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Strategic Plan2012-2016 Mzuzu University-Centre of Excellence in Water And Sanitation

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MZUZU UNIVERSITY

CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE
IN WATER AND SANITATION


Private Bag 201
Luwinga
Mzuzu 2
Malawi.
Tel: (265) 01 320722,
(265) 01 320 575, or
(265) 01 930 796
Fax: (265) 01 320 505










Photograph : Borehole in operation

Photograph : Participants after training in Sanitation









MZUZU UNIVERSITY - CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN WATER AND SANITATION
PRIVATE BAG 201 LUWINGA, MZUZU 2, MALAWI
CENTRE OF
EXCELLENCE
IN WATER AND
SANITATION
STRATEGIC PLAN FOR 1212 TO 2016

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List of Acronyms and Abreviations

AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
CBO Community Based Organization
CDC Centre for Disease Control
DU Documentation Unit
HIV Human Immune Virus
ISM Integrated Science Management
IWRMD Integrated Water Resources Management and Development
LIAS Low Income Areas
LSHTM London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
MEPD Ministry of Economic Planning and Development
MGDs Malawi Growth Development Strategy
MoLG & RD Ministry of Local Government and Development
MZUNI Mzuzu University
NETWAS Network for Water and Sanitation
NGO Non Governmental Organization
SADC Southern Africa Development Countries
SP Strategic Plan
SWOT` Strength Weakness Opportunities and Threats
UCDISM University Capacity Development for Integrated Sanitation Management
UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund
UNO United Nations Organization
WASH Water, Sanitation and hygiene
WASHTED Water, Sanitation, Health and Appropriate Technology Development
WASTE WASTE-Netherlands
WATSAN Water and Sanitation
WEDC Water, Engineering and Development Centre
WFP World Food Programmme

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Foreword

This document is a five-year Strategic Plan 2012-2016 for the Centre of Excellence in Water
and Sanitation, here referred to as the WATSAN Centre. The strategic plan has been
developed to aid the Centre to implement programmes efficiently and effectively.

The broad objective of the Centre is to aid Mzuzu University work towards a universal
provision of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services as a basic human right. The
objective of the Centre is realized by mounting awareness campaigns, orientation activeness,
training, research and consultancy.

The Strategic plan is in full cognizance of Malawis place in the global village as reflected in
United Nations Millennium Development Strategy (MGDs) and the Malawis Growth and
Development Strategy (MGDS).

Working within this spirit, the Centre is committed to making constant reviews in the WASH
sector thus adding value to efforts of other stakeholders.

In addition, the Strategic Plan is an indirect invitation to stakeholder institutions,
development partners, entrepreneurs in the WASH Sector and the media to singularly and
collectively enhance purposeful implementation of appropriate programmes and projects.

The Mzuzu University, Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan is a
strategic planning tool for the centre. The plan clearly defines the centres mission, vision,
long term goal, general and specific objectives and strategies that may be utilized in order to
achieve the goal while fulfilling the mission. The Strategic Plan identifies issues to be
addressed over the planning period (2012 to 20016). It covers attributes of the centre that
need to be changed, like the financial position, and others that need to be sustained while at
the same time enhancing attributes that prove to be crucial to keep the centre productive.
The development of this plan is intended to coincide with existing strategies aimed at
improving the effectiveness of Water Resources Management and Development which will
later change to include the curriculum for Sanitation

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It is virtually important, though, to remember that this five- year Plan is a living document
and, as such, will be continuously modified in line with developments or changes during its
five year term to ensure that the information presented remains relevant and accurate.

It is important to remember that the centre is currently relying heavily on external financial
institutions and as a result its capacity to carry out more work is limited. Because of this
scenario the centre is intending to engage itself in activities that can enable generation of self
sustaining income.

At the time of its preparation, this plan was one of the three documents required to be
finalized and presented to the Financial Partner , WASTE. As a result most items issues reflect
donor requirement.






























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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Centre acknowledges the financial support from WASTE Netherlands.

The technical support from the Faculty of Environmental Sciences through its management
and staff is also deeply appreciated for their contributions. The Centre further extends its
gratitude for the support from Mzuzu University Management for facilitating the
development of this Strategic Plan.


































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Table of Contentsvi
Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................ iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................................... v
Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................... vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1
CHAPTER 2 PURPOSE, STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STRATEGIC PLAN ..................... 2
2.0 Purpose ........................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 Planning Framework .................................................................................................................... 2
The Centre adopted a simple planning framework which can be represented by the following steps:-
2
2.2 Strengths of the Strategic Plan ................................................................................................... 3
2.3 Measurement of Performance ...................................................................................................... 3
2.4 Limitation of the Strategic Plan .................................................................................................. 3
2.5 Key Assumptions ............................................................................................................................ 4
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF MZUZU UNIVERSITY-CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN WATER AND
SANITATION 5
The Centres Vision ................................................................................................................................... 7
The Centres Mission Statement ............................................................................................................. 7
The Centres Core Values ......................................................................................................................... 7
The Centres Strategic Objectives .......................................................................................................... 9
Training seminars/ Short Courses .............................................................................................................. 9
Research ..................................................................................................................................................... 9
Surveys/ laboratory experiments ................................................................................................................ 9
Disaster Preparedness and Management ................................................................................................ 10
Consultancies .......................................................................................................................................... 10
Projects ..................................................................................................................................................... 10
International conferences and workshops .......................................................................................... 10
Networking, information and documentation ................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER 4 SITUATION ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 12
(f)Local community-based organisations ........................................................................................... 14
(g)Schools and slum dwellers ............................................................................................................... 14
(h)Local and national government agencies ...................................................................................... 15
(i)International Development Organizations ..................................................................................... 15
(j)International Donors .......................................................................................................................... 15
4.3 Institutional Systems and Structures ....................................................................................... 16
Human resource ...................................................................................................................................... 16
Assets and resources ............................................................................................................................... 17
4.4 Strategic Analysis of Internal Operating Environment (SWOT Analysis) ........................... 17
4.4.1 Strengths ....................................................................................................................................... 18
4.4.2 Weaknesses.................................................................................................................................. 19
4.4.3 Opportunities .............................................................................................................................. 19
4.4.4 Threats .......................................................................................................................................... 20
CHAPTER 5 ESTABLISHMENT OF BALANCED SCORECARDS .......................................................... 26
5.1 Rationale for strategic planning and analysis of key strategic issues ............................. 26
5.2 Meeting the challenges of the Millennium Development Goals ...................................... 26
5.3 Past Experience on Research, Trainings and Consultancies ............................................. 27
CHAPTER 6 MONITORING, EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES ............................ 49
6.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 49
6.2 Performance Indicators .............................................................................................................. 52




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Executive Summary

The Centre is an arm of the Department of Water Resources Management and
Development in the Faculty of the Environmental Sciences. The Centre was established in
2010 with the aim of promoting on-site sanitation and water supply through research and
training, focusing on simple but most commonly used appropriate technologies (such as
pit latrines, ecological sanitation, shallow wells and hand pumps) in Malawian
communities. It was established to go out to industries to spearhead applied research,
training, consultancies, outreach programmes in water, sanitation and hygiene
(WASH)sub-sectors realizing that:

Water and sanitation management institutions in Africa are unable to adequately
provide Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services to the present populations or
to maintain service standards because of few trained personnel in the sector.

Accessibility and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are closely linked to
socio-economic development.

