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Pig Mainline Gas

Pipelines
Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
Tr ai ni ng Modul e

Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
September, 2002
HDC Human Development Consultants Ltd.

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This publication is designed to provide general information regarding the subject matter covered. Care
has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information and that the instructions contained in this
publication are clear and reflect sound practice. The user understands that HDC is not providing
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ISBN 1-55338-013-4

Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data

1. Pipeline pigging. 2. Gas pipelines. 3. Natural gas pipelines.
I. HDC Human Development Consultants. TN880.5.P53 2002 665.544 C2002-901690-8

This training kit consists of the following parts:
Training Module and Self-Check
Knowledge Check and Answer Key
Blank Answer Sheet
Performance Check

Published by HDC Human Development Consultants Ltd.
Published in Canada
HDC Human Development Consultants Ltd.
Website: www.hdc.ca
E-mail: marketing@hdc.ca
Phone: (780) 463-3909

Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
September, 2002 Page i of ii
Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
Cont ent s
Training Objectives 1

1
Introduction 1

2
Reasons for Pigging Mainline Gas Pipelines 3

3
Types of Pigs 6

4

Pigging Components 9
4.1 Remote Operation 10
4.2 Pig Launchers and Receivers 11
4.3 Pig Signals 21
4.4 Station Bypass Facilities 22
4.5 Metering Facilities 25

5
Operator Roles 26

6

Pigging Practices 28
6.1 Safety and Environment 28
6.2 Pigging Frequency 30
6.3 Pre-Job Meeting 31
6.4 Launcher/Receiver On-Line or Isolated 31
6.5 Depressurizing, Venting, and Draining 33
6.6 Purging 34
6.7 Removing Pigs 34
6.8 Key Interlock Systems 34
6.9 Other Practices 35


Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
Cont ent s (c ont i nued)

7

Pig Loading and Launching Practices 35
7.1 Loading Pigs 36
7.2 Launching Pigs 39

8

Pig Receiving Practices 41
8.1 Receiving Pigs 42
8.2 Removing Pigs 44
8.3 Cleaning Pigs 47

9
Stuck and Lost Pigs 49

10

In-Line Inspection (ILI) Pigs 52
10.1 Metal Loss Detection Pigs 53
10.2 Geometry Pigs 54
10.3 Using Inspection Pigs 55
10.4 Field Operator Responsibilities 58

11
Self-Check 59

12
Self-Check Answers 65


September, 2002 Page ii of ii

Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
Tr ai ni ng
Obj ec t i ves
Upon completion of this training kit, you will be able to:









Describe the purpose and importance of pigging
operations for mainline gas pipelines
Describe reasons for pigging mainline gas pipelines
Describe different types of pigs and their uses
Describe components of mainline gas pipeline pigging
systems
Describe barrel-shaped pig launching and receiving
equipment
Describe pig launching and receiving practices
Describe methods used to clean a pig
Describe methods used to locate and free stuck pigs
Launch and receive pigs
1 I nt r oduc t i on
A vast network of pipelines transports natural gas in every part
of the world. Pipelines gather gas from the field and transport
these field products to gas plants for processing. After
processing, pipelines transport the processed productnatural
gas, liquefied petroleum gas, etc.to markets and the end
user.

Maintaining pipeline integrity and ensuring the efficient,
economical, and safe transportation of product is of highest
importance to pipeline operators. Pigging is one of the principal
methods used to ensure efficient pipeline operation.

Pigs are tools that are inserted into the pipeline and that move
in the pipeline, pushed by the flow of product. Pigsalso
known as scrapershave many uses. Pigs are used:
during pipeline construction and commissioning to clean the
pipeline of construction debris and to test the pipeline




to inspect the pipeline integrity
during routine operations to remove wax, standing liquids,
and water, to treat the inner surfaces of pipelines with
protective chemicals
to separate product batches within the pipeline to prevent
the batches from mixing
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Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
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This training kit focuses on pigging mainline natural gas
pipelines (also known as transmission lines). There is great
variation in the meaning of the term mainline pipeline, and the
distinction between gathering system pipelines and mainline
pipelines is not always well defined. In this kit, the term
mainline pipelines refers generally to pipelines which have a
compressor at the upstream end and which transport:
partially processed gas (including sour gas) from regional
field processing facilities to central gas processing facilities
for final processing

processed sales-quality gas from processing facilities over
long distances to regional customers/gas distribution
networks

