How to use XFLR

© All Rights Reserved

72 views

How to use XFLR

© All Rights Reserved

- Panel methods
- Aerodynamic & Design for Ultra-Low Reynolds Number Flight
- Homework from Phillips' book, Mechanics of Flight
- Unmanned miniature Flying Wing Air vehicle
- 1_On Aerodynamic Stability of Double Decked Trussed Girder for Cable Stayed Higashi Kobe Bridge
- Army Aviation Digest - Sep 1955
- Concepts for Morphing Airfoil Sections Using Bi-stable Laminated Composite Structures
- Aerodynamics Lab 3 - Direct Measurements of Airfoil Lift and Drag
- Airfoil Cornell tutorial
- X-15 Design Proposal
- AIAA-2009-268-193%5B1%5D
- Experimental Evaluation of Aerodynamics Characteristics of a Baseline Airfoil
- An Improved Methodology for Airfoil Shape Optimization Using Surrogate
- WindTunnelLab Assignment and Laboratory 2012 13 New
- Main Project Content - Frigate (2)
- 21-484
- Faltinsen
- JoA Vol41 No1 Lifting Line Analysis for TwistedWings and Washout OptimizedWings
- A_generalized type of joukowski aerofoil.pdf
- Airfoil.theory.intro

You are on page 1of 8

To accomplish this we

will use a shareware code called XFoil. This code is a useful tool developed by Prof. Mark Drela

and H. Youngren in the Aeronautics & Astronautics Department (Course 16) at MIT for

accurately approximating the flow over 2D and 3D airfoils and wings. We will only be using a

small portion of its capabilities in order to look at some basic aerodynamic relationships for 2D

airfoil design.

Basic airfoil geometry is shown in the figure below. The key external features we are going to consider

are the effects of angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number. The key airfoil design

features are the thickness and camber of the airfoil. There will be an exercise for each of these

characteristics.

We will evaluate the effects of these characteristics on the lift and drag of the airfoil as expressed in

non-dimensional form (coefficient of lift, c

l

, and coefficient of drag, c

d

). In general, basic

aerodynamic design involves maximizing lift and minimizing drag. We will also look at the

coefficient of pressure (c

p

) distribution over the airfoil.

We will be using NACA 4-digit airfoils to examine these effects. NACA (National Advisory

Committee for Aeronautics) was a government agency that existed from 1915 to 1958 to promote

and organize aeronautical research. In 1958, it was disbanded and replaced by NASA, expanding

to include astronautics. One aspect of NACA that persists are the series of standard airfoil shapes

that were developed and tested by NACA. The first systematic series of these airfoils is known as

the 4-digit series of airfoils. These airfoils are (not surprisingly) identified by 4 digits (i.e NACA

#### airfoil), which have the following meaning: digit 1 is the relative height of the mean camber

line to the straight chord line; digit 2 is the relative location measured from the leading edge of the

maximum camber; digits 3 and 4 is the relative maximum thickness of airfoil. All dimensions are

relative to the chord length of the airfoil. Thus, the NACA 1312 airfoil has a maximum camber of

0.01c or 1%, located at 0.3c or 30% behind the leading edge, and a maximum thickness of 0.12c

or 12%. These characteristics are fit to an algebraic equation to get the airfoil (if you interested in

this further, a good web resource is found at www.aerospaceweb.org search for NACA 4 digit

airfoils).

Our focus will be to start with a NACA 0012 airfoil and modify the design or external conditions to

obtain lift and drag data. A step-by-step introduction will now be presented on how to do a basic

analysis of a NACA 0012 in XFLR5, the graphics-driven window version of Xfoil. This is

available for download at http://xflr5.sourceforge.net/xflr5.htm.

Freestream

chord length

camber

thickness

Project HW3

ME 330

Fall 2008, Section 001

Due December 12, 2008

This project is to be worked in groups of no more than 6 students. Total value of project is 30 points.