Water and Sanitation management institutions in Africa have hitherto overlooked or
neglected the social and psychological aspects of water, sanitation and hygiene
(WASH) services.

Access to portable water remains difficult in many regions particularly for the rural
and urban poor. Furthermore, there are little prospects for distribution systems to
expand quickly to cope with the high population growth rates which characterize
poor communities

Sanitation is one of the Millennium Development Goal targets lagging behind.

Investing in adolescent sanitation and hygiene programmes can break entrenched
cycles of poverty and inequality thus making adolescence become an age of
opportunity.
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Sustainable quality service in water and sanitation sub-sectors heavily relies on strong
public private partnerships.

The Centre was established in 2009. The rationale behind establishment of the Centre
is the recognition that Malawi, just like other nations in the SADC Region and beyond,
needs to urgently address the challenges faced by Implementers of Water and
Sanitation Programmes. To achieve this goal, the nation requires well trained
people who will need expertise in Water and Sanitation Issues as well as in the Social-
economic aspects of water, school sanitation, hygiene and the relationship amongst
sanitation, livelihoods and agricultural production. To this effect, the Centre of
Excellence has been set up to link implementation with research to enable it to
effectively and efficiently produce such expertise. This notwithstanding, Government
is aware of the dire need to solve problems pertaining to the provision of adequate
safe water and sanitation through the Sector Wide Approach (SWAp). Using this
philosophy therefore, the Centre has joined hands with partners including the Malawi
Government through the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Developments SWAp in
one of its seven pillars i.e. institutional development and capacity building which
seeks to address critical shortages of core staff.
The Centre undertakes applied research, and implements its findings in the fields of
water and sanitation and trains men and women how to plan for, provide and maintain
affordable, clean water and sanitation for the benefit of communities in Malawi the
region and beyond.
The Centres Mission is aligned with Mzuzu Universitys: To provide high quality
education, training and research and complementary services to meet the technological,
social and economic needs of individuals and communities in Malawi.
Although the Centre is an independent institution run by the Director, it is
accountable to the University senate and council. The Centre is governed by Mzuzu
University Act and Statutes of 1997. Its financial transactions are governed by
financial regulations of the University and its accounts are subject to both internal and
external audit in line with Public Finance Act, Public Audit Act and Public Procurement
Act.
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The Centre, however, faces a number of challenges in its quest to supply water and
affordable sanitation which include increasing water demand due to population growth of in
the peri-uban areas of the cities.
Malawi Growth Development Strategy:

In order to address the challenges and in an effort to achieve the Government of Malawis
goals contained in the Malawi Development and Growth Strategy and the Millennium
Development Goals, the Centre has developed a five year Strategic Plan for 2012 to 2016. The
Strategic Plan sets out short, medium and long term objectives and prepared a capital
investment plan that presents a realistic level of investment to address key functional issues
affecting the delivery of water supply and sanitation services in the per-urban areas of the
cities and the rural communities.

The Strategic Plan takes recognisance of the international partners commitment to transform
lives of Malawians through funding of various projects in the water and sanitation sector.


























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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Apart from statutory requirement according to Section 68, sub-section (1) of the Public
Finance Management Act (No.7 of 2003), that demands preparation of the Performance
and Management Plan at least three months before the end of each financial, it is requisite
for any successful business to formulate a clear goal that can be achieved over the planning
period through master planning. Master Planning is the only real way to do long range
forecasting for the needs and direction of the Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation.
Without the master plan, it is most likely that the Centre will end up making decisions from a
reactionary point of view as opposed to taking a proactive approach. It is hoped that master
planning (Strategic Planning) will help the Centre to make each kwacha count when there is
limited capital available.

The Centres Strategic Plan outlines the long-term goal of the Centre, general as well as
specific objectives, strategies for achieving the same and setting proper mechanisms of
monitoring and evaluation. For this to be done, objectively verifiable indicators must be
formulated, means of verification must be drawn and measurable targets in terms of
deliverables and dates of delivery must be set. This plan provides an outline of the Centre
intends to conduct its operations and business over the five year planning period starting
from 2012. The plan is also intended to serve in the following areas;
To provide means of sharing information with employees, customers, government
and potential partners, so that there is an agreement on the Centres plans.
To ensure that decisions related to services rendered by the Centre take account of
what customers want and are prepared to pay for.
To ensure that the centre generates enough income sufficient for full cost recovery
to sustain the Centres operations.
To help the Centre to monitor financial and technical performance.
To support performance-based contracts with implementing partners, employees
including public and private sectors where applicable by helping the centre to
identify and agree on performance targets.
To support activities needed for performance improvements, such as research,
training and consultancy monitoring, benchmarking and external audits.
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CHAPTER 2 PURPOSE, STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE
STRATEGIC PLAN

2.0 Purpose

The Strategic Plan outlines the Centres goal, specific objectives, performance
indicators including targets and strategies to be utilised to achieve the goal over a
period of five years starting in 2012.
The plan has been developed to serve the following purposes
Act as a checklist of Centres planned activities and achievement indicators.
Serve as a guide for financial and related resource mobilization.
Serve as a guide for budgeting.
Serve as a recipe for client-oriented vis-a-vis problem-based service delivery.
Facilitate timely broad based project planning, monitoring and evaluation.
Link the Faculty of Environmental Sciences through programmes in IWRM and
ISM with sister Centres and related institutions in Africa and the world at large.

2.1 Planning Framework

The Centre adopted a simple planning framework which can be represented by the
following steps:-
Specify the Centres goals and objectives relative to the mission.
Assess the Centres Organizational Structure and Service Roles.
Identify external influences (challenges and Opportunities).
Evaluate Internal Capacity (technical, financial and managerial).
Analyse Strategic Options for achieving compliance and other goals.
Implement the preferred planning alternative.
Monitor and evaluate outcomes and make adjustments as needed.
The above framework was supported by the Balanced Scorecard that was utilised to
link the Centres long-term strategy with tangible goals and actions. The Balanced
Scorecard provided a framework to translate, the vision, the mission, core values and
strategy to performance objectives and metrics the centre will use to gauge its
success in meeting the overall aims. A set of four measures directly linked to the
Centres strategy were put as follows;-
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a) Financial performance, which was tackled by responding to the question-To
succeed financially, how should the Centre appear to the shareholders?
b) Internal Business Processes, which was tackled by responding to the question-
To satisfy the Centres customers and shareholders, at which business process
must the Centre excel?
c) Learning and Growth, which was tackled by responding to the question-To
achieve the Centres Vision, how will the Centre sustain its ability to change
and improve?
d) Customer Knowledge, which was tackled by responding to the question- To
achieve the Centres Vision, how should the Centre appear to its customers?
From each perspective objectives, measures, targets and initiatives were identified
and set for achievement within the planning period.
Before the application of the Balanced Scorecard was applied situation analysis was
carried out to assess the external and internal factors that have influences in the
Centres business.


2.2 Strengths of the Strategic Plan


The Strategic Plan is an authoritative document for all the operations of the
centre. It represents the considered views and collective expertise of the Centre and
its Management. It therefore stands as a guideline to be followed when outlining
annual business in order to achieve the long-term goal for the planning period.

2.3 Measurement of Performance

The Strategic Plan is a central reference point for defining the Centres goal, specific
objectives and targets that have to be achieved within the five year planning horizon.

