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Preparation- The preparation stage of the writing process is essential. By determining the needs of your audience, your purpose,
the context, and the scope of coverage, you understand the information you will need to gather during research.

Purpose- What do you want your readers to know, to believe, or to do when they have read your document? When you answer that
question about your audience, you have determined the primary purpose, or objective, of your document. Be careful not to state a
purpose too broadly.

Audience/Readers- The first rule of effective writing is to help your readers.
1. Analyzing your audiences needs
2. Writing for diverse audience- For documents aimed at multiple audiences with different needs; consider segmenting the document for
different groups of readers. When you have multiple audiences with various needs but cannot segment your document, first determine
your primary or most important readers then meet the needs of secondary readers

Context- is the environment or circumstances in which writers produce documents and within which readers interpret their

Scope- is the depth and breadth of detail you include in a document as defined by your audiences needs, your purpose, and the

Selecting the medium- Those factors include the following:
the audiences preferences and expectations
an individuals personal work style
how widely information needs to be distributed
what kind of record you need to keep
the urgency of the communication
the sensitivity or confidentiality required
the technological resources available
the organizational practices or regulations
1. Business letters with handwritten signatures are often the most appropriate choice for formal communication with professional
associates or customers outside an organization.
2. Memos are appropriate for internal communication among members of the same organization; they use a standard header and are
sent on paper or as attachments to e-mails.
3. E-mail (or email) functions in the workplace as a primary medium to communicate and share electronic files with colleagues,
clients, and customers.
4. Instant messaging (IM) on a computer or cell phone may be an efficient way to communicate in real time with coworkers,
suppliers, and customers especially those at sites without access to e-mail. Instant messaging often uses online slang and such
shortened spellings.
5. Telephone calls are best used for exchanges that require substantial interaction and the ability of participants to interpret each
others tone of voice.
6. A fax is most useful when the informationa drawing or signed contract, for examplemust be viewed in its original form.
7. In-person meetings are most appropriate for initial or early contacts with associates and clients with whom you intend to develop
an important, long-term relationship or need to establish rapport.
8. Videoconferences are particularly useful for meetings when travel is impractical. Videoconferences have the advantage of
allowing participants to see as well as to hear one another.
9. A public Internet or company intranet Web site is ideal for posting announcements or policies as well as for making available or
exchanging documents and files with others.


Research is the process of investigationthe discovery of information.
Primary research is the gathering of raw data from such sources as firsthand experience, interviews, direct observation, surveys
and questionnaires, experiments, meetings, and the like.
Secondary research is the gathering of information that has been previously analyzed, assessed, evaluated, compiled, or otherwise
organized into accessible form. Sources include books and articles as well as reports, Web documents, audio and video recordings,
podcasts, correspondence, minutes of meetings, brochures, and so forth.

Brainstorming, a form of free association used to generate ideas about a topic, can be done individually or in groups.

The purpose of note-taking is to summarize and record information you extract during research. The challenge in taking notes is to
condense someone elses thoughts into your own words without distorting the original thinking.

Interviewing for information includes determining the proper person to interview, preparing for the interview, conducting the
interview, and expanding your notes soon after the interview.

Questionnairea series of questions on a particular topic sent out to a number of peopleserves the same function as an interview
but does so on paper, as an e-mail attachment, or as an online form.

Plagiarism is the use of someone elses unique ideas without acknowledgment, or the use of someone elses exact words without
quotation marks and appropriate credit. Plagiarism is considered to be the theft of someone elses creative and intellectual property
and is not accepted in business, science, journalism, academia, or any other field.