NOTE

Sales quality natural gas is mostly methane with trace amounts
of ethane. Some natural gas pipelines operate at higher
pressure so that increased amounts of ethane, propane, and
butane may be shipped along in gas form. At the end of such
pipelines, process facilities process the pipeline gas flow into:


sales quality natural gas (methane with trace ethane)
individual hydrocarbon liquid products (ethane, propane,
butane)

Most mainline gas pipelines feature:
centralized remote control



booster stations with compressors
metering stations
tie-ins for gas supply and delivery

Gas pipelines that are pigged more frequently are usually
equipped with barrel-shaped pig launchers and receivers.

Figure 1
Pig in a Line


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Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
This training kit focuses on the safe and efficient launching and
receiving of pigs in mainline gas pipelines. The kit is aimed
primarily at pipeline Station/Field Operators who are
responsible for local pigging operations. The kit also provides
an overview of pigging operations which would be useful for
Control Center Operators. The kit includes:
pigging applications










a description of pigs and pigging components and their
operation
roles and responsibilities of field personnel and Control
Center Operators during pigging operations
pigging practices for barrel-shaped pig launchers and
receivers
procedures related to pig launching, tracking, and receiving
locating lost pigs and removing stuck pigs
a description of inspection pigs
2 Reasons f or Pi ggi ng Mai nl i ne Gas
Pi pel i nes
Pigging is an integral part of a companys efforts to maintain
pipeline integrity and transport product efficiently. Pigs are used
for the following reasons:
to clean and test the pipeline after construction
to inspect and gauge the line
to improve flow by removing pockets of liquids/water and by
cleaning deposits from internal surfaces
to treat the line with protective chemicals
Li ne Cl eani ng and Test i ng Af t er Const r uc t i on
After a pipeline is built or repaired, a pig is used to remove the
dirt and debris which found its way into the line during
construction. Dirt, mill scale, weld bead slag, rust, and debris
left in the pipeline can contaminate the product and cause
severe damage to filters, compressors, and valves.

After a new pipeline is built and cleaned, a pig is used to gauge
the line; gauging verifies internal diameter and may indicate
pipeline damage during construction.

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Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
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After gauging, the line is hydrotested: the line is filled with water
and then pressurized to ensure line integrity. Before filling the
pipeline with water, a pig is launched; this pig separates the air
in the line from the water. After the hydrotest, the line is purged
with air or nitrogen to displace the water. Another pig is used to
separate the water and the purge gas.

A series of pigs is used to dewater and thoroughly dry the line
before the pipeline is filled with the product. After dewatering, a
pig (and sometimes a nitrogen buffer) is used to separate the
air in the line from the product. The pig prevents the air in the
line and the product from forming a combustible mixture.
Li ne I nspec t i on and Gaugi ng
Pigs can be configured with inspection tools to detect pipeline
dents, buckles, wrinkles, cracks, diameter changes, slope
changes, construction damage, corrosion, hard spots, and to
determine wall thickness. Pigs can be used to inspect the
internal surface of an entire pipeline and store the data in
memory for interpretation of findings.

Figure 2
Pig Used for
Gauging

Li ne Cl eani ng and Sw abbi ng
Residual well dust and trace amounts of oil from the
compressors tend to build up on the pipeline walls, reducing
flow and preventing protective chemicals from reaching the
pipeline walls. Pigs are used to scrape the deposits from the
pipe walls.

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Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
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Human Development
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The natural gas transported in gathering system pipelines often
contains natural gas liquids (NGLs)(such as butane and
propane), well dust, and water. These lines must be pigged
frequently to recover the NGLs and remove the water and
debris. Mainline gas pipelines, however, usually transport drier,
cleaner gas with none or varying amounts of NGLs, and very
occasionally, trace amounts of water. Water is a major factor in
line corrosion. Depending on the pressure and temperature of
the line, liquids may drop out of the gas and settle in low-lying
areas. Gas flow tends to be turbulent around the pooled liquids,
causing a pressure drop, reduced throughput, and possible
increased erosion. Pigs are used as squeegees to push the
liquids ahead of the pig, removing pooled liquids.

