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SAT ELLIT E-INDUCED IONIZAT ION
OBSERVED WIT H T HE DOP LOC SYST EM
ARP A Satel l i te Fence Seri es
Harol d T . Lootens
*oV
Report No. 2 3 In the Seri es
Department of the Army P roject No. 503 -06 -01 1
Ordnance M anagement Structure Code No. 52 1 0. 2 1 . 1 43 03
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BALLIST IC R ESEAR CH LABO R AT O R IES
M EM O R ANDUM R EPO R T NO . I562
AUGUST I96I
SATELLITE-INDUCED IONIZATION
OBSERVED WITH THE DOPLOC SYSTEM
ARPA Satellite Fence Series
Harold T. Lootens
Ballistic Measurements Laboratory
Report No. 25 in the Series
Department of the Army Project No. 5O5-O6-OII
Ordnance Management Structure Code No. 5210,21. 1^503
ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND
BALLIST IC R ESEAR CH LABO R AT O R IES
M EM O R ANDUM R EPO R T NO . I362
HTLootens/bjk
Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.
August I96I
SATELLITE-INDUCED IONIZATION
OBSERVED WITH THE DOPLOC SYSTEM
ABSTRACT
This report presents a series of constant frequency Doppler
reflections obtained with the DOPLOC "dark" satellite tracking system.
These reflections, termed "flats", are associated with satellite
Doppler reflections and are of the type that would be received from
a large, low velocity, ionized cloud. A tabulation of flats recorded
at times other than satellite pass times is also given and a dis-
cussion of meteor-induced ionization is included.
. ,. , . :,,. . : v. :;;;. . ,. . :- ^. ^. v. -;,.
XABIE F CO NT ENT S
PAGE
I. HfPR O DUCT IO N 9
II. DO PLO C SYST EM DESCR IPT IO N 11
III. DAT A FO R M AT 12
A. Doppler R ecording 12
B. Signal Strength ..... 12
C. M ultiple Antenna R ecords IJ
IV. EXPER IM ENT AL R ESULT S 1^
A. "Flats" Associated with Satellite Passage 1^
B. "Flats" During R andom Periods 16
C. M eteor-Induced lonization kh
V. CO NCLUSIO NS . . . , k3
VI. R EFER ENCES , 1^
VII. BIBLIO GR APHY ,...., Vf
APPENDIX I. 3R L-D0PL0C R EPO R T S 1^9
, s
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No.
1. Basic Interim DOPLOC System
2. AJ RPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
3. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
k. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
5. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
6. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
7 . ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
8 . ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
9. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
10. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
11. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
12. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
15. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
Ik, ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
15. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
16. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
17 . ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
18 . ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
19. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
20. Flats and Satellite Passes, 22
21. Flats and Satellite Passes, 15
22. Flats and Satellite Passes, 15
25. Flats and Satellite Passes, 12
2k, Flats and Satellite Passes, 31
25, Flats and Satellite Passes, 6
26, ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
27 , XRPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
28 , ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
29, ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
50. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
31, ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
32. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
35. ARPA-BRL DOPLOC Doppler Record
of 59 Kappa, Rev. 18 3
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 8 38 6
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 66k5
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 8 68 3
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 8 7 19
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 9009
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 9^7 2
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 9503
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 97 16
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 98 26
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 98 32
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 9937
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 10001
of 59 Lambda, Rev. 96
of 59 Lambda, Rev, 1516
of 60 Epsilon 2, Rev. iVf
of 60 Epsilon 2, Rev. 303
of 60 Epsilon 6, Rev. 301
- 26 J uly 59
- 17 Sept 59
- 21 Dec 59
- l6 J an 60
Mar - 6 Apr 60
10 J un 60
of 59 Epsilon 1, Rev. 532
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 8 7 3I1
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 99^3
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 9959
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 1007
of 58 Delta 2, Rev. 10023
of 60 Epsilon 2, Rev. 356
of 60 Epsilon 1, Rev. 38 6
I. INTRODUCTION
During the period 1 J anuary 1959 to 1 J uly i960, the Bailiatlc
Research Laboratories, under funding from the Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA Order 8 -58 ), operated a three-station, reflection
Doppler satellite tracking system, extending across the southrcentral
United States from Tennessee to New Mexico. This system, known as
DOPLOC, (DOppler Phase IflCk), provided a means of detecting and tracking
radio-silent, or "dark" satellites. Detailed reports outlining the
planning, implementation, operation and administration of the DOPLOC
system have been published
1
'
2
'
5
^ so no further space will be devoted
to it here.
