opefully the above %uestions ould be ansered ith the help of metallurgical and-or
corrosion specialists, in combination ith suitable testing hen appropriate.
The need for changes to the direction of flo in piping systems has traditionally been
accommodated through the use of manufactured fittings such as elbos and tees.
'oever, changes to direction of flo may also be made through the use of pipe bends.
In fact, ith modern e%uipment, substantial economic benefits can be derived from the
use of bends, by virtue of reduced fitting, elding, and nondestructive e#amination
,;46. costs.
7efore e#amining bends in detail, a fe comments regarding bend types may be useful
to readers ith no bending e#perience. In the bending and piping industries, bend types
are often described by a multitude of terms. Although a formal classification system
does not e#ist, bends are usually referred to in terms of"
a. 5ethod of manufacture, including cold bends, hot bends, furnace bends, induction
bends, arm bends, ram bends, three point bends, miter bends, segmented bends,
corrugated bends, and creased bends;
b. =ocation of manufacture, that is, field bends or factory bends;
c. (hape or appearance, such as =3bends, (3bends, rin!le bends, miter bends,
segmented bends, corrugated bends, and creased bends; and
d. /unction or end3use, such as sag bends, overbends, side bends, and combination
;ote that several of the terms described in ,c. and ,d. above are rooted in cross3country
pipeline construction, here bends are normally used to accommodate changes of
elevation associated ith the terrain or to provide for e#pansion and contraction of the
pipeline ith changes of temperature. /or plant piping systems, it is most common to
use bending terms reflective of the method of manufacture, hich may include
combinations of terms ,e.g., three point cold bend, hot furnace bend, hot induction
$egardless of bend type, all bends have certain features and dimensional
characteristics hich must be carefully specified during piping design and controlled
during bend procurement and manufacture ,see /igure :.0..
780.8 addresses limitations on outer fiber elongation ,strain. in clauses dealing ith
post bend heat treatment E]881.9F. In addition to 780.8 re%uirements, be cautions
about outer fiber strain restrictions imposed by other standards, hich may be
applicable to the piping system ,e.g., ;A&6 5$@07:..
Although not specified in 780.8, hen longitudinally elded pipe is used for bending,
the longitudinal eld should be placed as near as practical to the neutral a#is of the
He.t Tre.t5ent3 ReGured A!ter Bendn/ or For5n/
Through heat treatment rules 780.8 does address some of the adverse effects of
bending and forming operations on material properties. The rules are based on type of
bending operation ,hot or cold., type of material, and outer fiber strain.
$egardless of material thic!ness, heat treatment is re%uired according to conditions
prescribed by ]880"
a. After hot bending and forming operations carried out on P nos.8, 9, 5, :, and 00A
b. After cold bending and forming.
0. of P3;o. 0 to P3;o.: materials here the outer fiber elongation in the direction of
severest forming ,usually e#trudes. e#ceeds 50Q of specified minimum
elongation stated for the specification grade, and thic!ness of the starting pipe
1. of any material re%uiring impact testing, if the ma#imum calculated fiber strain
after bending or forming e#ceeds 5Q; and
8. hen specified by the engineering design.
2ith regard to ,a. above, the materials listed are capable of transformation hardening
hen cooled from hot bending and forming temperatures, so heat treatment is aimed at
restoring mechanical properties to a level reasonably consistent ith the starting
materials. 2ith regard to ,b. above, or! hardening effects imparted by cold bending
and forming reduce the ductility and notch toughness ,impact strength. of materials. As
ell, cold bending and forming operations generate residual stresses in the finished
parts. 'eat treatment is therefore applied as a tool to reduce the negative
conse%uences of these effects ,e.g., brittle fracture..
5ost people associated ith the pressure piping industry ill, at some point, come in
contact ith elding. This could mean"
a. 2riting a elding procedure,
b. Nualify a elding procedure or elding personnel,
c. $evieing a elding procedure for acceptance of re*ection in a specific application,
d. 4oing the elding, hich ill li!ely involve trying to interpret someone else+s elding
To laymen, elding is a magic act. 2ith the common arc elding processes, the arc
ignites ith a flash of bright light, the magician ,elder. moves the bright light along the
interface beteen the metals and LprestoM, a eld is created. @f course, ell3informed
piping professionals !no that elding is a lot more than smo!e and mirrors. It is a very
comple# interdisciplinary science involving aspects of mechanical, civil, electrical, and
metallurgical engineering. Thorough technical understanding of elding operations
re%uires specific training, hich is only available at select engineering, technical, and
trade schools.
780.8 provides elding guidance in the areas of"
a. responsibility E]81J.0F,
b. %ualificationsE]81J.1F, and
c. technical and or!manship criteria E]81J.8 through ]81J.:F.
these are discussed in detail in the folloing sections.
?e2dn/ Re31on3b2ty HI(%8.1J
780.8 is very clear regarding responsibility for elding. ]81J.0 states" Leach employer is
responsible for the elding done by the personnel of his organi)ation and; e#cept as
provided in paragraphs. 81J.1.1 and 81J.1.8, shall conduct the tests re%uired to %ualify
elding procedures, and to %ualify and as necessary re%ualify elders and elding
operatorsM. This philosophy is consistent ith other sections of the A(56 code and ith
similar codes, standards, and specifications around the orld.
The to e#ceptions in ]81J.0, regarding the need for employers to conduct elding
%ualification tests, are"
a. Procedure Nualifications 7y others E]81J.1.1F, and
b. Performance Nualification 7y @thers E]81J.1.8F
Although these e#emptions e#ist, the employer is not e#empt from responsibility for
elds prepared according to procedures or personnel %ualified by others. &lose
e#amination of the conditions attached to these e#emptions ill enhance understanding
as to hy the employer is responsible for all elding.
$egarding e#emption of an employer from eld procedure %ualifications through use of
elding procedures %ualified by others, interpretation of 780.8 restrictions shos that
the e#emption is limited to lo ris! situations. /or the e#emption to apply, the &ode has
the folloing re%uirements"
a. The inspector must be satisfied E]81J.1.1,a.F"
0. 2ith the capability of the organi)ation providing the procedure E]81J.1.1,a.,0.F;
1. That the employer intending to use the procedure has not made any changes
to it.
b. 7ase metals are restricted to P3;o. 0, P3;o. 8, P3;o. 9 Br. 0 ,08Q&r ma#.., or P3;o.
J E]81J.1.1,b.F.
c. Impact tests are not re%uired E]81J.1.1,b.F.
d. 7ase metals to be *oined are of same P3;o., e#cept P3;o. 0, P3;o. 8, and P3;o. 9
Br. 0 may be elded to each other as permitted by A(56 (ection E>E]81J.1.1, c.F.
e. 7ase metal thic!ness does not e#ceed \ in. ,0K mm. E]81J.1.1, d.F.
f. P2'T is not re%uired E]81J.1.1, d.F
g. 4esign pressure does not e#ceed A(56-A;(I 70:.5 &lass 800 at design
temperature E]81J.1.1, e.F.
h. 4esign temperature is in the range 310^/ through 750^/ ,31K^& through 8KK^&.,
inclusive E]81J.1.1, e.F
i. 2elding processes are restricted to (5A2 or BTA2 or combination thereof
E]81J.1.1, f.F.
*. 2elding electrodes are restricted to those listed in ]81J.1.1, g..
!. 6mployer accepts responsibility for both the 2P( and PN$ by a signature
E]81J.1.1, h.F.
l. 6mployer has at least one elder-elding operator ho, hile in his employ, has
passed a performance %ualification test using the procedure and the P3;o. of
material specified in the 2P(. Nualification must have been ith a bend test per
A(56 (ection I> Para N23801. Nualification by radiography alone is not
acceptable E]81J.1.1,i.F.
Alays consult the latest revision of the &ode for any changes to the e#emption
restrictions, hich may occur from time to time.
$egarding e#emption of an employer from performance %ualification testing, a
performance %ualification made another employer may be accepted, sub*ect to the
folloing restrictions E]81J.1.8F"
a. The inspector must specifically approve the e#emption.
b. The %ualification is limited to piping using the same or e%uivalent procedure ith
essential variables ithin the limits of A(56 (ection I>.
c. The employer must obtain a copy of the performance %ualification test record from
the previous employer, hich contains information prescribed by ]81J.1.8. This
re%uirement seriously restricts the portability of elding %ualifications. /or e#ample,
hy ould an employer release such records to a competitor, unless the competitor
is part of the same corporate group_
The restriction has been overcome in some ;orth American locations through
%ualification tests administered by the *urisdiction having authority over the or! ,e.g.,
state or province.. In other locations, especially developing countries here massive
pro*ects are underta!en, the portability restriction has been overcome by general
acceptance of %ualification cards issued by some large local industrial organi)ation.
Typically, the %ualifying organi)ation issues each elder a laminated I4 card containing
the elder+s photograph and other %ualification information.
@f course, elder performance %ualification cards are valuable. =aminated
photographic I4 is essential and must be carefully controlled. /or e#ample, ithout
laminated photographic I4 it ould be %uite possible to have one %ualified elder
shoing up at different test centers, passing %ualification tests for all of his friends.
Alternatively, it ould be possible for un%ualified elders to be substituted on the or!
by forgery of %ualification cards ithout photographic I4.
?e2dn/ @u.2!c.ton E]81J.1F
Although the %ualification e#emptions discussed above may be used, normally the
employer is re%uired to conduct elding %ualifications. 780.8 controls the details of
elding %ualifications by referencing"
a. A(56 (ection I>E]81J.1.0,a.F,
b. (upplementary technical re%uirements E]81J.1.0,b. through 81J.1.0, f.F, and
c. $e%uirements for %ualification records E]81J.1.9F.
7y e#ternal reference to A(56 (ection I>, the 780.8 &ode ta!es advantage of a
general or!ing document governing elding %ualifications for the entire A(56 &ode.
Topics in the folloing paragraphs, hich address elding variables listed in A(56
(ection I>, are indicated by the LN2M prefi# to clause numbers.
:ont3 HI@?&'$%J
The terminology used to describe eld *oints can be confusing, ith meaning often
dependent on the industry sector here or! is carried out, as ell as on applicable
codes and standards. 6#perience and intuition often form the basis for understanding
various terms. /or e#ample, the term Lbutt eldM is commonly used in pressure piping
applications to describe a butt *oint ith a groove eld, hich is typically a full
penetration groove eld.
To properly communicate elding re%uirements it is important to ma!e some basic
distinction relative to"
a. *oint types,
b. eld types, and
c. *oint geometry and end preparation.
/olloing from these basics, several supplementary details should also be considered,
a. degree of *oint penetration full or partial,
b. eld profile H conve# or concave,
c. alignment and fit3up details,
d. bac!ing type, if used, including eld metal and bac!elded *oints, and
e. access for elding ,i.e., single elded *oints, double elded *oints.
:ont Ty1e3
There are five basic types of *oints, as described in Table :30. ;ote that the *oint is the
interface beteen the members. This distinction is important, since it governs
interpretation of eld symbols and thic!ness of the *oint ,e.g., for preheat purposes..
T.b2e *.1 Fve B.3c :ont Ty1e3
7utt Ooint A *oint beteen to members aligned
appro#imately in the same plane.
