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Title: An Icelandic Primer With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary Author: Henry Sweet Release Date: April, 2004 [EBook #5424] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on July 14, 2002] Edition: 10 Language: English Character set encoding: Unicode UTF-8 *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ICELANDIC PRIMER ***

An Icelandic Primer
With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary By Henry Sweet, M.A. Second Edition 1895 Image files scanned in by Sean Crist <>


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet OCRed and reformatted for Project Gutenberg by Ben Crowder <> Note: This etext is encoded in UTF-8 (Unicode). If it looks garbled to you, that's why. :) Preface The want of a short and easy introduction to the study of Icelandic has been felt for a long time--in fact, from the very beginning of that study in England. The Icelandic Reader, edited by Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell, in the Clarendon Press Series, is a most valuable book, which ought to be in the hands of every student; but it still leaves room for an elementary primer. As the engagements of the editors of the Reader would have made it impossible for them to undertake such a work for some years to come, they raised no objections to my proposal to undertake it myself. Meanwhile, I found the task was a more formidable one than I had anticipated, and accordingly, before definitely committing myself to it, I made one final attempt to induce Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell to take it off my hands; but they very kindly encouraged me to proceed with it; and as I myself thought that an Icelandic primer, on the lines of my Anglo-Saxon one, might perhaps be the means of inducing some students of Old English to take up Icelandic as well, I determined to go on. In the spelling I have not thought it necessary to adhere strictly to that adopted in the Reader, for the editors have themselves deviated from it in their Corpus Poeticum Boreale, in the way of separating Ç« from ö, etc. My own principle has been to deviate as little as possible from the traditional spelling followed in normalized texts. There is, indeed, no practical gain for the beginner in writing tÄ«me for tÄ«mi, discarding ð, etc., although these changes certainly bring us nearer the oldest MSS., and cannot be dispensed with in scientific works. The essential thing for the beginner is to have regular forms presented to him, to the exclusion, as far as possible, of isolated archaisms, and to have the defective distinctions of the MSS. supplemented by diacritics. I have not hesitated to substitute (¯) for (´) as the mark of length; the latter ought in my opinion to be used exclusively--in Icelandic as well as in Old English and Old Irish--to represent the actual accents of the MSS. In the grammar I have to acknowledge my great obligations to Noreen's Altisländische Grammatik, which is by far the best Icelandic grammar that has yet appeared--at least from that narrow point of view which ignores syntax, and concentrates itself on phonology and inflections. The texts are intended to be as easy, interesting, and representative as possible. With such a language, and such a master of it as Snorri to choose from, this combination is not difficult to realise. The beginner is indeed to be envied who makes his first acquaintance with the splendid mythological tales of the North, told in an absolutely perfect style. As the death of Olaf Tryggvason is given in the Reader only from the longer recension of the Heimskringla, I have been able to give the shorter text, which is admirably suited for the purposes of this book. The story of Auðun is not only a beautiful one in itself, but, together with the preceding piece, gives a vivid idea of the Norse ideal of the kingly character, which was the foundation of their whole political system. As the Reader does not include poetry (except incidentally), I have added one of the finest of the Eddaic poems, which is at the same time freest from obscurity and corruption--the song of Thor's quest of his hammer. In the glossary I have ventured to deviate from the very inconvenient Scandinavian arrangement, which puts þ, æ, Å, right at the end of the alphabet. I have to acknowledge the great help I have had in preparing the texts and the glossary from Wimmer's Oldnordisk Læsebog, which I consider to be, on the whole, the best reading-book that exists in any language. So excellent is Wimmer's selection of texts, that it was impossible for me to do otherwise than follow him in nearly every case.


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet In conclusion, it is almost superfluous to say that this book makes no pretension to originality of any kind. If it contributes towards restoring to Englishmen that precious heritage--the old language and literature of Iceland--which our miserably narrow scheme of education has hitherto defrauded them of, it will have fulfilled its purpose. HENRY SWEET London, February, 1886 Contents Grammar Texts I. Thor II. Thor and Utgarðaloki III. Balder IV. Death of Balder V. HÄðinn and HÇ«gni VI. Death of Olaf Tryggvason VII. Auðun VIII. Ãrymskviða Notes Glossary Proper Names Grammar 1. This book deals with Old Icelandic in its classical period, between 1200 and 1350. Pronunciation 2. The Icelandic alphabet was founded on the Latin, with the addition of þ and ð, and of the modified letters Ä, Ç«, ø, which last is in this book written ö, Ç«Ì. Vowels 3. The vowel-letters had nearly the same values as in Old English. Long vowels were often marked by (´). In this book long vowels are regularly marked by (¯)1. The following are the elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and key-words from English, French (F.), and German (G.):-[Footnote 1: Note that the longs of Ä, ö are written æ, Å, respectively.] a as in mann (G.) halda (hold) Ä " father rÄð (advice) e " été (F.) gekk (went) Ä2 ... lÄt (let pret.) Ä " men mÄnn (men) [Footnote 2: Where no keyword is given for a long vowel, its sound is that of the corresponding short vowel lengthened.] æ as in there sær (sea) 3

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet i Ä« o Å Ç« ö Å Ç«Ì u Å« y ȳ au ei ey " " " " " " " " = = fini (F.) ... beau (F.) ... not peu (F.) ... peur (F.) sou (F.) ... tu (F.) ... haus (G.) Ä+i Ä+y mikill (great) lÄ«till (little) orð (word) tÅk (look) hÇ«nd (hand) kömr (comes) fÅra (bring) gÇ«Ìra (make) upp (up) hÅ«s (house) systir (sister) lȳsa (shine) lauss (loose) bein (bone) leysa (loosen)

4. The unaccented i in systir, etc. (which is generally written e in the MSS.) probably had the sound of y in pity, which is really between i and e. The unacc. u in fÅru (they went), etc. (which is generally written o in the MSS.) probably had the sound of oo in good. Note that several of the vowels go in pairs of close and open, thus: close: e Ä o Šö Å open: Ä Ã¦ Ç« - Ç«Ì Consonants 5. Double consonants followed by a vowel must be pronounced really double, as in Italian. Thus the kk in drekka (to drink) must be pronounced like the kc in bookcase, while the k in drÄki (dragon) is single, as in booking. When final (or followed by another cons.) double conss. are pronounced long, as in munn (mouth acc.), hamarr (hammer nom.), steinn (stone nom.), distinguished from mun (will vb.), and the accusatives hamar, stein. 6. k and g had a more front (palatal) sound before the front vowels e, Ä, i, ö, Ç«Ì, y, and their longs, as also before j, as in kÄnna (known), keyra (drive), gÇ«Ìra (make), liggja (lie). 7. kkj, ggj were probably pronounced simply as double front kk, gg, the j not being pronounced separately. 8. f had initially the sound of our f, medially and finally that of v, as in gefa (give), gaf (gave), except of course in such combinations as ft, where it had the sound of f. 9. g was a stopped (back or front--guttural or palatal) cons. initially and in the combination ng, the two g's in ganga (go) being pronounced as in go. It had the open sound of G. g in sagen medially before the back vowels a, o, Ç«, u, and all conss. except j, and finally:--saga (tale), dÇ«gum (with days); sagði (he said); lag (he lay). Before the front vowels and j it had the sound of G. g in liegen, or nearly that of j (our y), as in sÄgir (says), sÄgja (to say). 10. Before voiceless conss. (t, s) g seems to have been pronounced k, as in sagt (said), dags (day's). 4

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 11. The g was always sounded in the combination ng, as in single, not as in singer. 12. h was sounded before j in such words as hjarta (heart) much as in E. hue (= hjÅ«). hl, hn, hr, hv probably represented voiceless l, n, r, w respectively, hv being identical with E. wh: hlaupa (leap), hnÄ«ga (bend), hringr (ring), hvat (what). 13. j is not distinguished from i in the MSS. It had the sound of E. y in young: jÇ«rð (earth), sÄtja (to set). 14. p in pt probably had the sound of f: lopt (air). 15. r was always a strong point trill, as in Scotch. 16. s was always sharp. 17. v (which was sometimes written u and w) had the sound of E. w: vel (well), hÇ«ggva (hew). 18. z had the sound of ts: bÄztr (best). 19. þ and ð were used promiscuously in the older MS., the very oldest using þ almost exclusively. In Modern Icelandic þ is written initially to express the sound of E. hard th, ð medially and finally to express that of soft th; as there can be no doubt that this usage corresponds with the old pronunciation, it is retained in this book: þing (parliament), faðir (father), við (against). In such combinations as pð the ð must of course be pronounced þ. Stress 20. The stress (accent) is always on the first syllable. Phonology Vowels 21. The vowels are related to one another in different ways, the most important of which are mutation (umlaut), fracture (brechung), and gradation (ablaut). Mutation 22. The following changes are i-mutations (caused by an older i or j following, which has generally been dropped)3: [Footnote 3: Many of the i's which appear in derivative and inflectional syllables are late weakenings of a and other vowels, as in bani (death) = Old English bana; these do not cause mutation.] a (Ç«) ... Ä :-- mann (man acc.), mÄnn (men); hÇ«nd (hand), hÄndr (hands). Ä ... æ :-- mÄl (speech), mæla (speak). e (ja, jÇ«) ... i :-- verðr (worth), virða (estimate). u (o) ... y :-- fullr (full), fylla (to fill); lopt (air), lypta (lift). Å« ... ȳ :-- brÅ«n (eyebrow), pl. brȳnn. o ... ö :-- koma (to come), kömr (comes).


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Å ... Å :-- fÅr (went), fÅra (bring). au ... ey :-- lauss (loose), leysa (loosen). jÅ« (jÅ) ... ȳ :-- sjÅ«kr (sick), sȳki (sickness); ljÅsta (strike), lȳstr (strikes). 23. The change of a into Ä is sometimes the result of a following k, g, or ng, as in dÄgi dat. sg. of dagr (day), tÄkinn (taken), gÄnginn (gone), inf. taka, ganga. i appears instead of e, and u instead of o before a nasal followed by another cons.: cp. binda (to bind), bundinn (bound) with bresta (burst) ptc. prt. brostinn. 24. There is also a u-mutation, caused by a following u, which has often been dropped: a ... Ç« :-- dagr (day) dat. pl. dÇ«gum; land (land) pl. lÇ«nd. 25. Unaccented Ç« becomes u, as in sumur pl. of sumar (summer), kÇ«lluðu (they called), infin. kalla. Fracture 26. The only vowel that is affected by fracture is e: when followed by original a it becomes ja, when followed by original u it becomes jÇ«, as in jarðar gen. of jÇ«rð (earth)4. When followed by original i, the e is, of course, mutated to i, as in skildir plur. nom. of skjÇ«ldr (shield), gen. skjaldar. [Footnote 4: Cp. German erde.] Gradation 27. By gradation the vowels are related as follows:-a ... Å :-- fara (go) pret. fÅr, whence by mut. fÅra (bring). e (i, ja) ... a ... u (o) :-- bresta (burst), prt. brast, prt. pl. brustu, ptc. prt. brostinn; finna (find), fundinn (found ptc.), fundr (meeting). e ... a ... Ä ... o :-- stela (steal), prt. stal, prt. pl. stÄlu, ptc. prt. stolinn. e ... a ... Ä ... e :-- gefa (give), gaf (he gave), gÄfu (they gave), gefinn (given), gjÇ«f (gift), u-fracture of gef-, gæfa (luck) mut. of gÄf-. Ä« ... ei ... i :-- skÄ«na (shine), skein (he shone), skinu (they shone). sÅl-skin (sunshine). jÅ« (jÅ) ... au ... u ... o :-- ljÅ«ga (tell a lie), prt. laug, prt. pl. lugu, ptc. prt. loginn. lygi (lie sbst.) mut. of lug-. skjÅta (shoot), skjÅtr (swift), skotinn (shot ptc.), skot (shot subst.). Other changes 28. All final vowels are long in accented syllables: Ã¾Ä (then), nÅ« (now). 29. Inflectional and derivative vowels are often dropt after long accented vowels: cp. ganga (to go) with fÄ (to get), the dat. plurals knjÄm (knees) with hÅ«sum (houses). 30. Vowels are often lengthened before l + cons.: hÄlfr (half adj.), fÅlk (people); cp. fÅlginn (hidden) with brostinn (burst ptc.). Consonants 6

