beamdesign

© All Rights Reserved

18 views

NS15-2beamdesign_2

beamdesign

© All Rights Reserved

- Structural Beam Calculator With End Overhanging Supports and a Single Load
- 6_Jong
- ME2254-QB
- 1 Way Slab Design
- Bond Development Length
- SOM-DEC-2010
- Offcon Dnv Zorro Skid
- Lab Structural Analysis_List of Apparatus_Technical Specification_Approx Cost
- CEG LAB 1
- plate
- 165359239-Composite-Beam-Simply-Supported-Design.xlsx
- ME2254 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
- M.tech I-MID PTPG (SE) Theory of Elasticity & Plasticity on 22.05.2008
- 2. Q & a -National Structural Code of the Philippines
- SOM-II Manual.pdf
- Analysis of Stress and Deflection About Steel -Concrete Girders Considering Slippage and Shrinkage & Creep Under Bending
- Tse 1983 Span Depth
- CE2201 NOV.DEC 2009.
- CFD-NTC-2008
- BFB75x75x25mm

You are on page 1of 7

2 Su2014abn

1

Beam Design and Deflections

Notation:

a = name for width dimension

A = name for area

A

reqd-adj

= area required at allowable stress

when shear is adjusted to include

self weight

A

web

= area of the web of a wide flange

section

b = width of a rectangle

= total width of material at a

horizontal section

= name for height dimension

c = largest distance from the neutral

axis to the top or bottom edge of a

beam

c

1

= coefficient for shear stress for a

rectangular bar in torsion

d = calculus symbol for differentiation

DL = shorthand for dead load

E = modulus of elasticity

f

b

= bending stress

f

p

= bearing stress (see P)

f

v

= shear stress

f

v-max

= maximum shear stress

F

b

= allowable bending stress

F

v

= allowable shear stress

F

p

= allowable bearing stress

F

y

= yield strength

F

yweb

= yield strength of the web material

h = height of a rectangle

I = moment of inertia with respect to

neutral axis bending

I

trial

= moment of inertia of trial section

I

reqd

= moment of inertia required at

limiting deflection

J = polar moment of inertia

L = name for span length

LL = shorthand for live load

LRFD = load and resistance factor design

M

= internal bending moment

M

max

= maximum internal bending moment

M

max-adj

= maximum bending moment

adjusted to include self weight

M

n

nominal flexure strength with the full

section at the yield stress for LRFD

M

u

= maximum moment from factored

loads for LRFD

P = name for axial force vector

Q = first moment area about a neutral

axis

R = radius of curvature of a deformed

beam

S = section modulus

S

reqd

= section modulus required at

allowable stress

T = torque (axial moment)

V = internal shear force

V

max

= maximum internal shear force

V

max-adj

= maximum internal shear force

adjusted to include self weight

V

u

= maximum shear from factored loads

for LRFD

w = name for distributed load

w

self wt

= name for distributed load from self

weight of member

x = horizontal distance

y = vertical distance

A

actual

= actual beam deflection

A

allowable

= allowable beam deflection

A

limit

= allowable beam deflection limit

A

max

= maximum beam deflection

b

| = resistance factor for flexure in

LRFD design

v

| = resistance factor for shear for

LRFD

= density or unit weight

u = slope of the beam deflection curve

= radial distance

} = symbol for integration

E = summation symbol

ARCH 331 Note Set 15.2 Su2014abn

2

Criteria for Design

Allowable bending stress or bending stress from LRFD should not be

exceeded:

Knowing M and F

b

, the minimum section modulus fitting the limit is:

Besides strength, we also need to be concerned about serviceability. This involves things like

limiting deflections & cracking, controlling noise and vibrations, preventing excessive

settlements of foundations and durability. When we know about a beam section and its material,

we can determine beam deformations.

Determining Maximum Bending Moment

Drawing V and M diagrams will show us the maximum values for design. Remember:

Determining Maximum Bending Stress

For a prismatic member (constant cross section), the maximum normal stress will occur at the

maximum moment.