&orner Ooint A *oint beteen to members appro#imately at
right angles ,K0^. to each other
Tee *oint A *oint beteen to members appro#imately at
right angles ,K0^. to each other, in the form of a T.
=ap *oint A *oint beteen to overlapping members.
6dge *oint A *oint beteen the edges of to or more parallel
or nearly parallel members.
Ty1e3 o! ?e2d3
There are three basic types of elds, as listed in Table :.1
T.b2e *.% B.3c ?e2d Ty1e3
Broove 2eld
/illet 2eld
Plug or (lot
A eld made in the groove beteen to members to be *oined.
A eld of appro#imately triangular cross section, *oining to
surfaces appro#imately at right angles to each other.
A eld made through a circular or elongated hole in one member
of a lap or T *oint, *oining that member to the surface of the other
member e#posed through the hole.
End Pre1.r.ton And :ont -eo5etry
6nd preparation E]81J.9.1F refers to the shape and dimensions of the base metal hen
vieed as a cross section at the elding end, prior to fit3up and elding. Ooint geometry
refers to the shape and dimensions of a *oint hen vieed in cross section after fit3up
and prior to elding.
/or pressure piping, *oint geometry refers mainly to the type of groove to be used, of
hich there are many. 780.8 provides some guidance concerning end preparations and
resultant *oint geometry E]81J.9.1,a.,1. and /ig. 81J.9.1F.
/or manually elded piping butt *oints, the single3vee groove is most common. /or thic!
*oints, hoever, compound vee grooves may be used to reduce elding costs,
distortion, and residual stress.
In other situations, decision regarding *oint geometry involve consideration of several
issues, including &ode re%uirements, selected elding process, si)e and type of filler
metal, elding position, access to the root of the *oint, availability of suitable tools for
*oint preparation, and economy.
:ont Penetr.ton
:ont 1enetr.ton re!er3 to tEe 5n5u5 de1tE tE.t . /roove we2d e4tend3 !ro5 t3
!.ce nto tEe AontF e#clusive of reinforcement ,i.e., eld metal in e#cess of the %uantity
re%uired to fill the *oint.. 2ith pressure piping, it is normal to aim for full ,complete.
penetration elds here the eld metal completely fills the groove and is fused to the
base metal throughout the total thic!ness. =imits on incomplete penetration are listed in
780.8 and discussed later in this boo!.
In some cases, the engineering design may re%uire partial penetration *oints. The e#tent
of penetration may be described in terms of the effective throat, although specification
of the ma#imum amount of incomplete penetration is more useful hen nondestructive
e#amination methods are applied to verify *oint %uality.
As an e#ample of a situation here partial penetration *oints ould be used, consider a
butt3elded cement mortar lined piping system. 2ith this type of construction, a thin
gas!et of suitable diameter ,e.g., compressed asbestos or e%uivalent. is spot glued to
the cement surface of one member of a *oint. The other member is then fit up tight
against the gas!et and the *oint is clamped. The root bead is then deposited, ta!ing care
not to penetrate completely through the root face of the carrier pipe. If they are
penetrates the root face of the carrier pipe, the gas!et may burn and loose its ability to
provide a seal, or concentrated heat from the arc may cause the cement to crac! and
fall aay from the pipe all.
2hile one normally thin!s of 100 and 800 series stainless steels in the classification of
austenitic materials, the group also includes may nonferrous alloys.
Imposes to special re%uirements for nonferrous and nonmetallic bac!ing rings,
0. that the designer approve their use, and
1. that the elding procedure using them be %ualified as re%uired by ]81J.1.0,e..
in addition to the above &ode restrictions on bac!ing rings, designers normally prohibit
their use for"
a. corrosive services here the space beteen the ring and the pipe might be a
location for crevice or pitting attac!.
b. &yclic or vibrating services here notches associated ith rings become sites for
development of fatigue crac!s, and
c. &ryogenic or lo temperature services here notches become sites for initiation of
brittle fracture.
Con3u5.b2e In3ert3 HI(%8.%.1;e<F I(%8.(.(J
I(%8.(.(J indicates that consumable inserts may be used provided"
a. they are of the same nominal composition as the filler metal,
b. they ill not cause detrimental alloying of the eld metal, and
c. their suitability is demonstrated by eld procedure %ualification EI81J.1.0,e.F.
In general, the 780.8 position on consumable inserts is consistent ith that of A(56
(ection I>, hich treats consumable inserts as a nonessential variable for the common
arc elding processes, hich ould use inserts ,e.g., BTA2..
'oever, under strict interpretation, the A(56 position on nonessential variables
means that a 2P( could be amended ithout re%ualification, hether the insert ere
added or deleted. ?nder 780.8 rules, addition or deleted. ?nder 780.8 rules, addition or
deletion of an insert ould not be permitted ithout a supporting PN$ ,i.e.,
Pre& "
780.8 defines preheating as the application of heat to the base metal immediately
before or during a forming, elding, or cutting process E]800.1F. This definition has a
slightly broader scope than the definition provided in A(56 (ection I> ]N2 H 9K1.
780.8 also states that preheat is used, along ith heat treatment to minimi)e the
detrimental effects of high temperature and severe thermal gradients inherent in elding
E]880.0F. Although not specifically mentioned in 780.8, these detrimental effects can
a. cold ,hydrogen . crac!ing,
b. hard, brittle heat affected )ones,
c. distortion, and-or
d. high residual stress.
Preheat can also be used to assist in the fusion ,melting. of metals ith high
conductivity such as copper and copper alloys, and thic! sections of aluminum and
aluminum alloys. Preheat is sometimes used to assist in the alignment of parts, but
such practice is usually discouraged due to lac! of control over the alignment activity
and the potential introduction of abnormally high stresses.
A(56 (ection I> defines preheat temperature as the minimum temperature in the eld
*oint preparation immediately prior to elding; or in the case of multiple pass elds, the
minimum temperature in the section of the previously deposited eld metal,
immediately prior to elding E]N2 H 9K1F.
;ote that the A(56 definition of preheat temperature as applied to multipass elds is
also !non as minimum interpass temperature in other codes, standards, and
specifications. In this boo!, the term minimum interpass will be used when referring to
the minimum temperature of the deposited eld metal before starting the ne#t pass of a
multipass eld since, from a technical perspective, it is not alays necessary that the
temperature beteen passes meet or e#ceed the minimum preheat temperature at the
start of the first pass.
A(56 (ection I> defines interpass temperature as the highest temperature in the eld
*oint immediately prior to elding, or in the case of multipass elds, the highest
temperature in the section of the previously deposited eld metal, immediately before
the ne#t pass is deposited E]N2 H 9K1F. Again, strictly spea!ing, the interpass
temperature as defined by A(56 is the maximum interpass temperature. In practice, it
is measured near the start of the ne#t pass.
5ost re%uirements for preheat and minimum interpass temperature control are aimed at
prevention of cold crac!ing in transformation hardenable materials such as carbon
steels, lo alloy steels, intermediate alloy steels, and martensitic stainless steels. /or
cold crac!s to form, the four conditions listed in the left column of Table :37 must be
satisfied simultaneously.
The magnitude of any one of the four conditions cannot be defined ith accuracy and
depends largely on the other three conditions. The beneficial effect of preheat on each
of these conditions is shon in the right column of Table :.7.
T.b2e *.# In!2uence o! PreEe.t .nd )n5u5 Inter1.33 Te51er.ture on Condton3
ReGured !or Co2d Cr.cDn/
Condton3 Nece33.ry !or Co2d
Bene!t3 o! PreEe.t .nd )n5u5
Inter1.33 Te51er.ture Contro2
Presence of hydrogen in sufficient 4iffuses hydrogen aay from the *oint,
%uantity. reducing the ris! of crac!ing.
(ufficient tensile stress, hich may be
applied, residual, or a combination of
Alters stress distribution during elding
and offers a small reduction of residual
stress upon completion of elding.
A susceptible microstructure, hich is
normally interpreted to mean a hard
microstructure, hence the fre%uent use
of hardness tests to assess the ris! of
cold crac!ing.
$educes probability of forming
susceptible microstructure by sloing
the cooling rate.
A temperature threshold belo some
critical level ,e.g.,800^/., hich
depends somehat on alloy content
and metal structure.
Aeeps the eldment above threshold
temperature for crac!ing until the eld
is completed.
Another term used by A(56 (ection I> is preheat maintenance. Although not
specifically defined by the code, e#amination of ]N2 H 90:.1 shos that the term
applies to the maintenance or reduction of preheat upon completion of elding, prior to
any re%uired posteld heat treatment. The primary reason for preheats maintenance
after completion of elding is to continue diffusion of hydrogen from the eldment. It
may also be used for reduction of thermal gradients and resulting residual stresses or
distortions, and-or for isothermal transformation. 2hen preheat maintenance is
specified for a elding procedure, it should include both temperature and time. (imply
indicating LyesM on the eld procedure specification is meaningless.
/or most &ode users, the folloing %uestions regarding preheat and interpass control
must be ansered"
a. 2hat preheat and minimum interpass temperatures should be used for the
b. 'o should the heat be applied_
c. 'o, here, and hen should the temperature be measured_
4etailed technical ansers to the above %uestions can be very comple#. (ince most
piping applications involve some legal re%uirement ,contractual and-or *urisdictional.,
the obvious starting point for ansers is to e#amine the minimum re%uirements of 780.8
and A(56 (ection I>.
Preheating for all types of piping elds is covered in 780.8 under ]880. The second
sentence of ]880.0 states" L The necessity for preheating and the temperature to be
used shall be specified in the engineering design and demonstrated by procedure
%ualificationM. If such re%uirements are not included in the engineering design, then the
minimum &ode re%uirements are generally assumed.
In addition to information contained in 780.8 Table 880.0.0, there are numerous other
methods of evaluating or verifying re%uirements for preheat and interpass temperature
control. (ome techni%ues, ith associated comments, are described belo"
a. ;omographs are a favorite tool of technical specialists for estimating preheat
re%uirements. @ne common method used for carbon and carbon3manganese steels
as published by the 7ritish 2elding Institute in a boo! entitled 2elding (teels
ithout 'ydrogen &rac!ing by /.$. &oe. The techni%ue has a sound scientific basis
in that it accounts for base metal thic!ness, arc energy input, carbon e%uivalent, and
hydrogen potential of the elding process. The publication also describes
techni%ues for dealing ith alloy steels.
b. /or the less technically inclined, the use of Lloo!3upM tables is very common. These
may be in very simple or very comple# form. /or A(56 code users, the appendi# of
a boo! entitled Weldability of Steels by R.D. (tout and 2.4.4oty can be a very
useful source of preheat information. This appendi# is based on 2$& 7ulletin 0K0
first published in Oanuary 0K79 and republished in 5arch 0K7J. Although the
information may appear to be a bit dated ,depending upon the current state of your
career., it nevertheless addresses the comple# issues of base metal thic!ness,
carbon content and general chemistry ,e, g., hardness and hardenability., and
hydrogen potential.
c. @ther sections of the A(56 code are often consulted for preheat information
including A(56 (ection IIII, 4ivision 0, Appendi# $; A(56 (ection IIII, 4ivision 1,
Appendi# 4; and A(56 (ection I, A H 000.
d. (everal types of preheat calculators have been developed over the years. @ne
common calculator is available from the =incoln 6lectric &ompany. It incorporates
the influence of hydrogen, carbon e%uivalent and thic!ness on preheat selection.
e. &omple# preheat calculation techni%ues have been published, hich relate cooling
rates calculated by various formulae ,e.g., solutions to $osethal+s e%uations for heat
flo from a moving heat source. to time3temperature transformation ,TTT or
e%uivalent. diagrams. 'oever, these techni%ues find little application ithin the
pressure piping industry, due to the comple#ity of calculations, the need to select
values for LconstantsM hich are not constant over the temperature ranges involved
in elding, and the lac! of complete time3temperature transformation data for the
materials involved. @f course, as computers continue to change our orld, one may
find increasing application of these more fundamental methods.