Figure 3Pigging to Remove Pooled Liquids

pooled water
gas flow
cast pig


The frequency of pigging depends on a number of factors, such
as the amount of debris and liquids in the transported product,
line pressures, delivery rates, and seasonal temperatures.
Bat c h Tr eat i ng
In batch treating, a protective chemical is batched between two
pigs. The first pig removes liquids and sediment deposits and
cleans the inside of the pipe. The protective chemical, isolated
from the gas in the line by the two pigs, adheres to and protects
the internal surface of the line. A scraper pig may be sent down
the line before the first batch pig to remove wax deposits.


Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
Figure 4Batch Treating

gas flow
trailing
filming pig
chemical
batch
wax deposits still left over
after sending advance
scraper pig
inner surface coated
by the chemical batch
leading
cleaning pig

3 Types of Pi gs
Mainline pigs come in many different shapes, materials, and
sizes:
spheresMost sphere pigs are made of polyurethane; they
may be solid or may be filled with a water/glycol mixture.



foam pigsFoam pigs are made of an open cell
polyurethane foam. Foam pigs may be coated with wire
brush straps, silicone carbide chips, or steel studs.
mandrel pigsDiscs are mounted on a central mandrel.
The discs can be replaced or reconfigured, allowing for
changing job requirements. Some discs have brushes to
provide more scraping edges; these are called disc scraper
pigs. Mandrel pigs can be equipped with specialty tools for
gauging and inspection or with strong magnets to remove
ferrous debris. Some mandrel pigs are equipped with
bypass holes. Fluid from behind the pig pushes through the
holes creating a jet action, keeping the scrapings ahead of
the pig (see Figure5). Dual diameter pigs are available for
pipelines that have two different pipe diameters.

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Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
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Figure 5Bypass Pig Jets Scrapings Ahead of the Pig

wax deposit scraped off walls
is jetted ahead of the pig
cast pig
liquid
flow



solid cast pigsSolid cast pigs are similar to mandrel
pigs, but are cast in one piece and are usually made of
urethane.







gel pigsGel pigs are viscous gelled fluids used alone or
in conjunction with mechanical pigs.
Common Uses of Pi gs
The type of pig is chosen according to the specific
requirements of the line. Common uses for each type of pig
are:
spheressealing: batch separation, hydrostatic line
testing, line maintenance (batch treating), meter proving.
Sphere pigs are particularly useful for negotiating tight 90
bends.
foam pigssealing and cleaning: drying, wiping,
dewatering, scraping (especially when coated with brushes,
chips, or studs)
mandrel pigssealing and cleaning: brushing, dewaxing,
descaling, gauging, inspecting
when fitted as gauging pigs: determining internal
diameter, locating dents and slope changes
when fitted as inspection pigs: detecting metal loss,
including corrosion and cracks
when fitted as magnetic pigs: removing ferrous debris
such as welding rods and mill scale after construction or
before running an inspection pig
solid cast pigssealing, purging, and cleaning
gel pigscleaning: picking up deposits and debris scraped
off inner pipeline walls by mechanical pigs

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Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
Figure 6
Types of Pigs
Mandrel Pig Sphere Pig
Cast Pig Foam Pig

Pi g Si ze and Fi t
Pigs must be able to:
negotiate bends, curves, and dents in the pipeline





pass check valves and tees without buckling, tearing, or
shredding
resist rapid wear and wear evenly

Pigs come in standard sizes to fit tightly into standard diameter
mainline pipelines. Pigs must fit tightly in the line for several
reasons:
A tight fit prevents transmitted gas from flowing past a pig.
The gas builds up pressure behind a pig: the upstream
pressure (behind the pig) becomes greater than the
downstream pressure (in front of the pig). This difference in
line pressure across a pig (differential pressure) pushes the
pig down the line. Some pigs are equipped with small
bypass holes, primarily to control the pigs velocity.