Upon opening XFLR5, first go to the File menu and click new project (not necessary when first

opened, but good practice anyways). Then, in the Application menu, click Foil Direct Design. This

will open up a window with an airfoil shown (for designing your own airfoil). Hide this (remove

the check on Show Foil in the lower right), open the Foil menu, and click Naca Foils (at the

bottom). The code will ask for the number of the airfoil (0012) and the number of panels (use the

default value 100). The NACA 0012 will appear on the screen and the listing on the bottom of the

page. Click on the listing to highlight it, indicating that you will be working on this airfoil.

Next, on the application menu, click Xfoil direct analysis. This will open a window which shows

the pressure profile (c

p

v. x/c) plot (but no data yet) and the airfoil shape. To get some data, click

on the Polars menu and then Define Batch Polar. This window allows us to enter key data

depending on the Type of the analysis. We will just use Type 1, which means providing a

Reynolds and Mach number. Use Re = 1,000,000 (default is 100,000) and M = 0.00 (which

essentially means low Mach number). You can give this analysis a user-defined name or just use

the somewhat cryptic default. Dont worry about the transition model stuff, leave as default

values). Have supplied these values, we can now analyze the flow, either by using the batch

analysis under the Polars menu or the side menu on the right under Analysis. I will do the later, by

specifying (angle of attack) = 0 (no sequence), and hitting analyze. The result is now a pressure

profile is shown for this case. Now, redo this analysis, but set the angle of attack (in start) to 4.00

(4 degrees). You will now see a second pressure profile which has two lines, one for the top

surface and the other for the bottom. The c

p

axis is inverted, with negative numbers at the top,

because in this way the top line will typically correspond to the upper surface of the airfoil (where

we want lower pressure). Actually, there is an upper and lower surface line for the 0 degree case as

well, but since the airfoil is symmetric there is no difference between the top and bottom profiles,

so they overlap. Note also that the airfoil sketch is now tilted to show the angle of attack.

To see other plots, go to Polars, then View, then choose. However, we need more points to make

this interesting, so first go back to the right-hand Analysis section and do a sequence starting at =

8 and continuing to = 16 with a step () of 4 degrees. This will yield three more pressure

profiles. Now, go to Polars, View, and then choose Cl vs. alpha. This will show the change in lift

with angle of attack. From angles 0-8, your lift line should be fairly linear. Above this, the lift

curve begins to flatten. The peak of the lift line corresponds to stall, after which increasing the

angle of attack will reduce the lift. Next, choose Cl v. Cd this is the lift-drag polar. Finally, click

on user graph this will yield Cl/Cd v. alpha, with a peak at 8 degrees. If you right click on this

plot, you get another menu which allows you to control the plot display. Here, go to Graph and in

the submenu go to variables. This presents a list of variables with all the plot choices available.

Construct a plot Cd v. alpha.

These are the tools you need there is plenty more (some of which will be available in the separate

guide for XFLR5), but this should be sufficient to get you started. Dont be afraid to experiment

you can always reset by starting a new project.

Exercise A: Effect of angle of attack

For this exercise, start with the NACA 0012 airfoil. Using Re = 1,000,000 and M = 0.00, analyze the

airfoil for = -4 to 16 degrees with a step of 4 degrees. Determine the value of c

l

and c

d

at each

angle, and submit a plot with all six pressure profiles. Briefly discuss the trends seen what happens

to the pressure profiles, lift, and drag as the angle of attack increases. Does this seem consistent with

a Bernoulli approach to analysis?

Now, refine your plot, running from -4 to 18 degrees, with a step of 0.5 degrees. Based on this

analysis, what is the maximum c

l

for this airfoil and what angle corresponds to the start of stall?

What is the maximum c

l

/c

d

and at this point what is the value of c

l

, c

d

, and ? What angle

corresponds to zero lift? Provide plots of c

l

v. , c

d

v. , c

l

/c

d

v. , and the lift-drag polar using this

data.

Exercise B: Effect of Reynolds number

Start with the NACA 0012 at = 4 degrees and M = 0.00. Create pressure profiles for Re = 100,000

to 2.1 million with an increment of 400,000. In addition, do the case with Re = 4 million. Provide a

plot with all these profiles. What key changes do you observe in the pressure profile as the Reynolds

numbers change?