780.8 does not restrict the methods of preheat, but some oner specifications do.
(ome methods of preheating include"
a. @#yfuel gas fired torch ,propane, butane, and sometimes acetylene.,
b. 6lectric resistance elements,
c. Induction coils, and
d. 6#othermic !its.
/rom a practical elding perspective, the method of heating is not generally an issue as
long as the correct preheat temperature is achieved, ith the heat uniformly applied
throughout the full thic!ness and circumference of the *oint. In some cases, the use of
o#yacetylene torches is prohibited by oner specifications due to the intensity of the
heat source and the ris! of local damage to the base metal or eld metal if the heat is
concentrated at one location.
780.8 re%uires that the preheat temperature be chec!ed to ensure that the temperature
specified by the 2P( is obtained prior to and during elding E]880.0.8,a.F. 'oever,
780.8 does not prescribe"
a. The e#act methods by hich temperature must be measured,
b. The location of temperature measurements, or
c. The timing of temperature measurements.
te51er.ture 5e.3ure5ent30
a. Temperature indicating crayons, thermocouple pyrometers, or other suitable means
shall be used to measure temperature, E]880.0.8,a.F
b. Thermocouples may be attached by capacitor discharge elding ithout the need
for elding procedure and performance %ualifications, sub*ect to visual e#amination
of the area after thermocouple removal, E]880.0.8,b.F and
c. The preheat )one shall e#tend at least 0 inch beyond each edge of the eld. , ;ote
that many oner specifications re%uire at least 1 inches and some as much as :
inches. E]880.0.9F.
Although the &ode definitions of preheat and interpass temperature refer to the
deposited eld metal, temperature measurement directly on hot eld metal can result in
contamination and is generally discouraged. &ommon industry practice is to measure
preheat and interpass temperature in a manner hich insures that the correct preheat
has been reached from the edge of the elding groove to the outer limits of the
specified preheat )one idth.
Preheat temperature, by definition, is measured immediately before the start of elding;
hoever, interpass temperature measurement can be the sub*ect of some debate.
2hen interpass temperature control is re%uired by a 2P(, the interpass temperature
is normally measured immediately before the start of the ne#t pass, at the location
here the ne#t pass ill be started.
Purists may argue that by only measuring the temperature at the starting point of the
ne#t pass, it is possible for the ne#t pass to be placed over eld metal thatis not e#actly
ithin the interpass range. It+s true, of course, but practically spea!ing, interpass
temperature measurement for process piping is hardly an e#acting science.
-.3 !or SEe2dn/F B.cDn/F .nd Pur/n/ H]@? K '$8J
Protection of hot and molten metal from the atmosphere is a necessary part of most
elding operations. Protection may be accomplished using"
a. e#ternally supplied shielding, bac!ing, and purging gases, and-or
b. flu#es hich decompose to give a slag covering and-or a gaseous shield.
6#ternally supplied protective gases prevent atmospheric contamination of the hot
molten metal by displacing air from the eld area. In general, protective gases may be"
a. Inert gases li!e helium or argon, hich do not react ith the hot metal,
b. $eactive gases such as carbon dio#ide, nitrogen, or hydrogen, hich do react in a
limited ay ith the hot metal and may be o#idi)ing or reducing depending upon the
specific gas-metal interaction, or
c. 5i#ture of inert and-or reactive gases ,e.g., 75Ar-15&@
/or many elding applications, shielding gases are actually mi#turers of gases, ith the
composition of the mi#ture optimi)ed to provide the best combination of shielding
characteristics and process operating characteristics. (election of a gas depends on
several somehat interrelated factors including"
a. cost and availability at re%uired purity levels,
b. 6ase of handling, stability, and physiological effects,
c. 5etallurgical characteristics including solubility in metals being elded, reactions
ith metals being elded and resultant degree of protection afforded to hot metal,
effects on etting behavior, effects on penetration as it affects type and thic!ness of
metals to be elded, and effects on end properties of the eld deposit, and
d. 2elding process characteristics including elding position, ease of arc ignition as
influenced by ioni)ation potential of the gas, arc stability, and penetration as affected
by thermal conductivity of the gas.
(olubility is a particularly important issue in gas selection, since dissolved gas in the
molten metal can lead to porosity on free)ing. Insert gases such as helium and argon
have very limited solubility in most metals and are therefore used e#tensively for gas
shielded arc elding processes.
Although carbon dio#ide is virtually insoluble in most metals, it is reactive and ill cause
some surface o#idation and some loss of o#idi)able elements. ;evertheless, carbon
dio#ide is used e#tensively for B5A2 and /&A2 of carbon and lo alloy steels.
In some cases, limited amounts of certain gases are included in the shielding gas
mi#ture to accomplish ob*ectives other than shielding. Three e#amples are listed belo"
a. ;itrogen has been added to stainless steel shielding gases as an alloy addition,
hich imparts improved corrosion resistance and strength, and as a techni%ue of
controlling phase balance in duple# stainless steel eld metal.
b. @#ygen may be added to argon in amounts typically from 0 to 5Q, to improve
etting of stainless steel deposits, to improve bead shape, and to reduce
c. 'ydrogen has been added to shielding gases to increase penetration
characteristics, through increased arc voltage and conse%uent increased heat input.
As a ord of caution, minor additions of reactive gases should not be attempted ithout
thorough understanding of the conse%uences, and procedure %ualification to evaluate
the effect of such additions.
C2e.nn/ H](%8.'.1J
H](%8.'.1J does provide some motherhood statements about cleaning, but a elding
procedure should be specified about cleaning methods, solutions, abrasives, and tools.
This is particularly true for nonferrous metals and stainless steels, since inappropriate
cleaning methods can lead to crac!ing ,prior to or in service. and-or loss of corrosion
I81J.5.0,d. prohibits peening on the root pass and final pass of a eld. Peening or!
hardens the metal, reduces ductility, and therefore increases the ris! of crac!ing during
or after elding. Peening beteen passes can be permitted because heat of
subse%uent eld passes heat treats ,softens. the peened eld metal of previous
passes. ;ote that chipping necessary for slag removal is not considered to be peening.
]81J.5.0,e. is intended to prohibit elding under adverse eather conditions. 5oisture
can cause porosity and hydrogen cold crac!s. 6#cessive ind blos shielding aay
causing porosity and brittle elds, for both gas shielded and coated electrodes. Another
practical issue ith e#cessive ind under dry or arid conditions is the sirling of dirt,
ithin the elder+s helmet, ma!ing it difficult to see the eld pool. If you cann+t see hat
you+re doing, you can+t eld.
]81J.5.0,f. provides some general advice on preserving the seat tightness of eld end
valves. The valve manufacturer should alays be consulted concerning elding
conditions appropriate to maintaining seat tightness and responsibility for dismantling,
reassembly, and testing hen necessary.
(ome issues to consider include characteristics of sealing materials and ris! of heat
damage ,e.g., plastic or metal3to3metal seat elements., use of e#tended bodies for soft
seated valves, or use of a ater %uench to cool have materials hich do not
transformation harden,e.g., austenitic stainless steels..
]81J.5.8 indicates that seal elds must be done by a %ualified elder. 2hile this
re%uirement may seem obvious, significant commercial gains can be made through the
use of un%ualified elders. The need for seal elds to cover all threads is imposed to
avoid notch effects, hich could cause brittle fracture or fatigue crac!s. /or the record,
a seal eld is not a bac! eld.
) Te3tn/
5echanical testing re%uirements for elding procedures are found in A(56 (ection I>.
'oever, if the base metal ill not ithstand the 0J0 degree guided bend test re%uired
by A(56 (ection I>, 780.8 permits %ualification if the eld bend specimen ill undergo
the same degree of bending as the base metal ,ithin 5 degree. E]81J.1.0,b.F.
As ell, hen impact testing is re%uired by the &ode or engineering design, 780.8
indicates that those re%uirements shall also be met in %ualifying eld procedures
He.t Tre.t5ent HI((1J
'eat treatment is used to minimi)e certain detrimental effects associated ith elding,
bending and forming processes E]880F.
4epending on the nature of each process, attendant high temperatures, severe thermal
gradients, and-or severe metal forming operations ,cold or!. can result in dramatic
loss of toughness, reduction of ductility, increased hardness, and-or high residual
stresses. In turn, these can lead to premature, une#pected, and potentially catastrophic
failures caused by brittle fracture, fatigue crac!ing, stress corrosion crac!ing, and-or
hydrogen embrittlement.
780.8 provides basic heat treatment practices suitable for most elding, bending, and
forming operations, but arns that they are not necessarily appropriate for all service
conditions E]880F.
&ommon e#amples here compliance ith minimum 780.8 heat treatment
re%uirements could be considered inappropriate include process streams containing
caustics, amines used for gas seetening operations, and hydrogen sulfide. In the case
of process streams containing hydrogen sulfide, it is !non that the minimum
temperature alloed by Table 880.0.0 may not cause sufficient softening for resistance
to sulfide stress crac!ing in severe sour environments.
This accounts for the careful ording in clause of ;A&6 (tandard 5$@0753K5,
hich states" L=o3alloy steel and martensitic stainless steel eldments shall be stress
relieved at a minimum temperature of :10^& ,0050^/. to produce a ma#imum hardness
of 11 '$& ma#imum.M Typically, temperatures re%uired to satisfy the 11 '$& ma#imum
criterion for lo alloy steels are ell above :10^& ,0050^/.. given the to#ic nature of
sour environments, before construction one should confirm that proposed heat
treatment cycles are capable of satisfying ma#imum hardness restrictions.
&onfirmation ould typically involve cross3sectional hardness surveys of the elding
procedure %ualification test coupons.
For53 o! He.t Tre.t5ent
There are many forms of heat treatment, each intended to accomplish a certain tas!.
/re%uently, more that one tas! is accomplished by a particular thermal cycle. 'eat
treatments listed in 780.8 table 880.0.0 are best described as stress relieving heat
treatments, since the primary purpose of the treatment is the reduction of residual
stresses due to elding, forming, or bending operations.
(uch treatment may also result in improved ductility, loer hardness ,note that 780.8
does impose some hardness restrictions., better toughness, and reduced distortion
during subse%uent machining operations.
780.8 also allos the use of annealing, normali)ing and tempering, in lieu of a re%uired
heat treatment after elding, bending, or forming, provided that the mechanical
properties of any affected eld and base metal meet specification re%uirements after
such treatment and that the substitution is approved by the designer E]880.1.0F.