On disc pigs, the upstream pressure pushes the discs
forward. This action forces the discs tightly against the pipe
walls. For disc pigs, the greater the differential pressure, the
tighter the seal.
A tight fit permits the edges of the pig to firmly scrape along
the inner surface of the flow line, scraping off deposits. The
scraped-off deposits collect ahead of the pig.
For batch treating, a tight fit prevents the corrosion
inhibitors, which are batched between two pigs, from mixing
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Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
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Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
with the pipeline gas flow and/or with the material that is
being scraped off the inner surfaces of the flow line.
A disc pig used for line gauging is typically equipped with a
metal gauge plate that is approximately 90 to 95% of the
internal diameter of the pipeline.
4 Pi ggi ng Component s
The basic components related to pigging mainline pipelines
include the following (see Figure7):
remote operation from a control center via a data
communication system
pig launchers
pig signals
station bypass facilities
pig receivers
metering facilities

Figure 7Basic Pigging Components of a Mainline Gas Pipeline

continuing mainline
to other markets
mainline
host
controller
satellite
control center
work station
plant
pig
launcher
booster station
with pig bypass
facilities
booster station
with pig receive
& launch facilities
booster station
with pig bypass
facilities
- metering
- regulating
- odorization
local
distribution
to homes/
businesses
pig
receiver
pig
signal
city
gate
station


Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
Consultants Ltd.
4.1 Remot e Oper at i on
Most mainline pipelines are operated remotely from a central
control center by means of a SCADA (supervisory control and
data acquisition) system. SCADA systems:
monitor variables such as pressure, flow rate, temperature,
density, and composition









control equipment such as compressors, valves, and pig
launchers

SCADA systems consist of:
a host computer that supervises and manages data
data transmission equipment that transmits and receives
data signals between pipeline locations and the host
computer, and includes land lines, microwave, or satellite
facilities
central control center workstation that receives data signals
from the host computer
local workstation (i.e., a workstation at a mainline
compressor station) that receives data signals from the
pipeline and from the host computer

Pipelines equipped with SCADA systems can be operated in
the following ways:
remotely from the central control center workstation
remotely from the local workstation
manually at the equipment

Under remote control from the central control center
workstation, the Control Center Operator uses the SCADA
workstation to monitor and adjust pipeline operations, including
launching pigs and tracking pig movement. (Note that on some
pipelines, pig launchers and receivers can only be operated
manually.) The SCADA system calculates and displays the
movement of pigs through the pipeline, determining a pigs
current location and estimated time of arrival at various sites
along the pipeline.
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Figure 8
SCADA
Workstation


Under remote control from a mainline station, a Station/Field
Operator can monitor and adjust pipeline operations from the
local workstation. The local workstation is used if
communication is lost between the central control room and the
mainline station, usually as a result of data transmission
equipment or host computer failure.

A Station/Field Operator can operate the pipeline equipment
manually. Equipment is operated manually if communications
are lost between the equipment and the station controller. At
some stations, pig launchers and receivers are not linked with
the station controller and can only be operated manually.
4.2 Pi g Launc her s and Rec ei ver s
A pig launcher is located at the upstream end of a mainline
pipeline; a pig receiver is located at the downstream end.
Pipelines may have intermediate pig launch/receive stations
and pig bypass stations (refer to Figure 7). Pipelines are
designed with intermediate pig launch/receive stations to
remove waste material in front of the pig and thus prevent
excessively large buildups.

For mainlines that are pigged infrequently, portable pig
launchers and receivers may be used. These launchers and
receivers are welded or bolted into place for the launch or
receive operation and removed as soon as the operation is
complete.

Fixed pig launchers and receivers on mainline pipelines are
generally barrel-shaped units (see Figures 8 and 10). The
barrel diameter is larger than the diameter of the pipeline and
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Pig Mainline Gas Pipelines
Human Development
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1.5 to 2.5 times longer than the pig. A pipe with a bypass valve
connects barrel pig launchers and receivers to the mainline
pipeline.

Launchers and receivers are often called pig traps.

WARNING

Companies and manufacturers use different terms for pig trap
piping and valves. The terms used in this training kit may be
different from the terms your company uses. When working with
pig traps, make sure you understand the use of terms at your
site to prevent confusion.