2.4 Limitation of the Strategic Plan

The Plan is based on the best information and factors available at the time of
preparation. However, these factors, be they internal or external are subject to
change. Some factors may also emerge or evolve during the planning period and this
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may necessitate some changes in the framework of the Plan. It is because of the same
reasons that the Centre requires a periodic review of certain objectives, policies and
targets. It is also obvious that the objectives and policies are dependent on the
influence of key stakeholders particularly financing partners and the prevailing
economic parameters. Changes in key stakeholders and economic conditions
automatically necessitate the review of the Plan

2.5 Key Assumptions

Some of the Key assumptions used in developing this Strategic Plan were:
Improvements in the macro-economic environment will continue to the
extent that:
1. Interest will be equal to or less than 15%;
2. Average Inflation Rate shall be equal to or less than 12%;
3. The exchange rates will be equal to or less than:
1.0 US$ = MK280.00
1.0 Euro = MK320.00
Current financing partners will still support the centre until it attains
financial independence.
The centre will be a fully fledged consultancy firm in order to achieve
financial independence.
Socio-economic conditions will be will to be favourable over the planning
period such that consultancy services and research works will still be
required by various stakeholders .
Financing partners will be identified to fund the Centres operations and all
planned programmes will be implemented over the planning period.







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CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF MZUZU UNIVERSITY-CENTRE OF
EXCELLENCE IN WATER AND SANITATION

The Centre is an arm of the Department of Water Resources Management and
Development in the Faculty of the Environmental Sciences. The Centre was established in
2010 with the aim of promoting on-site sanitation and water supply through research and
training, focusing on simple but most commonly used appropriate technologies (such as
pit latrines, ecological sanitation, shallow wells and hand pumps) in Malawian
communities. It was established to go out to industries to spearhead applied research,
training, consultancies, outreach programmes in water, sanitation and hygiene
(WASH)sub-sectors realizing that:

Water and sanitation management institutions in Africa are unable to adequately
provide Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services to the present populations or
to maintain service standards because of few trained personnel in the sector.

Accessibility and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are closely linked to
socio-economic development.

Water and Sanitation management institutions in Africa have hitherto overlooked or
neglected the social and psychological aspects of water, sanitation and hygiene
(WASH) services.

Access to portable water remains difficult in many regions particularly for the rural
and urban poor. Furthermore, there are little prospects for distribution systems to
expand quickly to cope with the high population growth rates which characterize
poor communities

Sanitation is one of the Millennium Development Goal targets lagging behind.

Investing in adolescent sanitation and hygiene programmes can break entrenched
cycles of poverty and inequality thus making adolescence become an age of
opportunity.
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Sustainable quality service in water and sanitation sub-sectors heavily relies on strong
public private partnerships.

The Centre was established in 2009. The rationale behind establishment of the Centre
is the recognition that Malawi, just like other nations in the SADC Region and beyond,
needs to urgently address the challenges faced by Implementers of Water and
Sanitation Programmes. To achieve this goal, the nation requires well trained
people who will need expertise in Water and Sanitation Issues as well as in the Social-
economic aspects of water, school sanitation, hygiene and the relationship amongst
sanitation, livelihoods and agricultural production. To this effect, the Centre of
Excellence has been set up to link implementation with research to enable it to
effectively and efficiently produce such expertise. This notwithstanding, Government
is aware of the dire need to solve problems pertaining to the provision of adequate
safe water and sanitation through the Sector Wide Approach (SWAp). Using this
philosophy therefore, the Centre has joined hands with partners including the Malawi
Government through the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Developments SWAp in
one of its seven pillars i.e. institutional development and capacity building which
seeks to address critical shortages of core staff.
The Centre undertakes applied research, and implements its findings in the fields of
water and sanitation and trains men and women how to plan for, provide and maintain
affordable, clean water and sanitation for the benefit of communities in Malawi the
region and beyond.
The Centres Mission is aligned with Mzuzu Universitys: To provide high quality
education, training and research and complementary services to meet the technological,
social and economic needs of individuals and communities in Malawi.
Although the Centre is an independent institution run by the Director, it is
accountable to the University senate and council. The Centre is governed by Mzuzu
University Act and Statutes of 1997. Its financial transactions are governed by
financial regulations of the University and its accounts are subject to both internal and
external audit in line with Public Finance Act, Public Audit Act and Public Procurement
Act.
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The Centres Vision, Mission and core values are outlined below.

The Centres Vision

To be the leading Centre of Excellence in promoting water and Sanitation

The Centres Mission Statement

To improve the effectiveness of water, sanitation and hygiene practices and
interventions serving the poor and vulnerable communities in Malawi, the region
and beyond through high quality applied research, training, consultancies,
outreach programmes, studies and the practical application of research and
findings.

The Centres Core Values

The Centre realizes that the success of its business is hinged on satisfying customer
needs. It also realizes that provision of quality services is paramount to the success of
its business. Accordingly, provision of research, training and consultancies must be
geared towards solving pertinent problems in the societies while at the same time
reducing future costs. Researches shall always produce satisfactory results for the
benefit of the society. Consultancies shall solve critical problems by providing cost
effective, modern and reliable solutions. The trainings shall always produce high
quality personnel that shall handle modern challenges of the societies in the most
amicable way.

In order to uphold this philosophy, we at the Centre believe that:
We have the responsibility to cultivate the best relationships possible with our
co-workers, clients, owners, agents, suppliers and our community. Our members
of Staff shall be Quality and Result driven in a bid to exceed clients
expectations. Adopting the Concept of Empowerment and Engagement, our
members of Staff shall work to a set of Core Values that will underpin our
Mission to achieve our Vision.
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These values will among others include:
Integrity,
Mutual Respect,
Trust,
Fairness,
Innovation,
Pro-activity
Teamwork.


The Centres Strategic Goals and Functional Areas

The Strategic Goals of the Centre are related to its functional areas as follows;

Enhance institutional capacity building in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH).

Create a conducive environment for promoting partnerships with international
implementing partners in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)sectors.

Provide an enabling environment for the establishment of a self-sustaining public
private partnership which will serve as a framework for raising local resources
to solve problems in the water, sanitation and hygiene sectors.

Create an enabling environment for effective social mobilization, research and
dissemination of information in the field of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
from national to grassroot levels in both urban and rural areas.

Enhance the training of adequate numbers of people in Integrated Sanitation
Management (ISM).

Link partners in Integrated Sanitation Management through knowledge transfers
and training of professionals in project management.

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Help mainstreaming HIV/AIDS and Gender related issues in the Water and
Sanitation.

The Centres Strategic Objectives

Based on the Strategic Goals and Functional Areas the Centre has established the
following objectives in the various areas where it operates:-
Training seminars/ Short Courses

The Centre coordinates capacity building programmes in the water, sanitation and
hygiene (WASH) sectors. These capacity building programmes are in form of training
seminars and short courses.

The Centre conducts short courses such as; school sanitation; gender and waste; profit
from waste; solid waste management; business opportunities in waste and training
seminars in urban pit empting and desludging ; low cost drilling options. This activity
targets the urban and rural poor, the Civil Society, City and District Councils,
Government institutions, Water Boards. Private sector, NGOs entrepreneurs,
universities and other tertiary institutions responsible for water sanitation and hygiene
(WASH).