Next, solve for = -4 to 20 with a step of 0.5 degrees for Re = 100,000, 500,000, 900,000,

2,100,000, and 4,000,000. For each Reynolds number, what is the maximum c

l

, what angle

corresponds to the start of stall, what is the maximum c

l

/c

d

and at this point what is the value of c

l

,

c

d

, and ? Provide plots of c

l

v. , c

d

v. , c

l

/c

d

v. , and the lift-drag polar using this data, with the

curve for all five Reynolds numbers on each plot. Briefly describe the trends, noting the behavior at

low angles of attack and at high angles of attack.

Exercise C: Effect of Mach number

Start with the NACA 0012 at = 4 degrees and Re = 2 million. Create pressure profiles for M = 0.0,

0.1, 0.2, and 0.3. Provide a plot with all these profiles. What key changes do you observe in the

pressure profile as the Mach numbers change?

Next, solve for = -4 to 20 with a step of 0.5 degrees for these four Mach numbers. For each Mach

number, what is the maximum c

l

, what angle corresponds to the start of stall, what is the maximum

c

l

/c

d

and at this point what is the value of c

l

, c

d

, and ? Provide plots of c

l

v. , c

d

v. , c

l

/c

d

v. , and

the lift-drag polar using this data, with the curve for all four Mach numbers on each plot. Briefly

describe the trends, noting the behavior at low angles of attack and at high angles of attack.

Exercise D: Effect of Thickness

For this exercise, assume Re = 2,000,000 and M = 0.00. Do an analysis running from -4 to 20

degrees, with a step of 0.5 degrees, for the NACA 0004, 0008, 0012, 0016, and 0020 airfoils. Based

on this analysis, what is the maximum c

l

for these airfoils and what angle corresponds to the start of

stall? What is the maximum c

l

/c

d

and at this point what is the value of c

l

, c

d

, and ? Provide plots of

c

l

v. , c

d

v. , c

l

/c

d

v. , and the lift-drag polar using this data, with all five airfoil curves on each

plot. Briefly describe the trends you observe.

Further, reexamine the convergence/non-convergence and the shape of the two thinnest airfoils. Up

to what angle of attack do you believe the observed curves? Show these limits on your plots.

Exercise E: Effect of camber, magnitude

For this exercise, assume Re = 2,000,000 and M = 0.00. Do an analysis running from -4 to 20

degrees, with a step of 0.5 degrees, for the NACA 0012, 0312, 1312, 2312, and 3312 airfoils. Present

a plot of all six airfoil profiles. Based on this analysis, what is the maximum c

l

for these airfoils and

what angle corresponds to the start of stall? What is the maximum c

l

/c

d

and at this point what is the

value of c

l

, c

d

, and ? What angle corresponds to zero lift? Provide plots of c

l

v. , c

d

v. , c

l

/c

d

v. ,

and the lift-drag polar using this data, with all six airfoil curves on each plot. Briefly describe the

trends you observe what are the key differences between symmetric airfoils and asymmetric

airfoils, and what does adding camber do to the aerodynamics?

Exercise F: Effect of camber, location

For this exercise, assume Re = 2,000,000 and M = 0.00. Do an analysis running from -4 to 20

degrees, with a step of 0.5 degrees, for the NACA 0012, 2112, 2312, 2512, and 2712 airfoils. Present

a plot of all five airfoil profiles. Based on this analysis, what is the maximum c

l

for these airfoils and

what angle corresponds to the start of stall? What is the maximum c

l

/c

d

and at this point what is the

value of c

l

, c

d

, and ? What angle corresponds to zero lift? Provide plots of c

l

v. , c

d

v. , c

l

/c

d

v. ,

and the lift-drag polar using this data, with all five airfoil curves on each plot. Briefly describe the

trends you observe what are the key differences between symmetric airfoils and asymmetric

airfoils, and what does changing the camber location do to the aerodynamics?