A transmitting station was located at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and
receiving stations were located at White Sands Missile Range, New
Mexico and at Forrest City, Arkansas. The three stations were initially
manned on a twenty-four hour, seven-day-per-week basis, as a part of the
nation-wide satellite surveillance net. Following permission from ARPA
to discontinue routine twenty-four hour operation, the White Sands
station was deactivated and a nominal eight-hour work day was adopted
at the Forrest City and Fort Sill stations on 1 October I959.
The primary objective of the DOPLOC system was to detect and track
non-transmitting (dark) satellites but the flexible schedule under which
the field stations operated also provided considerable data from known
satellites. Unidentified Flying Objects and meteors. In addition, the
system provided much useful data relative to the satellite-induced
ionization theory.
It is the purpose of this report to present data on this highly
controversial subject of satellite-induced ionized trails or clouds.
Several workers in the field, notably Kraus et al. at Ohio State
University
5
' '
7
, and Liszka et al. at the Kiruna Geophysical Observatory
in Sweden , have reported the existence of satellite-induced ion trails,
Many othem in this field doubt the existence of such trails or are
dubious about the reported magnitude and persistence of the trails.
.
^ed lonl
M tl
oa theory, hut rather vm preeent reaction date
oht-uned fro. . ^e, ^^^^^^^
tjpe presented In tht3 report are de<.-., . -
..* ,,,,. eflnltely not from satellites, since
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10
II. DOPLOC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The DOPIXXJ system consisted of a 50-kw continuous wave, 108 nc
transmitter located at Fort SlU, Oklahoma, which fed one of three high-
gain antennas. These high-gain antennas emitted narrow, fan-shaped
beams, one directed 20 degrees ahove the northern horizon, one directed
vertically and one directed 20 degrees above the southern horizon
(see Figure l).
The signal reflected from a satellite passing through the trans-
mitter beam was received at one or both of the receiving stations.
Each receiving station had three high-gain antennas oriented to "see"
the space volume illuminated by the transmitter. The reflected signal
was fed through a receiver and a bank of fixed audio frequency filters,
known as the Automatic Lock-On (ALO), to a narrow-band, phase-locked
tracking filter. The tracking filter then tracked the Doppler signal
as the satellite passed through the antenna beam. A satellite which
crossed the base line joining the transmitter and receiver traversed
each of the three fan-shaped antenna beams. This resulted in three
separate Doppler records, one for each of the three antennas, separated
In time by 5O-60 seconds. The length of the Doppler records varied,
averaging about 7 seconds in the center antenna and 15-25 seconds In
the north and south antennas. Data outputs were Doppler frequency as
a function of time in a digital and punched tape format, as well as
strip chart recordings of Doppler analog frequency and signal strength
with respect to time. A complete and detailed description of the
DOPLOC instrumentation system is available", so no further discussion
of it will be presented here.
When the DOPLOC system assumed twenty-four,hour operational status
in J anuary 1959^ the transmitter at Fort Sill served as the illuminator
for both receiving stations. When the White Sands station was deacti-
vated in the fall of 1959^ the antennas at Fort Sill and Forrest City
were re-oriented in azimuth to produce a greater overlapping of the
beams and better coverage. All data presented in this report were
recorded at the Forrest City station.
1-1
III. DATA FOBMAT
A, Doppler Recording
The typical form in which DOPLOC data are recorded is shown in
Figure 2. The upper portion of the chart is an analog record of
tracking filter output frequency. The short, evenly spaced marks
indicate the sucessive frequencies at which the tracking filter is
set while the system is in the search mode. Figure 2 shows the
tracking filter output when the ALO Is scanning a 12 kc range. The
AIX) can also he adjusted to scan a 4 kc or 2 kc range.