Stress relief of carbon and lo alloy steel is carried out at a temperature slightly belo
the loer critical temperature ,A
. of the steel, hence there is some use of the term
subcritical stress relief ,i.e., there is no phase transformation at subcritical
/or high alloy materials, such as austenitic stainless steels, considerably higher
temperatures are re%uired for effective stress relief due to the inherent hot strength of
these materials. Although 780.8 does not mandate application of heat treatment to
austenitic stainless steels, hen applied ,e.g., for service reasons., it is usually carried
out at a temperature of appro#imately 0:50^/.
Annealing is a common term in the heat3treating business, but there are many types of
anneal. A full anneal is performed at high temperature ,e.g., about 50 to 000^/ above
the upper critical temperature for carbon steels., folloed by slo cooling, generally in a
furnace. It provides ma#imum softening, resulting in loest hardness and strength.
A stress relief anneal is performed on carbon and alloy steels at a temperatures slightly
belo the loer critical temperature, and many also be !non as a subcritical stress
relief or subcritical anneal.
7oth the stress relief anneal and full anneal are applied as softening treatments, but
other effects may result from the thermal cycles including changes to mechanical
properties, physical properties, and microstructure.
Although Lfull annealM is generally implied hen the ord LannealM is used ithout any
%ualifier, if a Lfull annealM is re%uired, feer surprises ill occur if the term Lfull annealM is
(ometimes the term solution anneal is used to describe hat might properly be called a
solution heat treatment. In this case, an alloy is heated to a temperature high enough to
dissolve one or more constituents into solid solutions, and then cooled rapidly enough to
hold the constituents in solid solution.
(olution heat treatments are generally applied to highly alloy steels and other high alloy
materials for the purpose of dissolving one or more constituents, hich may affect the
properties of the material. /or e#ample, many of the austenitic stainless steel pipes
purchased according to A(T5 A 801 are supplied in the solution treated condition.
Normalizing of carbon and lo alloy steels is carried out by heating to a temperature
range similar to that used for a full anneal, but the parts are alloed to cool in still air.
This can save time and money compared to annealing, if the soft structure of the full
anneal is not re%uired. ;ormali)ing is also effective in refining the grain si)e and
homogeni)ing the structure, resulting in better toughness, more uniform mechanical
properties, and better ductility.
Tempering is a heat treatment, hich may be applied to transformation hardenable
steels after a normali)ing operation and is generally applied after a %uenching
operation. Tempering is carried out belo the loer critical temperature. It is used to
reduce hardness and improve toughness and ductility at the e#pense of reduced
He.t Tre.t5ent ReGure5ent3
I880.0.0 imposes the folloing heat treatment re%uirements"
a. 'eat treatment shall be in accordance ith the material groupings and thic!ness
ranges in Table 880.0.0 e#cept as provided in ]880.1.0 and ]880.1.1.
b. 'eat treatment to be used after production elding shall be specified in the 2P(
and shall be used in %ualifying the elding procedure.
c. The engineering design shall specify the e#amination and-or other production
%uality controls ,not less than the re%uirements of 780.8. to ensure that the final
elds are of ade%uate %uality.
d. 'eat treatment for bending and forming shall be in accordance ith ]881.9.
-overnn/ TEcDne33 !or He.t Tre.t5ent o! ?e2d H]880.0.8F
780.8 contains a detailed treatment of metal thic!ness rules governing the need for heat
treatment, as ell as e#ceptions to the rules E]880.0.8F. Table :.J belo may be used to
assist ith interpretation of 780.8 re%uirements.

T.b2e *.8 -overnn/ TEcDne33 .nd E4e51ton3 !or Po3twe2d He.t Tre.t5ent
;P?HT< o! ?e2d3

2eld Type P2'T Boverning Thic!ness And
7utt 2elds and elds not covered
elsehere in this table
P2'T re%uired hen the thic!ness of the
thic!er component measured at the *oint
e#ceeds the limits provided in Table
880.0.0. ;o e#ceptions.
7ranch &onnection 2elds for set3on
or set3in designs, ith or ithout
reinforcement, as per /ig. 81J.5.9 4
P2'T re%uired hen the thic!ness
through the eld in any plane is greater
than tice the minimum material
thic!ness re%uiring heat treatment as
specified in Table 880.0.0. ;o e#ceptions.
(ee 780.8 for assistance ith eld
thic!ness calculations
/illet 2elds for slip3on, soc!et, and
seal elded connections ;P( 1 and
smaller; and for e#ternal nonpressue
parts such as lugs and pipe supports
in all pipe si)es
P2'T re%uired hen the thic!ness
through the eld in any plane is more
than tice the minimum material
thic!ness re%uiring heat treatment as
specified in Table 880.0.0. There are
three e#ceptions to this rule"
0. 'eat treatment is not re%uired for P3
;o. 0 materials ith eld throats 7 5-J
in. ,70: mm., regardless of base
metal thic!ness.
1. 'eat treatment is not re%uired for P3
;o. 8,9,5 or 00A materials ith eld
throats 7 < in. ,708 mm., regardless
of base metal thic!ness, provided that
preheat applied during elding as
not less than the recommended
preheat ,see Table 880.0.0 and the
2P(., and that base metal (5T( is
less than 70 !si ,9K0 5pa..
8. 'eat treatment is not re%uired for
ferritic materials hen elds are
made ith filler metal hich does not
air harden. ,see ;ote 0..
,0. ;ote that this can be a dangerous e#ception for some services and should be
used ith caution. Oust because the filler metals do not harden, doesn+t mean the
heat3affected )ones of the base metals have not hardened. /urthermore, *ust
because the deposited filler metal may be in a soft and ductile condition, doesn+t
mean the base metal heat affected )ones are in the same condition.

EGu15ent .nd )etEod3 o! He.t Tre.t5ent
780.8 does not impose limitations on heating e%uipment and methods. It only indicates
that the heating method must provide the re%uired metal temperature, metal
temperature uniformity, and temperature control, and then lists methods hich may be
used for heating including furnace, local flame heating, electric resistance, electric
induction, and e#othermic chemical reaction E ]880.0.9F.
'eating methods used for heat treatment may be classified in terms of the facility used
for heat3treating and the energy source. /acilities can be discussed in terms of local
heat treatment and furnace heat treatment.
a. =ocal heat treatment involves the heating of a small band of metal. ;ormally the
band being heat3treated is stationary, but in some manufacturing operations, the
band moves. 6#amples of moving bands include in3line3tempering operations used
during manufacture of %uenched and tempered pipe and local heating operations
used in the manufacture of induction bends.
b. /urnace heat treatment generally involves placing the item to be heat treated inside
a permanent furnace operated by a fabrication shop or commercial heat treater.
'oever, it is possible to construct temporary heat treatment facilities ,e.g., at the
*ob site., hich may range from simple ad hoc insulated bo# constructions to
comple# portable furnaces.
There are several energy sources used in heat3treating. &urrent commercial sources of
heat energy and characteristics are discussed belo"
a. 6lectric resistance heat is produced hen an electric current is passed through
ires made from a material ith high electrical resistivity. The electric current
increase atomic movement in the ire, and this energy is then released in the form
of heat. There is a ide selection of heating elements available in the mar!etplace,
ith various si)es and shapes to fit practically any geometry. 'eaters are fle#ible
and durable and are commonly used for local heat treatment of elds during field
construction. Although resistance elements may burn out or short circuit against the
pipe, there are several advantages supporting use of electric resistance heat,
especially for local heat treatment of elds.
a. 'eat can be continuously and evenly applied.
b. Temperature can be ad*usted accurately and %uic!ly.
c. 2elders can or! in relative comfort. /or preheating applications, they do not
have to stop intermittently to raise preheat temperature.
d. 'eat input can be ad*usted fairly easily for e#ample, to control the amount of
heat applied to different pipe %uadrants or sections of dissimilar thic!ness such
as eld3in valves.
b. 'eat can be produced by chemical reaction using e#othermic !its. The chemical
composition of constituents in modern e#othermic heat !its is proprietary, hoever.
2hen materials in the !it are reacted, heat is released. 'eating cycles are
controlled in terms of the si)e, shape, and heating value of the e#othermic charge;
the si)e, shape, and mass of the component to be heat treated; and the local
environmental conditions. Although e#othermic !its offer the advantages of
portability, lo capital e%uipment cost, and simple operator training, they have to
ma*or limitations"
0. @nce the !it has been ignited, it is difficult to perform any further ad*ustments.
1. It is usually difficult or impossible to satisfy &ode and oner re%uirements on
heating rate, holding time, and cooling rate.
/or these reasons, use of e#othermic !its is restricted by many oner specifications,
e#cept perhaps for infre%uent use at remote locations such as drilling sites. (uccessful
application of e#othermic !its re%uires careful planning and contingency measures.
c. $adiant heaters use infrared radiation generated by a gas flame or %uart) lamp to
develop heat. Infrared radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation, hich
behaves similarly to light. The intensity of the radiation falls off in proportion to the
s%uare of the distance beteen the heat emitter and the part heated. $adiation
reaching the part is either absorbed, causing the temperature of the part to
increase, or reflected ,asted.. &onse%uently, surface condition of the metal ill
affect the efficiency of the process, as ill the relative positions of the heater and
the part, since the heater must LseeM the part for effective heating.
d. Induction coils create heat ith the passage of alternating current ,ac.. The
alternating magnetic field associated ith the alternating electrical field penetrates
the metal to be heated, changes strength and direction in phase ith the e#ternal
alternating electric current, and produces eddy currents in the part to be heat3
treated. The rise and collapse of magnetic fields and their associated eddy currents
stimulate atomic movement resulting in the release of heat ithin the part.
Te51er.ture )e.3ure5ent
780.8 does not impose restrictions on the devices used for temperature verification
E]880.0.:F. Although devices such as temperature indicating crayons, thermometers,
and optical pyrometers may be used, thermocouple pyrometers are generally used to
measure and record the temperature of the surfaces being heat3treated. /or proper
temperature measurement, the hot end of the thermocouple *unction must be in direct
contact ith the surface of the pipe or !ept at the same temperature as the pipe by
being inserted into a terminal *oined to the pipe.
780.8 does not impose any restrictions on the thermocouple attachment methods. To
this end, one may observe on various *ob sites, attachment of thermocouples using
steel bands, ire, ad hoc clamping devices, or eld metal. The suitability of any of
these thermocouple attachment methods should be addresses by specifications
developed during the engineering design or by NA-N& personnel monitoring the or!.
/or e#ample, steel bands or ires can become loose at the heat treatment temperature
so that the thermocouple is no longer in contact ith the surface, leading to false
temperature readings. Ad hoc clamping devices can or! loose, and the attachment
method of such devices can cause local damage to the pieces being heat3treated. ?se
of eld metal to fi# the thermocouple to the pipe surface changes the composition of the
*unction, resulting in measurement error. 6#perience ith attachment of thermocouples
by capacitor discharge elding indicates that the process or!s ell. 780.8 has specific
statements permitting the attachment of thermocouples to pipe using capacitor
discharge elding ithout the need for eld procedure and performance %ualifications
E]880.0.:, ]880.0.8,b.F
780.8 does not address the number of thermocouples re%uired or the placement of
thermocouples. Although these issues should be dealt ith in construction
specifications, perhaps discussion of a fe sources of measurement error ould be
useful in ma!ing such determinations.
a. 'eat rises. 2ith local heat treatment, the temperature measured on the top of a pipe
ill normally be higher than the temperature measured on the bottom of the pipe.