Figure 9
Barrel-shaped
Pig Launcher
vent
to
mainline
upstream
isolation valve
(kicker)
upstream
blowdown
valve
downstream
blowdown valve
downstream
isolation
valve (full
opening)
pig
signal
drain valve
bypass line
pig bars
mainline
bypass valve
from
plant
or mainline
to flare or vapor
recovery unit
vent

Figures 9 and 11 show a launcher and a receiver equipped with
upstream and downstream blowdown valves to flare or to a gas
recovery unit and two vent valves. This configuration ensures:
that the pressure is relieved on both sides of the pig
should the isolation valve leak, the gas is directed out of the
barrel

Figure 10 shows the vent valves mounted on the lines to flare.
Some companies use this configuration to reduce the risk of the
vent valve plugging with debris.


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Figure 10
Launcher with
Vent Valves on
Lines to Flare or
Vapor Recovery
Unit
vent
valve
vent
valve
to
mainline
upstream
isolation valve
(kicker)
upstream
blowdown
valve
downstream
blowdown valve
downstream
isolation
valve (full
opening)
pig
signal
drain valve
bypass line
pig bars
mainline
bypass valve
from
plant
or mainline
to flare or vapor
recovery unit

Not all launchers and receivers are equipped with two
blowdown valves or two vent valves:
some may be equipped with a single blowdown valve to
flare and one vent to atmosphere

others may be equipped with a single vent, which may vent
to a flare or gas recovery unit or to atmosphere, depending
on jurisdictional requirements

When equipped with two blowdown valves, as illustrated in
Figures 9, 10, and 11, the line between the two blowdown valve
equalizes pressure at both ends of the barrel.

To load a pig in the launcher, the launch barrel is isolated from
the mainline. Before launching the pig, all air in the barrel must
be purged so that air does not enter the pipeline and create a
flammable mixture. To launch a pig, flow through the launch
barrel is established. Depending on the pipeline, pigs can be
launched remotely from the central control room, remotely from
the local station, or manually.

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Pig bars at the intersection of the bypass line prevent the
launched pig from entering the bypass line. A pig signal is
tripped when the pig enters the pipeline; the pig signal may be
transmitted to the host computer at the central control center.
When a pig arrives at the pig receiver, a pig signal is tripped.
The signal may be transmitted to the host computer. Pig bars
prevent an incoming pig from entering the bypass line. The
receiver barrel is isolated to remove the pig. The barrel is then
purged of air and repressurized.

Figure 11
Barrel-shaped
Pig Receiver
vent
upstream
isolation valve
upstream
blowdown valve
down-
stream
blowdown
valve
pig signal
drain valve
bypass line
pig bars
mainline
bypass
valve
downstream
isolation
valve
to flare or vapor
recovery unit
vent
from
plant
or mainline
to
mainline


NOTE

Note: On the receiver, the downstream blowdown valve is
closest to the trap door, whereas on the launcher, the upstream
blowdown valve is closest to the trap door.

Mainline pipelines and the pigs used in the lines range in diameter
from about 168 mm to 1220 mm (nominal 6 in. to 48 in.). Larger
pigs can weigh more than 450 kg (1000 lbs.). Depending on the
size and weight of a pig, pig launchers and receivers are
equipped with jib arms, hoists, launch/receive trays, and hydraulic
rams.

All pig launchers and receivers are equipped with pressure
gauges, vents, and drain valves.
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Pi g Tr ap Cl osur es
There are many different types of trap closures, some of which
allow rapid access to the barrel. The most common are:
threaded





clamp ring
band lock

Most pig trap closures are equipped with the following features:
an O-ring which provides a seal between the door (cap) and
the barrel
a strong hinge mechanism or jib arm-type system to support
the door when it is open and allow the door to be positioned
correctly when it is closed
a pressure warning device that warns the operator if the
barrel is still pressurized. Some pressure devices prevent
the door from being opened until all pressure in the barrel
has been relieved.

O-rings must be inspected every time the pig trap is opened.
Look for blistering, swelling, and delamination. Make sure you
have a correctly sized replacement before removing an O-ring
from a closure because it is very difficult to re-install a swollen
O-ring.

Threaded ClosuresBarrels with threaded closures are
opened by rotating the end cap (door). Larger closures are
equipped with a hinge mechanism or jib arm to support the
open cap; smaller threaded closures may not have a hinge.
Some Yale closures have a closure ratchet which aids the initial
opening and final closing of the end cap. (See Figure 12.)