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 31. v is dropped before o and u: vaxa (to grow), prt. Åx, vinna (to win), unninn (won ptc.), svelta (to starve), soltinn (starved, hungry). Final r is often assimilated to a preceding cons. 32. *-lr, *-nr, *-sr always become -ll, -nn, -ss after a long vowel or diphthong, as in stÅll (chair nom.), acc. stÅl, steinn (stone nom.), acc. stein, vÄ«ss (wise masc. nom. sg.), vÄ«s fem. nom. sg., and in unacc. syllables, as in the masc. sg. nominatives mikill (great), fem. mikil, borinn (carried), fem. borin, ȳmiss (various) fem. ȳmis. 33. Words in which l, n, r, s are preceded by a cons. drop the r entirely, as in the masc. nominatives jarl (earl), hrafn (raven), vitr (wise), þurs (giant), lax (salmon). 34. If l and n are preceded by a short accented vowel, the r is generally kept, as in stelr (steals), vinr, (friend), sr becoming ss, as elsewhere. 35. r is kept after ll, and generally after nn, as in the masc. nom. allr (all), and in brÄnnr (burns). 36. z often stands for ðs as well as ts, as in þÄr þykkizk (ye seem) = *þykkið-sk, Vest-firzkr (belonging to the West Firths) = -*firðskr (fÇ«rðr, firth). 37. Inflectional t is generally doubled after a long accented vowel: fÄr (few) neut. fÄtt (cp. allr 'all,' neut. allt), sÄ (I saw), sÄtt 'thou sawest.' Inflections Nouns 38. Gender. There are three genders in Icelandic--masculine, feminine, and neuter. The gender is partly natural, partly grammatical, generally agreeing with the gender in Old English. Compound words follow the gender of their last element. 39. Strong and Weak. All weak nouns end in a vowel in the nom. sg. and in most of the other cases as well. Most strong nouns end in a cons. in the nom. sg. 40. Cases. There are four cases--nominative, accusative, dative, genitive. All nouns (except a few contractions) have the gen. pl. in -a (fiska, of fishes), and the dat. pl. in -um (fiskum). All strong masculines (fiskr) and some strong feminines (brūðr, bride) take r5 in the nom. sg. Most strong feminines show the bare root in the nom. sg. with u-mutation, if possible (Äst, favour, fÇ«r, journey). The nom. pl. of all strong masc. and fem. nouns ends in r (fiskar, Ästir). The acc. pl. of fem. nouns is the same as the nom. pl. (Ästir). The acc. pl. of masc. strong nouns always ends in a vowel (fiska). The plur. nom. and acc. of neuters is the same as the sing. nom. and acc., except that in the plur. nom. and acc. they take u-mutation, if possible (hÅ«s, houses, lÇ«nd, lands). [Footnote 5: Subject, of course, to the assimilations described above.] 41. The declensions are most conveniently distinguished by the acc. plur. Strong Masculines (1) a-plurals Singular Plural Nom. fisk-r (fish) fisk-ar 7

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Acc. Dat. Gen. fisk fisk-i fisk-s fisk-a fisk-um fisk-a

42. So also heimr (home, world); konungr (king); ÃÅrr (Thor), acc. ÃÅr, gen. ÃÅrs; steinn (stone), acc. stein, gen. steins, pl. nom. steinar; hrafn (raven), acc. hrafn, pl. nom. hrafnar; þurs (giant), acc. gen. þurs, pl. nom. þursar. 43. Dissyllables in -r, -l, -n generally throw out the preceding vowel before a vowel-inflection: hamarr (hammer), dat. hamri; jÇ«tunn (giant), pl. nom. jÇ«tnar. kÄtill (kettle) and lykill (key) show unmutated vowels in the contracted forms, as in the acc. plur. katla, lukla. 44. Some nouns of this decl. take -ar in the gen. sing., especially proper names, such as HÄkon, gen. HÄkonar. 45. Some nouns add v before vowels: sær (sea), gen. sævar. 46. The dat. sometimes drops the i: sæ (sea), ÃÅr. dagr (day) mutates its vowel in the dat. dÄgi. 47. Nouns in -ir keep the i in the sing., and drop it in the plur.: Singular hÄlli-r (cave) hÄlli hÄlli hÄlli-s Plural hÄll-ar hÄll-a hÄll-um hÄll-a

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

48. So also a number of proper names, such as Skrȳmir, ÃÅrir. (2) i-plurals Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Singular Plural stað-r (place) stað-ir stað stað-i stað stǫð-um stað-ar stað-a

49. So also gripr (precious thing), salr (hall). 50. gÄstr (guest) takes -i in the dat. sg., and -s in the gen. sg. 51. Those ending in g or k (together with some others) insert j before a and u: bÄkkr (bench), bÄkk, bÄkk, bÄkkjar; bÄkkir, bÄkki, bÄkkjum, bÄkkja. So also mÄrgr (marrow), strÄngr (string). (3) u-plurals Singular Nom. skjÇ«ld-r (shield) Plural skild-ir


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Acc. Dat. Gen. skjǫld skild-i skjald-ar skjǫld-u skjǫld-um skjald-a

52. So also vÇ«ndr (twig), vÇ«llr (plain), viðr (wood). Äss (god) has plur. nom. æsir, acc. Äsu. sonr (son) has dat. sg. syni, plur. nom. synir. It regularly drops its r of the nom. in such compounds as Tryggva-son (son of Tryggvi). (4) r-plurals Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Singular fÅt-r (foot) fÅt fÅt-i fÅt-ar Plural fÅt-r fÅt-r fÅt-um fÅt-a

53. So also fingr (finger), gen. fingrar, pl. fingr; vetr (winter), pl. vetr. maðr (man) is irregular: maðr, mann, manni, manns; mÄnn, mÄnn, mÇ«nnum, manna. Singular Plural faðir (father) fÄðr fǫður fÄðr fǫður fÄðrum fǫður fÄðra

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 54. So also brÅðir (brother), pl. brÅðr.

55. Pres. participles used as nouns follow this decl. in the pl., following the weak class in the sg.: Singular bÅndi (yeoman) bÅnda bÅnda bÅnda Plural bÅndr bÅndr bÅndum bÅnda

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 56. So also frÅndi (kinsman), pl. frÅndr. Strong Neuters

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Singular Plural skip (ship) skip skip skip skip-i skip-um skip-s skip-a

57. So also orð (word), land (land) pl. lǫnd, sumar (summer) pl. sumur (§ 25).


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 58. mÄn (necklace), kyn (race), grey (dog) insert j before a and u: greyjum. hÇ«gg (stroke) inserts v before a vowel: hÇ«ggvi. knÄ (knee), knÄ, knÄ, knÄs; knÄ, knÄ, kjÄm, knjÄ. So also trÄ (tree). 59. fÄ (money) is contracted: gen. fjÄr, dat. fÄ. Singular kvæði (poem) kvæði kvæði kvæði-s Plural kvæði kvæði kvæðum kvæða

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

60. So also klæði (cloth). Those in k insert j before a and u: mÄrki (mark), mÄrkjum, mÄrkja. So also rÄ«ki (sovereignty). Strong Feminines (1) ar-plurals Singular Plural gjÇ«f (gift) gjaf-ar gjÇ«f gjaf-ar gjÇ«f gjÇ«f-um gjaf-ar gjaf-a

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

61. So also mÇ«n (mane), gjÇ«rð (girdle), Är (oar). 62. Ä (river) contracts: Ä, Ä, Ä, Är; Är, Är, Äm, Ä. 63. Many take -u in the dat. sg.: kÄrling (old woman), kÄrling, kÄrlingu, kÄrlingar; kÄrlingar, kÄrlingar, kÄrlingum, kÄrlinga. So also laug (bath). 64. Those with a mutated root-vowel (or i) insert j in inflection: ey (island), ey, eyju, eyjar; eyjar, eyjar, eyjum, eyja. So also Frigg, HÄl. mær (maid), mey, meyju, meyjar; meyjar, meyjar, meyjum, meyja. 65. Singular heið-r (heath) heið-i heið-i heið-ar Plural heið-ar heið-ar heið-um heið-a

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. (2) ir-plurals

Singular Plural Nom. tīð tīð-ir Acc. tīð tīð-ir Dat. tīð tīð-um


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Gen. tīð-ar tīð-a 66. So also sorg (sorrow), skipun (arrangement), hÇ«fn (harbour) pl. hafnir, and the majority of strong feminines. 67. Many have -u in the dat. sg.: sÅl (sun), sÅl, sÅlu, sÅlar; sÅlir, sÅlir, sÅlum, sÅla. So also jÇ«rð (earth), stund (period of time). 68. One noun has r in the nom. sg., following heiðr in the sg.: brūðr (bride), brūði, brūði, brūðar; brūðir, brūðir, brūðum, brūða. (3) r-plurals Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Singular bÅk (book) bÅk bÅk bÅk-ar Plural bÅk-r bÅk-r bÅk-um bÅk-a

69. So also nÄtt (night) pl. nætr, bÅt (compensation) pl. bÅtr, tÇ«nn (tooth) gen. tannar pl. tÄnnr. 70. hÇ«nd (hand) pl. hÄndr has dat. sg. hÄndi. 71. kȳr (cow) has acc. kÅ«, pl. kȳr. 72. brÅ«n (eyebrow) assimilates the r of the pl.: brȳnn. Singular Plural mÅðir (mother) mÅðr mÅður mÅðr mÅður mÅðrum mÅður mÅðra

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

73. So also dÅttir (daughter) pl. dÅtr; systir (sister) pl. systr. Weak Masculines Singular bog-i (bow) bog-a bog-a bog-a Plural bog-ar bog-a bog-um bog-a

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 74. So also mÄni (moon), fÄlagi (companion).

75. hÇ«fðingi (chief) and some others insert j in inflection: hÇ«fðingja, hÇ«fðingjar, hÇ«fðingjum. 76. lÄ (scythe) is contracted; its gen. sg. is ljÄ. 11

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 77. oxi (ox) has pl. öxn. 78. herra (lord) is indeclinable in the sg. Weak Neuters Singular Plural hjart-a (heart) hjǫrt-u hjart-a hjǫrt-u hjart-a hjǫrt-um hjart-a hjart-na

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 79. So also auga (eye). Weak Feminines

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Singular tung-a (tongue) tung-u tung-u tung-u

Plural tung-ur tung-ur tung-um tung-na

80. So also stjarna (star) pl. stjÇ«rnur, kirkja (church), gen. plurals stjarna, kirkna. Sg. Nom. Älli (old age) Acc. Älli Dat. Älli Gen. Älli 81. So also glÄði (joy) and many abstract nouns. 82. lygi (falsehood) has pl. lygar; so also gÇ«Ìrsimi (precious thing). Adjectives 83. Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns, though with partly different endings, together with strong and weak forms. Strong Adjectives Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Masc. ung-r (young) ung-an ung-um ung-s ung-ir ung-a ung-um Neut. Fem. ung-t ung ung-t ung-a ung-u ung-ri ung-s ung-rar ung ung-ar ung ung-ar ung-um ung-um 12

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Gen. 84. So also fagr (fair), fem. fÇ«gr, neut. fagrt. 85. Some insert j before a and u: nȳr (new), nȳjum, nȳjan. 86. Some insert v before a vowel: hÄr (high), hÄvan, dökkr (dark), dökkvir, kykr (alive), kykvir. 87. The t of the neut. is doubled after a long vowel: nȳtt, hÄtt. Monosyllables in ð, dd, tt form their neut. in -tt: breiðr (broad), breitt; leiddr (led), leitt. gÅðr (good) has neut. gott. sannr (true) has neut. satt. In unaccented syllables or if a cons. precedes, tt is shortened to t: kallaðr (called), kallat; blindr (blind), blint, harðr (hard), hart, fastr (firm), fast. 88. l and n assimilate a following r: gamall (old), fem. gÇ«mul, fem. acc. gamla, dat. gamalli. vÇ£nn (beautiful), gen. pl. vænna. Masc. mikill (great) mikinn miklum mikils miklir mikla miklum mikilla Neut. Fem. mikit mikil mikit mikla miklu mikilli mikils mikillar mikil mikil miklum mikilla miklar miklar miklum mikilla ung-ra ung-ra ung-ra

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 89. So also lītill (little).

90. Dissyllables in -inn have -it in the neut., and -inn in the masc. sg. acc.: tīginn (distinguished), tīgit, tīginn, pl. tīgnīr. So also kominn (come). 91. Masc. Neut. annarr (other) annat annan annat ǫðrum ǫðru annars annars aðrir aðra ǫðrum annarra ǫnnur ǫnnur ǫðrum annarra Fem. ǫnnur aðra annarri annarrar aðrar aðrar ǫðrum annarra

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Weak Adjectives

Masc. Neut. Fem. Sg. Nom. ung-i ung-a ung-a 13

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Acc. ung-a ung-a ung-u Dat. ung-a ung-a ung-u Gen. ung-a ung-a ung-u Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 92. So also fagri, hÄvi, mikli, etc. Masc. yngri (younger) yngra yngra yngra yngri yngri yngrum yngri Neut. yngra yngra yngra yngra yngri yngri yngrum yngri Fem. yngri yngri yngri yngri yngri yngri yngrum yngri ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u ung-u

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

93. So also all comparatives, such as meiri (greater), and pres. partic. when used as adjectives, such as gefandi (giving), dat. pl. gefÇ«ndum. Comparison 94. (1) with -ari, -astr: rÄ«kr (powerful), rÄ«kari, rÄ«kastr; gÇ«fugr (distinguished), gÇ«fgari, gÇ«fgastr. 95. (2) with -ri, -str and mutation: langr (long), lÄngri, lÄngstr; stÅrr (big), stÅrri, stÅrstr; ungr (young), yngri, yngstr. 96. The following are irregular: gamall (old) gÅðr (good) illr (bad) lÄ«till (little) margr (many) mikill (great) Numerals 97. Cardinal einn (one) tveir þrÄ«r Ordinal fyrstr (first) annarr þriði 14 Ällri bÄtri vÄrri minni fleiri meiri Älztr bÄztr vÄrstr minstr flestr mestr

1. 2. 3.