Typically, as diameter increases, steps are necessary to allo introduction of more
heat at the bottom and sides of the pipe than at the top of the pipe. The need for
additional temperature measurement points and heating controls does have
commercial implications.
b. The pipe ill be hottest ad*acent to the source of the heat. 4uring local heat
treatment, the pipe is normally heated from the outside, so the inside surface ill be
a bit cooler than the outside surface, depending upon the thic!ness of the pipe and
the e#tent to hich insulation is used and drafts prevented. /or e#ample, if the bore
of the pipe is not plugged ith insulation and the ind is histling through it, a
substantial difference beteen the inside and outside surface temperatures might be
e#pected. (ince heat treatments are often conducted for service reasons, and the
service is usually on the inside of the pipe, specific attention is re%uired to ensure
that the inside surface is ade%uately heated ,and that the outside surface is not
e#cessively heated..
c. The surface temperature of a resistance coil or other radiant heat source is
considerably above that of the pipe being heated. If the hot *unction of the
thermocouple is not insulated form the heat source, the temperature reading ill be
higher than the actual temperature at the pipe surface.
d. Thermocouple ires should run along the pipe surface under the insulation for
several inches before coming outside the insulation on the pipe surface. If the ires
are brought straight out of the insulation from the point of contact ith the pipe, heat
may be conducted aay from the hot *unction leading to a temperature reading
loer than the pipe surface.
e. 5easurement errors may be introduced if e#tension ires are not of the same
composition as the thermocouple ires, all the ay from the hot *unction to the cold
*unction. 4on+t accidentally reverse the ires at a connection point.
f. 6nsure that instrumentation is properly calibrated. 7attery operated circuits should
be calibrated at regular intervals and the output of regulated poer supplies should
be chec!ed occasionally for accuracy.
g. 4amaged or contaminated thermocouples and e#tensions can lead to measurement
error and should be chec!ed regularly for physical damage ,severe bends, !in!s,
partially bro!en ires, eld spatter or slag trapped beteen the ires.. .nd Coo2n/ R.te3 HI((1.1.'J
780.8 does not impose restrictions on heating and cooling rates E]880.0.9F. A(56
(ection IIII, 4ivision 0, ?&(35: re%uirements are fre%uently applied, but there are
causes here insulation and coils are ripped off immediately after the soa! period. In
the stress relieving business, time is money, especially if the heat treater is or!ing by
the eld or lump sum. (o, if heating and cooling rates need to be controlled, it should
be stated in specifications or other contract documents.
H.rdne33 Te3t3H]880.0.9F
780.8 ma!es the folloing statements regarding hardness testing.
'ardness tests of production elds and of hot bent and hot3formed piping are intended
to verify satisfactory heat treatment. 'ardness limits apply to the eld and to the heat
affected )one ,'AC. tested as close as practicable to the edge of the eld.
a. 2here a hardness limit is specified in Table 880.0.0, at least 00Q of elds, hot
bends, and hot formed components in each furnace heat treated batch and 000Q of
those locally heat treated shall be tested.
b. 2hen dissimilar metals are *oined by elding, the hardness limits specified for the
base and elding materials in Table 880.0.0 shall be met for each material.
The &ode does not discuss many of the technical details necessary to give an accurate
and representative appraisal of production eld hardness. &onse%uently, oner
specifications are recommended for guidance on applying this simple but often misused
and abused test method. @ner specifications should consider the si)e of hardness
indentations relative to the si)e of eld )ones to be measured, surface preparation of
the eld, methods for locating the )ones of interest, and training re%uirements for
hardness testing personnel.

AS)E B 1*."
1. SCOPE 0
-ener.2 "
This (tandard covers
a. Pressure temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances,
mar!ing, testing.
b. for pipe flanges and flanged fittings in si)es ;P( < through ;P( 19
and in rating &lasses 050, 800, 900, :00, K00, 0500 and 1500,
c. /langes and flanged fittings may be cast, forged, or , for blind flanges
and certain reducing flanges only . plate materials,
d. $e%uirements and recommendations regarding bolting and gas!ets
are also included.
Code3 .nd Re/u2.ton3 "
A flange or flanged fitting used under the *urisdiction of other codes is sub*ect to
any limitation of that code or regulation. This includes any ma#imum
temperature limitation, or rule governing the use of a material at lo temperature,
or provisions for operation at a pressure e#ceeding the pressure temperature
ratings in this (tandard.
$atings are ma#imum alloable or!ing gage pressures at the temperatures
shon in Tables for the applicable material and rating. /or intermediate
temperatures, linear interpolation is permitted. Te51er.ture
The temperature shon for a corresponding pressure rating is the temperature of
the pressure containing shell of the flange or flanged fitting. In general, this
temperature is the same as that of the contained fluid sub*ect to the re%uirements
of the applicable code or regulation. /or any temperature belo H10
/, the rating
shall be no greater than the rating shon for H10
Te51er.ture Con3der.ton3
F2.n/e Att.cE5ent
(oc!et elding and threaded flanges are not recommended for service above
/ or belo H50
/ if severe thermal gradients or thermal cycling are involved.
H/E Te51er.ture Servce
At temperatures in the creep range, gradual rela#ation of flanges, bolts, and
gas!ets may progressively reduce bolt loads. It may be necessary to arrange for
periodic tightening of bolts to prevent lea!age. Ooints sub*ect to substantial
thermal gradients may re%uire the same attention.
2hen used above 900
/, &lass 050 flanged *oints may develop lea!age unless
care is ta!en to avoid imposing severe e#ternal loads and-or severe thermal
gradients. /or other classes, similar consideration should be above 750
Low Te51er.ture Servce
(ome of the material listed in the rating tables undergo sufficient decrease in
toughness at lo temperatures that they cannot safely sustain shoc! loadings,
sudden changes of stress or temperature, or high stress concentrations.
Sy3te5 Te3t
/langed *oints and flanged fittings may be sub*ected to system hydrostatic tests
at a pressure not to e#ceed 0.5 times the 000
/ rating rounded off to the ne#t
higher 15 psi.
(. SI6E
The si)e of a flange or flanged fitting covered by this (tandard is its nominal pipe
si)e, ;P(. ?se of LnominalM indicates that the stated si)e or dimension is only
for designation, not measurement. The actual dimension may or may not be the
nominal si)e.
'. )AR>IN-
The manufacturer+s name or trademar! shall be applied.
a. &ast flanges and flanged fittings shall be mar!ed ith A(T5 specification,
grade identification symbol, and the melt number or melt identification.
b. Plate flanges, forged flanges, and flanges fittings shall be mar!ed ith
A(T5 specification number and grade identification symbol.
c. A manufacturer may supplement these mandatory material indications
ith his trade designation for the material grade, but confusion of symbols
shall be avoided. C2.33
The mar!ing shall be the applicable pressure rating class " 050, 800, 900, :00,
K00, 0500 or 1500.
The designation 70: shall be applied preferably located ad*acent to the class
designation, to indicate conformance to this (tandard.
The nominal pipe si)e shall be given.
/langes and flanged fittings covered by this (tandard shall be castings, forgings
and ,for blind flanges only. plate.
(ome of the materials listed in Table 0A undergo a decrease in toughness hen
used at lo temperatures, to the e#tent that &odes referencing this (tandard
may re%uire impact tests for application even at temperatures higher than Y10
It is the responsibility of the user to assure that such testing is performed.
The user is responsible for selection of gas!et materials hich ill ithstand the
e#pected bolt loading ithout in*urious crushing, and hich are suitable for the
service conditions.
?.22 tEcDne33
/or inspection purposes the minimum all thic!ness t
of flanged fittings at the
time of manufacture shall be as shon in Tables 00, 08, 0:, 0K, 11, 15 and 1J,
e#cept as provided in para :.0.0. (ee Anne# 4 for the basis used to establish
values of t
Additional metal thic!ness needed to ithstand assembly stresses, shapes other
than circular, and stress concentrations must be determined by the manufacturer,
since these factors vary idely. In particular, 95 deg. =aterals, true P+s and
crosses may re%uire additional reinforcement to compensate for inherent
ea!nesses in these shapes.
=ocal areas having less than minimum all thic!ness ill be acceptable provided
that "
a. the area of subminimum thic!ness can be enclosed by a circle hose
diameter is no greater than 0.85 dt
here d is the inside diameter as
defined above and tm is the minimum all thic!ness as shon in the
tables listed in para :.0; and
b. measured thic!ness is not less than 0.75 tm; and
c. enclosure circles are separated from each other by an edge3to3edge
distance of more than 0.75 ````
a dt
Table 9 gives dimensions for facings other than ring *oint. Table 5 gives
dimensions for ring *oint facings. /igure 7 shos application of facings. &lasses
050 and 800 fittings and companion flanges are regularly furnished ith a 0.0:
in. raised face hich is included in the minimum flange thic!ness &. &lasses
900, :00, K00, 0500 and 1500 fittings and companion flanges are regularly
furnished ith 0.15 in. raised face hich is additional to the minimum flange
thic!ness &. Any other facing than the above, hen re%uired for any class, shall
be furnished as follos.
;o metal shall be cut from the minimum flange thic!ness specified herein.
In the case of the 0.15 in. raised face, tongue or male face ,other than 0.0: in.
raised face for &lasses 050 and 800., the minimum flange thic!ness & shall be
first provided and then the raised face, tongue or male face shall be added
2ith ring *oint, groove, or female face, the minimum flange thic!ness shall be first
provided and then sufficient metal added thereto so that the bottom of the ring
*oint groove, or the contact face of the groove or female face is in the same place
as the flange edge of a full thic!ness flange.
F2.n/e Fn3E
The finish of contact faces of pipe flanges and connecting end flanges of fittings
shall be *udged by visual comparison ith $a standards , see A(56 79:.0 . and
not by instruments having stylus tracers and electronic amplification. The
finishes re%uired are given belo.
F2.n/e !.cn/3
6ither a serrated concentric or serrated spiral finish having a resultant surface
finish from 015 uin. To 150 uin. Average roughness shall be furnished. The
cutting tool employed should have an appro#imate 0.0: in. or larger radius, and
there should be from 95 grooves-in. through 55 grooves-in.
F2.n/e Fn3E I51er!ecton3
Imperfections in the flange facing finish shall not e#ceed the dimensions shon
in Table 8. Ad*acent imperfections shall be separated by a distance of at least
four times the ma#imum radial pro*ection. A radial pro*ection shall be measured
by the difference beteen an outer radius and an inner radius encompassing the
imperfection here the radii are struc! from the centerline of the bore.
Imperfections less than half the depth of the serrations shall not be considered
cause for re*ection. Protrusions above the serrations are not permitted.
All cast and forged flanges and flanged fittings shall have bearing surfaces for
bolting hich shall be parallel to the flange face from ithin 0 deg. Any bac!
facing or spot facing re%uired to accomplish parallelism shall not reduce the
flange thic!ness & belo the dimensions given in Tables K, 00, 01, 08, 05, 0:,
0J, 0K, 10, 11, 19, 15, 17, and 1J. Any spot facing or bac! facing shall be in
accordance ith 5(( (P3K.
