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OF MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS
THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE NATIONAL DAIRY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, KARNAL (DEEMED UNIVERSITY) IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN DAIRYING (ANIMAL NUTRITION)
DIVISION OF DAIRY CATTLE NUTRITION NATIONAL DAIRY RESEARCH INSTITUTE (I.C.A.R.) KARNAL-132001, HARYANA, INDIA
Regn. No. 1080503
CHAPTERS 1.0 2.0 TITLE
PAGE N O
INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Un-conventional feeds in livestock production 2.2 Incorporation of un-conventional feeds -babul pods 2.2.1 Babul pods (Acacia nilotica) - chemical composition 2.2.2 Advantages of Acacia spp. Over its feeding values 2.2.3 Disadvantages of Acacia spp. 2.3 Nature of tannins in tanniniferous feeds 2.3.1 Nature of tannins in babul (Acacia nilotica) pod 2.4 Rumen metabolism of tannins 2.4.1 Tannins interaction with rumen microorganisms 2.5 Effect of babul pods on in vitro digestibility and gas production in cattle 2.6 Effect of babul pods on different rumen parameters in cattle 2.6.1 Effect on total volatile fatty acid 2.6.2 Effect on total – N 2.6.3 Effect on NH3-N 2.6.4 Effect on NPN 2.6.5 Effect on TCA-ppt N 2.7 Nutrients intake and digestibility 2.8 Effects of tannins on animal production 2.8.1 Milk yield and composition 2.8.2 Effects of tannins on nitrogen balance 2.8.3 Tannins and microbial protein and amino acids absorption
1-3 4-45 4 5
7 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 17 17 19 20
Biodegradation of tannins in ruminant system 2.9.1 Microbial degradation of tannins 2.9.2 Degradation of hydrolysable tannins 2.9.3 Biodegradation of condensed tannins and their monomers 2.9.4 Catechin degrading anaerobic bacteria 2.9.5 Catabolic pathway of catechin 2.9.6 In Anaerobic Bacteria 2.10 Therapeutic value of tannin metabolites 2.11 Acacia tannins as ayurvedic medicine 2.12 Metabolism and absorption 2.12.1 Approaches to increase bioavailability 2.13 Drug potential of these tannin metabolites 2.13.1 Cardiovascular diseases and catechins 2.13.2 Effect on antioxidant markers and oxidative stress 2.13.3 Tannin monomers and antioxidant activity 2.13.4 Effects on lipid metabolism 2.13.5 Effect on carbohydrate metabolism 2.13.6 Effect on vascular disease 2.14 Milk as a therapeutic agent 2.14.1 Milk 2.14.2 Tannin its degraded products and isoflavones in milk 2.14.3 Occurrence of other phenolic compounds in milk MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Replacement of cereal energy using babul pod in concentrate mixtures 3.2 Proximate analysis and fiber fractionation of TMRs 3.3 Tannins estimation 3.4 In vitro nutrient digestibility and gas production of TMRs 3.5 Estimation of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA)
22 22 23 25 27 29 29 30 32 32 33 34 35 36 37 39 40 41 42 42 43 44 46-75 46 46 46 49 51 Contd….
3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7
Determination of various nitrogen fractions (total-N, NH3-N, TCA ppt-N and NPN) In vitro degradation of condensed tannins i.e. Catechin and epicatechin over a period of 96 h. Incubation Statistical analysis Evaluation of various TMRs on milk production of crossbred cows Estimation of microbial protein synthesis from purine derivatives excreted through urine Estimation of tannins degraded products in different biological samples Identification and quantification of tannins monomers in “condense milk” “khoa” and “milk powder” Statistical analysis Sensory evaluation Rat studies Analysis for hypocholesterolemic, antioxidative and hypoglycemic effect Analysis of RBC lysate Estimation of total antioxidant activity Statistical analysis Replacement of cereal energy using babul pods in concentrate mixtures Proximate analysis and fiber fractionation of TMRs Tannins partitioning Nitrogen Partitioning as per CNCP System for Concentrates In-vitro nutrient digestibility and gas production for barley replacement groups In-vitro nutrient digestibility and gas production for sorghum replacement groups Digestibility of Condense Tannin in vitro
52 53 53 54 58 61 61 63 63 67 68 70 74 75 76-115 76 76 77 78 79 80 83 Contd….