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Figure 12Yale Threaded Closure

closure
ratchet


After a threaded closure has been newly installed, it is
important to open and close the closure at least twelve times to
remove any rough spots on the threads.

Over-tightening threaded closures can damage the O-ring and
threads. Close-tight arrows are placed on both the closure and
the hub to indicate when a closure is sufficiently tight: when the
arrows are aligned, the seal is sufficient. If a new closure does
not have close tight arrows, follow this procedure to mark the
closure:
Remove the O-ring.



Clean opposing surfaces thoroughly.
Screw on the cap until it is in metal-to-metal contact.
Use a low stress stamp to incise matching lines on both the
hub and the cap.

CAUTION

Make sure the stamp is low stress rather than sharp. A sharp
stamp can fracture the metal.

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To open a threaded closure, after isolating, depressurizing, and
draining the barrel:
If the closure is equipped with a pressure warning device on
the cap, open the device. If the valve hisses, there is still
pressure in the barrel. Check the status of all valves. Wait
until the warning device stops hissing before proceeding.

Loosen the cap with a lug wrench, cat bar, or, if present, the
closure ratchet.

CAUTION

Manufacturers discourage the use of hammers to open and
close threaded caps. Hammer impact can cause surface stress
cracks and severely reduce closure life.

CAUTION



Manufacturers discourage the use of backhoes to loosen or
tighten threaded closures. Using a backhoe can damage the
cap and related equipment.
Companies who do use a backhoe use a sling to hook the
cap to the hoe; a designated signal person directs the
backhoe operator.

WARNING

Stand to one side when removing the cap. Pressure in the trap
can cause the pig to shoot out at high velocities. The pig and
the cap can cause serious injury.

After the cap is loosened, manually rotate the cap until it is
disengaged from the barrel.


WARNING

If it is difficult to rotate the cap manually, the barrel may still be
pressurized. Ensure all pressure in the barrel is relieved before
removing the cap. Check the status of all valves.

For caps without a hinge device, after the cap is disengaged
from the barrel, lift off the cap and place it on the ground.



For caps equipped with a hinge or jib arm mechanism, after
the cap is disengaged, use the hinge to swing the cap open
and away from the barrel opening.

To close a threaded closure:
Clean the O-ring and the threaded surfaces on the cap and
barrel. Make sure the threads are cleaned to the bare metal.
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Visually inspect the O-ring and threads on the cap and
barrel. Replace O-ring if necessary.
Lubricate the threads and seal with the lubricant
recommended by the manufacturer.
For smaller caps, position the cap and screw it on.
For larger caps, use the hinge or jib arm to support the cap,
position the cap on the barrel, and screw it on. Tighten the
cap with a lug wrench, cat bar, or closure ratchet.

CAUTION

Do not over-tighten; over-tightening may damage the O-ring.

Clamp Ring ClosuresClamp ring (yoke) closures feature a
hinged clamp which encircles the cap/barrel interface (see
Figure 13). A latch mechanism locks and unlocks the clamp.

Figure 13T.D.Williamson Clamp Ring Closure



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To open a clamp ring closure, after isolating, depressurizing,
and draining the barrel:
Unlatch the latching mechanism.

WARNING

Stand to one side when removing the cap. Pressure in the trap
can cause the pig to shoot out at high velocities. The pig and
the cap can cause serious injury.

Swing open the cap on its hinge.

To close a clamp ring closure:
Clean the O-ring and the opposing surfaces on the cap and
barrel.
Lubricate the seal and mating faces with the lubricant
recommended by the manufacturer.
Close the cap.
Latch the latching mechanism.

Bandlock ClosuresBandlock closures, manufactured by GD
Engineering Inc., feature a locking band, fitted between the
door and the barrel neck, which engages in a locking groove on
the barrel (see Figure 14).

To open the bandlock closure, after isolating, depressurizing,
and draining the barrel:


End of Sample

A full licensed copy of this kit includes:
Training Module and Self-Check
Knowledge Check and Answer Key
Blank Answer Sheet
Performance Check