F2.n/ed Fttn/ Tr.nn/
6ach flanged fitting shall be given a hydrostatic shell test as specified belo "
F2.n/e Te3tn/
/langes are not re%uired to be hydrostatically tested. SEe22 Te3t
The hydrostatic shell test for flanged fittings shall be no less than 0.5 times the
000o/ rating rounded off to the ne#t higher 15 psi increment.
The test duration shall be minimum of one min for fittings ;P( 1 and smaller, 1
min for fitting ;P( 1 < 3;P( J, and 8 min for fittings ;P( 00 and larger.
;o visible lea!age is permitted through the pressure boundary all.
The actual dimensions of a gas!et must be established by the user. $eference to a
dimensional standard for gas!ets, such as A(56 70:.10, is recommended.
=imiting gas!et dimensions are given in Tables 60, 61, and 68. These dimensions
represent appro#imately the ma#imum combinations of idths and diameters of the
different types of gas!ets covered hich meet rating re%uirements.
Bas!ets are divided into three groups based on their gas!et loading factors as shon in
the A(56 7oiler and Pressure Iessel &ode, (ection IIII, 4ivision 0, Pressure Iessels.
Bas!et contact idths for the three groups are as follos "
Broup ;o. I (lip3on flange raised face idth
Broup ;o. II =arge tongue idth
Broup ;o. III (mall tongue idth minus 0.08 in., but not less than 0.0J in.
Bas!ets of Broup ;o. Ia have inside diameters e%ual to the outside diameter of the
corresponding pipe, hich follos the principle established in A(56 70:.10. In order to
avoid poc!eting of fluid handled, Broup ;o. I gas!ets may be e#tended to the inside
diameter of valves, pipe, or the bore of integral, elding nec!, or soc!et eld type
flanges. Broup ;o. Ia gas!ets have outside contact diameters e%ual to the outside
diameter of the raised face.
Bas!ets of Broups ;os. IIa and IIIa also have inside diameters e%ual to the outside
diameter of the corresponding pipe. It may be desirable under some conditions to ma!e
the inside diameter of these gas!ets e%ual to the inside diameter of valves, pipe, or the
bore of integral, elding nec!, or soc!et eld type flanges, and this is permissible
provided the gas!et contact idth does not e#ceed than shon. This provision affects
gas!et shon in /igs. 69, 65, 6J and 6K and re%uires a reduction in gas!et outside
diameters as ell as inside diameters.
Additional provisions for varying gas!et idths in contact ith raised face are covered in
para 68,b.. Broup ;os. IIb and IIIb have outside contact diameters e%ual to the outside
diameter of the raised face.
The outside diameter of gas!ets or centering rings e#tending beyond the raised face is
e%ual to the bolt circle minus one bolt diameter. This type gas!et is designed to be
aligned by the flange bolts.
Broup ;os. IIa and IIIa gas!ets are designed for those users ho prefer that narro
gas!ets be located close to the bore, thereby !eeping the pressure area to a minimum
and giving ma#imum fle#ibility to the flanged *oint. (ee para 68,f.. Broup ;os. IIb and
IIIb gas!ets are to be located at the outside of the raised face for ease in aligning the
gas!ets ithout a centering ring.
Bas!et contact idths for Broup ;os. II and III shall not e#ceed specified contact idth
by more than 00Q.
&hap. 0 Introduction to elding %ualifications
&hap. 1 6stablishing 2P(
&hap. 8 PN$s and 2PNs and Acceptance (tandards
&hap. 9 A ;ote on &onsumables
&hap. 5 Buidelines for revie of 2P(, PN$
CE.1 * Ro.d 5.1 !or revew o! ?PS=P@R
LA elding procedure is the detailed methods and practices involved in the production of
a eld mentM.
The ritten elding procedure, re%uired by codes, comprises the step3by3step
directions for ma!ing a specific eld and proof that the eld is acceptable.
&odes also re%uire proof that elders and elding operators have the necessary s!ill
and ability to follo the elding procedure successfully. This re%uires that elders and
elding operators ma!e specific elds, hich are then tested to prove that the elder
can produce the eld %uality re%uired.
(ection I> of the A(56 7oiler and Pressure Iessel &ode covers elding and bra)ing
%ualifications. It is entitled MNualification (tandard for 2elding and 7ra)ing Procedures,
2elders, 7ra)ers, and 2elding and 7ra)ing @peratorsM.
This code ma!es the folloing statement concerning responsibility " L6ach manufacturer
or contractor is responsible for the elding done by his organi)ation and shall conduct
the tests re%uired to %ualify the elding procedures he uses and the performance
%ualifications. These records shall be certified by the manufacturer or contractor and
shall be accessible to the authori)ed inspector.M
The A(56 code calls the elding procedure a Welding rocedure Specification ,2P(..
This document provides in detail the re%uired conditions for specific applications to
assure repeatability by properly trained.
2elders and elding operators. A 2P( is a ritten elding procedure prepared to
provide direction for ma!ing production elds to code re%uirements. The A(56
provides a sample form, hich may be used or modified provided that it covers all
The 2P( provides directions to the elder or elding operator to assure compliance
ith the code re%uirements. The complete 2P( describes all of the essential,
nonessential, and supplementary essential ,hen re%uired. variables for each elding
process. The 2P( should reference the supporting procedure %ualification record
,PN$.. A PN$ is a record of the elding data used to eld the test coupons. It shos
all conditions that ere used hen elding the rest coupons and the actual results of
the tested specimens. The completed PN$ should record all essential and
supplementary essential ,hen re%uired. variables for each elding process used to
eld the test coupon. ;onessential or other variables used during the elding of test
coupons need not be recorded.
The PN$ should be certified accurate by the manufacturer or contractor. This
certification is the manufacturer+s or contractor+s verification that the information is a
true record the variables that ere used during the elding of the .... coupon and that
the test results are in compliance ..... (ection I> of the code. The manufacturer or
contractor cannot subcontract this certification function.
There are three types of variables for elding procedure specifications 2P(. L6ssential
variablesM are those in hich change is considered to affect mechanical properties of
the eld *oint or eldment. L(upplementary essential variablesM are re%uired for metals
for hich notch toughness tests are re%uired. L;onessential variablesM are those in
hich a change may be made in the 2P( ithout re3%ualifications.
The variables for each elding process is listed in detail in (ection I>. /or this reason it
is necessary to refer to the code hen riting, testing, or certifying the elding
?e2dn/ Procedure S1ec!c.ton "
To help e#plain the elding procedure specification ,2P(. an e#ample is shon. In
this e#ample, the A7& Pressure Iessel &ompany is using the gas metal arc elding
process, semi automatically applied for elding P30 grade steel pipe in the hori)ontal
fi#ed and vertical positions. 6ach entry ill be e#plained briefly.
:ont3 0
The *oint design is a single TI T groove ith a :0 to 70
included angle. It is
recommended that a s!etch be dran on the form in the area under details. If more
space is needed, use a third sheet. The elding parameters are placed in the table
provided. 7ac!ing is not used, and bac!ing materials need not be described. 'oever,
if bac!ing is used, it must be described.
B.3e )et.23 0
To reduce the number of 2P( re%uired, P numbers are assigned to base metals
depending on characteristics such as composition, eldability, and mechanical
properties. Broups ithin P number are assigned for ferrous metals for the purpose of
procedure %ualifications here notch toughness re%uirements are specified. The same
P numbers group the different base metals having comparable characteristics.
The P numbers and groupings of most of the different steels are given in the (ection
I>. 7ase metal classifications and groupings in A2( 71.0 are slightly different. If a P
number is not available for the material involved, its A(T5 specification number may be
used. If an A(T5 specification number is not available, the chemical analysis and
mechanical properties can be used. ?nder base metals the thic!ness range must be
shon, and if it is in pipe, the pipe diameter range must be shon.
F22er )et.23 0
6lectrodes and elding rods are grouped according to their usability characteristics,
hich determines the ability of the elders to ma!e satisfactory elds ith a given filler
metal. This grouping is made to reduce the number of 2P(s needed. The groups are
given / numbers, hich relate to the composition and usability. This is filled in on the
form. This bloc! also re%uires A(56 specification number and the A2( classification
number of the filler metal used.
The A(56 specification numbers are the same as the A2( specification number ith
the addition of the letters (/. These data are given in A(56 (ection I> and in the A2(
71.0 document. The A2( classification number for the filler metal specification is also
given on the label on the filler metal bo#. The A number is the classification of eld
metal analysis. /or e#ample, A30 has a mild steel eld metal deposit. This classification
system is given in both specifications.
The si)e of the filler metal, hich is its diameter, must be shon as ell as deposited
eld metal thic!ness range for groove or filler elds. In the case of submerged arc, the
consumable insert analysis should be shon. @ther information relating to filler metals
not mentioned above should be given, hen available.
Po3ton 0
The elding position of the groove or fillet eld must be described according to A2(
terminology. If vertical elding is involved, it should be mentioned hether progression
is upard ,uphill. or donard ,donhill..
PreEe.t 0
A minimum temperature shall be given as ell as the ma#imum interpass temperature.
Preheat maintenance temperature should be given. 2here applicable, special heating
should be recorded.
Po3twe2d He.t Tre.t5ent 0
If a posteld heat treatment is used, it must be described. This includes the
temperature range and the time at temperature. If there is not posteld heat treatment,
rite in LnoneM.
-.3 0
This shielding gas should be identified, and if it is a mi#ture, should be described. The
shielding gas flo rate should be recorded. If bac!ing gas or trailing shield gas is used,
the gas composition should be given and flo rate recorded.
E2ectrc.2 CE.r.cter3tc3 0
The elding current should be shon as alternating ,ac. or direct current ,dc.. If direct
current is used, the polarity of the electrode should be reported. The amperes and
voltage range should be recorded for each electrode si)e, position, and thic!ness. This
is also presented in a tubular form
In the case of gas tungsten arc elding the tungsten electrode si)e and type should be
described. /or gas metal arc elding the mode of metal transfer must be described.
The electrode ire feed speed range should be recorded.
In the case of gas tungsten arc elding the tungsten electrode si)e and type should be
described. /or gas metal arc elding the mode of metal transfer must be described.
The electrode ire feed speed range should be recorded.
TecEnGue 0
?nder techni%ue, describe the eld as made ith stringer or eave beads. @scillation
should be used to ma!e eave beads. This should also sho in the s!etch. @ften,
both techni%ues are used in the same eld. /or the gas3shielded process the no))le
inside diameter should be recorded. The method of cleaning before elding and
beteen passes must be recorded. If bac! gouging is employed, it should be
described. The contact tip3to3or! distance should be described as a minimum3to3
ma#imum dimension.
It should be stated hether multiple or single3pass techni%ue is used. It is also
necessary to indicate hether a single electrode or multiple electrodes are used. It is
also necessary to indicate hether a single electrode or multiple electrodes are used.
The travel speed range should be described. Peening, if used, must be described, and
any other pertinent information concerned ith ma!ing the eld should be mentioned.
/or e#ample, pulsing, if employed, ould need to be described.
Procedure @u.2!c.ton 0
$ecord to support the elding procedure specification ,2P(., it is necessary to test
and certify the eld results. This is done by ma!ing the elds described in the 2P(,
machining them, and testing the specimen in accordance ith the code. This is done by
the procedure %ualification record ,PN$. defined as a document providing the actual
elding variables used to produce an acceptable test eld, and the results of tests
conducted on the eld for the purpose of %ualifying a elding procedure specification
,2P(.. It must reference a specific 2P(.