For a non-prismatic member, the stress varies with the cross section AND the moment.

Deflections

If the bending moment changes, M(x) across a beam of constant material and cross

section then the curvature will change:

The slope of the n.a. of a beam, u, will be tangent to the radius of

curvature, R:

The equation for deflection, y, along a beam is:

Elastic curve equations can be found in handbooks, textbooks, design manuals, etc...Computer

programs can be used as well.

Elastic curve equations can be superpositioned ONLY if the stresses are in the elastic range.

I

Mc

f F

b b

= >

b

d req

F

M

S >

'

dx w V ) ( E =

dx V M ) ( E =

w

dx

dV

= V

dx

dM

=

dx x M

EI

slope

}

= = ) (

1

u

EI

x M

R

) ( 1

=

}} }

= = dx x M

EI

dx

EI

y ) (

1 1

u

ARCH 331 Note Set 15.2 Su2014abn

3

The deflected shape is roughly the shame shape as the bending moment diagram flipped but is

constrained by supports and geometry.

Boundary Conditions

The boundary conditions are geometrical values that we know

slope or deflection which may be restrained by supports or

symmetry.

At Pins, Rollers, Fixed Supports: y = 0

At Fixed Supports: u = 0

At Inflection Points From Symmetry: u = 0

The Slope Is Zero At The Maximum Deflection y

max

:.

Allowable Deflection Limits

All building codes and design codes limit deflection for beam types and damage that could

happen based on service condition and severity.

Use LL only DL+LL

Roof beams:

Industrial L/180 L/120

Commercial

plaster ceiling L/240 L/180

no plaster L/360 L/240

Floor beams:

Ordinary Usage L/360 L/240

Roof or floor (damageable elements) L/480

0 = = = slope

dx

dy

u

value

L

x y

allowable actual

= A s A = ) (

max

ARCH 331 Note Set 15.2 Su2014abn

4

Ib

VQ

or

A

V

A

V

f

web

max v

~ =

2

3

Beam Loads & Load Tracing

In order to determine the loads on a beam (or girder, joist, column, frame, foundation...) we can

start at the top of a structure and determine the tributary area that a load acts over and the beam

needs to support. Loads come from material weights, people, and the environment. This area is

assumed to be from half the distance to the next beam over to halfway to the next beam.

The reactions must be supported by the next lower structural element ad infinitum, to the ground.

Design Procedure

The intent is to find the most light weight member satisfying the section modulus size.

1. Know F

b

(allowable stress) for the material or F

y

&

F

u

for LRFD.

2. Draw V & M, finding M

max

.

3. Calculate S

reqd

. This step is equivalent to determining

b

max

b

F

S

M

f s =

4. For rectangular beams

- For steel or timber: use the section charts to find S that will work and remember that

the beam self weight will increase S

reqd.

And for steel, the design charts show the

lightest section within a grouping of similar Ss.

- For any thing else, try a nice value for b, and calculate h or the other way around.

****Determine the updated V

max

and M

max

including the beam self weight, and verify that the

updated S

reqd

has been met.******

5. Consider lateral stability

6. Evaluate horizontal shear stresses using V

max

to determine if

v v

F f s

For rectangular beams, Ws, and others:

7. Provide adequate bearing area at supports:

8. Evaluate shear due to torsion

v v

F

ab c

T

or

J

T

f s =

2

1

(circular section or rectangular)

9. Evaluate the deflection to determine if

allowed LL LL max

s A A and/or

allowed T Total max

s A A

**** note: when A

calculated

> A

limit

, I

required

can be found with:

and S

reqd

will be satisfied for similar self weight *****

FOR ANY EVALUATION:

Redesign (with a new section) at any point that a stress or serviceability criteria is

NOT satisfied and re-evaluate each condition until it is satisfactory.