The capacity building programmes are aimed at equipping various key participants
with knowledge in WASH activities and interventions.
Research

Surveys/ laboratory experiments

The Centre carries out research through in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). The
immediate clients are poor communities with special emphasis on those dwelling in
unplanned urban areas (slums) and the rural areas, as well as those living in semi and
peri-urban areas.

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Disaster Preparedness and Management

Various parts of Malawi are prone to various kinds of human induced and natural
disasters. The Centre conducts training, consultancy, research, awareness, risk analysis,
adaptation and intervention in order to establish the frequency and magnitude of the
impacts of each disaster or combinations of the same.

Consultancies

The Centre is part of a web of institutions and organizations working in the water,
sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sectors. To enable it to be efficient and relevant, the
Centre works hand in hand with various teams of experts. Jointly the centre executes
projects and conducts consultancies in Water, sanitation and hygiene in peri urban
and rural areas.

Projects

The Centre supports long term sector-wide projects. Training in waste management,
wetland utilization and nutrient recovery, promotion of food security through
compositing both at municipal and house hold levels, energy recovery from waste
and women empowerment are key areas of emphasis.

International conferences and workshops

The Centre links up with sister institutions by participating in international workshops
and roundtable topical issues in water, sanitation, hygiene and related fields.

Networking, information and documentation

The Centre provides opportunities for networking among various players in the water,
sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector. The network in turn serves as a framework for
the players to improve their knowledge and skills of project management,
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implementation, financing and marketing. Research conferences are organized to
offer a chance for post graduate students, researchers and professionals to present
new findings and exchange ideas on WASH.



























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CHAPTER 4 SITUATION ANALYSIS


In order to understand how the Centre fairs in its business position, it carried out
situation analysis including environmental scan to evaluate factors that are likely to
influence the Centres operations.

4.1 Environmental Scan
During environmental scan the following factors were considered to be key issues in
the remote environmental economy.
a) Trends in society behaviour
b) Demographics
c) Economic Factors
d) Social Factors
e) Ecological Factors
f) Political Factors
g) Technological Factors.

The following were considered to be key issues in the Centres Industrial
environment;-
a) New Entrants in similar business
b) Bargaining Power of Suppliers
c) Substitutes to the Centres Services
d) Bargaining Power of Clients in the Centres Industry
e) Rivalry from other service providers.

The following were key issues in the Centres operating environment.
a) Competitive position
b) Customer profiles and market changes
c) Supplier relationships
d) Creditors
e) Labour Market


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4.2 Stakeholder Analysis

In order to analyse the challenges and pressures that the Centre faces from outside it
carried out stakeholder analysis. The following were noted to have key influence on
the Centres operations;

(a) Malawi Government

The Malawi Government has profound influence over the operations of Mzuzu
University. The Centre is a subset of Mzuzu University. The Government is a major
client for research activities as well as consultancies. At the same time the Government
plays a role in quality control of all operations of the university to which the Centre is
a subset.

Customers

The Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation exists because of customers. In
general all customers expect high quality services at reasonable costs. It is
everybodys expectation to pay for the value of money. Customers need to be treated
with utmost care in order to generate their confidence in the Centre. It is the
customer confidence and trust that can induce more people to get connected and use
more of the Centres services. All clients in research, training programs and
consultancies are the Centres Customers.

(c) Suppliers, Contractors and Specialized Consultants

The Centre depends on these people for the supply of raw materials like chemicals for
water treatment, specialized services etc. These people also provide proposals for
services, new equipment, new technology etc. Their interest is to make profits out of
their services. Sometimes they use illegal techniques to generate profits. It is
important to follow correct procedures of procurement in order to get the value of
money from this group and to ensure total quality management.

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(d) Regulators (Water, Sanitation, Health, Hygiene and Environment)

Legislation regarding the provision of water and sanitation services, protection of
health and the environment is generally adopted by the government in day to day life.
However, it is important to note that regulators impose tough standards that need an
input of more resources to cope with. Regulators have powers to revoke the license of
fake service providers and even to prosecute them when there is need. Just like the
Government, regulators are mandated to protect the interest of the public thus
making sure that customers get the value of their money. This calls for efficiency in
service delivery and compliance on the part of the Centre.

(e) Media
The influence of the media is on awareness campaigns regarding all WASH processes
and procedures and any other message that customers must get as urgently as
possible. The media may also have a negative impact by airing incorrect and
unbalanced message to customers and other stakeholders.

(f)Local community-based organisations

These organisations work closely with communities lacking essential services in Water
and Sanitation. They provide valuable local knowledge, but are the least able to pay
for vital services. As a priority the Centre seeks grant funding to be able to provide
services to such local organisations as cost effectively as possible. The CBOs are
important to the Centre not only as potential (grant-supported) customers but also
because they provide the much required interface and regular feedback, from the
field.
(g)Schools and slum dwellers

At the close of 2010, the Centre facilitated training workshops such as Incentivizing
Small scale Entrepreneurs for Sustainable School Sanitation and Profit from Waste.
The Centre plans to share lessons learnt from these workshops with other countries at
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regional conferences. This Strategic plan is developed to enhance the Centres
capacity to maintain leadership role in the niche areas.
(h)Local and national government agencies

Within Malawi the Centre has the support of the Ministry of Irrigation and Water
Development. It has already built a close professional and contracting relationship
with the water boards especially the Northern Region Water Board, Blantyre Water
Board and Lilongwe Water Board over and above the Ministry of Local Government
and Rural Development, town and city councils and other parastatal organizations. At
the regional level the Centre is constantly in touch with WaterNet, which provides a
valuable interface with potential customers within the SADC region.

(i)International Development Organizations

A number of international development partners, universities and research institutes
continues to express interest in collaborating and partnering with the Centre. These
institutions include; Emory University and its partners the Centre for Global Safe
Water and the Centre for Disease Control (CDC),London School for Hygiene and
Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) ,University Eduardo Mondale in Maputo, Mozambique.,
WASTE, (Netherlands), Water Aid, Water for People, WEDC, Pump AID

(j)International Donors

The Centre seeks support from bilateral and multilateral donors for
implementation of research and development projects. The Centre will
endeavor to be accountable and transparent in the management of resources
both internally generated and from supporting partners.

(k) Other Partners and Stakeholders

Water, Sanitation and hygiene are of interest to a wide range of Non Governmental
organizations particularly the business community both local and
international/corporate - and the financial community. Unclean water, poor sanitation
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and poor hygiene affect employees, and, therefore, performance is hindered. In the
agricultural sector, the utilization of human waste as a partial replacement for
synthetic fertilizers is gaining interest as prices for such farm inputs keep souring. In
the financial sector, the provision of water is seen as the responsibility of
governments, while individual households are required to invest in their sanitation and
hygiene facilities. In 2010, a snap survey had shown that in Blantyre Low Income Areas
(LIAs) alone there is a demand for over 100,000 improved latrines at an average cost
of US$250 each. This requires (commercial) financing of US$25 million. Naturally,
other municipal, town and rural settlements demand similar services. In order to assist
relevant authorities to fast track the process of rolling out to all corners of the country,
the Centre has embarked on the process of building relationship with the business
and financial sectors.

(l) Members of Staff

Staff members generally need adequate pay, good working conditions, job security,
training and motivation. The success of the Centre is dependent on commitment of
staff members to carry out specific tasks and meet required targets. If members of
staff are not motivated, business success is impossible.