The transition from step scanning to continuous phase-locked
tracking is shown in Figure 2 at ITU:58 Z time. Concurrently, the
digital counter and printer is started and the period of 1000 cycles
of the Doppler signal is printed at one second intervals on paper tape.
The Doppler period count for Revolution 18 5 of 59 Kappa, corresponding
to the Doppler frequency analog record, is shown at the top left of
Figure 2. The right five digits represent the period count, while
the left iix digits represent Universal Time in hours, minutes and
seconds.
B. Signal Strength
The lower part of the chart in Figure 2 is a record of the AGO
voltage from the tracking filter. While in the search mode, the AGO
is shorted, producing the clean, straight line at 2 mm deflection.
When a signal is detected, the AGO voltage first decreases due to' an
initial threshold voltage of opposite polarity existing on the AGO
line. Then, as the signal amplitude increases, the AGO voltage in-
creases as shown by the scale calibration. The chart is calibrated
in received signal input power (in dbw) at the receiver input terminals
and also in relative signal in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio at
the receiver output, i. e. in db below 1:1 S/N at the receiver output.
12
C. Multiple Antenna Records
This one pass of 59 Kappa has been treated In considerable detail '
to explain the nature, quality and quantity of DOPLOC data and, con-
sequently, the discussion has been devoted to data received by the
vertically directed center antenna. In the next section of this report,
examples of satellite passes recorded by more than one antenna win be
presented.
During the 18-month operation of the DOPLOC system, 111 satellite
reflections were received, resulting from observations of 89 individual
satellite passes (8 passes were received by two antennas and 7 passes
by all three antennas). Of these 111 reflections, 67 were received
by the center antenna alone or by the center antenna in combination with
the north or south antenna.
13
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESUIITS
A. "Flats" Associated with Satellite Passage
Approximately 25^ of the satellite passes recorded by the DOPLOC
center antenna (17 of 6?) revealed a constant frequency reflection,
either preceding or following the Doppler signal reflected from the
satellite. These constant frequency reflections, termed "flats"
appear on the analog records as a horizontal line, close to or equal
to the bias frequency of 7 kc^ indicating zero velocity. These
Doppler frequency flats, which indicate an apparent zero velocity target^
could be caused either by a large ionized mass moving through the
antenna beam at a very low velocity, or by a stationary ionized mass
having a lifetime equal to the duration of the observed signal. On 9
of the records the flats produced a stronger signal level than the
corresponding satellite reflection. The average signal strength of
the flats (-17 0 dbw) is slightly stronger than the average signal strength
of the satellites observed (-I7 1 dbw). Reproductions of DOPLOC satellite
reflections showing evidence of flats are presented in Figures 3-I9 and
a tabulation of the data is given in Table I.
Of the 17 satellite records which reveal flats, 12 are reflections
{from 58 Delta 2 (Sputnik III). The other passes displaying flats are
records of 59 Lambda (Discoverer VIII), 60 Epsilon 2 (Sputnik IV rocket)
and 60 Epsilon 6 (Sputnik IV fragment). About 65^ of the flats occur
after (or before and after), the satellite has passed through the antenna
beam, and all of the flats appear in the center antenna. Perhaps a brief
explanation of the antenna switching procedure is desirable at this
point, to indicate which antenna was in use when the flats were recorded.
In Figures 13, Ik and 17 , an abrupt shift in the ALO frequency scan
is visible. This shift represents the transfer of power from one antenna
to the next. For example, in Figure 15, the ALO scans the 2-5 kc range
as the satellite approaches and is tracked through the south antenna.
Following loss of signal by the south antenna, power is switched to the
center antenna and the AH) scans the 6-9 kc range. This transition is
shown at 0641:46 Z time. This scan is continued until the satellite has
traversed the center beam and then a switch is made to the north antenna
.
I h
T A BL E I - DO P L O C SAT ELLIT E R EFLECT IO NS PO SSESSING FLAT S
Satellite R ev.
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
58 Delta 2
59 Lambda
59 Lambda
60 Epsilon 2
60 Epsilon 2
60 Epsilon 6
Average
8 38 6
8 6if3
8 68 3
8 7 19
9009
9^7 2
9503
97 16
98 26
98 32
9937
10001
96
1516
147
303
501
Altitude
Miles
17 2
156
1* 13
18 6
15^
130
150
28 5
18 9
110
1 58
12k
12k
137
2k0
213
iQk
Peak Signal in dbw
Satellite Flat
Flat Before/After
Satellite Pass
-I67 -17 4 Before and After
-17 0 . 17 2 After
-17 5 -I65 Before
-17 1 -17 2 After
-17 5 -17 0 Before
-17 2 -163 After
-17 0 . 17 5 After
-17 6 -I'jk Before and After
-17 6 -17 2 Before
-17 1 -159 After
-I62 -168 Before and After
-169 . 17 5 Before
-I69 .i'jk Before
-I67 -17 4 After
-17 5 -16k After
-17 5 -17 4 After
J ^Z5 ^17 3 After
-17 1 -17 0
15
and a 10-15 kc scan range at 06l3:12 Z time. The chart recorder pen
deflection was adjusted at 06' I' J :00 Z time and the satellite was subse-
quently tracked through the north antenna. This completes the antenna
switching and recording cycle for this pass. Antenna switching was
performed simultaneously at the transmitter and receiver and synchronized
"by teletype communication. In Figure 12, similar switching was performed
as indicated at l3l2:5J * Z time, and the pen deflection subsequently
adjusted to center the trace in the upper portion of the chart. It is
probable that the flats observed in Figures 12, IJ , and 1? would have
been longer in duration if the recording had not been interrupted by
antenna switching.
B. Flats During Random Periods
In an attempt to determine if a correlation actually exists between
satellite passage and the occurrence of flats, it was decided to chart
all of the fiats and satellite passes which occurred during several arbi-
trarily selected periods between J uly 1959 and J uly i960. The resulting
charts are presented in Figures 20-25 and an explanation of them follows.
The original records were recorded on ^wo-channel Sanborn chart
paper. Type 651-52. During the operation of the DOPLOC system, over 300
complete rolls of this paper were utilized, amounting to more than 6000
hours of recordings. The six one-week periods chosen for this random
examination are a representative sample of the total amount of data recorded.
The first DOPLOC satellite reflection was received in August 1959, so the
initial period to be studied was selected in J uly 1959, J ust prior to the
first reflection. Five additional samples were chosen at approximately 1-2
month intervals, covering the time until the DOPLOC system was deacti-
vated in J uly i960. Each period examined consisted of. five consecutive
days, with the exception of the charts in Figures 22 and 2k. The days that
were omitted on these charts (19-20 Dec 59 and 2-5 Apr 60) fell on Saturday
and Sunday, and the station was operating only on a five-day week at that
time.
16
Each chart represents five complete days, and each day is divided
into four segments of six hours each, with the horizontal scale reading
from left to right in Universal Time. The short, vertical marks rep-
resent flats, with no regard for their duration. The flats vary in
length from several seconds to a minute or more, but each one is rep-
resented by a single mark regardless of duration. A tabulation of all
flats, including duration and signal strength values, is given in Tables
II - VII.
The long, vertical marks represent satellites which were predicted
for the DOPIC system during the period. Each is identified with the
year of launch and the Greek letter assigned by Space Track Control
Center. In addition, the altitude of each pass as it crossed the base
line is given. The periods labeled "NO MTA" represent periods when the
station was not operating; at all other times the station was manned and
continuous recordings were made. Several of the satellite passes are
markedt . Here, the passage of the satellite through the antenna beam
was recorded and reproductions of these Doppler frequency observations
are presented in Figures 6, 15, 26-53.
Attention is called to the small number and random distribution of the
flats in Figures 20 and 21. There is no correlation* with satellite passage
in Figure 20 and only slight correlation in Figures 21, 2k and 25. In
Figures 22 and 25, however, a number of excellent correlations are visible
in connection with 58 Delta 2, perhaps because of the size and configuration
of this satellite. Table VIII presents a summary of the number of passes
in each period, together with the number of correlations and their iden-
tification.
In Figures 22-25, the occurrence frequency profile of the flats is
radically different. Instead of a small number of flats randomly distributed,
these charts show an increase in the number of flats by a factor of 3 or k,
* ?
rr
^
lation
denotes a minimum of two flats occurring in the period from
10 minutes before pass time until 20 minutes after pass time. These
passes are underlined in Figures 20-25.
17
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39
TABLE' VIII - SATELLITE PASSES AND CORRELATED FIATS
Number of Satellite Number of Identification
Fls No. ; Period Examined Passes in Period Correlations of Correlations
20 22-26 J ul 59
11 0
21
15-17 Sep 59
15 5 58 Delta 2 (2)
59 Epsilon 1 (5
22 15-21 Dec 59 6
5 58 Delta 2 (5)
25
12-16 J an 60 6
k 58 Delta 2 (k)
2k 51 Mar-6 Apr 60 6 2 58 Delta 2 (l),
60 Beta 1 (l)
25 6-10 J un 60 10
-
1 60 Epsilon 2 (1)
* Correlation denotes a minimum of two flats occurring in the period from 10
minutes before pass time, until 20 minutes after pass time.
ho
and a distribution characterized by email, compact groups separated by
long periods of little or no activity. Such a distribution might Indicate
that these flats were caused by a distinct event, ouch as the movement of
a satellite or meteor shower.
To examine the relationship between satellite altitude and flats,
a tabulation was made of all flats occurring in a 50 -minute period* In
the vicinity of each of the underlined satellite passes in Figures 20 -25.
These data are presented in Table DC.
Regarding the effect of satellite altitude on the formation of flats,
It is noted that of the 6? satellite reflections recorded by the DOPLOC
center antenna, 1? (or 2556) show evidence of flats near the satellite
pass time (see Table l). These 1? satellite passes have an average altitude
of l8h miles. It cannot be concluded from these data, however, that flats
are more frequently associated with the lower altitude satellites, since
the average altitude of all the center antenna satellite reflections is
only 20 1 miles. The range limitations of the interim DOPLOC system made
reception of the higher altitude passes marginal and, consequently, the
satellite reflections that were received were from the lower altitude
passes.
In Figures 20 -25, however, there are a total of 52 satellite passes
charted, ranging in altitude from 95 to 658 miles. These passes represent
all of the satellite crossings that were predicted for the DOPLOC system
during these periods. Of these 52 passes, 1? (or 555t) show evidence of
several flats near satellite pass time and the average altitude of these
17 satellite passes is 552 miles (see Table IX). It should be pointed
out that the limitations of the DOPLOC system do not apply here, since
we are concerned only with observations of flats, as opposed to flats and
satellites. Since flats are assumed to be considerably larger than the
associated satellite, it is felt that reflections would be obtained from
flats at high altitudes even though no reflection would be received from
the satellite itself.
* i^rom 10 minutes before pass time until 20 minutes after pass time.
' hi

Comparison of the data In Tables I and IX Indicates that formation
of flats Is apparently not entirely dependent on altitude, since by more
than tripling the altitude range of the data examined, the flats observed
only increased by approximately 83 6. Based on these data, it would appear
that flats may be observed almost aa frequently associated with satellltea
at low altitudes as at high altitudes.
k2
. . . ,. ij^. . -. i-^^ ^v.
T ABLE IX - SAT ELLIT E AlfT IT UDE VS NUM BER GF FIAT S
.
Date Satellite Altitude Miles
Number of Flat8
#
in 3 0 -Mln. Period
I k Sep 59 58 Delta 2 UJ O 2
17 Sep 59 58 Delta 2 658
5
15 Dec 59 58 Delta 2 U92 6
16 Dec 59 58 Delta 2
U85 7
17 Dec 59 58 Delta 2 1* 8 2 12
18 Dec 59 58 Delta 2 U7 8
5
21 Dec 59 58 Delta 2 19k
It
12 J on 60 58 Delta 2 MO
5
15 J an 60 58 Delta 2 18 6
7
I h J an 60 58 Delta 2 18 6 2
16 J an 60 58 Delta 2 l01 11
k Apr 60 58 Delta 2
95 2
15 Sep 59 59 Epsilon 2 210 1*
111 Sep 59 59 Epsilon 2 Xhl
3
16 Sep 59 59 Epsilon 2 IkO 2
5 Apr 60 60 Beta 1
451 10
6 J un 60 60 Epsilon 2 201
5
Average
532
* From 10 minutes before pass time until 20 minutes after pass time
hi
C. Meteor-Induced lonlzatiou
Reflections from meteor trails may account for some of the flats
observed, particularly in the December and J une samples (Figures 22
and 25). The Ursid meteor shower normally occurs during the period
17 -24 December with the maximum activity on 22 December. During this
maximum, a radio-observed rate of 15 meteors/hour has been reported.
10
Similarly, the daytime Arietid and daytime Perseid showers reach
their maximum on 8 J une and 9 J une, respectively, which would place
them in the interval charted in Figure 25. For these showers, the
maximum hourly radio-observed meteor rate is 66 and k2, respectively.
A meteor passing through the ionosphere forms Initially a large,
cylindrical, ionized column, and maximum reflection or signal scattering
is experienced when the incident wave is normal to the long axis of the
cylinder. The passage of a great number of meteors (as in a shower)
could quite conceivably form many large, ionized columns which, upon
diffusion, would overlap and effectively blanket a considerable area
with a slow moving ionized cloud. From a cloud of this type having a
reasonably uniform density, we might expect to observe a single, con-
tinuous, long duration flat with a strong signal level. However, if
the cloud was patchy and non-uniform, then the reflections received
might be intermittent, with shorter durations and varying signal strengths.
kk
V. CONCLUSIONS
Baaed on the data presented in this report, several conclusions
appear rather firm. First, when a flat Is observed In connection with
a known satellite passage, the signal level received from the flat Is
usually stronger than the signal level received from the associated
satellite. This would Indicate that the dimensions of the reflecting
mass are comparable to or larger than those of the satellite.
Secondly, satellite passage cannot be accurately determined by
merely charting the occurrence of flats against a time reference. The
appearance of a large number erf flats in a short time Is not a reliable
indication that a satellite has passed, evidenced by the data presented
in Figures 22-24. Attention is called to the many groups of flats, not
associated with a satellite crossing, which appear very similar to those
groups of flats observed in the vicinity of a satellite pass.
Thirdly, satellite altitude does not appear to be a factor In the
foimatlon or detection of flats. The DOPLOC system recorded flats
associated with satellites at various altitudes, ranging from 110 miles
to more than 60 0 miles.
HAHOLD T. LOOTENS
^
:'
REFERENCES
1
* ?! tey*
1
" < * , Richard, V. W. , Hodge, A. H. , Pattoa, R. B. ,
Adems, C. L. First Semi-Annual Technical Summary Report,
Il8 5
0
(l959)
ly

1958
"
51

December

1958
-
mL

Me,no
ReP
01
"*
No
-
2. de Bey, L. G. , Richard, V. W. , Fatten, R. B. Second Semi-
Annual Technical Summary Report, Period 1 J anuary 1959 - TO
J une 1959. BRL Memo Report No. 1220 (1959).
5. de Bey, L. G. Third Technical Summary Report, Period 1 J uly
19^9 - 50 J une i960. BRL Memo Report No. 128 ? (i960).
Hodge, A. H. Final Summary P-nort on the BRL-D0PL0C Prelect.
BRL Report No. I. I56 (1961).
k.
5. Kraus, J. E viden ce of S atellite-I n duced lonization Between
H emispheres. P roc. I R E , hQ, 1 91 3-1 91 1 + (i960).
6. Kraus, J., H iggy, R . T he R elation of the Satellite lonization
P hen omen on to the R adiation Belts. P roc. I R E , 1 *8, 2 02 7-2 02 8
7. Kraus, J., H iggy, R ., C ron e, W. T he S atellite lon ization
P hen omen on . P roc. I R E , 1 +8, 672 -78 (i960).
8
' ^ n
k
-%
L
' V ^
6

of
V ariation of the S ign al S tren gth from
1 958 uelta 2 (S putn ik 5). N ature, 1 85, I 385-I 384 (1 959).
9. A dams, C . L . T he DO P L O C I n strumen tation S ystem for S atellite
T rackin g. BR L R eport N o. 1 1 2 5 (1 961 ).
1 0. Whipple, F. L . S mithson ian I n stitution A strophysical O bservatory
O orrespon den ce with author dated 2 5 M ay 1 961 .
k6
^; ^,^. v: i ^!. : ^: -: i : ^^. -: : ^: -L: ^-; ; y; j: . ; . . i ; . ,1 ^L,; i ,(^^^ . _ _
VII. BIBLIO GR APHY
C oova., S ao
M
a
8
o, cI S ^ .^ " ^ .^ ^ :^ i^ ?-
Feb 1 96x7 ^
put, liJt

ni
>
, , , ade
" Klruoa O eophyalcal O bservatory, "
^ wT$Th*-$r&%4:^"
I teai0

E
"
e

1
" " laat S atemtea, "
9
' InVZiX" ^ strr f,
3
^ " o

b
y
tbeir mn uaaoe
C olorado, Del ije. *'
pre8en ted
" Join t U H S I -I BE M eetin g, BouU er,
l 7
APPENDIX I
BRL-DOPLOC REPORTS
No. 1 BRL Memo Report No. 10 55 - October 1958
v?
>
?
Pl
p
r
l
1
**? * ^
AnteQna
Orientation for a Doppier ytem"
by L. P. Bolgiano, J r., CONFIDENTIAL J ' "
No. 2 BRL Memo Report No. II85 - J anuary I959
First Semi-Annual Technical Summary Report
Period 1 J uly 1958 - 3 1 December I958
by L. G. deBey, V. W . Richard, A, H. Hodae R. B Pa+ton n T A^
(BML 59-60 ) CONFIDENTIAL '
tt0 n,
^
L
- *****'
No, 5 BRL Tech Note No. 1265 - J une 1959
"Orbital Data Handling and Presentation"
by R. E. A. Putnam., UNCIASSIFIED
No. 4 BRL Tech Note No. 1266 - J uly 1959
"An Approach to the Doppler Dark Satellite Detection Problem"
by L. G. deBey., CONFIDENTIAL
No. 5 BRL Memo Report No. 1220 - J uly 1959
Second Semi-Annual Technical Summary Report
Period 1 J anuary - 3 0 J une 1959
by L. G. deBey, V. W . Richard and R. B. Patton.,
(BML 20 8-59) CONFIDENTIAL
No. 6 BRL Teqh Nate N0 ..I278 - September 1959
"Synchronization of Tracking Antennas"
by R. E. A. Putnam., UNCIASSIFIED
No. 7 BRL Memo Report No. 123 7 - September I959
A Method of Solution for the Determination of Satellite Orbital
Parameters from DOPLOC Measurements" vrui^aj.
by R. B. Patton, J r. , UNCIASSIFIED
No, 8 BRL Memo Report No. IO93 - March i960
"The Dynamic Characteristics of Phase-Lock Receivers"
by Dr. Keats Pullen. , UNCLASSIFIED
No. 9 "Station Geometry Studies for the DOPLOC System"'
Stanford Research Institute. , UNCIASSIFIED
N0
'
10
"^^em^esS^^ ^^ ^"^ " ^^
by W. E. Scharfman, H. Rothman, H. Guthart, T, Morlta. , UNCLASSIFIED
No. 11 Philco Corporation - h May i960
"Polystation Doppler System", UNCLASSIFIED
k9
BRL-DOPLOC REPORTS (cont' d)
No. 12 Space Science Laboratory, General Electric Co. - October i960
"Orbit Determination of a Non-Transmitting Satellite Using Doppler
Tracking Data"
by Dr. Paul B. Richards., UNCLASSIFIED
No. 13 Fined Technical Report - University of Delaware - J une 15, i960
"Quantum Mechanical Analysis of Radio Frequency Radiation"
by L. P. Bolgiano, J r. and W . M. Gottschalk., UNCIASSIPIED
No. I k Final Report F/157, Columbia University - February 11, i960
"Summary of the Preliminary Study of the Applicability of the Ordir
System Techniques to the Tracking of Passive Satellites", UNCIASSIFIED
No. 15 BRL Report No. 1110 - J une i960
"Precision Frequency Measurement of Noisy Doppler Signals"
by W . A. Dean. , UNCIASSIPIED
No. l6 Third Technical Summary Report - Period J uly 1959 through J une J O, i960
BRL Memo Report No. 128 7
by A. L. G. deBey. , UNCLASSIFIED
No. 17 Columbia University Tech. Report No. T-l/157 - August 1, 1959
"The Theory of Phase Synchronization of Oscillators with Application
to the DOPLOC Tracking Filter"
by E. Kreindler. , UNCIASSIPIED
No. 18 BRL Tech Note No. I3I+ 5 - August i960
"DOPLOC Receiver for Use with Circulating Memory Filter"
by K. Patterson. , UNCIASSIPIED
No. 19 BRL Tech Note No. 155^ - October i960
"Parametric Pre-Amplifier Results"
by K. Patterson. , UNCIASSIPIED
No. 20 BRL Tech Note No. I367 - December i960
"Data Generation and Handling for Scanning DOPLOC System"
by Ralph E. A. Putnam
No. 21 BRL Report No. 1125 - J anuary 1961
"The DOPLOC Instrumentation System for Satellite Tracking"
by C. L. Adams. , UNCIASSIPIED
No. 22 BRL Memo Report No. I55O - March 1961
"DOPING Observations of Reflection Cross Sections of Satellites"
by H, T. Lootens. , UNCIASSIPIED
No. 23 BRL Memo Report No. 1362 - August I96I
"Satellite-Induced lonlzatlon Observed With the DOPLOC System"
by H. T. Lootens. , UNCIASSIPIED
50
. . , . ; . V: - . '. .
BRL-DOPLOC BEPORTS (cont' d)
In Preparation
No. 2k "DOPLOC Comb yliter" by R. Vltek
No. 25 "Final Summary Report on the BRL-DOPLOC Project"
by Dr. A. H. Hodge
51
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DISTRIBUTION LIST
No. of
Copies
10
10
Organization
Chief of Ordnance
ATTN: ORDTB - Bal Sec
Department of the Army
W ashington 25, D. C.
Commanding Officer
Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratories
ATTN: Technical Information Office
Branch 0 12
W ashington 25, D. C.
Commander
Armed Services Technical
Information Agency
ATTN: TIPCR
Arlington Hall Station
Arlington 12, Virginia
Commander
Air Force Systems Command
ATTN: SCTS
Andrews Air Force Base
W ashington 25, D. C.
Commander
Electronic Systems Division
L. Q. Hanacom Field
Bedford M assachusetts
C omraan der
Air P rovin gG roun d C en ter
A T T N : P G A P I
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida
Army Research Office
Arlington Hall Station
ATTN: Mrs. F. Whedon
Arlington, Virginia
No. of
Copies
Organization
Commanding Officer
U. S. Army Communications Agency
The Pentagon
W ashington 25, D. C.
Commanding General
W hite Sands Annex - BRL
W hite Sands Missile Range
New Mexico
Commanding General
Army Ballistic Missile Agency
ATTN: Dr. C. A. Lundqulst
Dr. F. A. Speer
Redstone Arsenal, Alabama
Director
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Department of Defense
W ashington 25, D. C.
Director
National Aeronautics & Space
Administration
1520 H Street, N.W .
W ashington 25, D. C.
Chief of Staff, U. S. Army
Research and Development Division
Director/Special Weapons-Missile
and Space Division
Washington 25, D. 0.
Office Chief Signal Officer
Department of the Army
Research and Development Division
Washington 25, D. C.
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