6

2

bh

S =

p p

F

A

P

f s =

trial

it lim

big too

d ' req

I I

A

A

>

A w

wt self

=

ARCH 331 Note Set 15.2 Su2014abn

5

Example 1 (changed from pg 284) (superpositioning)

SOLUTION:

By examining the support conditions, we are looking for a cantilevered beam from Cases 18 through 23.

There is a case for uniformly distributed load across the span (19) and for a load at any point (21).

For both these cases, it shows that the maximum shear AND maximum moment

are located at the fixed end. If we add the values, the shear and diagrams should

look like this:

We can find the maximum shear (at B) from V = P + wl = 10

kN

+ 2

kN/m

3

m

= 16

kN

The maximum moment (at B) will be M = Pb+wl

2

/2 = 10

kN

2.25

m

+ 2

kN/m

(3

m

)

2

/2 = 31.5

kN-m

The key values for the diagrams can be found with the general equations (Vx and Mx):

VC

= - wx = -2

kN/m

0.25

m

= -0.5

kN

; VC

= -P wx = -10

kN

- 2

kN/m

0.25

m

= -10.5

kN

MC = -WX

2

/2 = 2

kN/m

(0.25

m

)

2

/2 = 0.0625

kN-m

We can find the maximum deflection by looking at the cases. Both say Amax.

(at free end), so the values can be added directly.

Superpositioning of values must be at the same x location. Assume E = 70x10

3

MPa and I = 45x10

6

mm

4

4 3 2 2 3 3 3 3

3 6 4 3 6 4

4 3

10 (2.25 ) (10 ) 2 (3 ) (10 )

(3 ) (3 3 2.25 )

6 8 6(70 10 )(45 1

(10 ) (1

0 ) 8(70 10 )(4 0

)

5 1 )

0

kN

kN

m mm mm

m m

tot

N N

kN k

a

N

l

Pb wl m m

l b m m

EI EI MPa mm MPa mm

= + = +

A

= 18.08 mm + 6.43 mm = 24.5 mm

V + + M

. Investigate using Beam Diagrams and Formulas.

0.75 m

C

ARCH 331 Note Set 15.2 Su2014abn

6

Example 2 (pg 275) (superpositioning)

using Beam Diagrams and Formulas.

SOLUTION:

By examining the support conditions, we are looking for beam with an overhang on one end from Cases 24 through 28. (Even

though the overhang is on the right, and not on the left like our beam, we can still use the information by recognizing that we can

mirror the figure about the left end.)

There is a case for a load at the end (26) but none for a load in between the supports. This is because it behaves exactly like a

simply supported beam in this instance (no shear or bending on the overhang). The case for this is #5 (reversed again).

If we flip the diagrams (both vertically and horizontally) and add the

values, the resulting shear and bending moment should look like this:

We still have to find the peak values of shear and the location of the

zero shear to find the critical moment values.

(Notice R1 is shown down.)

( )

( ) ( )

1

10 10 2 10

2 2 20 10 10

2 20 2 20

k

k ft ft ft

ft ft k

D ft ft

Pa wa

R l a

l l

= + = + =

/

2(B)

10 2 10 10 20

ft k ft ft k k

R = + = (from the total downward load R1(D))

VA = -10

k

VB = -10

k

+ 20

k

= 10

k

VD = 10

k

2

k/ft

(10ft) = -10

k

x (from B) = 10

k

/2

k/ft

= 5 ft

MB = -10

k

(10

ft

) = -100

k-ft

(MC = -100

k-ft

+ 10

k

(10

ft

) = 0)

Mx = 0 +10

k/ft

(5

ft

)/2 = 25

k-ft

VMAX = 10

k

MMAX

= -100

k-ft

We can calculate the deflection

between the supports. (And at the end

for case 5 if we derive the slope!)

Assume E = 29x10

3

ksi and I = 103 in

4

Well investigate the maximum between the supports from case 26 (because it isnt obvious where the maximum will be.)