Documenting sources achieves three important purposes:
It allows readers to locate and consult the sources used and to find further information on the subject.
It enables writers to support their assertions and arguments in such documents as proposals, reports, and trade journal articles.
It helps writers to give proper credit to others and thus avoid plagiarism by identifying the sources of facts, ideas, visuals, quotations,
and paraphrases.
3 Citation Models
The Modern Language Association (MLA) system is used in literature and the humanities.
The system set forth in the I EEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.) Standards Style Manual is often used for
the production of technical documents and standards in areas ranging from computer engineering, biomedical technology, and
telecommunications to electric power, aerospace, and consumer electronics. The IEEE system is referred to as a number-style
method of documentation
The American Psychological Association (APA) system of citation is often used in the social sciences. It is referred to as an
authordate method of documentation because parenthetical in-text citations and a reference list (at the end of the paper) in APA
style emphasize the author(s) and date of publication so that the currency of the research is clear


A logical Method of Development satisfies the readers need for shape and structure in a document, whether it is an e-mail, a
report, or a Web page. It helps you as a writer move smoothly and logically from the introduction to a conclusion.
Cause-and-effect method of development begins with either the cause or the effect of an event. This approach can be used to
develop a report that offers a solution to a problem, beginning with the problem and moving on to the solution or vice versa.
Chronological method of development emphasizes the time element of a sequence, as in a trouble report that traces events as
they occurred in time.
Comparison method of development is useful when writing about a new topic that is in many ways similar to another topic that
is more familiar to your readers.
Definition method of development extends definitions with additional details, examples, comparisons, or other explanatory
Division-and-classification method of development either separates a whole into component parts or discusses each part
separately (division) or groups parts into categories that clarify the relationship of the parts (classification).
General and specific methods of development proceed either from general information to specific details or from specific
information to a general conclusion.
Order-of-importance method of development presents information in either decreasing order of importance, as in a proposal
that begins with the most important point, or increasing order of importance, as in a presentation that ends with the most important
Sequential method of development emphasizes the order of elements in a process and is particularly useful when writing step-
by-step instructions.
Spatial method of development describes the physical appearance of an object or area from top to bottom, inside to outside, front
to back, and so on.

Outlining- An outline is the skeleton of the document you are going to write; at the least, it should list the main topics and
subtopics of your subject in a logical method of development. Outlining breaks large or complex subjects into manageable parts. It
also enables you to emphasize key points by placing them in the positions of greatest importance.
Advantages of Outlining
Larger and more complex subjects are easier to handle because an outline breaks them into manageable parts.
Like a road map, an outline indicates a starting point and keeps you moving logically so that you do not lose your way before you
arrive at your conclusion.
Parts of an outline are easily moved around so that you can select the most effective arrangement of your ideas.
Creating a good outline frees you from concerns of organization while you are writing a draft.
An outline enables you to provide coherence and transition so that one part flows smoothly into the next without omitting
important details.
Logic errors are much easier to detect and correct in an outline than in a draft.
An outline helps with collaborative writing because it enables a team to refine a projects scope, divide responsibilities, and
maintain focus.

Types of outlining
Topic outline consists of short phrases arranged to reflect your primary method of development. A topic outline is especially useful
for short documents such as e-mails, letters, or memos.
Sentence outline summarizes each idea in a complete sentence that may become the topic sentence for a paragraph in the rough

Visuals- can express ideas or convey information in ways that words alone cannot by making abstract concepts and relationships
concrete. Visuals can show how things look (drawings, photographs, maps), resent numbers and quantities (graphs, tables), depict
processes or relationships (flowcharts, schematic diagrams), and show hierarchical relationships (organizational charts). They also
highlight important information and emphasize key concepts succinctly and clearly.

Layout and design of a document can make even the most complex information accessible and give readers a favorable impression
of the writer and the organization. To accomplish those goals, a design should help readers find information easily; offer a simple
and uncluttered presentation; and highlight structure, hierarchy, and order.


Writing a draft is simply transcribing and expanding the notes from your outline into paragraphs, without worrying about
grammar, refinements of language, or spelling. Refinement will come with revision and proofreading.

Style is the way in which something is said or done, as distinguished from its substance. Writers styles are determined by the
way writers think and transfer their thoughts to paper the way they use words, sentences, images, figures of speech, and so on.
Categories of style
1. Formal writing style- can perhaps best be defined by pointing to certain material that is clearly formal, such as scholarly and
scientific articles in professional journals, lectures read at meetings of professional societies, and legal documents. A formal writing
style does not use contractions slang, or dialect.
2. Informal writing style- is a relaxed and colloquial way of writing standard English.There is less distance between the writer and
the reader because the tone is more personal than in a formal writing style.