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 4. fjÅrir fjÅrði 5. fimm fimmti 6. sex sÄtti 7. sjau sjaundi 8. Ätta Ätti 9. nÄ«u nÄ«undi 10. tÄ«u tÄ«undi 11. ellifu ellifti 12. tÅlf tÅlfti 13. þrettÄn þrettÄndi 14. fjÅrtÄn 15. fimmtÄn 16. sextÄn 17. sjautÄn 18. ÄtjÄn 19. nÄ«tjÄn 20. tuttugu 21. einn ok tuttugu, etc. 30. þrÄ«r tigir, etc. 100. tÄ«u tigir 110. ellifu tigir 120. hundrað 1200. þūsund einn is declined like other adjectives:-98. Masc. einn einn einum eins Neut. eitt eitt einu eins Fem. ein eina einni einnar

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

It also has a pl. einir, einar, ein; gen. einna, etc. in the sense of 'some.' The next three show various irregularities. 99. Masc. Nom. tveir Acc. tvÄ Dat. tveim Neut. tvau tvau tveim Fem. tvær tvær tveim 15

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Gen. tvÄggja tvÄggja tvÄggja Similarly bÄðir (both): 100. Masc. bÄðir bÄða bÄðum bÄggja Neut. bæði bæði bÄðum bÄggja Fem. bÄðar bÄðar bÄðum bÄggja

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 101.

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 102.

Masc. þrÄ«r þrjÄ Ã¾rim þriggja

Neut. þrjū þrjū þrim þriggja

Fem. þrjÄr þrjÄr þrim þriggja

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Masc. fjÅrir fjÅra fjÅrum fjogurra

Neut. fjogur fjogur fjÅrum fjogurra

Fem. fjÅrar fjÅrar fjÅrum fjogurra

103. The others are indeclinable up to þrÄ«r tigir, etc.; the tigir being declined regularly as a plural strong u-masculine tigir, tigu, tigum, tiga. 104. hundrað is a strong neut.: tvau hundruð (240), tveim hundruðum, etc. It governs the gen. (as also does þūsund): fimm hundruð gÅlfa, 'five (six) hundred chambers.' 105. þūsund is a strong ir-feminine: tvær þūsundir (2400). 106. hundrað and þūsund are rarely = 100 and 1000. 107. Of the ordinals fyrstr and annarr (§ 91) are strong, the others weak adjectives. þriði inserts a j: þriðja, etc. Pronouns 108. Personal Sg. Nom. ek (I) þū (thou) -16

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Acc. mik Dat. mÄr Gen. mÄ«n Dual. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. vit okkr okkr okkar þik þÄr þīn it ykkr ykkr ykkar þÄr (ye) yðr yðr yðar sik (oneself) sÄr sÄ«n -sik sÄr sÄ«n -sik (oneselves) sÄr sÄ«n

Pl. Nom. vÄr (we) Acc. oss Dat. oss Gen. vÄr

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Masc. hann (he) hann honum hans

Neut. Fem. þat (it) hon (she) þat hana þvÄ« hÄnni þess hÄnnar þær þær þeim þeira

Pl. Nom. þeir (they) þau Acc. Ã¾Ä Ã¾au Dat. þeim þeim Gen. þeira þeira

109. ek was often suffixed to its verb, especially in poetry, being sometimes added twice over: mætta-k (I might), sÄ-k-a-k (I saw not; a='not'). So also þū: er-tu (art thou), skalt-u (shalt thou) = *skalt-tu. Possessive Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Masc. Neut. minn (my) mitt minn mitt mÄ«num mÄ«nu mÄ«ns mÄ«ns Fem. mÄ«n mÄ«na minni minnar

Pl. Nom. mÄ«nir mÄ«n mÄ«nar Acc. mÄ«na mÄ«n mÄ«nar Dat. mÄ«num mÄ«num mÄ«num Gen. minna minna minna 110. So also þinn (thy), sinn (his, etc., reflexive). 111. vÄrr, vÄrt, vÄr (our) is regular: acc. masc. vÄrn, masc. plur. vÄrir, vÄra, vÄrum, vÄrra, etc. Masc. Neut. Sg. Nom. yðarr (your) yðart Acc. yðarn yðart Fem. yður yðra 17

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. yðrum yðars yðrir yðra yðrum yðarra yðru yðarri yðars yðarrar yður yður yðrum yðarra yðrar yðrar yðrum yðarra

112. So also okkarr (our two) and ykkarr (your two). 113. hans (his), þess (its), hÄnnar (her), and þeira (their) are indeclinable. Demonstrative 114. Masc. sÄ (that) þann þeim þess Neut. þat þat þvÄ« þess Fem. sÅ« Ã¾Ä Ã¾eiri þeirar

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Pl. Nom. þeir þau þær Acc. Ã¾Ä Ã¾au þær Dat. þeim þeim þeim Gen. þeira þeira þeira 115. hinn, hitt, hin (that) is inflected like minn (except that its vowel is short throughout): acc. masc. hinn, plur. masc. hinir, hina, hinum, hinna. 116. Masc. Neut. Fem. þessi (this) þetta þessi þenna þetta þessa þessum þessu þessi þessa þessa þessar þessir þessa þessum þessa þessi þessi þessum þessa þessar þessar þessum þessa

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Definite The prefixed definite article is declined thus: 117. Masc. Neut. Fem. 18

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. inn inn inum ins it in it ina inu inni ins innar

inir in inar ina in inar inum inum inum inna inna inna

118. When suffixed to its noun it undergoes various changes. In its monosyllabic forms it drops its vowel after a short (un-accented) vowel, as in auga-t (the eye), but keeps it after a long vowel, as in Ä-in (the river), trÄ-it (the tree). The dissyllabic forms drop their initial vowel almost everywhere; not, however, after the -ar, -r, of the gen. sg., nor in mÄnninir (men, nom.), mÄnn-ina (men, acc.). The -m of the dat. pl. is dropped before the suffixed -num. Masc. Neut. Fem. fiskr-inn skip-it gjÇ«f-in fisk-inn skip-it gjÇ«f-ina fiski-num skipi-nu gjÇ«f-inni fisks-ins skips-ins gjafar-innar fiskar-nir skip-in gjafar-nar fiska-na skip-in gjafar-nar fisku-num skipu-num gjÇ«fu-num fiska-nna skipa-nna gjafa-nna Masc. Neut. bogi-nn auga-t boga-nn auga-t boga-num auga-nu boga-ns auga-ns Fem. tunga-n tungu-na tungu-nni tungu-nnar

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

bogar-nir augu-n tungur-nar boga-na augu-n tungur-nar bogu-num augu-num tungnu-num boga-nna augna-nna tungna-nna

Relative 119. The ordinary relative pron. is the indeclinable er, often preceded by sÄ: sÄ er = he who, who, sÅ« er who fem. Interrogative 120. The neut. hvat has gen. hvess, dat. hvÄ«, which last is chiefly used as an adverb = 'why.' 121.


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Masc. Neut. Fem. hvÄrr (which of two) hvÄrt hvÄr hvÄrn hvÄrt hvÄra hvÄrum hvÄru hvÄrri hvÄrs hvÄrs hvÄrrar hvÄrir hvÄra hvÄrum hvÄrra hvÄr hvÄr hvÄrum hvÄrra hvÄrar hvÄrar hvÄrum hvÄrra

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 122.

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Masc. Neut. Fem. hvÄrr (which, who) hvÄrt hvÄr hvÄrn hvÄrt hvÄrja hvÄrjum hvÄrju hvÄrri hvÄrs hvÄrs hvÄrrar hvÄrir hvÄrja hvÄrjum hvÄrra hvÄr hvÄr hvÄrjum hvÄrra hvÄrjar hvÄrjar hvÄrjum hvÄrra

Indefinite 123. einn-hvÄrr, eitthvÄrt, einhvÄr (some one) keeps an invariable ein- in the other cases, the second element being inflected as above. 124. sumr (some) is declined like an ordinary adjective. 125. Masc. Neut. Fem. nakkvarr (some) nakkvat nÇ«kkur nakkvarn nakkvat nakkvara nÇ«kkurum nÇ«kkuru nakkvarri nakkvars nakkvars nakkvarrar nakkvarir nakkvara nÇ«kkurum nakkvarra nÇ«kkur nÇ«kkur nÇ«kkurum nakkvarra nakkvarar nakkvarar nÇ«kkurum nakkvarra

Sg. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. 126.

Masc. Neut. Fem. Sg. Nom. engi (none, no) ekki engi 20

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Acc. Dat. Gen. Pl. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. engan engum engis engir enga engum engra ekki enga engu engri engis engrar engi engi engum engra engar engar engum engra

127. In hvÄr-tvÄggja (each of the two, both) the first element is declined as above, the second is left unchanged. Verbs 128. There are two classes of verbs, strong and weak. Strong verbs are conjugated partly by means of gradation, weak verbs by adding ð (d, t). 129. The ð of the 2 pl. is dropt before þit (ye two) and þÄr (ye): gefi þÄr, gÄfu þit. 130. There is a middle voice, which ends in -mk in the 1 pers. sg. and pl., the rest of the verb being formed by adding sk to the active endings, r being dropt, the resulting ts, ðs being written z (§ 36): kvezk (active kveðr 'says'), þu fekkzk (fekkt 'gottest'). 131. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb gefa (give), which will show those endings which are common to all verbs: Active Indicative Subjunctive Present sg. 1. gef gef-a 2. gef-r gef-ir 3. gef-r gef-i pl. 1. gef-um 2. gef-ið 3. gef-a Preterite sg. 1. 2. 3. gaf gaf-t gaf gef-im gef-ið gef-i gæf-a gæf-ir gæf-i gæf-im gæf-ið gæf-i

pl. 1. gÄf-um 2. gÄf-uð 3. gÄf-u Imperative sg. 2 gef; pl. 1 gef-um, 2 gef-ið. Participle pres. gef-andi; pret. gef-inn. Infin. gefa. Middle

Indicative Subjunctive


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Present sg. 1. gef-umk 2. gef-sk 3. gef-sk pl. 1. gef-umk 2. gef-izk 3. gef-ask Preterite sg. 1. gÄf-umk 2. gaf-zk 3. gaf-sk pl. 1. gÄf-umk 2. gÄf-uzk 3. gÄf-usk Impers. sg. 2 gef-sk; pl. 1 gef-umk, 2 gef-izk. Partic. pres. gef-andisk; pret. gef-izk neut. Infin. gef-ask. Strong Verbs 132. In the strong verbs the plur. of the pret. indic. generally has a different vowel from that of the sing. The 1 sg. pret. of the middle voice always has the vowel of the pl. pret.: gÄfumk. The pret. subj. has the vowel of the pret. indic. plur. mutated: skaut (he shot), skutu (they shot), skyti (he might shoot). But there is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.: hljÅpi, inf. hlaupa (leap). 133. The pres. indic. sing. mutates the root-vowel in all three persons: ek skȳt, þū skȳtr, hann skȳtr, infin. skjÅta (shoot). e however is not mutated: ek gef, þū gefr. The inflectional r is liable to the same modifications as the r of nouns (§ 32): skÄ«nn, vÄx, infin. skÄ«na (shine), vaxa (grow). 134. Verbs in ld change the d into t in the 1, 3 sg. pret. indic. and in the imper. sg.: helt (held), halt (hold!), infin. halda. nd becomes tt, and ng becomes kk under the same conditions: binda (bind), ganga (go), pret. batt, gekk, imper. bitt, gakk. 135. The t of the 2 sg. pret. indic. is doubled after a long accented vowel: þū sÄtt (thou sawest). If the 1 sg. pret. indic. ends in t or ð, the 2 sg. ends in zt: lÄt (I let), þū lÄzt, bauð (I offered) þū bauzt. 136. There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished mainly by the characteristic vowels of their preterites. 137. I. 'Fall'-conjugation Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt. falla (fall) fÄllr fell fellu fallinn lÄta (let) lætr lÄt lÄtu lÄtinn rÄða (advise) ræðr rÄð rÄðu rÄðinn heita (call) heitr hÄt hÄtu heitinn gef-umk gef-isk gef-isk gef-imk gef-izk gef-isk gæf-umk gæf-isk gæf-isk gæf-imk gæf-izk gæf-isk


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet halda (hold) ganga (go) fÄ (get) auka (increase) bÅ«a (dwell) hÇ«ggva (hew) hlaupa (leap) hÄldr helt heldu haldinn gÄngr gekk gengu gÄnginn fær fekk fengu fÄnginn -------------------------eykr jÅk jÅku aukinn bȳr bjÅ bjoggu bÅ«inn hÇ«ggr hjÅ hjoggu hÇ«ggvinn hleypr hljÅp hljÅpu hlaupinn