11.55

20

3 3

ft

ft

x

l

= = = (to left of D) and

. 26 5 total max case x case

A = A + A with x (11.55

ft

) greater than a (10

ft

):

( )

( )

2 2

2 2

.06415 4 2

24

total

wa l x Pal

xl x a

EI EIl

A

= + Note: Because there is only negative moment, the deflection is actually up!

2 3 /

3 4

10 (10 )(20 ) (12

.06415

(29 10 )(103 )

)

k ft ft in ft

ks n i i

= +

/ 2

3 4

2 (10 ) (20 10 )

24(29 10 )(103 )(20 )

k ft ft ft ft

ft

ks i i n

2 / 2 3

4 11.55 20 2(11.55 ) (10 ) )(12 ) (

ft ft f in t t ft f

= -1.484 in + 1.343 in = -0.141 in (up)

6

V + + M

ARCH 331 Note Set 15.2 Su2014abn

7

Beam Design Flow Chart

is Amax s Alimits?

This may be both the limit for live load

deflection and total load deflection.)

Collect data: Fb & Fv

Allowable Stress or

LRFD Design?

ASD LRFD

Collect data: L, e, , Allimits; find beam charts

for load cases and Aactual equations

Collect data: load factors, Fy,

Fu, and equations for shear

capacity with |V

Find Vmax & Mmax from

constructing diagrams or

using beam chart formulas

Find Vu & Mu from

constructing diagrams or

using beam chart formulas

with the factored loads

Find Sreqd and pick a section

from a table with Sx greater or

equal to Sreqd

Calculate eself wt.

using A found

and . Find Mmax-adj & Vmax-adj.

Calculate Sreqd-adj using Mmax-adj

.

Is Sx(picked) > Sreqd-adj?

(OR calculate fb

.

Is fb s Fb?)

Yes

Pick a steel section from a chart

having |bMn > Mu for the known

unbraced length

Is Vu s |v(0.6FywebAweb)

Yes

Calculate Areqd-adj using Vmax-adj

.

Is A(picked) > Areqd-adj?

(OR calculate fv

.

Is fv s Fv?)

No

pick a new section with a

larger area

No

pick a section

with a larger

web area

Calculate Amax (no load factors!)

using superpositioning and beam

chart equations with the Ix for the

section

No

pick a section with a larger Ix

Yes (DONE)

No

trial

it lim

big too

d ' req

I I

A

A

>

- Structural Beam Calculator With End Overhanging Supports and a Single LoadUploaded bySpreadsheetZONE
- 6_JongUploaded byRamesh Jangala
- ME2254-QBUploaded byragujayakumar
- 1 Way Slab DesignUploaded byEngineerArMan
- Bond Development LengthUploaded byAbhinav Sethi
- SOM-DEC-2010Uploaded byMANOJ M
- Offcon Dnv Zorro SkidUploaded byMr Youngyi
- Lab Structural Analysis_List of Apparatus_Technical Specification_Approx CostUploaded bySantosh Kumar
- CEG LAB 1Uploaded byopeyemi71
- plateUploaded byAdnan Rana
- 165359239-Composite-Beam-Simply-Supported-Design.xlsxUploaded byMario Feghali
- ME2254 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALSUploaded byAndrew Crawford
- M.tech I-MID PTPG (SE) Theory of Elasticity & Plasticity on 22.05.2008Uploaded byvempadareddy
- 2. Q & a -National Structural Code of the PhilippinesUploaded byKenneth Punla
- SOM-II Manual.pdfUploaded byAli Shehryar
- Analysis of Stress and Deflection About Steel -Concrete Girders Considering Slippage and Shrinkage & Creep Under BendingUploaded bySri Datta Kiran Kuchibhatla
- Tse 1983 Span DepthUploaded byRoberto Carlos
- CE2201 NOV.DEC 2009.Uploaded byAravind Phoenix
- CFD-NTC-2008Uploaded byBishowkumar Shrestha
- BFB75x75x25mmUploaded byJuan Manuel Jorquera
- ME2254-QBUploaded byAinnar Kesavan
- CBUploaded bymusiomi2005
- Design of Partially or Fully Composite BeamsUploaded bybauemmvss
- MTPUploaded bysadiqa
- 1bUploaded byEizmal Fareiz
- Experiment 3 (2nd Turn)Uploaded byHitesh
- imp234Uploaded byvempadareddy
- Beam exelUploaded bydarsu Naik
- Material (1)Uploaded byveergopinath
- Report KamogaUploaded byKamoga Hassan