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18
4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24
Effect of different replacement level of grains with Babul Pods on Different in vitro Rumen Parameters in Cattle Degradation of catechin and epicatechin over a period of 96 hours incubation in vitro Evaluation of Milk Production of Crossbred Cows Maintained on Various TMRs Based on Barley and Sorghum Energy Replacement Effects of different TMRs on fortnightly dry matter intake, body weight change and feed conversion efficiency in lactating cows Effect of different TMRs on milk yield in lactating cows during whole trial period Effect of Different Diets on Fortnightly Milk Composition in Lactating Cows Effect of Different tmrs on Fortnightly Yield of Milk Constituents In Lactating Cows Chemical composition and Tannin content of the experimental TMRs Effect of different diets on digestible nutrient intake and digestibility coefficient in lactating cows Effect of different diets on nutrient intake in lactating cows during metabolic trial Effect of different TMRs on feed conversion efficiency, energy and protein utilization efficiency in lactating cows during metabolic trial Effect of TMRs on N-balance in Lactating Cows Effect of different TMRs on Microbial Protein Synthesis Effect of Different TMRs on Degradation Products of Tannins from Babul Pods Effect of different diets on degradation of tannins from babul pods in lactating cows Effects of babul pods containing TMRs on appearance of tannins monomers in Khoa and milk powder Sensory evaluation of Milk and Milk products like Khoa and milk powder
91 92 94 95 96 97 98
99 100 101 103 104 105
Assessment of the hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and anti-oxidative activities of the milk powder containing tannin monomers in rats 4.26 Chemical composition of experimental diets 4.27 Body weight (g) and DMI (g/ d) of experimental rats 4.28 Effect of feeding on lipid profile in plasma 4.29 Haemoglobin concentration 4.30 Effect of feeding on glycemic profile in plasma 4.31 Effect of feeding on anti-oxidative activities SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY
106 107 107 110 111 112 116-135 i - xxvi
In the present study, Acacia nilotica pods were used to replace the barley and sorghum grains energy in concentrate at various replacement levels i.e. 0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent in such a manner that the tannins were equivalent to 6 %. The concentrates were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. TMRs were prepared from these concentrates at 50:50 with the help of oat green and straw (33:17) and were evaluated for in vitro nutrients digestibility, gas production and nitrogen fractions. In vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities over a period of 48 hours incubation ranged from 55.30 to 62.47; 60.44 to 63.25 and 48.14 to 52.18 percent respectively for barley replacement groups and in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities form sorghum replacement groups were 49.98 to 57.25; 57.09 to 62.44 and 55.25 and 50.06 to 54.68 per cent respectively. In vitro N-fractions like total-N, NH3-N, TCA-N, NPN and TVFA concentration remained similar in all the replacement groups of both barley and sorghum. The above results concluded that barley and sorghum both can be replaced @ 100 percent in the concentrate mixtures. Based on in vitro results, 80 per cent replacement level was selected both for barley and sorghum groups and were evaluated on lactating cows along with control. Over all mean DMI was 12.09, 12.13 and 12.13 (kg/d) for respective treatments, while DMI per cent B.W. was 2.99, 3.00 and 2.96 respectively. The mean milk yield was 14.15, 14.72 and 14.14 (kg/d) in T1, T2 and T3, respectively, and FCM yield also remained similar in all the groups. Over all protein per cent in milk was 3.34, 3.37 and 3.33 in T1, T2 and T3 respectively, while milk fat was 4.14, 4.37 and 3.62 per cent, both remained similar in all the groups. The feed conversion efficiency (DMI, kg/kg MY) remained similar across different treatments. The DMI, DDMI and DOMI in terms of kg/ day or kg/ 100 kg body weight remained similar among treatment groups. Similarly, DCP and TDN intake in terms of kg/day remained similar among treatment groups. Dry matter digestibility was 60.83, 58.73 and 59.85 per cent in T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF remained unchanged due to dietary treatments. Energetic efficiency for milk production increased from 39.59 in T1 to 43.89 and 43.66 per cent in T2 and T3 respectively. Tannin monomers like phloroglucinol, gallic acid, resorcinol, catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechingallate were identified and quantified in different biological samples namely faeces, urine, milk and milk products (condense milk, khoa and milk powder). This also indicates the increased nutraceutical value of milk and milk products. The tannin monomers enriched milk powder was evaluated in rats for assessing its hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and anti-oxidative activities over a period of 90 days. Daily DMI (g/ d) was 15.64, 14.99, 15.12 and 15.17 in groups from T1 to T4 respectively. Lipid profile i.e. TG, Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index did not influenced with dietary treatments, Similar was observed for glucose and insulin concentration. Antioxidant parameters like catalase and GPx were similar, while an increasing trend was observed for FRAP and SOD activities. Thus showed a potential of milk powder enriched with tannin monomers for increasing anti-oxidative status in the rats. The results revealed that incorporation of milk powder enriched with bioactive compounds emanated from dietary tannins improved the antioxidant status (SOD activity) in the rats.
Reference: Mayank Tandon. 2009. Studies on Acacia nilotica Pods Replacing Energy Sources in Ration of Dairy Cows on Production Performance and Neutraceutical Value of Milk and Milk Products. Ph.D thesis. Submitted to National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) Deemed University, Karnal, Haryana, India.