Tone is the attitude a writer expresses toward the subject and his or her readers.

Sentence construction- A sentence is the most fundamental and versatile tool available to writers. Sentences generally flow from a
subject to a verb to any objects, complements, or modifiers, but they can be ordered in a variety of ways to achieve emphasis. The
most basic components of sentences are subjects and predicates.
Subject of a sentence is a noun or pronoun (and its modifiers) about which the predicate of the sentence makes a statement.
Predicate is the part of a sentence that makes an assertion about the subject and completes the thought of the sentence.

Paragraph-performs three functions: (1) It develops the unit of thought stated in the topic sentence; (2) it provides a logical break
in the material; and (3) it creates a visual break on the page, which signals a new topic.
Topic sentence states the paragraphs main idea; the rest of the paragraph supports and develops that statement with related details.
The topic sentence is often the first sentence because it tells the reader what the paragraph is about.
A good paragraph has unity and coherence as well as adequate development. Unity is singleness of purpose, based on a topic
sentence that
states the core idea of the paragraph. When every sentence in the paragraph develops the core idea, the paragraph has unity.
Coherence is holding to one point of view, one attitude, one tense; it is the joining of sentences into a logical pattern.

Quotations- Using direct and indirect quotations is an effective way to make or support a point. However, avoid the temptation to
over quote during the note-taking phase of your research; concentrate on summarizing what you read.
Direct quotation is a word-for-word copy of the text of an original source.
Indirect quotation is a paraphrased version of an original text. It is usually introduced by the word that and is not set off from the
rest of the sentence by punctuation marks.
Deletions or omissions from quoted material are indicated by three ellipsis points (. . .) within a sentence and a period plus three
ellipsis points (. . . .) at the end of a sentence. When it is necessary to insert a clarifying comment within quoted material, use

Paraphrasing- is restating or rewriting in your own words the essential ideas of another writer.

Conclusion- ties the main ideas together and can clinch a final significant point. This final point may, for example, make a
prediction or a judgment, summarize the key findings of a study, or recommend a course of action.

Titles are important because many readers decide whether to read documents such as reports, e-mails, memos, and newsletter
articles based on their titles.


Unity is singleness of purpose and focus; a unified paragraph or document has a central idea and does not digress into unrelated
topics. The logical sequence provided through outlining is essential to achieving unity. An outline enables you to lay out the most
direct route from introduction to conclusion, and it enables you to build each paragraph around a topic sentence that expresses a
single idea. Effective transition helps build unity, as well as coherence, because transitional terms clarify the relationship of each
part to what precedes it. An outline forces you to establish a beginning, middle, and an end.

Writing is coherent when the relationships among ideas are clear to readers. The major components of coherent writing are a
logical sequence of related ideas and clear transitions between these ideas. Presenting ideas in a logical sequence is the most
important requirement in achieving coherence. The key to achieving a logical sequence is the use of a good outline.

Conciseness means that extraneous words, phrases, clauses, and sentences have been removed from writing without sacrificing
clarity or appropriate detail.

Pace is the speed at which you present ideas to the reader. The more knowledgeable the reader is about the subject, the faster
your pace can be.

Transition is the means of achieving a smooth flow of ideas from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph, and subject to
subject. Transition is a two-way indicator of what has been said and what will be said; it provides readers with guideposts for
linking ideas and clarifying the relationship between them. Transition can be obvious and subtle.
Methods of Transition
(1) using transitional words and phrases,
(2) repeating keywords or key ideas,
(3) using pronouns with clear antecedents,
(4) using enumeration (1, 2, 3, or first, second,third),
(5) summarizing a previous paragraph,
(6) asking a question,
(7) using a transitional paragraph.

Sentence variety- Sentences can vary in length, structure, and complexity.

Emphasis is the principle of stressing the most important ideas in your writing.
Achieving emphasis
Position. Place the idea in a conspicuous position. The first and last words of a sentence, paragraph, or document stand out
in readersminds.
Climactic Order. List the ideas or facts within a sentence in sequence from least to most important
Sentence Length. Vary sentence length strategically. A very short sentence that follows a very long sentence or a series of
long sentences stands out in the readers mind, as in the short sentence that ends the following paragraph
Sentence Type. Vary sentences by using a compound sentence, a complex sentence, or a simple sentence.
Active Voice. Use the active voice to emphasize the performer of an action: Make the performer the subject of the verb.
Repetition. Repeat key terms.
Intensifiers. Although you can use intensifiers (most, much, very) for emphasis, this technique is so easily abused that it
should be used with caution.
Direct Statements. Use direct statements, such as most important, foremost, or someones name in a direct address.
Long Dashes. Use a dash to call attention to a particular word or statement.

Parallel structure requires that sentence elements that are alike in function be alike in grammatical form as well. This structure
achieves an economy of words, clarifies meaning, expresses the equality of the ideas, and achieves emphasis. Parallel structure
assists readers because it allows them to anticipate the meaning of a sentence element on the basis of its construction.
Faulty parallelism results when joined elements are intended to serveequal grammatical functions but do not have equal
grammatical form. Faulty parallelism sometimes occurs because a writer tries to compare items that are not comparable.

Use subordination to show, by the structure of a sentence, the appropriate relationship between ideas of unequal importance.
Subordination allows you to emphasize your main idea by putting less important ideas in subordinate clauses or phrases.

Ambiguity- A word or passage is ambiguous when it can be interpreted in two or more ways, yet it provides the reader with no
certain basis for choosing among the alternatives.

Awkwardness- Any writing that strikes readers as awkwardthat is, as forced or unnatural impedes their understanding.

Logic error- Logic is essential to convincing an audience that your conclusions are valid. Errors in logic can undermine the point
you are trying to communicate and your credibility.
Typical logic errors
Lack of reason- When a statement is contrary to the readers common sense, that statement is not reasonable.
Sweeping generalizations are statements that are too broad or all inclusive to be supportable; they generally enlarge an
observation about a small group to refer to an entire population.
Non sequitur is a statement that does not logically follow a previous statement.
False cause (also called post hoc, ergo propter hoc) refers to the logical fallacy that because one event followed another
event, the first somehow caused the second.
Biased or Suppressed Evidence- A conclusion reached as a result of biased or suppressed evidence self-serving data,
questionable sources, purposely omitted or incomplete factsis both illogical and unethical.
Fact vs. Opinion- Facts include verifiable data or statements, whereas opinions are personal conclusions that may or may
not be based on facts.
Loaded Arguments- When you include an opinion in a statement and then reach conclusions that are based on that
statement, you are loading the argument.

Positive writing- Presenting positive information as though it were negative is confusing to readers. Negative facts or conclusions,
however, should be stated negatively; stating a negative fact or conclusion positively is deceptive because it can mislead the reader.

Voiceindicates the relation of the subject to the action of the verb. When the verb is in the active voice, the subject acts; when it is
in the passive voice, the subject is acted upon.

Ethics refers to the choices we make that affect others for good or ill. Ethical issues are inherent in writing and speaking because
what we write and say can influence others. Further, how we express ideas affects our audiences perceptions of us and our
organizations ethical stance.

Biased language refers to words and expressions that offend because they make inappropriate assumptions or stereotypes about
gender, ethnicity, physical or mental disability, age, or sexual orientation. Biased language, which is often used unintentionally, can
defeat your purpose by damaging your credibility.

Copyright establishes legal protection for literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and other intellectual works in printed or electronic
form; it gives the copyright owner exclusive rights to reproduce, distribute, perform, or display a work.

Plagiarism is the use of someone elses unique ideas without acknowledgment, or the use of someone elses exact words without
quotation marks and appropriate credit. Plagiarism is considered to be the theft of someone elses creative and intellectual property
and is not accepted in business, science, journalism, academia, or any other field.

Abstract - summarizes and highlights the major points of a formal report, trade journal article, dissertation, or other long work. Its
primary purpose is to enable readers to decide whether to read the work in full.
Types of Abstract
Descriptive abstract summarizes the purpose, scope, and methods used to arrive at the reported findings. It is a slightly
expanded table of contents in sentence and paragraph form. A descriptive abstract need not be longer than several
Informative abstract is an expanded version of the descriptive abstract. In addition to information about the purpose,
scope, and research methods used, the informative abstract summarizes any results, conclusions, and recommendations.
The informative abstract retains the tone and essential scope of the original work, omitting its details.

Affectation- is the use of language that is more formal, technical, or showy than necessary to communicate information to the
Causes of affectation
Impression. Some writers use pretentious language in an attempt to impress the reader with fancy words instead of
evidence and logic.
Insecurity. Writers who are insecure about their facts, conclusions, or arguments may try to hide behind a smoke screen
of pretentious words.
Imitation. Perhaps unconsciously, some writers imitate the poor writing they see around them.
Intimidation. A few writers, consciously or unconsciously, try to intimidate or overwhelm their readers with words, often
to protect themselves from criticism.
Initiation. Writers who are new to a field often feel that one way to prove their professional expertise is to use as much
technical terminology and jargon as possible.
Imprecision. Writers who are having trouble being precise sometimes find that an easy solution is to use a vague, trendy,
or pretentious word.

Jargon is a highly specialized slang that is unique to an occupational or a professional group. Jargon is at first understood only by
insiders; over time, it may become known more widely.

Clichs are expressions that have been used for so long that they are no longer fresh but come to mind easily because they are so

Denotations of a word are its literal meanings, as defined in a dictionary. The connotations of a word are its meanings and
associations beyond its literal definitions.

Defining key terms and concepts is often essential for clarity. Terms can be defined either formally or informally.
Formal definition is a form of classification. You define a term by placing it in a category and then identifying the
features that distinguish it from other members of the same category.
Informal definition explains a term by giving a more familiar word or phrase as a synonym.

Grammar is the systematic description of the way words work together to form a coherent language. In that sense, it is an
explanation of the structure of a language. However, grammar is popularly taken to mean the set of rules that governs how a
language ought to be spoken and written. In that sense, it refers to the usage conventions of a language.

Grammatical agreement is the correspondence in form between different elements of a sentence to indicate number, person,
gender, and case.

Grammatical case indicates the functional relationship of a noun or a pronoun to the other words in a sentence. Nouns change form
only in the possessive case; pronouns may show change for the subjective, the objective, or the possessive case.

Modifiers are words, phrases, or clauses that expand, limit, or make otherwise more specific the meaning of other elements in a

Sentence faults- A number of problems can create sentence faults, including faulty subordination, clauses with no subjects,
rambling sentences, omitted verbs, and illogical assertions. Faulty subordination occurs when a grammatically subordinate element
contains the main idea of the sentence or when a subordinate element is so long or detailed that it obscures the main idea. Both of
the following sentences are logical, depending on what the writer intends as the main idea and as the subordinate element.

Punctuation helps readers understand the meaning and relationships of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Abbreviations are shortened versions of words or combinations of the first letters of words.

Capitaliztion- The use of capital, or uppercase, letters is determined by custom. Capital letters are used to call attention to certain
words, such as proper nouns and the first word of a sentence. Use capital letters carefully because they can affect a words meaning.

Contraction is a shortened spelling of a word or phrase with an apostrophe substituting for the missing letter or letters
(cannot/cant; have not/havent; will not/wont; it is/its).

Dates- In the United States, full dates are generally written in the month-dayyear format, with a comma preceding and following the

Italics is a style of type used to denote emphasis and to distinguish foreign expressions, book titles, and certain other elements.
Foreign words and phrases are italicized. Italicize the titles of separately published documents. Proper names, words, letters,
figures, subheads are also italicize.

Proofreading is essential whether you are writing a brief e-mail or a rsum. Grammar checkers and spell checkers are important
aids to proofreading, but they can make writers overconfident.\