Exercise G: Finding the best values for a NACA airfoil

For this, your goal is to locate the NACA airfoil that achieves the stated goals below. You may allow

the camber to range from 0%-9%c, the camber location to be from 10%-70%c, and the thickness to

range from 3%-30%c. Using your knowledge of the trends from the previous exercises find:

a) the airfoil with the highest c

l,max

b) the airfoil with the highest c

l

at = 0

c) the airfoil with the largest stall angle

d) the airfoil with the best c

l

/c

d

ratio at = 4 degrees

e) the airfoil with the best c

l

/c

d

ratio at = 4 degrees and Re = 200,000

For all these (except as noted), assume Re = 2 million and M = 0. Watch for inaccurate results or a

lack of convergence. Note that the results may still not be the best design as there are many other

considerations we are not covering.

Bonus: (8 points)

This is an exercise in designing your own airfoil. At low Reynolds numbers (say 10,000- 200,000)

the flow over an airfoil is generally transitional and subject to separation, resulting in lower lift

values and lower stall angles. Traditional flight occurs at much higher numbers (~10

6

) , but

with the growth of unmanned aerial vehicles and the study of biological flight (insect/birds),

interest in these regimes has grown.

The goal of this bonus study is for your group to try to design an airfoil that improves on the flight

characteristics in this regime compared to a base NACA airfoil, in this case the NACA 3412,

using the airfoil spline point tool in XFLR5. The rules are that the thickness of your airfoil

must be at least 12% and the camber no more than 6% due to structural considerations.

Otherwise your goal is to create an airfoil that performs better than the NACA 3412 at Re =

100,000 and M = 0.2 in the following areas:

i) Higher C

L,max

ii) Higher

stall

iii) Higher C

l

/C

d

@ = 6

o

iv) Higher C

l

/C

d

@ = 2

o

v) Higher C

l

@ = 0

o

To get credit, your airfoil must be superior to the NACA 3412 in at least one of these categories.

Beating the NACA 3412 in one category is worth 4 points, with an additional bonus point for

each additional superior category, up to a maximum of 4 additional points or 8 points total.

You will need to submit a printout of the Foil Direct Design page with your foil and the

NACA 3412 foil, along with plots of C

L

v. and C

L

/C

D

v. a for both your foil and the 3412

foil (see below). For the analysis, use a step of -0.25

o

and run it for at least -4

o

to 20

o

(and

higher as needed to make the stall angle clear). See examples of these outputs on the next page

for an airfoil that fails all five tests (so dont use it, obviously).

To design your airfoil, you will use the Foil Direct Design page of XFLR5. The splined points foil

can be modified by grabbing the points with your mouse and moving them. Right-clicking on

the screen pops-up a menu that you can use to add or remove spline points. Once you like your

profile and confirm in the listing below that the thickeness and camber requirements have been

met, then you should rename the splines foil by highlighting it in the listing and clicking on the

Foil menu, which gives the Rename option. Then, save the spline data as foil data by using

the Splines menu and the save spline data as foil data command. Finally, reload the foil data

using the File menu and Load File. From this point, you can analyze your foil as you would a

NACA foil.