An e#ample of a procedure %ualification record is shon in /igures , hich are similar
to A(56 N239J8. This sample PN$ is a record of actual conditions used to eld the
coupons made in accordance ith 2P(.
5any of the data re%uired by the PN$ are the same as the information on the
referenced 2P(. In fact, the data on the front sheets are almost identical. The bac!
,sheet 1 of 1. of the PN$ is straight forard and is a record of the mechanical test, the
tensile test, the guided bend test, the toughness test hen re%uired, and the filler eld
test hen used.
A toughness test, either impact or drop eight, is not re%uired by (ection I> of the
code. These tests may be re%uired by other sections of the code and must be made
according to other provisions of the code or an A(T5 specification. The e#ample
shos typical data that ould be entered.
If the test data meet the re%uirements of the code, the form is then signed by the
manufacturer+s representative, certifying that the statements in the record are correct
and that the test elds ere prepared, elded, and tested in accordance ith
re%uirements of (ection I> of the A(56 code. The test record of the PN$ %ualifies the
2P( and fulfills the re%uirements for the code. All changes to a PN$ re%uire
recertification by the manufacturer or contractor.
It is necessary to have specific 2P(s and PN$s to cover all the eld processes,
combination of elding processes, different P groupings of base materials and so on, to
comply ith the variables involved. 6very process and base metal used in production
of the product must be covered by a 2P(, hich must be %ualified by a PN$.
Record o! ?e2der @u.2!c.ton Te3t3 0
2ith the 2P( and PN$ documents in order, it is then necessary to test the elders and
elding operators for the or! to be done. 6ach elder and elding operator involved
in manufacturing or installing the products covered by the A(56 7oiler and Pressure
Iessel &ode must be %ualified.
The elder ho prepares the procedure %ualification record ,PN$. specimens that pass
code re%uirements is personally %ualified ithin his or her performance %ualification
variables. All other elders and elding operators are %ualified by specific elding
tests, hich are designed to determine the ability of the elder or elding operator to
ma!e elds re%uired by the 2P( that ill cover or!. An e#ample of the L$ecord of
2elder or 2elding @perator Nualification TestsM is shon by /igure 1037, hich is
similar to A(56 N239J9.
The record of elder or elding operator performance %ualification tests should include
the essential variables, the type of test and test results, and the ranges %ualified, for
each elder and elding operator. 6ach elder and elding operator should be
assigned an identifying number, letter, or symbol. It is used to identify the or! of that
person. The tests assigned are in accordance ith the code and the mechanical tests
should meet the re%uirements applicable by the code. $adiographic e#amination may
be substituted for mechanical tests accept for B5A2 using short3circuiting metal
transfer. The radiographic techni%ue and acceptance criteria should be in accordance
ith the code. In general, elders ho meet the code re%uirements for groove elds
are also %ualified for filler elds, but not vice versa. A elder %ualified to eld in
accordance ith one %ualified 2P( is also %ualified to eld in accordance ith other
%ualified 2P(s using the same elding process, ithin the limits of the essential
variables according to the code..
If a elder has not elded for a period of three months or more, his or her %ualifications
shall be e#pired. If there is reason to %uestion the elder+s ability to ma!e elds that
meet the specifications, his or her %ualification shall be considered e#pired. There are
various other conditions relative to elder %ualifications listed in the code. The code
must be consulted for this information.
A(56 (ection I> relates to %ualification of elders, elding operators, bra)ers and
bra)ing operators and the procedures that they employ in elding and bra)ing.
It is divided into parts, part N2 gives re%uirements for elding and part N7 contains
re%uirements for bra)ing. /or the purpose of this course e shall deal only ith part
The purpose of elding procedure specification ,2P(. and procedure %ualification
records ,PN$. is to determine that the eldment proposed for construction is capable of
providing the re%uired properties for its intended application.
2P( is intended to provide direction for the elder and lists the variables, both
essential and non essential and the acceptable ranges of these variables hen using
the 2P(.
It is presumed that elder or elding operator performing the elding procedure
%ualification test is s!illed or!man so that elding procedure %ualification test
establishes the properties of eldment and not the s!ill of the elder.
The purpose of performance %ualification is to determine if the elder is able to deposit
sound metal or the elding operator is able to operate elding e%uipment properly.
Part N2 is divided into 9 articles.
Article I 3 2elding general re%uirements
Article II 3 2elding procedure %ualifications
Article III 3 2elding performance %ualifications
Article II 3 2elding data
7efore e proceed let us first understand various test position in groove elds in plates,
groove elds in pipes and fillet eld in plates etc. ,$ef. /igure 9:0.8, 9 G 5.
In general, 0B or 0/ is called flat positions
1B or 1/ is called hori)ontal and circumferential
8B or 8/ is called vertical position G
9B or 9/ is called overhead position
Position 5B is only in elds in pipes. It is a position hen pipe a#is is held hori)ontal
and circumferential seam is elded ithout rotating. In a ay it is combination of 0B,
8B G 9B.
Position :B is also for the pipes hen pipe a#is is at 95 deg. to hori)ontal plate and
circumferential seam is elded ithout rotating the pipe. It is combination of all

,$efer /ig. 9:0.0. is the diagram defining the position for groove elds depending on
the inclination of the a#is of the eld and the angle of rotation of the face of the eld.
There is similar ,$efer fig. 9:0.1. giving position for fillet elds.
,$efer fig. 950.0. gives the thic!ness limits and the type and number of the test
specimen re%uired for procedure %ualification of groove and ,$efer fig. 9:8.0. a,b,c,d,e,f
shos the method of the ta!ing the test specimen.
In case of eld beteen dissimilar materials here it is difficult to carry out bending so
that eld is at the center of conve# position, transverse bends are replaced by
longitudinal bends and the fig. loo! li!e ,$efer fig. 9:8.0 c.
,$efer fig. 950.8 G 950.9. Bive the test re%uired to fillet test and ,fig9:1.9. a,d , it is
similar e#cept that instead of bend there is macro e#amination of 1 sections of D
,$efer fig. 951.0. gives performance %ualification limits and type and number of the test
specimen re%uired table ,fig. gives the diameter limits. It is orth noting that one, to or
more elders can be %ualified on *ust one test coupon. 6ach may be using even
different processes.
,$efer fig. 9:1.9 7 G &. gives the re%uirements for performance %ualification of fillet
,$efer fig. 9:0.K. gives performance %ualification position and diameter limits.
?e2dn/ ,.r.b2e3 "
Article ,II. gives data about various types of elding variables. It also gives tables for
various elding processes shoing essential variables, supplementary essential
variables and non essential variables for procedures %ualification; and essential
variables for performance %ualification.
6ssential variables for procedure are those elding variables hose change ill affect
the mechanical properties ,other than notch3toughness. of the eldment ,e#. &hange in
P3number, filler metal, electrode type, preheat post heat etc..
(upplementary essential variables for procedure are those elding variables for
procedure are those elding variables hose change ill after the notch toughness
properties of eldment ,e#. ?phill or don hill vertical elding, heat input, preheat or
;on essential variables for performance are those elding variables hich ill not
affect the mechanical properties of eldment ,e#. Ooint design, method of bac! gauging
or cleaning etc..
6ssential variables for performance are those elding variables hich ill affect the
ability of elder to deposit sound eld ,e.g. position, deletion of bac!ing /3number etc.
&hange in process is essential variable for procedure as ell as performance.
7efore e proceed let us first understand the term P3number A3number and /3number.
All those materials are divided into various P3numbers depending on their nominal
composition and further divided into groups depending on their nominal composition
and further divided into groups depending on the type of refinement - min. specified
?T( etc. N23911 gives the full details.
Plain carbon steels, &3(i, &r35n G &35n3(i are grouped as P30 materials and austenitic
stainless steel as P3J material. /errous elding consumable are classified under
various A3numbers based on their eld metal chemical composition ,table 991. and all
elding electrodes and elding rods are grouped in different /3number depending on
their A2( classification hich is based on type of flu# and chemical composition ,table
;o let us have loo! on some essential variables tables.
N2 158 2P(3 (5A2
N2 858 2PN3 (5A2
The folloing tables are to be referred fre%uently for or!ing ith A(56 (ection I> and
hence one has to understand them ,ho to. in right conte#t.
Re!er AS)E Secton I+.
0. $efer /ig. N2 9:0.8 3 Broove 2elds in Test Position
1. $efer /ig. N2 9:0.9 3 /illet elds in Plates Test Positions.
8. $efer /ig. N2 9:0.5 3 /illet 2elds in Pipe Test Positions
9. $efer fig. N2 9:1.1 3 5ethod of Ta!ing out the Test (pecimen
5. ,a, b, c, d G e. ,Performance Nualification
:. $efer fig. N2 9:8.0 3 5ethod of Ta!ing out the Test (pecimen
,a, b, c, d,e G f. Nualification.
7. $efer Table N2 950 3 Procedure Nualification Thic!ness =imits and
Test (pecimens.
J. $efer Table N2 951 3 Performance Nualification and Test
K. $efer Table N2 9:0.K 3 Performance Nualification Position and
diameter limits.
00. $efer Table N2 9:0.0 3 Test Oig dimensions
Acceptance &riteria Procedure Nualification
0. N2 058 Tension Test
1. N2 0:8 7end Test
8. N2 0J8 5icro 6#amination Procedure (pecimens
9. N2 0J9 5icro 6#amination Performance (pecimens
5. N2 0K0 $adiographic 6#amination
8. A&&6PTA;&6 (TA;4A$4(.
2elding Procedure Nualification "
The purpose of procedure %ualification testing is to demonstrate that the materials
and methods prescribed in a procedure specification ill in fact produce eld
*oint mechanical properties that meet the application and specification
There are four steps in the %ualification of elding procedure "
b Preparation and elding of suitable samples
b Testing of representative specimens
b 6valuation of overall preparation, elding, testing and end results.
b Approval ,if the result are favorable.
Preparation of Procedure Nualification (ample *oints
Test assemblies usually have a representative *oint in the middle. The si)e, type,
and thic!ness are related to the type and thic!ness of material to be elded in
production and the number, type, and si)e o specimens to be removed for testing.
The materials used as ell as the elding details are governed by the particular
elding procedure specifications that are to be %ualified.
6valuation of Test $esults "
The test results for a procedure %ualification sample eld, ith the records of *oint
preparation, elding and testing, should no be made available for revie. These
results ill be analy)ed by the responsible parties to determine hether the test details
and results meet the re%uirements of the applicable specifications.
Approval @f Nualification Tests and Procedure (pecifications "
As a rule, the inspection agency or customer must approve the procedure %ualification
tests, the test results, and the procedure specifications before any production
elding is done.
Nualification is accomplished hen the re%uired tests have been completed and
approval has been obtained. 'oever, authentic documentary evidence must be
available to sho that the *oints ere indeed satisfactory. As an inspector, you should
itness the elding and testing of all specimens, if possible, because you ill gain
factual !noledge of procedure details that ill be helpful in later inspections of
production elds.
At any time, an A(56 Authori)ed Inspector can call for re3%ualification of a
procedure if he is not satisfied ith the data presented.