(m) Management

In this case Management refers to CMT members only. These have an influence in
decision making that guide the direction of the Centre. Being employees they also
need good pay and other issues as outlined under staff. However, it takes
management decision to change the Centres direction in terms of vision and mission
including core values. The Centre requires dynamic leadership that can cope with the
challenges of the fast changing business environment, the research requirements of
the modern world and technology.

4.3 Institutional Systems and Structures

Human resource

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Apart from deploying existing staff the Centre is strategically located within the
University to tap human resource expertise from existing departments within the
university in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) related fields.

Assets and resources

The Centre has office space in a two self contained D-8 houses. The offices are
capable of housing four desk top computers, a laptop computer, two universal power
suppliers (Ups), one heavy duty photocopier, four executive office tables and chairs, a
movable ground phone receiver and an internet router.

In the five-year span covered by this strategic plan, the Centre with the available
office space will in future house a documentation unit. Currently the Centre has full
access to facilities within the university such as laboratories in the departments of
Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Forestry, and Energy.

With the ever increasing activities at the Centre and in other departments the Centre
plans to establish a specialized laboratory that can ably allow research in water,
sanitation and hygiene (WASH)


4.4 Strategic Analysis of Internal Operating Environment (SWOT Analysis)

Just like any other institution, the future of the Centre of Excellence in Water
and Sanitation is centred on the maximum utilization of the observed and
potential strengths and opportunities at the same time as keeping weaknesses
and threats at the barest minimum. It is in this spirit that the tabulated SWOT
analysis hereunder is made.


To summarise both the internal and the external environment that affect the Centre of
Excellence in Water and Sanitations operation SWOT analysis was carried out. Before
looking at specifically strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), the
following were noted to be challenges for the Centre;
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Rising Operational and investment costs for Water and Sanitation Projects.
Technology that is becoming absolute with time.
Increasingly stringent regulatory requirements in the provision of water and
sanitation services.
Population changes that directly influences water and sanitation demand and
the haphazard development pattern for the peri-urban and rural areas..
Centre workforce that is either on short term contract or on adjunct with the
Department of Water Resources Management and Development.
Competition from sellers of bottled water.
Increased data requirements for accurate modeling of both physical and
financial indicators.
Increased performance targets at international level.
Lack of asset management and operational (including maintenance) plan for
Centre Assets..
Diminishing resources that can be exploited at reasonable cost.
Rising service expectations of customers.

4.4.1 Strengths

The Centre has:
Available within its water supply environment relatively adequate raw water
sources to enable it meet its short to mid-term water supply demand. However,
this source cannot sustain the growing demand beyond 2012 as highlighted in
the demand projection.
A good combination of highly educated, knowledgeable, innovative and skilled
employees.
Well documented planning and management tools, through the five year
Strategic Plan, which set out a clear Vision, Mission Statement, Core Values,
Objectives, Strategies, and Performance targets for long, medium and short
terms.
Relatively better conditions of service for its employees that enables it to recruit
and retain them.
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Some of the infrastructures are fairly in good condition, which translates into
efficient operational levels.
Relatively cordial relationship between staff and management through the
existing trade union and the Departmental Hierarchy.
Stable and relatively good relationships with partners, which can ascertain its
financial viability, hence enable it meet its day to day operational, asset
replacement and small investment costs.
Good linkages with most of its stakeholders, such as Banks, Government
Ministries/Departments, lending Institutions
Built good partnerships with other key stakeholders in the preservation,
protection and management of the catchment areas.
Good policies (HIV and AIDS, Terms and Conditions of Employment, etc).

4.4.2 Weaknesses.

The Centre has identified the following as areas of
Weaknesses:
Poor corporate culture and lack of patriotism.
Laissez faire attitude towards work.
Miss-allocation and mistreatment of skilled people.
Inconsistency and biasness in implementing policies e.g. rewarding systems.
Existence of a silo culture i.e. there is need to promote intersectional
relationships.
Lack of teamwork and spirit.


4.4.3 Opportunities

The Centre considers taking advantage of the following opportunities in order to
accomplish its goal and objectives:
The monopolistic nature of the Business. The Cenre has few competitors in the
business of conducting research, training and consultancy in water and
sanitation in its operating area. It takes advantage of Mzuzu University that was
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instituted under an act of parliament thereby making similar operators illegal in
this area.
The nature of the service is essential such that no one can do without it.
There is plenty of room for expanding the service to all needy groups.
There is support from donors as well as the Government.
There is availability of training institutions in relevant disciplines that can be
utilized to build the capacity of the Centre.
There is available on the market technology which can enable the Centre deliver
efficient and high quality services.
There is potential to go into further partnership with other organizations that
can assist in service delivery.
Governments recognition of water and sanitation as focus areas in the MGDS.

4.4.4 Threats

No business venture operates without any challenges. Some of the issues that could be
singled as key challenges or huddles affecting the operations of the Centre of
Excellence are:

Rising operating costs due to micro-economic instability, rising cost of inputs.
Service charges are sometimes much less than the required full cost recovery
rate or less than what can be offered to individual consultants.
Negative impact of HIV and AIDS, leading to loss of productive time, employees
and high staff welfare costs.
The inability of the Water Resources Board to enforce its bye-laws.
Existence of conflicting policies and legal instruments.
The prevalence of HIV and AIDS.
Viruses that corrupt computers.
Unpredictable weather patterns which are due to global warming can sometimes
affect research work.
Some research work may demand materials from outside the country which may
be affected by devaluation of the Malawi Kwacha and availability of forex.
Fuel shortages are a challenge to the operations of the Centre.
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The information given above has been summarized in the following tables.







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4.4.1: Summary of SWOT analysis of the Operating internal environment
Strengths Weakness
Qualified staff: the Centre of Excellence has eight well
qualified staff. The staff is capable of handling programmes
and activities ably. A rich pool of expertise in academic
departments on which the Centre can fall back
The seven man staff team is composed partly of full time
lecturers in Mzuzu University (five) and partly of external
staff (3) engage in non-governmental organizations as full
time personnel.
Physical resources: the Centre of Excellence has access to
Mzuzu University facilities and resources including the
Library and Resource Centre, electricity, water and an office
block.
Physical resources: inadequate office space.
Autonomy: the Centre of Excellence is an autonomous
coordinating, monitoring and evaluation unit.
Activity specific donor funding: the Centre of Excellence is
largely run through activity specific donor funds.
Availability of a business plan: the Centre of Excellence has a
clearly laid out business plan which guides the units
management and income generation



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4.4.2: Summary of SWOT analysis of the external operating environment

Opportunities Threats
Heightened interest of strategic partners: the Centre of
Excellence has many strategic partners in the WASH sector.
The central partners include national and international
NGOs, donors and civil society organizations.
HIV/AIDS: though staff in the Centre of Excellence is still
thin; the potential threat posed by the HIV/AIDS pandemic
cannot be overlooked. The absence of an HIV/AIDS work
policy needs to be addressed.
Availability of policy guidelines: the Centre of Excellence is
guided by appropriate government policies. They include
the national water policy, the national sanitation policy,
school health and nutrition guidelines and school water,
sanitation and hygiene guidelines
Other training institutions: the Centre of Excellence is likely
to face competition from established and emerging training
and research institution in the WASH sector.
New Centre: the Centre of Excellence is a new unit. There
are many prospects for identifying and experimenting on
modes of operation deployed by existing units of its kind.
Time constraints: the skeleton staff in Centre of Excellence is
frequently overstretched.