- Panel methodsUploaded byGoutam Kumar Saha
- Aerodynamic & Design for Ultra-Low Reynolds Number FlightUploaded byThusitha Wickramasinghe
- Homework from Phillips' book, Mechanics of FlightUploaded byGustavo Nárez Jr.
- Unmanned miniature Flying Wing Air vehicleUploaded byThirumal Valavan
- 1_On Aerodynamic Stability of Double Decked Trussed Girder for Cable Stayed Higashi Kobe BridgeUploaded bymahe32mahe
- Army Aviation Digest - Sep 1955Uploaded byAviation/Space History Library
- Concepts for Morphing Airfoil Sections Using Bi-stable Laminated Composite StructuresUploaded byShalini Jayaraman
- Aerodynamics Lab 3 - Direct Measurements of Airfoil Lift and DragUploaded byDavid Clark
- Airfoil Cornell tutorialUploaded bysidyant
- X-15 Design ProposalUploaded byBob Andrepont
- AIAA-2009-268-193%5B1%5DUploaded byvictoria
- Experimental Evaluation of Aerodynamics Characteristics of a Baseline AirfoilUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- An Improved Methodology for Airfoil Shape Optimization Using SurrogateUploaded byAmbrish Singh
- WindTunnelLab Assignment and Laboratory 2012 13 NewUploaded bywaleedashraf
- Main Project Content - Frigate (2)Uploaded byShubham Mishra
- 21-484Uploaded bymeku44
- FaltinsenUploaded bynaufragato
- JoA Vol41 No1 Lifting Line Analysis for TwistedWings and Washout OptimizedWingsUploaded bygeorrafpap
- A_generalized type of joukowski aerofoil.pdfUploaded byHumberto Morales Bolaños
- Airfoil.theory.introUploaded byLuvv Verma
- Design and Development of a Small UnmannedUploaded byabhichinnu
- DarrieusUploaded bySushant Khatiwoda
- Rotor BladeUploaded byNicolas De Nadai
- Boundary LayerUploaded bycaveshgmailcom
- 1-s2.0-S0376042114000323-mainUploaded byEirick Wayne Zuñigga De-Itzel
- Low Order Modeling of Unsteady AerodUploaded byAndrea Johnson
- AOA (Angle of Attack)Uploaded byAditya Nurfahmi Achmad
- FinalUploaded bySwarupendra Bhattacharyya
- ALGORTIMOS BIOINSPIRADOSUploaded byAdry Carrillo
- Nr412106 Computational AerodynamicsUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G

- Shear Forces and Bending MomentsUploaded byJeremiah Lubash
- MAE331Lecture8.pdfUploaded byPranav Bhardwaj
- Krylov MethodsUploaded byPranav Bhardwaj
- Aircraft Handling Qualities TablesUploaded byPranav Bhardwaj
- 62305872 Thermodynamics P K Nag Exercise Unsolved Problems SolvedUploaded byRavinder Antil
- Course Activities and PlanningUploaded byPranav Bhardwaj

- Swissphone RE729 PagerUploaded byjeatock
- L31-ApplyingEtherNetIPandUploaded byiperius93
- Market Research for 1st year Advertising and Marketing studentsUploaded byDaren Mansfield
- tractores-de-oruga-cat-specalog-d8t-track-type-tractor.pdfUploaded byNtnny Pchamang Ch
- Saadat AliUploaded bySaadat Ali Khan Jadoon
- Chemical & Glassware 2016 -17Uploaded byprashanth
- Agar Amine Refining Hydrotreating Appl 6BUploaded byjose antonio daza cedeño
- MISCourses Jobs Fall07Uploaded bymit6pavel
- Tourism Organization Report -nUploaded byAnnix Tamiao Adaya
- IA Summary SheetUploaded byअभिषेक कुमार उपाध्याय
- 14 Essentials to Assessment and Care PlanMT2013!08!018-BRODATY_0Uploaded byDanielcc Lee
- Ways of the Prophet (SAW) by Sheikh Muhammad Abdul Hai ArifiUploaded byMUSALMAN BHAI
- Subsea-Pig Launchers and Receivers-V001!08!2012Uploaded byanton hidayat
- Resume 1Uploaded byAbhishek Pandit
- Lecture 11_Biological TreatmentUploaded by王嵐
- 4.NEC.pptxUploaded byAbdullah Shiddiq
- Grupos Electronicos Diesel Cat n3306 225ekw PrimeUploaded byjalexivan
- Parts and Functions of Respiratory SystemUploaded byjosephabram051590
- 07 effective implementation of eCRMUploaded bymetrost
- analytical reportUploaded byapi-310709789
- HRM - ESSAYUploaded byvsnaveenk
- Ph Protocol for Nephrotic SyndromeUploaded byprachi
- Schedule of Rates of LGED Bangladesh July 2015Uploaded bykabir
- 3 Aci Internal Audit Scope Fs Uk LrUploaded byPeter George
- UfoUploaded byIqbal singh
- Orange County Missing PropertyUploaded byMelodi Smith
- HM Symbols CrystallographyUploaded byAlbus Severus
- inquiry essayUploaded byapi-296981077
- dsgdsgdUploaded byraduben5403
- cablofil catalog2014Uploaded byGustavo Montalvo Morales