&ode Nualification $e%uirements "
A2( (tructural 2elding &ode, in paragraph 5.5 sets forth the re%uirements for
%ualifying those elding procedures hich do not meet the pre%ualified status of
paragraph 5.0 of that code, or hich must be %ualified for other reasons, such as
contract re%uirements. The type and number of specimens that must be tested to
%ualify a elding procedure are given in paragraph 5.00. The test results re%uired are
given in paragraph 5.01.
A(56 7oiler and Pressure Iessel &ode "
The A(56 7oiler and Pressure Iessel &ode is authoritative about elding
procedures. (ection I> is the basic document. It is titled 2elding and 7ra)ing
Nualifications. All sections of the A(56 &ode re%uire elding procedures to be
%ualified cin accordance ith (ection I>c in addition to supplemental
re%uirements of each specific section.
A(56 (ection III on ;uclear &omponents for Poer Plants, paragraph ;73
158K.1, states. cThe elding procedure ... shall be %ualified in accordance ith ;73
9000 and (ection I> of this &odec. Paragraph ;&3158K.1 refers to ;&39000 and
(ection I>. (imilarly, ;B3158K.1 refers to ;B39000 and I>.
A(56 (ection IIII, 4ivision I, on Pressure Iessels, paragraph ?2 1J, re%uires the
%ualification of elding procedures in accordance ith (ection I>. Paragraph ?7
1J re%uires bra)ing procedures to be similarly %ualified.
@ther procedures in A(56 (ection III, such as ;7398:0 on (pecially 4esigned
(eals, are no e#ception. c6ach 5anufacturer or Installer shall prepare a procedure
specification. The procedure shall be %ualified as a ne procedure and shall be
completely re3%ualified hen any of the essential variables listed belo are changed.c
Paragraph ;7398J0.1 on the re%uirements for hard surfacing states. cThe
procedure shall be %ualified as a ne procedure and shall be completely re3%ualified
hen any of the changes listed in ;7398J1 are made.c
The A(56 &ode is ell summari)ed in a series of identical paragraphs ;739810,
;&39810 and so forth3entitled cProcedure (pecifications and Nualifications.c
6ach manufacturer and-or Installer is responsible for the elding done by his
organi)ation and shall establish the procedure and conduct the tests re%uired by this
Article and by (ection I> of this &ode.
&hanges in a Nualified Procedure "
If a fabricator ho has %ualified a elding procedure desires at some later date to
ma!e a change in that procedure, it may be necessary to conduct additional %ualifying
tests. $e3%ualification is necessary hen any one of the essential variables listed in
the governing standard or code is changed.
/or e#ample, one such variable is the heat treatment that follos elding. 'eat
treatment has a profound effect on most elds. Its omission ,hen called for. or its
addition to a elding procedure hen not called for ould be a change in an important
essential variable, re%uiring re%ualification of the procedure.
;ote "
The most important factors are usually classed as essential variables; if changed,
re3%ualification is necessary. 5uch the same situation e#ists in connection ith
elder and elding operator %ualifications. The variables that are most fre%uently
considered essential and generally re%uire re3%ualification are shon in the folloing
pages. $emember, reference should alays be made to the governing code or
specification to determine hether the magnitude of a given change re%uires re3
9. 26=4I;B &@;(?5A7=6(
A 7rief Introduction "
AS)E Secton II P.rt LCM covers classification and properties of consumables for
elding and bra)ing comprising of 2elding $ods, 6lectrodes and /iller metals. These
consumables are grouped into a number of sub3sections, in other ords, (pecifications,
referred to as SFA Nu5ber.
6ach (/A ;o. covers consumables of overall similar characteristics, grouped together
for compatibility ith same group of parent metals. /or e#ample, electrodes for carbon
steel are grouped in (/A 5.0
Perodc.2 A33e335entF A11rov.23 B Cert!c.ton "
6ach (/A specification stipulates re%uirements for chemical composition limits,
manufacturing methods, re%uired tests G test methods, acceptance criteria,
classification, mar!ing, pac!aging, intended use of the consumables, and rules for
periodical assessment, approvals and certification
So5e Co55on S1ec!c.ton3
(ome of the commonly used SFA No3. are listed belo ; the list is not e#haustive. /or a
complete list refer to (ection II3&.
SFA ".1 &overed carbon steel arc elding electrodes
SFA ".' &overed corrosion resisting chromium and chromium3nic!el electrodes
SFA "." =o Alloy steel covered arc elding electrodes
SFA ".9 &orrosion resisting chromium and chromium nic!el steel bare filler ire
SFA ".1# &arbon steel electrodes and flu#es for submerged arc elding , (A2 .
SFA ".18 &arbon steel filler metals for gas shielded arc elding ,BTA2 - B5A2 .
SFA ".%$ &arbon steel electrodes for flu#3cored arc elding , /&A2 .
SFA ".%( =o Alloy steel electrodes G flu#es for (A2
SFA ".%8 =o alloy steel filler metals for gas shielded arc elding ,BTA2 - B5A2 .
SFA ".%9 =o Alloy steel electrodes for /lu#3cored arc elding , /&A2 .
A?S C2.33!c.ton o! Con3u5.b2e3 "
American ?elding Society has evolved a system of identifying classes of consumables
in an alfa3numeric code, hich is commonly referred to as A?S class. An e#planation of
hat this classification signifies is given belo for typical four common e#amples"
1. &lassification of covered 6lectrodes for (5A2
,(hielded 5etal Arc 3 also !non as 5anual 5etal Arc."
A?S & E & ++ & 77 & - e.g. A2( 63700J
or, A2( 6 J00J 71
6 Z..&oated electrode
>>Z.. 5inimum tensile strength in !si
PPZZ&oating Type G chemistry
BZZ Alloy addition, if any
%. &lassification of BTA2 - B5A2 - PA2 7are 2ire $od
A?S & ER & ++ &S & 77 e.g. A2( 6$3703(3B1
6$Z.. 7are $od - electrode
>>Z.. 5inimum tensile strength in !si
PPZZ(pecific chemical composition
(. &lassification of (A2 2ire and /lu# for &arbon (teel
A?S & F & +++ & E & 777
0st +......Tensile strength in 00,000 psig
1nd +.......&ondition of 'eattreatment .. elded
P.... Post heat
8rd +........Impact strength
E..............6lectrode ire
777..........&lassification of
carbon steel ire, e.g. 6=J, 6501A, or 6'09.
'. &lassification of (A2 2ire G /lu# for Alloy (teel
A?S & F & +++ & E C& 777 N& 6)
0st +......Tensile strength in 00,000 psig
1nd +.......&ondition of 'eattreatment .. elded
P.... Post heat
8rd +........Impact strength
E..............6lectrode ire
C..............&omposite electrode
777..........&lassification of alloy steel ire
N............../or special purpose
6)............&hemical composition of eld metal
C2.33!c.ton o! ).ter.23 .nd ?e2dn/
Con3u5.b2e3 .3 1er AS)E Code Secton I+
In developing A(56 (ection I>, each elding process that as included in the (ection,
as revieed ith regard to those parameters, called ,ARIABLES, hich have
significant effect upon elding operations and fabricatords ability to %ualify 2elding
Procedures and 2eldersd performance. Iariables are categori)ed as 6ssential, ;on3
essential and (upplementary ,for assurance of notch toughness. variables in the case
of lo temperature operation.
E33ent.2 ,.r.b2e3 are given in comprehensive details in the chapter called c2elding
4atac. &hange in an 6ssential Iariable of an established 2elding Procedure re%uires
re3%ualification of a Procedure ith a ne set of 6ssential Iariables. 7roadly spea!ing,
and for ease of remembering, folloing main 6ssential Iariables should be considered
in proposing any 2elding Procedure (pecification "
i. ?e2dn/ Proce33, e.g. (5A2, BTA2, (A2 etc.
ii. ).ter.2 , material specifications categori)ed into P No3.
iii. ).ter.2 TEcDne33
iv. ?e2dn/ Con3u5.b2e, categori)ed into F No. B A No.
v. ).nten.nce o! PreEe.tF Inter1.33 B Po3t Ee.t
vi. Po3t ?e2d He.t Tre.t5ent and finally, the supplementary essential re%uirement of,
vii. I51.ct Te3tn/ to assure notch toughness properties. Assignment of P Nu5ber3
To rationally reduce the number of 2elding Procedure re%uired to be %ualified, base
materials have assigned P ;umbers, essentially based on comparable material
characteristics, such as chemical composition, mechanical properties and eldability.
,$efer N23991.
Assignment of F Nu5ber3 " 6lectrodes and elding rods have been grouped into /
;umbers , $efer N23981., essentially on the basis of their usability characteristics,
hich fundamentally determine the ability of the 2elders to ma!e satisfactory elds,
ith a given filler metal. This grouping also reduces the number of elding procedures
and performances hich re%uired to be %ualified, here it can be logically done.
Assignment of A Nu5ber3 "2eld 5etal compositions have been classified and grouped
into A ;umbers, essentially on the basis of their eldability characteristics, as reflected
by the nominal chemical composition obtained from their actual eld metal analyses.
&autionary ;ote
These assignments do not imply that base materials and filler materials be
indiscriminately substituted for a base metal or a filler metal hich as used in the
%ualification test, ithout consideration of compatibility , from the standpoint of
metallurgical properties, posteld heat treatment, design, mechanical properties and
service re%uirements.
An inspector has to revie the 2P(, PN$ and 2PN documents to ensure that they
meet the A(56 sect I> re%uirements. A chec!list shall be used to verify that the 2P( is
properly completed and is addressing all the re%uirements of A(56 (ect I> and
construction code. It is also necessary to verify that PN$ has been completed to meet
all the A(56 sect I> re%uirements ,including test results as per acceptance criteria.
The important part here is also to verify that values of essential variables
recorded on the PN$ properly support the specified range of 2P(
&hec!list for $evie of 2P( ,(5A2 Process.
$efer N2 150 for variables.
,(upplementary variables not needed.
0. (ee identification bloc! shoing 2P( no.```````````, $ev`````````` and
PN$ no.```````````. Also at the end the revieer shall give his comments.
There is signature of the vieer at the end.
1. N2 901 gives *oint details. N2 908 is indicating 7ase metals for e#ample if a
PN$ is having base metal th!. 15.9mm the 2P( supported by it can be from
9.Jmm to 5.Jmm. (o if these variables are ritten in N2 908.J properly in 2P(
and PN$ column then the column at %ualification shall indicate @A hich
confirms that the variable is ithin the re%uirements and addressed properly.
8. N2 909 is for filler metals
9. N2 905 is for positions.
5. N2 90: is for preheat.
:. N2 907 is for P2(T
7. N2 90K is for electrical characteristics.
J. N2 900 is for techni%ue.
K. Additionally N2 900 says LA change in process is an essential variable.M This
has to be verified here and documented.
00. N2 101.1, 8,9 are mentioned for reminder to the verifier.
00. This is reminder for N2 100.9 combination of processes.
01. This is reminder for revieer for bend and tension test as per N2 950.0
08. This is reminder for N2 909.5. The basis for assigning A numbers.
09. This is reminder for N2 0703 ;otch toughness H if re%uired by construction code.
05. This is to remind if there are any contracts -company-other
0:. re%uirements to be addressed ,N2100.