138. The following have weak preterites in r: Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. grÅa (grow) grÅr gröri rÅa (row) rÅr röri snÅ«a (twist) snȳr snöri Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt. gröru grÅinn röru rÅinn snöru snÅ«inn

139. heita in the passive sense of 'to be named, called' has a weak present: ek heiti, þū heitir. 140. II. 'Shake'-conjugation Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. fara (go) fÄrr fÅr grafa (dig) grÄfr grÅf hlaða (load) hlÄðr hlÅð vaxa (grow) vÄx Åx standa (stand) stÄndr stÅð aka (drive) Äkr Åk taka (take) tÄkr tÅk draga (draw) drÄgr drÅ flÄ (flay) flær flÅ slÄ (strike) slær slÅ 141. The following have weak presents: Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. hÄfja (lift) hÄfr hÅf hÅfu deyja (die) deyr dÅ dÅ hlæja (laugh) hlær hlÅ hlÅgu 142. III. 'Bind'-conjugation Infin. bresta (burst) Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt. brestr brast brustu brostinn 23 Ptc. Prt. hafinn dÄinn hlÄginn Prt. Pl. fÅru grÅfu hlÅðu Åxu stÅðu Åku tÅku drÅgu flÅgu slÅgu Ptc. Prt. farinn grafinn hlaðinn vaxinn staðinn Äkinn tÄkinn drÄginn flÄginn slÄginn

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet hverfa (turn) svelga (swallow) verða (become) skjÄlfa (shake) drekka (drink) finna (find) vinna (win) binda (bind) springa (spring) stinga (pierce) bregða (pull) sökkva (sink) stökkva (spring) hverfr svelgr verðr skelfr drekkr finnr vinnr bindr springr stingr bregðr sökkr stökkr hvarf hurfu horfinn svalg sulgu sÅlginn varð urðu orðinn skalf skulfu skolfinn drakk drukku drukkinn fann fundu fundinn vann unnu unninn batt bundu bundinn sprakk sprungu sprunginn stakk stungu stunginn brÄ brugðu brugðinn sÇ«kk sukku sokkinn stÇ«kk stukku stokkinn

143. The following have weak presents (which makes however no difference in their conjugation): Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt. brÄnna (burn) brÄnnr brann brunnu brunninn rÄnna (run) rÄnnr rann runnu runninn 144. IV. 'Bear'-conjugation Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. bera (carry) berr bar nema (take) nemr nam fela (hide) felr fal koma (come) kömr kom sofa (sleep) söfr svaf 145. V. 'Give'-conjugation Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. drepa (kill) drepr drap gefa (give) gefr gaf kveða (say) kveðr kvað meta (estimate) metr mat reka (drive) rekr rak eta (eat) etr Ät 6 sjÄ (see) sÄr sÄ Prt. Pl. drÄpu gÄfu kvÄðu mÄtu rÄku Ätu sÄ7 Ptc. Prt. drepinn gefinn kveðinn metinn rekinn etinn sÄnn Prt. Pl. bÄru nÄmu fÄlu kvÄmu svÄfu Ptc. Prt. borinn numinn fÅlginn kominn sofinn

[Footnote 6: sÄ, sÄr, sÄr; sjÄm, sÄð, sjÄ. Subj. sÄ, sÄr, sÄ; sÄm, sÄð, sÄ.]


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet [Footnote 7: sÄm, sÄið, sÄ.] 146. The following have weak presents:-Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. biðja (ash) biðr bað sitja (sit) sitr sat liggja (lie) liggr lÄ Ã¾iggja (receive) þiggr Ã¾Ä 147. VI. 'Shine'-conjugation Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. bÄ«ta (bite) bÄ«tr beit drÄ«fa (drive) drÄ«fr dreif grÄ«pa (grasp) grÄ«pr greip līða (go) līðr leið lÄ«ta (look) lÄ«tr leit rīða (ride) rīðr reið sÄ«ga (sink) sÄ«gr seig slÄ«ta (tear) slÄ«tr sleit stÄ«ga (advance) stÄ«gr steig bīða (wait) bīðr beið 148. The following has a weak present: Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt. vÄ«kja (move) vÄ«kr veik viku vikinn 149. VII. 'Choose'-conjugation Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. bjÅða (offer) bȳðr bauð brjÅta (break) brȳtr braut fljÅta (float) flȳtr flaut hljÅta (receive) hlȳtr hlaut kjÅsa (choose) kȳss kaus njÅta (enjoy) nȳtr naut skjÅta (shoot) skȳtr skaut drjÅ«pa (drop) drȳpr draup ljÅ«ga (tell lies) lȳgr laug lÅ«ka (close) lȳkr lauk Prt. Pl. buðu brutu flutu hlutu kusum nutu skutu drupu lugu luku Ptc. Prt. boðinn brotinn flotinn hlotinn kosinn notinn skotinn dropinn loginn lokinn Prt. Pl. bitu drifu gripu liðu litu riðu sigu slitu stigu biðu Ptc. Prt. bitinn drifinn gripinn liðinn litinn riðinn siginn slitinn stiginn beiðnn Prt. Pl. bÄðu sÄtu lÄgum þÄgu Ptc. Prt. beðinn setinn leginn þeginn


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet lūta (bend) fljūga (fly) lȳtr flȳgr laut flŠlutu flugu lotinn floginn

Weak Verbs 150. There are three conjugations of weak verbs. All those of the first conjugation have mutated vowels in the pres., and form their pret. with ð (d, t): heyra (hear), heyrða. Those of the second form their pret. in the same way, but have unmutated vowels in the pres.: hafa (have) hafða. Those of the third form their pret. in -aða: kalla (call), kallaða. I. 'Hear'-conjugation Active 151. Indicative Subjunctive Present sg. 1. heyr-i heyr-a 2. heyr-ir heyr-ir 3. heyr-ir heyr-i pl. 1. heyr-um 2. heyr-ið 3. heyr-a Preterite sg. 1. heyr-ða 2. heyr-ðir 3. heyr-ði heyr-im heyr-ið heyr-i heyr-ða heyr-ðir heyr-ði

pl. 1. heyr-ðum heyr-ðim 2. heyr-ðuð heyr-ðið 3. heyr-ðu heyr-ði Imper. sg. 1. heyr; pl. 1. heyr-um, 2. heyr-ið. Partic. pres. heyr-andi; pret. heyr-ðr. Infin. heyr-a. Middle Indicative Subjunctive Present sg. 1. heyr-umk heyr-umk 2. heyr-isk heyr-isk 3. heyr-isk heyr-isk pl. 1. heyr-umk 2. heyr-izk 3. heyr-ask heyr-imk heyr-izk heyr-isk

Preterite sg. 1. heyr-ðumk heyr-ðumk 2. heyr-ðisk heyr-ðisk 3. heyr-ðisk heyr-ðisk pl. 1. heyr-ðumk heyr-ðimk 2. heyr-ðuzk heyr-ðizk 26

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 3. heyr-ðusk heyr-ðisk Imper. sg. 2. heyr-sk; pl. 1. heyr-umk, 2. heyr-izk. Partic. pres. heyr-andisk; pret. heyr-zk neut. Infin. heyr-ask. A. Without vowel-change 152. The inflectional ð becomes d after long syllables ending in l or n: sigla (sail), siglda; nÄfna (name), nÄfnda, nÄfndr. 153. -ðð becomes dd: leiða (lead), leidda. 154. ð after s and t becomes t: reisa (raise), reista; mÅta (meet), mÅtta. Also in a few verbs in l, n: mæla (speak), mælta; spÄnna (buckle), spÄnta. 155. After nd and pt it is dropped: sÄnda (send), sÄnda, sÄndr; lypta (lift), lypta. 156. It is preserved in such verbs as the following: dÅma (judge), dÅmða; fÅra (lead), fÅrða; hÄrða (harden), hÄrða; hleypa (gallop), hleypða. B. With vowel-change 157. All these verbs have j preceded by a short syllable (tÄlja), or a long vowel without any cons. after it (dȳja), or gg (lÄggja); the j being kept before a and u, as in the pres. ind. of spyrja (ask): spyr, spyrr, spyrr; spyrjum, spyrið, spyrja, pres. subj. 1 sg. ek spyrja; they unmutate their vowel in the pret. and ptc. pret. (spurða, spurðr), the mutation being restored in the pret. subj. spyrða, spyrðir, etc. The ptc. pret. often has an i before the ð. bÄrja (strike) lÄggja (lay) tÄlja (tell) vÄkja (wake) flytja (remove) dȳja (shake) barða lagða talða vakða flutta dūða barðr lag(i)ðr tal(i)ðr vakðr fluttr dūðr

158. The following keep the mutated vowel throughout: sÄlja (sell) sÄlda sÄldr sÄtja (set) sÄtta sÄttr C. 159. The following are irregular: sÅkja (seek) sÅtta sÅttr þykkja (seem) þÅtta þÅttr Subj. pret. sÅtta, þÅtta. 160. The following has an adj. for its partic. pret.: 27

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet gÇ«Ìra (make) gÇ«Ìrða gÇ«Ìrr. II. 'Have'-conjugation 161. The few verbs of this class are conjugated like those of conj. I, except that some of them have imperatives in -i: vaki, þÄfi; uni. lifa, sÄgja have imper. lif, sÄg. They mutate the vowel of the pret. subj. (ynða). Their partic. pret. generally occurs only in the neut.; sometimes the a is dropped. lifa (live) lifi lifða lifat una (be contented) uni unða unat skorta (be wanting) skorti skorta skort þola (endure) þoli þolða þolat þora (dare) þori þorða þorat nÄ (attain) nÄi nÄða nÄðr, nÄit 162. The following show mutation: sÄgja (say) sÄgi sagða þÄgja (be silent) þÄgi þagða hafa (have) hÄfi hafða kaupa (buy) kaupi keypta 163. The present indic. of the first three is as follows: Sing. 1. hÄfi 2, 3. hÄfir sÄgi sÄgir þÄgi þÄgir sagðr þagat hafðr keyptr

Plur. 1. hÇ«fum sÄgjum þÄgjum 2. hafið sÄgið þÄgið 3. hafa sÄgja þÄgja 164. The rest of hafa is regular. Pres. subj. hafa, hafir, hafi; hafim, hafið, hafi. Pret. indic. hafða, hafðir, hafði; hÇ«fdum, hÇ«fðuð, hÇ«fðu. Pret. subj. hÄfða, hÄfðir, hÄfði; hÄfðim, hÄfðið, hÄfði. Imper. haf, hÇ«fum, hafið. Ptc. hafandi, hafðr. III. 'Call'-conjugation Active Present sg. 1. 2. 3. pl. 1. 2. 3. Preterite sg. 1. 2. 3. Indicative kall-a kall-ar kall-ar kÇ«ll-um kall-ið kall-a kall-aða kall-aðir kall-aði Subjunctive kall-a kall-ir kall-i kall-im kall-ið kall-i kall-aða kall-aðir kall-aði 28

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet pl. 1. kǫll-uðum kall-aðim 2. kǫll-uðuð kall-aðið 3. kǫll-uðu kall-aði Imper. sing. 2. kall-a; plur. 1. kǫll-um, 2. kall-ið. Partic. pres. kall-andi; pret. kallaðr (neut. kallat). Infin. kalla. Middle Present sg. 1. 2. 3. pl. 1. 2. 3. Indicative kǫll-umk kall-ask kall-ask kǫll-umk kall-izk kall-ask Subjunctive kǫll-umk kall-isk kall-isk kall-imk kall-izk kall-isk

Preterite sg. 1. kÇ«ll-uðumk kÇ«ll-uðumk 2. kall-aðisk kall-aðisk 3. kall-aðisk kall-aðisk pl. 1. kÇ«ll-uðumk kall-aðimk 2. kÇ«ll-uðuzk kall-aðizk 3. kÇ«ll-uðusk kall-aðisk Imper. sing. 2. kall-ask; pl. 1. kÇ«ll-umk, 2. kall-izk. Partic. pres. kall-andisk; pret. kall-azk neut. Infin. kall-ask. 165. So also byrja (begin), hÄrja (make war), vakna (awake). Strong-Weak Verbs 166. These have old strong preterites for their presents, from which new weak preterites are formed. Infin. Pres. Sg. Pres. Pl. eiga (possess) Ä eigu kunna (can) kann kunnu mega (can) mÄ megu muna (remember) man munu munu (will) mun munu skulu (shall) skal skulu þurfa (need) þarf þurfu unna (love) ann unnu vita (know) veit vitu Prt. Ätta kunna mÄtta munða munða skylda þurfta unna vissa Ptc. Ättr kunnat n. mÄtt n. munat n. ---skyldr þurft n. unnt n. vitaðr

167. Of these verbs munu and skulu have preterite infinitives: mundu, skyldu. 29

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Anomalous Verbs 168. Vilja (will): Present Sing. 1. vil 2. vill 3. vill Subj. pres. vili. Pret. ind. vilda. Ptc. prt. viljat. 169. Vera (be): Indicative Subjunctive Present sg. 1. em sÄ 2. ert sÄr 3. er sÄ pl. 1. 2. 3. Preterite sg. 1. 2. 3. erum eruð eru var vart var sÄm sÄð sÄ væra værir væri værim værið væri Plur. viljum vilið vilja

pl. 1. vÄrum 2. vÄruð 3. vÄru Imper. sg. ver; pl. verið. Ptc. prt. verit n.

Composition 170. Composition with the genitive is very frequent in Icelandic. Thus by the side of skip-stjÅrn (ship-steering) we find skips-brot (ship's breaking, shipwreck), skipa-hÄrr (army of ships, fleet). Genitival composition often expresses possession, as in konungs-skip (king's ship). Derivation Prefixes 171. Prefixes are much less used in Icelandic than in Old English. al- 'quite,' 'very': al-bÅ«inn 'quite ready,' al-snotr 'very clever.' all- 'all,' 'very': all-valdr 'all-ruler, monarch,' all-harðr 'very hard,' all-stÅrum 'very greatly.' and- 'against': and-lit 'countenance' (lita, look), and-svar 'answer.' fjÇ«l- 'many': fjÇ«l-mÄnni 'multitude' (maðr, man).


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet mis- 'mis-': mis-lÄ«ka 'displease.' Å«- 'un-': Å«-friðr 'war' (friðr, peace), Å«-happ 'misfortune' (happ luck). Endings (a) Nouns Personal 172. -ingr, -ingi, -ing: vÄ«kingr 'pirate,' hÇ«fðingi 'chief,' kÄrling 'old woman.' Abstract 173. -ð, fem. with mutation: fÄgrð 'beauty' (fagr, fair), fÄrð 'journey' (fara, go), lÄngð 'length' (langr, long). -ing, fem.: svipting 'pulling,' vÄ«king 'piracy,' virðing 'honour.' -leikr, masc.: kÅr-leikr 'affection' (hÅrr, dear), skjÅt-leikr 'speed' (skjÅtr, swift). -an, -un, fem.: skipan 'arrangement,' skÄmtun 'amusement.' (b) Adjectives 174. -ugr: rÄðugr 'sagacious,' þrūðugr 'strong.' -Åttr: kollÅttr 'bald,' Ç«ndÅttr 'fierce.' -lauss '-less': fÄ-lauss 'moneyless,' Åtta-lauss 'without fear.' -ligr '-ly': undr-ligr 'wonderful,' sann-ligr 'probable' (sannr, true). -samr: lÄ«kn-samr 'gracious,' skyn-samr 'intelligent.' -verðr '-ward': ofan-verðr 'upper.' (c) Verbs 175. -na: brotna 'be broken' (brotinn, broken), hvÄ«tna 'become white,' vakna 'awake.' Used to form intransitive and inchoative verbs of the third conj. (d) Adverbs 176. -liga '-ly': undar-liga 'wonderfully,' stÄrk-liga 'strongly' (stÄrkr, strong). -um, dat. pl.: stÅrum 'greatly' (stÅrr, great). Syntax 177. Icelandic syntax greatly resembles Old English, but has several peculiarities of its own. Concord 178. Concord is carried out very strictly in Icelandic: allir mÄnn vÄru bÅ«nir 'all the men were ready,' allir vÄru drepnir 'all were killed.' 179. A plural adj. or pronoun referring to two nouns of different (natural or grammatical) gender is always put in the neuter: Ã¾Ä gekk hann upp, ok með honum Loki (masc.), ok ÃjÄlfi (masc.), ok RÇ«skva (fem.). Ã¾Ä er þau (neut.) hÇ«fðu lÄ«tla hrið gÄngit... 'he landed, and with him L., and Ã., and R. When they 31

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet had walked for some time...' Cases 180. The extensive use of the instrumental dative is very characteristic of Icelandic: whenever the direct object of a verb can be considered as the instrument of the action expressed by the verb, it is put in the dative, as in kasta spjÅti 'throw a spear' (lit. 'throw with a spear'), hann helt hamarskaptinu 'he grasped the handle of the hammer,' heita þvÄ« 'promise that,' jÄta þvÄ« 'agree to that.' Adjectives 181. The weak form of adjectives is used as in O.E. after the definite article, þessi and other demonstratives. annarr (other) is always strong. 182., An adj. is often set in apposition to a following noun to denote part of it: eiga hÄlft dȳrit 'to have half of the animal,' Ç«nnur þau 'the rest of them,' of miðja nÄtt 'in the middle of the night.' Pronouns 183. sÄ is often put pleonastically before the definite article inn, both before and after the subst.: sÄ inn ungi maðr 'that young man,' hafit þat it djÅ«pa 'the deep sea.' 184. The definite article is generally not expressed at all, or else einn, einnhvÄrr is used. 185. A noun (often a proper name) is often put in apposition to a dual pron. of the first and second persons, or a plur. of the third person: þit fÄlagar, 'thou and thy companions,' með þeim Äka 'with him and Äki.' Similarly stÄndr ÃÅrr upp ok þeir fÄlagar 'Thor and his companions get up.' 186. The plurals vÄr, þÄr are sometimes used instead of the singulars ek, þū, especially when a king is speaking or being spoken to. 187. sik and sÄr are used in a strictly reflexive sense, referring back to the subject of the sentence, like se in Latin: Ãorr bauð honum til matar með sÄr 'Thor asked him to supper with him.' Verbs 188. The tenses for which there is no inflection in the active, and all those of the passive, are formed by the auxiliaries skal (shall), hafa (have), vera (be) with the infin. and ptc. pret., much as in modern English. 189. The historical present is much used, often alternating abruptly with the preterite. 190. The middle voice is used: (1) in a purely reflexive sense: spara 'spare,' sparask 'spare oneself, reserve one's strength.' (2) intransitively: bÅ«a 'prepare,' bÅ«ask 'become ready, be ready'; sÄtja 'set,' sÄtjask 'sit down'; sȳna 'show,' sȳnask 'appear, seem.' (3) reciprocally: bÄrja 'strike,' bÄrjask 'fight'; hitta, 'find,' hittask 'meet.' In other cases it specializes the meaning of the verb, often emphasizing the idea of energy or effort: koma 'come,' komask 'make one's way.' 191. The impersonal form of expression is widely used in Icelandic: rak Ä storm (acc.) fyrir þeim 'a storm was driven in their face.' 192. The indef. 'one' is expressed in the same way by the third pers. sg., and this form of expression is often used when the subject is perfectly definite: ok freista skal þessar īþrÅttar 'and this feat shall be tried (by you).'


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 193. The abrupt change from the indirect to the direct narration is very common: Haraldi konungi var sagt at þar var komit bjarndȳri, 'ok Ä ÄªslÄnzkr maðr,' 'King Harold was told that a bear had arrived, and that an Icelander owned it.' The direct narration is also used after at (that): hann svarar at 'ek skal rīða til HÄljar' 'he answers that he will ride to Hel.'

Texts I. Thor ÃÅrr er Äsanna framastr, sÄ er kallaðr er Äsa-þÅrr eða Ǫku-þÅrr; hann er stÄrkastr allra guðanna ok manna. Hann Ä Ã¾ar rÄ«ki er Ãrūð-vangar heita, en hÇ«ll hans heitir BilskÄ«rnir; Ä« þeim sal eru fimm hundruð gÅlfa ok fjÅrir tigir; þat er hÅ«s mest, svÄ at mÄnn hafa gÇ«Ìrt. ÃÅrr Ä hafra tvÄ, er svÄ heita, Tann-gnjÅstr ok Tann- grisnir, ok reið Ã¾Ä er hann Äkr, en hafrarnir draga reiðina; þvÄ« er hann kallaðr ǪkuþÅrr. Hann Ä ok þrjÄ kost-gripi. Einn þeira er hamarrinn MjÇ«llnir, er hrÄ«m-þursar ok berg- risar kÄnna, Ã¾Ä er hann kömr Ä lopt, ok er þat eigi undarligt: hann hÄfir lamit margan haus Ä fÄðrum eða frændum þeira. Annan grip Ä hann bÄztan, mÄgin-gjarðar; ok er hann spÄnnir þeim um sik, Ã¾Ä vÄx honum Äs-mÄgin hÄlfu. En þriðja hlut Ä hann þann er mikill gripr er Ä«, þat eru jÄrn- glÅfar; þeira mÄ hann eigi missa við hamarskaptit. En engi er svÄ frÅðr at tÄlja kunni Ç«ll stÅr-virki hans. II. Thor and Ūgarðaloki Ãat er upp-haf þessa mÄls at ǪkuþÅrr fÅr með hafra sÄ«na ok reið, ok með honum sÄ Äss er Loki er kallaðr; koma þeir at kveldi til eins bÅnda ok fÄ Ã¾ar nÄtt-stað. En um kveldit tÅk ÃÅrr hafra sÄ«na, ok skar bÄða; Äptir þat vÄru þeir flÄgnir ok bornir til kÄtils; en er soðit var, Ã¾Ä sÄttisk ÃÅrr til nÄtt-verðar ok þeir lags-mÄnn. ÃÅrr bauð til matar með sÄr bÅndanum, ok konu hans, ok bÇ«rnum þeira; sonr bÅnda hÄt ÃjÄlfi, en RÇ«skva dÅttir. ÃÄ lagði ÃÅrr hafr- stÇ«kurnar utar frÄ eldinum, ok mælti at bÅndi ok heima-mÄnn hans skyldu kasta Ä hafrstÇ«kurnar beinunum. ÃjÄlfi, sonr bÅnda, helt Ä lær-lÄgg hafrsins, ok sprÄtti Ä knÄ«fi sÄ«num, ok braut til mÄrgjar. ÃÅrr dvalðisk þar of nÄttina; en Ä« Åttu fyrir dag stÅð hann upp, ok klæddi sik, tÅk hamarinn MjÇ«llni ok brÄ upp, ok vÄ«gði hafrstÇ«kurnar; stÅðu Ã¾Ä upp hafrarnir, ok var Ã¾Ä annarr haltr Äptra fÅti. Ãat fann ÃÅrr, ok talði at bÅndinn eða hans hjÅn mundi eigi skynsamliga hafa farit með beinum hafrsins: kÄnnir hann at brotinn var lærlÄggrinn. Eigi þarf langt frÄ Ã¾vÄ« at sÄgja: vita mÄgu þat allir hvÄrsu hræddr bÅndinn mundi vera, er hann sÄ at ÃÅrr lÄt sÄ«ga brȳnnar ofan fyrir augun; en þat er sÄ augnanna, Ã¾Ä hugðisk hann falla mundu fyrir sjÅninni einni samt; hann hÄrði hÄndrnar at hamar-skaptinu svÄ at hvÄ«tnuðu knÅ«arnir. En bÅndinn gÇ«Ìrði sem vÄn var, ok Ç«ll hjÅnin: kÇ«lluðu Äka- fliga, bÄðu sÄr friðar, buðu at fyrir kvæmi alt þat er þau Ättu. En er hann sÄ hræzlu þeira, Ã¾Ä gekk af honum mÅðrinn, ok sefaðisk hann; ok tÅk af þeim Ä« sætt bÇ«rn þeira, ÃjÄlfa ok RÇ«sku, ok gÇ«Ìrðusk þau Ã¾Ä skyldir þjÅnustu- mÄnn ÃÅrs, ok fylgja þau honum jafnan sīðan. LÄt hann þar Äptir hafra, ok byrjaði fÄrðina austr Ä« JÇ«tun-heima, ok alt til hafsins; ok Ã¾Ä fÅr hann Å«t yfir hafit þat it djÅ«pa; en er hann kom til lands, Ã¾Ä gekk hann upp, ok með honum Loki, ok ÃjÄlfi, ok RÇ«skva. ÃÄ er þau hÇ«fðu lÄ«tla hrīð gÄngit, varð fyrir þeim mÇ«rk stÅr; gengu þau þann dag allan til myrkrs. ÃjÄlfi var allra manna fÅt-hvatastr; hann bar kȳl ÃÅrs, en til vista var eigi gott. ÃÄ er myrkt var orðit, leituðu þeir sÄr til nÄttstaðar, ok fundu fyrir sÄr skÄla nakkvarn mjÇ«k mikinn, vÄru dyrr Ä Ända, ok jafn-breiðar skÄlanum; þar leituðu þeir sÄr nÄtt- bÅls. En of miðja nÄtt varð land-skjÄlfti mikill, gekk jÇ«rðin undir þeim skykkjum, ok skalf hÅ«sit. ÃÄ stÅð ÃÅrr upp, ok hÄt Ä lagsmÄnn sÄ«na; ok leituðusk fyrir, ok fundu af-hÅ«s til hÅgri handar i miðjum skÄlanum, ok gengu þannig; sÄttisk ÃÅrr Ä« dyrrin, en Ç«nnur þau vÄru innar frÄ honum, ok vÄru þau hrædd, en ÃÅrr helt hamarskaptinu, ok hugði at vÄrja sik; Ã¾Ä heyrðu þau ym mikinn ok gnȳ. En er kom at dagan, Ã¾Ä gekk ÃÅrr Å«t, ok sÄr hvar lÄ maðr skamt frÄ honum Ä« skÅginum, ok var sÄ eigi lÄ«till; hann svaf, ok hraut stÄrkliga. ÃÄ Ã¾Åttisk ÃÅrr skiIja hvat lÄtum verit hafði of nÄttina; hann 33

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet spÄnnir sik mÄgingjÇ«rðum, ok Åx honum ÄsmÄgin; en Ä« þvÄ« vaknar maðr sÄ, ok stÅð skjÅtt upp; en Ã¾Ä er sagt at ÃÅr varð bilt einu sinni at slÄ hann með ham- rinum; ok spurði hann at nafni, en sÄ nÄfndisk Skrȳmir: 'en eigi þarf ek,' sagði hann, 'at spyrja þik at nafni: kÄnni ek at þū ert ÄsaþÅrr; en hvÄrt hÄfir þū drÄgit Ä braut hanzka minn?' Seildisk Ã¾Ä Skrȳmir til, ok tÅk upp hanzka sinn; sÄr ÃÅrr Ã¾Ä at þat hafði hann haft of nÄttina fyrir skÄla, en afhÅ«sit þat var þumlungrinn hanzkans. Skrȳmir spurði ef ÃÅrr vildi hafa fÇ«ru-neyti hans, en ÃÅrr jÄtti þvÄ«. ÃÄ tÅk Skrȳmir ok leysti nestbagga sinn, ok bjÅsk til at eta dÇ«gurð, en ÃÅrr Ä« ǫðrum stað ok hans fÄlagar. Skrȳmir bauð Ã¾Ä at þeir lÄgði mÇ«tu-neyti sitt, en ÃÅrr jÄtti þvÄ«; Ã¾Ä batt Skrȳmir nest þeira alt Ä« einn bagga, ok lagði Ä bak sÄr; hann gekk fyrir of daginn, ok steig hÄldr stÅrum, en sīðan at kveldi leitaði Skrȳmir þeim nÄttstaðar undir eik nakkvarri mikilli. ÃÄ mælti Skrȳmir til ÃÅrs at hann vill lÄggjask niðr at sofna; 'en þÄr takið nest-baggann, ok bÅ«ið til nÄtt-verðar yðr.' ÃvÄ« næst sofnar Skrȳmir, ok hraut fast; en ÃÅrr tÅk nest-baggann ok skal leysa; en svÄ er at sÄgja, sem Å«-trÅ«ligt mun þykkja, at engi knÅ«t fekk hann leyst, ok engi Älar- Ändann hreyft, svÄ at Ã¾Ä væri lausari en Äðr. Ok er hann sÄr at þetta verk mÄ eigi nȳtask, Ã¾Ä varð hann reiðr, greip Ã¾Ä hamarinn MjÇ«llni tveim hÇ«ndum, ok steig fram ǫðrum fÅti at þar er Skrȳmir lÄ, ok lȳstr Ä« hÇ«fuð honum; en Skrȳmir vaknar, ok spyrr hvÄrt laufs-blað nakkvat felli Ä« hÇ«fuð honum, eða hvÄrt þeir hÄfði Ã¾Ä matazk, ok sÄ bÅ«nir til rÄkkna. ÃÅrr sÄgir at þeir munu Ã¾Ä sofa ganga. Ganga þau Ã¾Ä undir aðra eik. Er þat þÄr satt at sÄgja, at ekki var Ã¾Ä Åttalaust at sofa. En at miðri nÄtt Ã¾Ä heyrir ÃÅrr at Skrȳmir hrȳtr, ok söfr fast, svÄ at dunar Ä« skÅginum. ÃÄ stÄndr hann upp, ok gÄngr til hans, reiðir hamarinn tÄ«tt ok hart, ok lȳstr ofan Ä« miðjan hvirfil honum; hann kÄnnir at hamars-muðrinn sökkr djÅ«pt Ä« hÇ«fuðit. En Ä« þvÄ« bili vaknar Skrȳmir, ok mælti: 'hvat er nÅ«? fell akarn nakkvat Ä« hÇ«fuð mÄr? eða hvat er tÄ«tt um þik, ÃÅrr?' En ÃÅrr gekk aptr skyndiliga, ok svarar at hann var Ã¾Ä nȳvaknaðr, sagði at Ã¾Ä var mið nÄtt, ok enn væri mÄl at sofa. ÃÄ hugsaði ÃÅrr þat, ef hann kvæmi svÄ Ä« fÅri at slÄ hann it þriðja hÇ«gg, at aldri skyldi hann sjÄ sik sīðan; liggr nÅ« ok gætir ef Skrȳmir sofnaði fast. En lÄ«tlu fyrir dagan Ã¾Ä heyrir hann at Skrȳmir mun sofnat hafa; stÄndr Ã¾Ä upp, ok hleypr at honum, reiðir Ã¾Ä hamarinn af Ç«llu afli ok lȳstr Ä Ã¾unn-vangann þann er upp vissi; sökkr Ã¾Ä hamarrinn upp at skaptinu. En Skrȳ- mir sÄttisk upp, ok strauk of vangann, ok mælti: 'hvÄrt munu fuglar nakkvarir sitja Ä« trÄnu yfir mÄr? mik grunaði, er ek vaknaða, at tros nakkvat af kvistunum felli Ä« hÇ«fuð mÄr; hvÄrt vakir þū, ÃÅrr? MÄl mun vera upp at standa ok klæðask, en ekki eigu þÄr nÅ« langa leið fram til borgar- innar er kÇ«lluð er Ūt-garðr. Heyrt hÄfi ek at þÄr hafið kvisat Ä« milli yðvar at ek væra ekki lÄ«till maðr vÄxti, en sjÄ skulu þÄr þar stÅrri mÄnn, er þÄr komið Ä« Ūtgarð. NÅ« mun ek rÄða yðr heil-ræði: lÄti þÄr eigi stÅrliga yfir yðr, ekki munu hirðmÄnn Ūtgarða-loka vel þola þvÄ«lÄ«kum kÇ«gur- sveinum kÇ«pur-yrði; en at ǫðrum kosti hverfið aptr, ok þann ætla ek yðr bÄtra af at taka. En ef þÄr vilið fram fara, Ã¾Ä stÄfni þÄr Ä« austr, en ek Ä nÅ« norðr leið til fjalla þessa er nÅ« munu þÄr sjÄ mega.' TÄkr Skrȳmir nest-bag- garm, ok kastar Ä bak sÄr, ok snȳr þvÄrs Ä braut Ä« skÅginn frÄ Ã¾eim, ok er þess eigi getit at æsirnir bæði Ã¾Ä heila hittask. ÃÅrr fÅr fram Ä leið ok þeir fÄlagar, ok gekk fram til miðs dags; Ã¾Ä sÄ Ã¾eir borg standa Ä vÇ«llum nÇ«kkurum, ok sÄttu hnakkann Ä bak sÄr aptr, Äðr þeir fengu sÄt yfir upp; ganga til borgarinnar, ok var grind fyri borg-hliðinu, ok lokin aptr. ÃÅrr gekk Ä grindina, ok fekk eigi upp lokit; en er þeir þreyttu at komask Ä« borgina, Ã¾Ä smugu þeir milli spalanna ok kÅmu svÄ inn; sÄ Ã¾Ä hÇ«ll mikla, ok gengu þannig; var hurðin opin; Ã¾Ä gengu þeir inn, ok sÄ Ã¾ar marga mÄnn Ä tvÄ bÄkki, ok flesta Årit stÅra. ÃvÄ« næst koma þeir fyrir konunginn, Ūtgarðaloka, ok kvÇ«ddu hann, en hann leit seint til þeira, ok glotti um tÇ«nn, ok mælti: 'seint er um langan veg at spyrja tīðinda, eða er annan veg en ek hygg, at þessi svein-stauli sÄ ÇªkuþÅrr? en meiri muntu vera en mÄr lÄ«zk þū; eða hvat īþrÅtta er þat er þÄr fÄlagar þykkizk vera við bÅ«nir? Engi skal hÄr vera með oss sÄ er eigi kunni nakkvars konar list eða kunnandi um fram flesta mÄnn.' ÃÄ sÄgir sÄ er sīðast gekk, er Loki heitir: 'kann ek Ã¾Ä Ä«Ã¾rÅtt, er ek em al-bÅ«inn at reyna, at engi er hÄr sÄ inni er skjÅtara skal eta mat sinn en ek.' ÃÄ svarar Ūtgarðaloki: 'īþrÅtt er þat, ef þū Äfnir, ok freista skal Ã¾Ä Ã¾essar īþrÅttar;' kallaði utar Ä bÄkkinn at sÄ er Logi heitir skal ganga Ä gÅlf fram, ok freista sÄ«n Ä« mÅti Loka. ÃÄ var tÄkit trog eitt, ok borit inn Ä hallar- gÅlfit, ok fylt af slÄtri; sÄttisk Loki at ǫðrum Ända, en 34

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Logi at ǫðrum, ok Ät hvÄrr-tvÄggja sem tīðast, ok mÅttusk Ä« miðju troginu; hafði Ã¾Ä Loki etit slÄtr alt af beinum, en Logi hafði ok etit slÄtr alt ok beinin með, ok svÄ trogit; ok sȳndisk nÅ« Ç«llum sem Loki hÄfði lÄtit leikinn. ÃÄ spyrr Ūtgarðaloki hvat sÄ inn ungi maðr kunni leika. En ÃjÄlfi sÄgir at hann mun freista at rÄnna skeið nÇ«kkur við einn-hvÄrn þann er Ūtgarðaloki fær til. Hann sÄgir, Ūtgarða]oki, at þetta er gÅð īþrÅtt, ok kallar þess meiri vÄn at hann sÄ vel at sÄr bÅ«inn of skjÅtleikinn, ef hann skal þessa īþrÅtt inna; en þŠlætr hann skjÅtt þessa skulu freista. StÄndr Ã¾Ä upp Ūtgarða- loki, ok gÄngr Å«t, ok var þar gott skeið at rÄnna Äptir slÄttum vÄlli. ÃÄ kallar Ūtgarðaloki til sÄ«n sveinstaula nakkvarn, er nÄfndr er Hugi, ok bað hann rÄnna Ä« kÇ«pp við ÃjÄlfa. ÃÄ taka þeir it fyrsta skeið, ok er Hugi þvÄ« framar at hann snȳsk aptr Ä« mÅti honum at skeiðs Ända. ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarða- loki: 'þurfa muntu, ÃjÄlfi, at lÄggja þik meir fram, ef þū skalt vinna leikinn; en þŠer þat satt, at ekki hafa hÄr komit þeir mÄnn er mÄr þykkja fÅthvatari en svÄ.' ÃÄ taka þeir aptr annat skeið, ok Ã¾Ä er Hugi er kominn til skeiðs Ända, ok hann snȳsk aptr, Ã¾Ä var langt kÅlf-skot til ÃjÄlfa. ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'vel þykkir mÄr ÃjÄlfi rÄnna; en eigi trÅ«i ek honum nÅ« at hann vinni leikinn, en nÅ« mun reyna, er þeir rÄnna it þriðja skeiðit.' ÃÄ taka þeir Änn skeið; en er Hugi er kominn til skeiðs Ända ok snȳsk aptr, ok er ÃjÄlfi eigi Ã¾Ä kominn Ä mitt skeiðit; Ã¾Ä sÄgja allir at reynt er um þenna leik. ÃÄ spyrr Ūtgarðaloki ÃÅr, hvat þeira īþrÅtta mun vera er hann muni vilja birta fyrir þeim, svÄ miklar sÇ«gur sem mÄnn hafa gÇ«Ìrt um stÅrvirki hans. ÃÄ mælti ÃÅrr at hÄlzt vill hann þat taka til, at þreyta drykkju við einnhvÄrn mann. Ūtgarðaloki sÄgir at þat mÄ vel vera; ok gÄngr inn Ä« hÇ«llina, ok kallar skutil-svein sinn, biðr at hann taki vÄ«tis-horn þat, er hirðmÄnn eru vanir at drekka af. ÃvÄ« næst kömr fram skutilsveinn með horninu, ok fær ÃÅr Ä« hÇ«nd. ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'af horni þessu þykkir Ã¾Ä vel drukkit, ef Ä« einum drykk gÄngr af, en sumir mÄnn drekka af Ä« tveim drykkjum, en engi er svÄ lÄ«till drykkju- maðr, at eigi gangi af Ä« þrimr.' ÃÅrr lÄ«tr Ä hornit, ok sȳnisk ekki mikit, ok er þŠhÄldr langt, en hann er mjÇ«k þyrstr; tÄkr at drekka, ok svelgr allstÅrum, ok hyggr at eigi skal þurfa at lÅ«ta optar at sinni Ä« hornit. En er hann þraut örindit, ok hann laut År horninu, ok sÄr hvat leið drykkinum, ok lÄ«zk honum svÄ, sem all-lÄ«till munr mun vera at nÅ« sÄ lægra Ä« horninu en Äðr. ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'vel er drukkit, ok eigi til mikit; eigi munda-k trÅ«a, ef mÄr væri sagt frÄ, at ÄsaþÅrr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka; en þŠveit ek at þū munt vilja drekka af Ä« ǫðrum drykk.' ÃÅrr svarar engu, sÄtr hornit Ä munn sÄr, ok hyggr nÅ« at hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok þreytir Ä drykkjuna, sem honum vannsk til örindi, ok sÄr Änn at stikillinn hornsins vill ekki upp svÄ mjÇ«k sem honum lÄ«kar; ok er hann tÅk hornit af munni sÄr ok sÄr, lÄ«zk honum nÅ« svÄ, sem minna hafi þorrit en Ä« inu fyrra sinni; er nÅ« gott beranda borð Ä horninu. ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'hvat er nÅ«, ÃÅrr? muntu nÅ« eigi sparask til eins drykkjar meira en þÄr mun hagr Ä vera? SvÄ lÄ«zk mÄr, ef þū skalt nÅ« drekka af horninu inn þriðja drykkinn, sem þessi mun mestr ætlaðr; en ekki muntu mega hÄr með oss heita svÄ mikill maðr sem æsir kalla þik, ef þū gÇ«Ìrir eigi meira af þÄr um aðra leika en mÄr lÄ«zk sem um þenna mun vera.' ÃÄ varð ÃÅrr reiðr, sÄtr hornit Ä munn sÄr, ok drekkr sem Äkafligast mÄ hann, ok þreytir sem lÄngst Ä drykkinn; en er hann sÄ Ä« hornit, Ã¾Ä hafði nÅ« hÄlzt nakkvat munr Ä fÄngizk, ok Ã¾Ä bȳðr hann upp hornit, ok vill eigi drekka meira. ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'auð-sÄt er nÅ« at mÄttr þinn er ekki svÄ mikill sem vÄr hugðum; en vill-tu freista um fleiri leika? SjÄ mÄ nÅ«, at ekki nȳtir þū hÄr af.' ÃÅrr svarar: 'freista mÄ ek Änn of nakkvara leika, en undarliga mundi mÄr þykkja, Ã¾Ä er ek var heima með Äsum, ef þvÄ«lÄ«kir drykkir væri svÄ lÄ«tlir kallaðir. En hvat leik vili þÄr nÅ« bjÅða mÄr?' ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'þat gÇ«Ìra hÄr ungir sveinar er lÄ«tit mark mun at þykkja, at hÄfja upp af jÇ«rðu kÇ«tt minn; en eigi munda-k kunna at mæla þvÄ«lÄ«kt við ÄsaþÅr, ef ek hÄfða eigi sÄt fyrr at þū ert miklu minni fyrir þÄr en ek hugða.' ÃvÄ« næst hljÅp fram kÇ«ttr einn grÄr Ä hallargÅlfit, ok hÄldr mikill; en ÃÅrr gekk til, ok tÅk hÄndi sinni niðr undir miðjan kviðinn, ok lypti upp, en kÇ«ttrinn beygði kÄnginn, svÄ sem ÃÅrr rÄtti upp hÇ«ndina; en er ÃÅrr seildisk svÄ langt upp sem hann mÄtti lÄngst, Ã¾Ä lÄtti kÇ«ttrinn einum fÅti, ok fær ÃÅrr eigi framit þenna leik. ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'svÄ fÅr þessi leikr sem mik varði; kÇ«ttrinn er hÄldr mikill, en ÃÅrr er lÄgr ok lÄ«till hjÄ stÅr- mÄnni þvÄ« sem hÄr er með oss.' ÃÄ mælti ÃÅrr: 'svÄ lÄ«tinn sem pÄr kallið mik, Ã¾Ä gangi nÅ« til einnhvÄrr, ok fÄisk við mik; nÅ« em ek reiðr.' ÃÄ svarar Ūtgarðaloki, ok litask um Ä bÄkkina, ok mælti: 'eigi sÄ ek þann mann hÄr inni, er eigi mun lÄ«til-ræði Ä« þykkja at fÄsk við 35

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet þik;' ok Änn mælti hann: 'sjÄm fyrst, kalli mÄr hingat kÄrlinguna, fÅstru mÄ«na Älli, ok fÄisk ÃÅrr við hana, ef hann vill; fÄlt hÄfir hon Ã¾Ä mÄnn er mÄr hafa litizk eigi Å«-stÄrkligri en ÃÅrr er.' ÃvÄ« næst gekk Ä« hÇ«llina kÄrling ein gÇ«mul. ÃÄ mælti Ūtgar- ðaloki, at hon skal taka fang við ÄsaþÅr. Ekki er langt um. at gÇ«Ìra: svÄ fÅr fang þat at þvÄ« harðara er ÃÅrr knūðisk at fanginu, þvÄ« fastara stÅð hon; Ã¾Ä tÅk kÄrling at leita til þragða, ok varð ÃÅrr Ã¾Ä lauss Ä fÅtum, ok vÄru þær svip- tingar all-harðar, ok eigi lÄngi Äðr en ÃÅrr fell Ä knÄ Ç«Ã°rum fÅti. ÃÄ gekk til Ūtgarðaloki, bað þau hætta fanginu, ok sagði svÄ, at ÃÅrr mundi eigi þurfa at bjÅða fleirum mÇ«nnum fang Ä« hans hÇ«ll; var Ã¾Ä ok liðit Ä nÄtt, vÄ«saði Ūtgarðaloki ÃÅr ok þeim fÄlÇ«gum til sætis, ok dvÄljask þar nÄtt-langt Ä« gÅðum fagnaði. En at morgni, þegar dagaði, stÄndr ÃÅrr upp ok þeir fÄlagar, klæða sik, ok eru bÅ«nir braut at ganga. ÃÄ kom þar Ūtgarðaloki, ok lÄt sÄtja þeim borð; skorti Ã¾Ä eigi gÅðan fagnað, mat ok drykk. En er þeir hafa matazk, Ã¾Ä snÅ«ask þeir til fÄrðar. Ūtgarðaloki fylgir þeim Å«t, gÄngr með þeim braut År borginni; en at skilnaði Ã¾Ä mælti Ūtgar- ðaloki til ÃÅrs, ok spyrr hvÄrnig honum þykkir fÄrð sÄ«n orðin, eða hvÄrt hann hÄfir hitt rÄ«kara mann nakkvarn en sik. ÃÅrr svarar at eigi mun hann þat sÄgja, at eigi hafi hann mikla Å«-sÅmð farit Ä« þeira við-skiptum; 'en þŠveit ek at þÄr munuð kalla mik lÄ«tinn mann fyrir mÄr, ok uni ek þvÄ« illa.' ÃÄ mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'nÅ« skal sÄgja þÄr it sanna, er þū ert Å«t kominn År borginni--ok ef ek lifi ok mega-k rÄða, Ã¾Ä skaltu aldri optar Ä« hana koma; ok þat veit trÅ«a mÄ«n, at aldri hÄfðir þū Ä« hana komit, ef ek hÄfða vitat Äðr at þū hÄfðir svÄ mikinn krapt með þÄr, ok þū hafðir svÄ nær haft oss mikilli Å«-fÅru. En sjÅn-hvÄrfingar hÄfi ek gÇ«Ìrt þÄr, svÄ at fyrsta sinn, er ek fann þik Ä skÅginum, kom ek til fundar við yðr; ok Ã¾Ä er þū skyldir leysa nestbaggann, Ã¾Ä hafða-k bundit með gres-jÄrni, en þū fannt eigi hvar upp skyldi lÅ«ka. En þvÄ« næst laust þū mik með hamrinum þrjÅ« hÇ«gg, ok var it fyrsta minst, ok var þŠsvÄ mikit, at mÄr mundi Ändask til bana, ef Ä hÄfði komit; en þar er þū sÄtt hjÄ hÇ«ll minni set-berg, ok þar sÄtt-u ofan Ä« þrjÄ dala fer- skeytta ok einn djÅ«pastan, þat vÄru hamarspor þin; setber- ginu brÄ ek fyrir hÇ«ggin en eigi sÄtt þū þat. SvÄ var ok of leikana, er þÄr þreyttuð við hirðmÄnn mÄ«na. ÃÄ var þat it fyrsta, er Loki gÇ«Ìrði; hann var mjÇ«k soltinn, ok Ät tÄ«tt; en sÄ er Logi hÄt, þat var villi-eldr, ok brÄndi hann eigi seinna slÄtrit en trogit. En er ÃjÄlfi þreytti rÄsina við þann er Hugi hÄt, þat var hugi minn, ok var ÃjÄlfa eigi vænt at þreyta skjÅt-fÅri við hann. En er þū drakkt af horninu, ok þÅtti þÄr seint līða,--en þat veit trÅ«a mÄ«n, at Ã¾Ä varð þat undr, er ek munda eigi trÅ«a at vera mætti; annarr Ändir hornsins var Å«t Ä« hafi, en þat sÄttu eigi; en nÅ«, er þū kömr til sævarins, Ã¾Ä mun-tu sjÄ mega, hvÄrn þurð þū hÄfir drukkit Ä sænum.' Ãat eru nÅ« fjÇ«rur kallaðar. Ok Änn mælti hann: 'eigi þÅtti mÄr hitt minna vera vert, er þū lyptir upp kÄt- tinum, ok þÄr satt at sÄgja, Ã¾Ä hræddusk allir þeir er sÄ, er þū lyptir af jÇ«rðu einum fÅtinum; en sÄ kÇ«ttr var eigi sem þÄr sȳndisk; þat var Miðgarðs-ormr, er liggr um lÇ«nd Ç«ll, ok vannsk honum varliga lÄngðin til, at jÇ«rðina tÅki sporðr ok hÇ«fuð; ok svÄ langt seildisk þū upp at skamt var Ã¾Ä til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er þū fekkzk við Älli; fyrir þvÄ« at engi hÄfir sÄ orðit, ok engi mun verða, ef svÄ gamall er at Älli bīðr, at eigi komi Ällin Ç«llum til falls. Ok er nÅ« þat sÄtt at sÄgja, at vÄr munum skiljask, ok mun Ã¾Ä bÄtr hvÄrratvÄggju handar at þÄr komið eigi optar mik at hitta; ek mun Änn annat sinn vÄrja borg mÄ«na með þvÄ«lÄ«kum vÄlum eða ǫðrum, svÄ at ekki vald munu þÄr Ä mÄr fÄ.' En er ÃÅrr heyrði þessa tÇ«lu, greip hann til hamarsins, ok bregðr Ä lopt; en er hann skal fram reiða, Ã¾Ä sÄr hann þar hvÄrgi Ūtgarðaloka, ok Ã¾Ä snȳsk hann aptr til borgarinnar, ok ætlask Ã¾Ä fyrir at brjÅta borgina; Ã¾Ä sÄr hann þar vÇ«llu vīða ok fagra, en enga borg. Snȳsk hann Ã¾Ä aptr, ok fÄrr leið sina, til þess er hann kom aptr Ä« Ãrūð- vanga. III. Balder Annarr sonr Åðins er Baldr, ok er frÄ honum gott at sÄgja: hann er bÄztr, ok hann lofa allir. Hann er svÄ fagr Ä-litum ok bjartr svÄ at lȳsir af honum; ok eitt gras er svÄ hvÄ«tt at jafnat er til Baldrs brÄr, þat er allra grasa hvÄ«tast; ok þar Äptir mÄttu marka hans fÄgrð, bæði Ä hÄr ok Ä lÄ«ki; hann er vitrastr Äsanna, ok fÄgrstr taliðr ok lÄ«knsamastr. En sÅ« nÄttÅ«ra fylgir honum at engi mÄ haldask dÅmr hans. Hann bȳr þar sem heitir Breiða-blik, þat er Ä himni; Ä« þeim stað mÄ ekki vera Å«-hreint, svÄ 36

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet sem hÄr sÄgir: Breiðablik heita, þar er Baldr hÄfir sÄr of gÇ«Ìrva sali; Ä« þvÄ« landi er ek liggja veit fæsta feikn-stafi. IV. The Death of Balder Ãat er upphaf þessar sÇ«gu, at Baldr inn gÅða dreymði drauma stÅra ok hættliga um lÄ«f sitt. En er hann sagði Äsunum draumana, Ã¾Ä bÄru þeir saman rÄð sÄ«n, ok var þat gÇ«Ìrt at beiða griða Baldri fyrir alls konar hÄska; ok Frigg tÅk svardaga til þess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, jÄrn ok alls konar mÄlmr, steinar, jÇ«rðin, viðirnir, sÅttirnar, dȳrin, fuglarnir, eitr, ormar. En er þetta var gÇ«Ìrt ok vitat, Ã¾Ä var þat skÄmtun Baldrs ok Äsanna at hann skyldi standa upp Ä Ã¾ingum, en allir aðrir skyldu sumir skjÅta Ä hann, sumir hÇ«ggva til, sumir bÄrja grjÅti. En hvat sem at var gÇ«Ìrt, sakaði hann ekki, ok þÅtti þetta Ç«llum mikill frami. En er þetta sÄ Loki Laufeyjar-son, Ã¾Ä lÄ«kaði honum illa er Baldr sakaði ekki. Hann gekk til FÄn-salar til Friggjar, ok brÄ sÄr Ä« konu lÄ«ki; Ã¾Ä spyrr Frigg ef sÅ« kona vissi hvat æsir hÇ«fðusk at Ä Ã¾inginu. Hon sagði at allir skutu at Baldri, ok þat, at hann sakaði ekki. ÃÄ mælti Frigg: 'eigi munu vÄpn eða viðir granda Baldri; eiða hÄfi ek þÄgit af Ç«llum þeim.' ÃÄ spyrr konan: 'hafa allir hlutir eiða unnit at eira Baldri?' ÃÄ svarar Frigg: 'vÄx viðar-teinungr einn fyrir vestan Val-hÇ«ll; sÄ er Mistilteinn kallaðr; sÄ Ã¾Åtti mÄr ungr at krÄfja eiðsins.' ÃvÄ« næst hvarf konan Ä braut; en Loki tÅk Mistiltein ok sleit upp, ok gekk til þings. En Hǫðr stÅð utarliga Ä« mannhringinum, þvÄ« at hann var blindr. ÃÄ mælti Loki við hann: 'hvÄ« skȳtr þū ekki at Baldri?' Hann svarar: 'þvÄ« at ek sÄ eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok þat annat, at ek em vapnlauss.' ÃÄ mælti Loki: 'gÇ«Ìr-ðu þŠī lÄ«king annarra, manna, ok veit Baldri sÅmð sem aðrir mÄnn; ek mun vÄ«sa þÄr til, hvar hann stÄndr; skjÅt at honum vÄndi þessum.' Hǫðr tÅk Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri at tilvÄ«sun Loka; flaug skotit Ä« gÄgnum hann, ok fell hann dauðr til jarðar; ok hÄfir þat mest Å«-happ verit unnit með goðum ok mÇ«nnum. ÃÄ er Baldr var fallinn, Ã¾Ä fellusk Ç«llum Äsum orð-tÇ«k, ok svÄ hÄndr at taka til hans; ok sÄ hvÄrr til annars, ok vÄru allir með einum hug til þess er unnit hafði verkit; en engi mÄtti hÄfna: þar var svÄ mikill griða-staðr. En Ã¾Ä er æsirnir freistuðu at mæla, Ã¾Ä var hitt þŠfyrr, at grÄtrinn kom upp, svÄ at engi mÄtti ǫðrum sÄgja með orðunum frÄ sÄ«num harmi. En Åðinn bar þeim mun vÄrst þenna skaða, sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hvÄrsu mikil af-taka ok missa Äsunum var Ä« frÄ-falli Baldrs. En er goðin vitkuðusk, Ã¾Ä mælti Frigg ok spurði, hvÄrr sÄ væri með Äsum, er eignask vildi allar Ästir hennar ok hylli, ok vili hann rīða Ä hÄl-veg ok freista ef hann fÄi fundit Baldr, ok bjÅða HÄlju Å«t-lausn, ef hon vill lÄta fara Baldr heim Ä« Äs-garð. En sÄ er nÄfndr HÄrmÅðr inn hvati, sonr Åðins, er til þeirar farar varð. ÃÄ var tÄkinn Sleipnir, hestr Åðins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig HÄrmÅðr Ä Ã¾ann hest, ok hleypði braut. En æsirnir tÅku lÄ«k Baldrs ok fluttu til sævar. Hring- horni hÄt skip Baldrs, hann var allra skipa mestr; hann vildu goðin fram sÄtja, ok gÇ«Ìra þar Ä bÄl-fÇ«r Baldrs; en skipit gekk hvÄrgi fram. ÃÄ var sÄnt Ä« JÇ«tunheima Äptir gȳgi þeiri er Hyrrokin hÄt; en er hon kom, ok reið vargi, ok hafði hÇ«gg-orm at taumum, Ã¾Ä hljÅp hon af hestinum, en Åðinn kallaði til ber-sÄrki fjÅra at gæta hestsins, ok fengu þeir eigi haldit, nema þeir fÄldi hann. ÃÄ gekk Hyrrokin Ä fram-stafn nÇ«kkvans, ok hratt fram Ä« fyrsta við-bragði, svÄ at eldr hraut År hlunnunum, ok lÇ«nd Ç«ll skulfu. ÃÄ varð ÃÅrr reiðr, ok greip hamarinn, ok mundi Ã¾Ä brjÅta hÇ«fuð hÄnnar, Äðr en goðin Ç«ll bÄðu hÄnni friðar. ÃÄ var borit Å«t Ä skipit lÄ«k Baldrs; ok er þat sÄ kona hans, Nanna, Neps dÅttir, Ã¾Ä sprakk hon af harmi, ok dÅ; var hon borin Ä bÄlit, ok slÄgit Ä« eldi. ÃÄ stÅð ÃÅrr at, ok vÄ«gði bÄlit með MjÇ«llni; en fyrir fÅtum hans rann dvergr nakkvarr, sÄ er Litr nÄfndr; en ÃÅrr spyrndi fÅti sÄ«num Ä hann, ok hratt honum Ä« eldinn, ok brann hann. En at þessi brÄnnu sÅtti margs konar þjÅð: fyrst at sÄgja frÄ Åðni, at með honum fÅr Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans; en Freyr Åk Ä« kÄrru með gÄlti þeim er Gullin-bursti heitir eða Slīðrug-tanni; en Heimdallr reið hesti þeim er Gull-toppr heitir; en Freyja kÇ«ttum sÄ«num. Ãar kömr ok mikit fÅlk hrÄ«mþursa, ok berg- risar. Åðinn lagði Ä bÄlit gullhring þann er Draupnir heitir; honum fylgði sīðan sÅ« nÄttÅ«ra, at hina nÄ«undu hvÄrja nÄtt drupu af honum Ätta gullhringar jafn-hÇ«fgir. Hestr Baldrs var leiddr Ä bÄlit með Ç«llu reiði. En þat er at sÄgja frÄ HÄrmÅði, at hann reið nÄ«u nætr dökkva dala ok djÅ«pa, svÄ at hann sÄ ekki, fyrr en hann kom til Ärinnar Gjallar, ok reið Ä Gjallar-brÅ«na; hon er þǫkð lȳsi-gulli. 37

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet MÅðguðr er nÄfnd mær sÅ« er gætir brÅ«ar- innar; hon spurði hann at nafni eða ætt, ok sagði at hinn fyrra dag riðu um brÅ«na fimm fylki dauðra manna; 'en eigi dynr brÅ«in minnr undir einum þÄr, ok eigi hÄfir þū lit dauðra manna; hvÄ« rīðr þū hÄr Ä hÄlveg?' Hann svarar at 'ek skal rīða til hÄljar at leita Baldrs, eða hvÄrt hÄfir þū nakkvat sÄt Baldr Ä hÄlvegi?' En hon sagði at Baldr hafði þar riðit um GjallarbrÅ«; 'en niðr ok norðr liggr hÄlvegr.' ÃÄ reið HÄrmÅðr þar til er hann kom at hÄl-grindum; Ã¾Ä steig hann af hestinum, ok gyrði hann fast, steig upp, ok keyrði hann sporum, en hestrinn hljÅp svÄ hart, ok yfir grindina, at hann kom hvÄrgi nær. ÃÄ reið HÄrmÅðr heim til hallar- innar, ok steig af hesti, gekk inn Ä« hÇ«llina, sÄ Ã¾ar sitja Ä« Ç«ndvegi Baldr, brÅður sinn; ok dvalðisk HÄrmÅðr þar um nÄttina. En at morgni Ã¾Ä beiddisk HÄrmÅðr af HÄlju at Baldr skyldi rīða heim með honum, ok sagði hvÄrsu mikill grÄtr var með Äsum. En HÄl sagði at þat skyldi svÄ reyna, hvÄrt Baldr var svÄ Äst-sæll sem sagt er; 'ok ef allir hlutir Ä« heiminum, kykvir ok dauðir, grÄta hann, Ã¾Ä skal hann fara til Äsa aptr, en haldask með HÄlju, ef nakkvarr mællr við, eða vill eigi grÄta.' ÃÄ stÅð HÄrmÅðr upp, en Baldr leiðir hann Å«t År hÇ«llinni, ok tÅk hringinn Draupni, ok sÄndi Åðni til minja, en Nanna sÄndi Frigg ripti ok Änn fleiri gjafar, Fullu fingr-gull. ÃÄ reið HÄrmÅðr aptr leið sÄ«na, ok kom Ä« Äsgarð, ok sagði Ç«ll tīðindi þau er hann hafði sÄt ok heyrt. ÃvÄ« næst sÄndu æsir um allan heim örind-reka, at biðja at Baldr væri grÄtinn År hÄlju; en allir gÇ«Ìrðu þat, mÄnninir, ok kykvendin, ok jÇ«rðin, ok steinarnir, ok trÄ, ok allr mÄlmr; svÄ sem þū munt sÄt hafa, at þessir hlutir grÄta, Ã¾Ä er þeir koma År frosti ok Ä« hita. ÃÄ er sÄndi-mÄnn fÅru heim, ok hÇ«fðu vel rekit sÄ«n örindi, finna þeir Ä« hÄlli nÇ«kkurum hvar gȳgr sat; hon nÄfndisk ÃÇ«kk. Ãeir biðja hana grÄta Baldr År hÄlju. Hon svarar: 'ÃÇ«kk mun grÄta þurrum tÄrum Baldrs bÄlfarar; kyks nÄ dauðs naut-k-a-k karls sonar; haldi HÄl þvÄ« es hÄfir!' En þess geta mÄnn, at þar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjar-son, er flest hÄfir ilt gÇ«Ìrt með Äsum. V. HÄðinn and HÇ«gni Konungr sÄ er HÇ«gni er nÄfndr Ätti dÅttur, er Hildr hÄt. Hana tÅk at hÄr-fangi konungr sÄ er HÄðinn hÄt, Hjarranda- son. ÃÄ var HÇ«gni konungr farinn Ä« konunga-stÄfnu; en er hann spurði at hÄrjat var Ä« rÄ«ki hans, ok dÅttir hans var Ä« braut tÄkin, Ã¾Ä fÅr hann með sÄ«nu liði at leita HÄðins, ok spurði til hans at HÄðinn hafði siglt norðr með landi. ÃÄ er HÇ«gni konungr kom Ä« Noreg, spurði hann at HÄðinn hafði siglt vestr um haf. ÃÄ siglir HÇ«gni Äptir honum allt til Orkn-eyja; ok er hann kom þar sem heitir HÄ-ey, Ã¾Ä var þar fyrir HÄðinn með lið sitt. ÃÄ fÅr Hildr Ä fund fǫður sÄ«ns, ok bauð honum mÄn at sætt af hÄndi HÄðins, en Ä« ǫðru orði sagði hon at HÄðinn væri bÅ«inn at bÄrjask, ok ætti HÇ«gni af honum engrar vægðar vÄn. HÇ«gni svÄrar stirt dÅttur sinni; en er hon hitti HÄðin, sagði hon honum, at HÇ«gni vildi enga sætt, ok bað hann bÅ«ask til orrostu, ok svÄ gÇ«Ìra þeir hvÄrir-tvÄggju, ganga upp Ä eyna, ok fylkja liðinu. ÃÄ kallar HÄðinn Ä HÇ«gna, mÄg sinn, ok bauð honum sætt ok mikit gull at bÅtum. ÃÄ svarar HÇ«gni: 'of sīð bauzt-u þetta, ef þū vill sættask, þvÄ« at nÅ« hÄfi ek drÄgit DÄins-leif, er dvergarnir gÇ«Ìrðu, er manns bani skal verða, hvÄrt sinn er bÄrt er, ok aldri bilar Ä« hÇ«ggvi, ok ekki sÄr grÅr, ef þar skeinisk af.' ÃÄ svarar HÄðinn: 'sverði hÅlir þū þar, en eigi sigri; þat kalla ek gott hvÄrt er drÅttin- holt er.' ÃÄ hÅfu þeir orrostu Ã¾Ä er Hjaðninga-vÄ«g er kallat, ok bÇ«rðusk þann dag allan, ok at kveldi fÅru konungar til skipa. En Hildr gekk of nÄttina til valsins, ok vakði upp með fjÇ«lkyngi alla Ã¾Ä er dauðir vÄru; ok annan dag gengu konungarnir Ä vÄ«g-vÇ«llinn ok bÇ«rðusk, ok svÄ allir þeir er fellu hinn fyrra daginn. FÅr svÄ sÅ« orrosta hvÄrn dag Äptir annan, at allir þeir er fellu, ok Ç«ll vÄpn þau er lÄgu Ä vