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Sibt ul Hussain

Slides Credit: Andrew Zisserman

Slides Credit: Andrew Zisserman

Slides Credit: Andrew Zisserman

Slides Credit: Andrew Zisserman

Images and Digital Images

A digital image difers from a photo in that the values are all

discrete.

dots, each of which has a brightness associated with it. These

dots are called picture elements, or more simply pixels.

neighborhood. A neighborhood can be characterized by its

shape in the same way as a matrix: we can speak of a 3x3

neighborhood, or of a 5x7 neighborhood.

An Image as 2D Function

An Image as 2D Function

An Image as 2D Function

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing: A

Traditional Linear View

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

#$%ect

Recognition

Image

&n"ancement

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing: A

Traditional Linear View

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

#$%ect

Recognition

Image

&n"ancement

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:

Image &n"ancement

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

#$%ect

Recognition

Image

&n"ancement

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

Processing an image so t"at t"e result is

more suita$le (or a !articular a!!lication) *s"ar!ening or de+

$lurring an out o( (ocus image, "ig"lig"ting edges, im!ro-ing

image contrast, or $rig"tening an image, remo-ing noise.

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:

Image Resotration

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

#$%ect

Recognition

Image

&n"ancement

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

T"is may $e considered as re-ersing t"e

damage done to an image $y a /nown cause) *remo-ing o( $lur

caused $y linear motion, remo-al o( o!tical distortions.

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:

or!"ological Processing

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

#$%ect

Recognition

Image

&n"ancement

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:

Segmentation

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

#$%ect

Recognition

Image

&n"ancement

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:

Re!resentation ' Descri!tion

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

#$%ect

Recognition

Image

&n"ancement

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:

#$%ect Recognition

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

#$%ect

Recognition

Image

&n"ancement

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:

Image Com!ression

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Image

&n"ancement

#$%ect

Recognition

Pro$lem Domain

Colour Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:

Color Image Processing

Image

Acquisition

Image

Restoration

or!"ological

Processing

Segmentation

Re!resentation

' Descri!tion

Image

&n"ancement

#$%ect

Recognition

Pro$lem Domain

Color Image

Processing

Image

Com!ression

An Image as 2D Function

Sampling

Quantization

Image Formation

to record 256 diferent shades or light variations.

Types of image

per pixel.

(0) to white (255) so 8 bits per pixel.

green or blue (RGB). Each channel has a range of 0-255, so

24bits in total.

colours, for reduction of storage a colour map is used.

Binary Image

Gray Scale Image

White = 255 Black = 0

>> w=imread(tire.tif); figure ,imshow(w), pixval on

RGB Image

>> pep=imread('peppers.png'); fgure(1) ,imshow(pep); pixval on;

>> r=pep(:,:,1);g=pep(:,:,2); b=pep(:,:,3);fgure(2),imshow(r),pixval on

Indexed Image

Image Size

Kbytes = 512 x 512 x 8bits.

Kbytes= 256 x 3

General Commands

Image Enhancement

Image is composed of informative pattern modified by

non-informative variations.

correction, etc.

image pixels.

transformed domain.

Spatial Domain Methods

f(x,y)

g(x,y)

g(x,y)

f(x,y)

Point

Processing

Area/Mask

Processing

Point Processing

Simplest yet contain powerful processing methods

for image enhancement.

Arithmetic operations

Histogram Stretching

Histogram Equalization

Point Processing Transformations

some predefned function.

Identity Transformation

1. Arithmetic Operations

Apply simple function y= f(x) to each pixel gray value, those

include

Multiplication by a constant:

Where C is a constant

Note: Clipping will be required to keep the values in the range.

Addition and Subtraction

Addition and Subtraction

Addition and Subtraction

>> im=imread('blocks.tif');

>> im = double(im) + 128;

>> im = min(im, 255); fgure, imshow(im,[])

>> im=imread('block.jpg');

>> im = double(im) - 128;

>> im = max(im, 0); fgure, imshow(im,[])

OR

>> im=imread('blocks.tif'); im=imadd(im,128),imshow(im);

>> im=imread('block.jpg'); im=imsubtract(im,128),

Multiplication and Division

Multiplication and Division

Image Complements

Solarization

Solarization

Complementing dark Pixels. Complementing light Pixels.

Some Examples

Addition

Some Examples

Subtraction

Some Examples

Multiplication

Some Examples

Division

Credits:0aris Pa!asai/a+0anusc"

odesy

Slicing Transformations

Stretch grayle!el ranges "here "e desire more information (slope # $)%

&ompress grayle!el ranges that are of little interest (' ( slope ( $)%

Slicing Transformations

Image Addition

images

Image Averaging

number of images together (very useful in

astronomy applications).

1

23

43

13

233

images must $e

registered5

Image Subtraction

Image Subtraction (contd)

)

edical a!!lication)

iodine medium in%ected

into t"e $loodstream

di((erence

en"anced

Image

Multiplication/Division

g(x,y)=f(x,y) h(x,y)

original

s"ade !attern s"ade correction

Caution !!!

Arithmetic operation can produce pixel values outside of the

range [0 255].

You should convert values back to the range [0 255] to ensure

that the image is displayed properly.

How would you do the following mapping?

[f

min

f

max

] [ 0 255]

Power Law ( ) Transformations

Power Law ( ) Transformations

Image Histograms

An image histogram is a plot of the grayle!el fre*+encies (i%e%, the n+m,er of

pixels inthe image that ha!e that gray le!el)%

Image Histograms (Cont.)

probabilities.

N n p

k k

/ =

Image Histograms

indicating the number of times each grey level occurs in

the image.

>> pep=imread('pout.tif'); fgure(1) ,imhist(pep),axis tight;

Image Histograms

histogram.

would be clustered at the lower end.

clustered at the upper end.

spread out over much of the range:

Image Histograms

Image Histograms

like to improve its contrast or lighten it. We can do

this by

1. Histogram (Contrast) Stretching (Requires Manual

Input)

2. Histogram Equalization. (Automatic)

1. Histogram Stretching

1. Histogram Stretching

2. Histogram Equalization

would be well spread out over much of the range.

255] will have equal occurrence probability in an

image.

transformation function T(r) on the input image such that

each gray level has equal occurrence probability.

2. Histogram Equalization

would be well spread out over much of the range.

255] will have equal occurrence probability in an

image.

transformation function T(r) on the input image such that

each gray level has equal occurrence probability.

2. Histogram Equalization

2. Histogram Equalization

The transformation function needs to satisfy two conditions.

1.It must be a monotonic function.

2.It must be within the following range

within the limit

(Equation 1)

so

(Equation 2)

Lets use CDF as transormation unction!

e"aluatin# a $ierential o"er $einite inte#ral results in the inte#ral e"aluate$ at the u%%er limit

(Lei&ni' (ule)! so

(Equation ))

%uttin# the "alue o equation ()) to equation (2)

we #et

so

2. Histogram Equalization

2. Histogram Equalization

gray level to its corresponding CDF value i.e.

probabilities upto level k.

where (L-1) is the total number of gray levels

and is the scaling factor used to map pixels

back in the range [0, L-1].

2. Histogram Equalization

Example

2. Histogram Equalization

Example

2. Histogram Equalization

Example

2. Histogram Equalization

2. Histogram Equalization

2. Histogram Equalization

Histogram Matching

on the input image such that its graylevels have

distribution similar to the pre-specifed one.

!*6.

6

L+2

3

Histogram Matching

!*6.

6

L+2

3

Step I Step II

Step III

*+

Algorithm: Histogram Matching

1.Equalize the input image to obtain equalized histogram

s=T(r).

2.Find the transformation G(z) for the pre-specifed histogram,

and built a lookup table for mapping z G(z).

3.For each value of s, fnd its closest G(z) value and respectively

its corresponding z value.

4.Finally map the s value to z.

**

Histogram Matching:Example

*,

Histogram Matching

,0

Histogram Matching

,1

Histogram Matching

,2

Histogram Matching

,)

Histogram Matching

,-

Histogram Matching

Note: Histogram matching is a trial and test method.

,5

Local Enhancement

content of an entire image.

over small areas (local neighbourhoods) in an

image.

adaptable to local enhancement.

,.

Local Enhancement

Pi7el+to+!i7el translation 8ono-erla!!ing region

,+

Local Equalization

,*

Local Equalization

,,

Bit-plane slicing

highlighting the contribution made to total

image appearance by specifc bits might be

desired.

represented by 8 bits. Imagine that the image is

composed of eight 1-bit planes, ranging from

bit-plane 0, the least signifcant bit to bit-plane

7, the most signifcant bit.

100

23223322

2

2

3

3

2

2

3

2

9it+!lane 3

*least signi(icant.

9it+!lane :

*most signi(icant.

101

Bit-plane Slicing

9it+!lane :

9it+!lane ; 9it+!lane < 9it+!lane 2

#riginal Image

102

Bit-plane Slicing

10)

Bit-plane Slicing

Lookup Tables

Lookup (LUT) tables.

1. We pre-calculate the transformation function T(r)

(mapping) value for each gray-scale value and

store that in a table.

2. We map each pixel value to its corresponding

mapped value via a single look-up.

the lookup table will look like.

Spatial Domain Image Enhancement

These methods can be categorized into two classes:

1. Neighbourhood processing: To modify or change a pixel

value we only need to know its local neighbour gray values.

2. Point processing: works independently on each pixel i.e

changes its value without knowledge of its surroundings.

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