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Lack of mechanism for monitoring, feedback and
evaluation.
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4.4.3: Summary of SWOT analysis of the external operating environment

Opportunities


Threats
Availability of market: There is a vast market for the
Watsan Centres services. There are many NGOs CBOs
and public / private providers in WASH which require
technical support.
High possibility for overlaps: The possibility of overlaps in
service delivery in the WASH sector is high because of the
absence of coordination among them.
Limited opportunities for face to face education: Limited
opportunities for face to face education in Malawi and
Africa in general can be taken advantage of by Watsan
Centre to produce Open and Distance Learning resources
especially in gender.

Limited reliable data collection tools especially in health
related development goals.
Donor confidence: the Watsan Centre has donor
confidence as evidenced by willingness of international and
national externally funded partners to work with it.
Absence of governments subvention to assist the centre in
the running of WASH activities.



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CHAPTER 5 ESTABLISHMENT OF BALANCED SCORECARDS


5.1 Rationale for strategic planning and analysis of key strategic issues

This strategic plan (2012 2016) is intended to equip the Centre of Excellence to contribute to
the fulfilment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Malawi Growth and
Development Strategy (MGDS)targets on water and sanitation. The strategic plan provides a
road map setting the direction and pace of the Centre for the next five years and paves the way
for the period beyond in a coordinated and focused manner. The strategic plan also seeks to
address challenges and opportunities in the water and sanitation sector whilst adhering to
realizing the Centres Vision, Mission, Aims and Objectives.

5.2 Meeting the challenges of the Millennium Development Goals

The Centre is mandated to contribute to the achievement of MDGs and MGDS. In order to
remain focused, this strategic plan has synchronized MDGs with MGDS. The box below singles
out MDGs/MGDS and puts them in context for the purpose of this strategic plan.

MDG 1 / MGDS1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger through the promotion of food
security using compost manures, high nutrient waste from industrial plants and Ecosan
facilities.

MDG 2 / MGDS 2: Achieve universal primary education through the provision of
adequate water, sanitation and hygiene.

MDG 3 / MGDS 7: Promotion of gender equality and empowerment women through
equitable enrolment ratios, equitable share of women wage earners and in income
generating agencies.

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MDG 4 / MGDS 6: Reduce child mortality rates by reducing water-borne infections by
promoting the goals of the national sanitation policy and the National water policy


5.3 Past Experience on Research, Trainings and Consultancies


The Centre carried out trainings in conjunction with other partners in the past. Some of
these trainings are still needed. As such the Centre still puts them on the agenda but
with modified target groups. In 2011 the Centre conducted training on Ecological Urban
Agriculture. This training program is still on the agenda for 2012 and the other coming
years. In like manner there are several other trainings on the agenda.

The tables below show summaries of objectives, strategies, targets and results generated
from the balanced scorecard. It should be noted that because of the nature of business
all aspects of the balanced scorecard fall with research, training and consultancies.
However, there is need to incorporate issues related to capacity development of the
Centre Team.

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Annex 1: Strategic outcomes, outputs and targets
Strategic Outcome 1: Build capacity in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
Output description

2012 2013

2014

2015

2016
TRAINING
Output 1

Training
programme at
certificate,
diploma and
degree levels in
IWRM and ISM
operational

Development of
curriculum at
certificate, diploma
and degree levels
in IWRM and ISM

Development of
curriculum at
certificate,
diploma and
degree levels in
IWRM and ISM

Development of
curriculum at MSc
degree levels in
IWRM and ISM

Development of
curriculum at
MSc degree
levels in IWRM
and ISM

Output 2

Short course in
Water and
Sanitation as a
Business
3 short courses in
Water and
Sanitation as a
Business targeting
30 participants
each
-3 short courses
in Water and
Sanitation as a
Business
targeting 30
participants each
-Evaluation of
the course

Output 3

Short course in
Urban Sanitation
Management, Pit
Emptying/Sludge
Treatment

Short courses for
30 participants
each course

-Short courses
for 30
participants each
course -
Evaluation of the
course

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Output 4

Short course in
Groundwater
Management,
Hand drilling,
Drilling, O&M of
Water Supply and
Network,
Rainwater
Harvesting



-1 Short course
covering 20
participates each
course
-Evaluation



Output 5 Short Course in
Ecological
Sanitation
-1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
-Evaluation

Output 6 Short Course in
Solid Waste
Management
2 Courses
targeting 30
participants each
course

2 Courses
targeting 30
participants each
course
-Evaluation

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Output 7 Short Course in
Energy from
Waste
1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course

1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
-Evaluation

Output 8 Short Course in
Rainwater
Harvesting
1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course

1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
-Evaluation

Output 9 Short Course in
operation of
piped water
supply schemes
as a mini water
boards in rural
areas, market
centres and Low
Income Areas
(LIAs)
1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course

1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course


Output 10 Short Course in
Water Users
Association
(WUA)
Management
1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course

1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course
-

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Output 11 Short Course in
GIS Municipal
Waterworks
1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course

Output 13 Short Course in
Network
modeling for
Municipal
Waterworks
1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course

1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course
-Evaluation

Output 14 Short Course in
mini waterworks
operations
1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course
-Evaluation

Output 15 Short Course in
IWRM
1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course

1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
-Evaluation
Output 16 Short Course in
Sanitation
Marketing
1Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
1 Course targeting
30 participants
each course

1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
1 Course
targeting 30
participants each
course
-Evaluation

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Strategic outcome 2: Establish strong public private partnership in WASH



Output
description
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Output 1 Terms of
reference
for
partnerships
Strategic
partnerships in
WASH identified
1 Consultation
workshops
conducted.

2 joint public
awareness
rallies in WASH
conducted.
4 joint public
awareness
rallies in WASH
conducted
1 review
workshop
conducted
1 review workshop conducted
Output 2


Terms of
reference
for
partnerships
drawn
Strategic
partnership in
WASH identified
2 fundraising
activities
conducted
2 fundraising
activities
conducted
2 fundraising
activities
conducted
2 fundraising activities
conducted
Output 3 Terms of
reference
for an
international
workshop
on
partnerships
drawn
Terms of
reference for an
international
workshop on
partnerships
drawn
Terms of
reference for an
international
workshop on
partnerships
drawn
International
workshop on
public private
partnership
conducted
International
workshop on
public private
partnership
conducted
International workshop on
public private partnership
conducted

Strategic Outcome 3: Produce a framework for community mobilization in WASH
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Output
description
2012 2013 2014 2015 2015
Output Database in
WASH.
2 Consultation
workshops
conducted
Community
mobilization
tool
produced
Community
mobilization
tool tested
Community
mobilization
activities
conducted
Community mobilization tool
reviewed
Strategic
outcome 4
Build Watsan Centre capacity in action research in WASH
Output Action
research
2 consultancies,
workshops
conducted
Action
research tool
produced
Call for
proposals /
papers
2 round table
conferences
2 round table conferences held
Strategic
outcome 5
Build Watsan Centre capacity in project management
Output 1 Project
management
guidelines
drawn
2 consultation
workshops
conducted
Project
management
guidelines
drafted
Project
management
guidelines
tested
3 projects
conducted
3 projects conducted
Output 2 Consultancy
work on
project
management
carried out
2 consultation
workshops
conducted
Project
management
guidelines
drafted
Project
management
guidelines
tested
2 consultancies
in project
management
conducted
2 consultancies in project
management conducted


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Strategic outcome 6: Strengthen links with strategic partners in WASH

Output
description
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Output 1 Strong link
with national
partners in
WASH
established
Terms of
reference for
national link
drawn
2 stakeholders
consultation
conferences
held
2 joint
projects in
WASH carried
out
2 joint projects
in WASH carried
out
Project review workshop
conducted
Output 2 Strong link
with
international
partners in
WASH
established
Strong link with
international
partners in
WASH
established
Strong link with
international
partners in
WASH
established
Strong link
with
international
partners in
WASH
established
Strong link with
international
partners in
WASH
established
Strong link with international
partners in WASH established
Output 3 Existing
partnerships
strengthened
Review terms of
reference for
existing
partnerships
2 consultation
workshops with
existing
partners
conducted
4 joint Open
days in WASH
carried out
4 joint Open
days in WASH
carried out
2 joint Open days in WASH
carried out.
1 review workshop on joint
activities.

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Strategic outcome 7: Improved networks, partnerships and collaboration with partners

Output description 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Output 1 Stakeholder
partnerships
strengthened
Formal
partnerships
established with
at least 10
stakeholders in
joint awareness
activities
9 joint
programmes
developed, 3
awareness
campaigns
9 consultative
meetings, 9
public
awareness
campaigns
9 consultative
meetings, 9
public
awareness
campaigns
Stakeholder review workshop
conducted.
Output 2 Awareness
campaigns
and messages
jointly
developed
6 consultative
meeting.

6 publications
made
6
consultative
meetings.
6
publications
made
6 consultative
meetings.

6 publications
made.
6 consultative
meetings.

6 publications
made.
6 consultative meetings,


6 publications made
Output 3 Dissemination
of information
systems and
processes
improved
3 programmes
produced (TV
and Radio)
3
programmes
produced
(TV and
Radio)
3 programmes
produced (TV
and Radio)
3 programmes
produced (TV
and Radio)
3 programmes produced
(TV and Radio)

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Strategic outcome 8: Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS issues

Target 8.1 70% reduction in HIV /AIDS related deaths by 2016
8.2 90% of eradication of stigma against HIV positive persons
Output description 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Output 1
Workplace
policy
drafted
Workplace policy
developed, 3
meetings
conducted ,
3workshopd

3 meetings
3
workshops
conducted


3 meetings 3
workshops
conducted

3 meetings 3
workshops
conducted



3 meetings 3 workshops
conducted

Output 2

Members of
staff trained
on HIV /
AIDS basic
factors and
home based
care (HBC)
All members of
staff trained on
HIV / AIDS basic
factors
3 meetings
3
workshops
3 meetings 3
workshops
3 meetings 3
workshops
3 meetings 3 workshops
Output 3 Members of
staff
sensitizing
on
discriminati
on and
stigma
Stigma reduction
raining
conducted for all
members of staff
2 awareness
campaigns
conducted
2 awareness
campaigns
conducted
2 awareness
campaigns
conducted
2 awareness campaigns
conducted

Strategic outcome 9: Increased Applied Research

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Output description 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Output 1 Applied
Research
Proposals on
Water
Developed
2 Applied
research
proposals
developed
5 research
proposals
developed
5 research
proposals
developed
5 research
proposals
developed
5 research proposals developed
Output 2 Applied
Research
Proposals on
Sanitation and
Hygiene
Developed
1 Applied
research
proposals
developed
2 research
proposals
developed
3 research
proposals
developed
5 research
proposals
developed
5 research proposals developed

Strategic outcome 10: Accelerated Consultancy Services

Output description 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Output 1 Consultancy
Proposals on
Water &
Sanitation
Developed
2 Proposals
Developed
5 Proposals
Developed
5 Proposals
Developed
5 Proposals
Developed
5 Proposals Developed







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Annex 2: Implementation plan

Goal 1 Improve institutional capacity in water services, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)

Target 1 100 students trained in water, sanitation and hygiene subsectors
Task Responsibility Measurement Commencement Duration Risk
Enroll
students
Mzuzu
University
Department of
Water and
Sanitation
Selection
records
September 2012 4 years Student accommodation
teaching space
Teaching / learning resources
Target 2 Conduct short courses in WASH
Watsan
Centre of
Excellence
reports January 2012 5 years Time
constraints
late
disbursement
of funds
Conduct short courses in
WASH
Target 3
Produce a
project tool/
instrument.

Monitoring
and
evaluation
Centre of
Excellence
A monitoring
and
evaluation
instrument
July 2012 1 month Late disbursement of donor
funds
Conduct
project
monitoring
and evaluation
Instrument
project
monitoring
and
Centre of
Excellence
Quarterly
project
monitoring
and
January 2013 1 week No risk
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evaluation evaluation
reports
Target 5 Produce an
annual
programmed
review
Centre of
Excellence
Annual review
report
January 2013 1 week No risk


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Goal 2

Produce a framework for community mobilization in WASH

Targets Task Responsibility Measurement Commencement Duration Risk

Target 1
Produce a
data base in
WASH

Centre of
Excellence
A computer
programme
for database
production
March 2012 1 month No risk

Target 2
Build Watsan
Centre of
Excellence
capacity in
action
research
Centre of
Excellence
Al members of
staff trained in
action
research
November 2012 1 week No risk
Target 3 Coordinate
action
research
Centre of
Excellence
Research
dissemination
conferences
January, 2015 1 week No risk
Target 4 Produce a
project
management
instrument
Centre of
Excellence
A project
management
instrument
July, 2012 1 month No risk




Goal 3


Improve networks, partnerships and collaboration with partners in WASH
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Targets Task Responsibility Measurement Commencement Duration Risk
Target 1 Establish
formal
stakeholder
partnership in
WASH
Centre of
Excellence
A Memorandum
of
Understanding
with
stakeholders
WASH signed
January, 2012 12 months





No risk
Target 2 Produce
awareness
campaign in
WASH
materials
Centre of
Excellence

WASH
awareness
campaign
materials
July, 2013 6 months No risk
Target 3 Conduct joint
awareness
campaigns in
WASH
Centre of
Excellence
Joint awareness
campaign
materials
January, 2013 1 week No risk
Target 4 4 consultancies
in project
planning,
monitoring and
evaluation
Centre of
Excellence
Reports on
consultancies
August 2013 Variable No risks
Target 5 Carry out
consultancy
work in project
planning,
monitoring and
Centre of
Excellence
Reports May 2012 8 m0nths No risk
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evaluation


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Goal 4 Create an enabling environment for the promotion of partnership in WASH
Target 1 Stakeholder consultation conferences
Task Responsibility Measurement Commencement
date
Duration Risks
Organize
stakeholder
consultation
conferences
Centre of Excellence Quarterly reports August 2012 On going No risk
Organize
stakeholder
consultation
conferences
Centre of Excellence Quarterly reports November 2012 On going No risk
Organize
stakeholder
consultation
conferences
Centre of Excellence Quarterly project
reports
December, 2012 2 weeks No risks


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Goal Main stream HIV/AIDS and TB issues
Target 1 Production of an HIV/AIDS and TB work place policy
Task Responsibility measurement Commencement date Duration risks
Produce a work
place HIV/AIDS
and TB policy
National AIDS
commission
A work place March 2013 2 weeks per
session
No risks


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Target 2 All members of staff in the Watsan Centre and strategic partners
Task Responsibility Measurement Commencement
date
Duration Risks
Conduct training in
HIV/AIDS and TB
National AIDS
commission
Quarterly training
workshops
May 2013 1 week No risks
Target 3 All members of staff in the Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation and Strategic partner organisation
sensitized on eradication of stigma and discrimination
Task Responsibility Measurement Commencement
date
Duration Risks
Conduct sensitization
campaigns on stigma
and discrimination
National Aids
commission
discrimination
Half yearly
sensitization
campaigns
October 2013 1 week per session No risks


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Target 4 Build the capacity of CBOS and communities on income generation
Tasks Responsibility Measurement Commencement
date
Duration Risks
Produce training
materials on the
waste economy
Centre of Excellence,
National AIDS
Commission, Ministry of
Water Development,
MoLG and RD
Training manuals March 2013 2 months No risks
Train CBOs and
communities on the
waste economy
Centre of Excellence,
National AIDS
Commission, Ministry of
Water Development,
MoLG and RD
1, 500 people in
CBOs and
communities
trained on income
generation waste
September 2013 1 week per session No risks

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Target 5 Establishment of full documentation unit (DU) in the Watsan Centre.
Tasks Responsibility Measurement Commencement
date
Duration Risks
Recruit staff Mzuzu University
Department of Water
Resources Management
and Development
Staff recruited July 2012 6 months Limited funding

Orient staff on
IWRM and ISM

Centre of Excellence and
partners

All staff in the DU
oriented

January, 2013

1 week

Limited funding
Organize study
tours
Centre of Excellence
and partners
All staff in the DU
participate in study
tours
May 2013 1 week per study
tour
Limited funding
Organize staff-led
seminars
Documentation unit All staff in the DU
participate in study
tours
May 2013 1 day per session No risks
















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Goal 5 Personnel Growth and Development for Centre of Excellence Members of Staff
Target 6 Training of Members of Staff
Tasks Responsibility Measurement Commencement
date
Duration Risks
Identify Training
Programs for
Members of Staff
Centre of Excellence in
Water and Sanitation
Training Programs
identified
July 2012 2 years Limited Scope of
Training

Identify
Scholarships for the
Training Programs
identified above

Centre of Excellence and
Partners

Members of Staff
sent on training

July 2012

continuous

Limited number of
scholarships and
conditions attached
to the scholarships
Identify short
courses organised
by partners
Centre of Excellence in
Water and Sanitation
Members of staff
attend short
course trainings
July 2012 Continuous Limited funding for
tuition fees and
allowances
Identify specialised
training programs
for individual
requirements
Centre of Excellence in
Water and Sanitation
Members of staff
attend specialised
training courses
July 2012 Continuous Limited number of
scholarships.
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CHAPTER 6 MONITORING, EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE
MEASURES

6.1 General

So far the Strategic Plan has established the Centres mission, vision, core
values, long-term goal, objectives in functional areas and critical gaps that
exist in the system. It has also established the key functional areas including
strategies for enhancing performance. The plan has come up with investment
strategy aimed at improving the Centres performance including the
implementation schedule. However, the improvement processes need to be
monitored and evaluated to ensure that they keep the Centre on track
towards achieving its objectives and indeed the long-term goal.

Monitoring is a continuous function that aims at providing management and
other stakeholders with early indicators of progress or lack thereof in
achieving results of a project or program under implementation. On the
other hand Evaluation is a selective exercise that attempts to systematically
and objectively assess progress towards and the achievement of an outcome.
Monitoring and Evaluation help to improve performance and achieve results.
Without Monitoring and Evaluation, it would be impossible to judge if work
was going in the right direction, whether progress and success could be
claimed and how future efforts might be improved.

Nowadays there is a shift from traditional monitoring and evaluation to
result-based monitoring and evaluation. This implies that instead of focusing
on results only the functions extend to assessing the whole progress towards
achieving the goal i.e. assessing the impacts of outcomes from results as
well. For monitoring to be carried out successfully there is need to establish
Key Performance Indicators. For evaluation to be carried out there is need to
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50

set targets of impacts as well as resource utilisation which are compared to
the status of Key Performance Indicators.

Performance indicators are measures of efficiency and effectiveness of the
Centre with regard to specific aspects of the Centres activities and of the
systems behaviour. Efficiency is a measure of the extent to which the
resources of the Centre are utilised optimally to produce the service.
Effectiveness is a measure of the extent to which the targeted objectives are
achieved.
The Centres performance indicators must be in line with the global system
which requires that performance indicators must:
Represent all relevant aspects of the utility performance, allowing for
a global representation of the system by reduced number of
indicators.
Be suitable for representing those aspects in a true and unbiased
way.
Reflect the results of the managing activity of the undertaking.
Be clearly defined, with a concise meaning and a unique
interpretation for each indicator.
Include only non overlapping performance indicators.
Require only measuring equipment that targeted utilities can afford.
Be verifiable which is especially important when the performance
indicators are to be used by regulating entities that may need to
check the results reported.
Be easy to understand even by non specialists-particularly by
customers.
Refer to a certain period of time e.g. 1 year.
Refer to a well - limited geographic area.
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Be applicable to utilities with different characteristics and stages of
development.
Be as few as possible, avoiding the inclusion of non essential aspects.

The potential benefits of a well-devised system of performance indicators are
as follows;
Facilitates better quality and more timely response from
management.
Allows for an easier monitoring of the effects of management
decisions.
Provides key information that supports a pro-active approach to
management, with less reliance on apparent system mal-functions
(reactive approach)
Highlights strengths and weaknesses of the departments, identifying
the need for corrective measures to improve productivity, procedures,
and routines.
Assists with implementation of Total Quality Management regime, as
a way of emphasizing all-round quality and efficiency throughout the
organization.
Facilitates the implementation of benchmarking routines, both
internally, for comparing the performance at different locations or
systems, and externally, for comparison with other similar entities,
thus promoting performance improvements.
Provides a sound technical basis for auditing the organizations
workings and predicting the effect of any recommendations made as
a result of an audit.
Adopting the Balanced Scorecard approach of measuring performance for
the Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation, it demands cascading the
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mission outputs or outcomes to the four perspectives, with Financial
Perspective at the base, followed by Employee Learning and Growth, and
then Internal Processes and finally Customer Satisfaction.

6.2 Performance Indicators

Several organisations developed performance indicators on water
supply and sanitation worldwide. Some of the organisations include
the World Bank, African Development Bank, European Investment
Bank, the Water Utility Partnership for Capacity Building in Africa and
International Water Association etc just to mention a few. However,
these performance indicators are based on the core business of
individual institutions. The core business on the Centre of Excellence
in Water and Sanitation is found in the Mission Statement. The Centre
undertakes applied research, and implements its findings in the fields
of water and sanitation and trains men and women how to plan for,
provide and maintain affordable, clean water and sanitation for the
benefit of communities in Malawi the region and beyond. In this regard
the key performance indicators are linked to the number of trainings
offered, the number of participants in each course offered, the
activities the participants are involved in after attending the training,
the impact of the activities, the number o consultancies offered in a
quarter of the year and the number of research carried out in a
quarter.
6.3 Evaluation of Results
The Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation shall evaluate not
just the results of the activities carried out, but it shall also evaluated
the effects and impacts according to the information available during
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baseline survey which shall form benchmarks for reference.