- PMBOK_Slides.pdfUploaded byArt Lifeis
- iso_21500Uploaded byArt Lifeis
- Doc MedicineUploaded byArt Lifeis
- WP Physical Analytical Modeling Facilitating BIM LTR ScreenResUploaded byCardo Deleon
- Unbraced BeamUploaded byHooman Ghasemi
- PIANC fendersUploaded bydennis
- Break-Bulk-Study-Final.pdfUploaded bySatya Hanif
- eligibletoborrowcountrylist (1).pdfUploaded bykachizih
- Culvert Rating Guide - complete.pdfUploaded byFrapint
- PIANC - Guidelines for the design of fender systems.pdfUploaded byDao Ba Thanh
- 2. Dolphin Design With STAD PROUploaded byArt Lifeis
- Fixed MooringUploaded bypemadong
- Chapter 31f MotemsUploaded byAbel
- STAAD.foundation User's ManualUploaded byKang'ethe Geoffrey
- Msc ThesisUploaded byArt Lifeis
- Port Development a Handbook for Planners in Developing CountriesUploaded byriyanti_frenki
- C1B24d01Uploaded bynvanthao
- Pre Engineered Steel Metal Building Deflection GREAT GREAT GREATUploaded byaswar_mh
- random-110210031916-phpapp02Uploaded byDmo Robin
- 115 Eurocode DesignUploaded byHakan Ezcan

- Zeon_productguide_20150608.pdfUploaded byAjit Samal
- Bhel Qst ReportUploaded byAditya Dindorkar
- YCSA_50_60_80_100Uploaded bygeorge1582
- IS 3087Uploaded byDr Rajeev
- Robo GuideUploaded byAlexandre Godoi
- Detailed-Cost-Estimate.xlsxUploaded byIvin Fontiveros
- 8573-data_sheets_cg_58c_04_c017_160002_rev1_0Uploaded bySerge RINAUDO
- rheology_svecUploaded byIrshad Ali
- specs f4rUploaded byapi-214939384
- Orlita Drb Valveless Piston Metering PumpUploaded byspadafora77
- Ex400-5 Workshop ManualUploaded byJairo Acosta
- Introduction to Pavement DesignUploaded bymvap2856
- FLOW-3D-Cast-Brochure.pdfUploaded byHamidAffandy
- Microstructural, Mechanical and Tribological Characterisation of CVD and PVD Coatings for Metal Cutting ApplicationsUploaded byDaniel Figueiredo
- C4_Electronification_EN.pdfUploaded bywalk001
- problemas resueltos pipephaseUploaded byalixhera
- WPS & PQR FORMATE AS PER BPVC Sec-IX QW-482Uploaded byUmesh Sakhareliya
- Company Profile VGTUploaded byVivek Sharma
- Centrifugal_casting in Tec. CollegeUploaded byZahid Yousuf
- Short QuestionUploaded byyogeshmangulkar
- Transmision Automatica CorollaUploaded byjavier guardia
- SAE J518 (1993)Uploaded byelangopi89
- machineguard_guide2006Uploaded bynickg1311
- CE 5-10t Operation and Maintenance Manual 2011Uploaded byAhmer Camdzic
- Wooden Gear ClockUploaded byLuca Alberti
- Journal of Applied Polymer Science_ 78_ 446-451Uploaded bymonalimona
- 16. ED.pdfUploaded byStephen.K
- Air Cycle Refrigeration SystemsUploaded byginupaul
- Pulp Paper IndustryUploaded byPassionate_to_Learn
- Molylube Open Gear & Rope LubricantUploaded bydhowardj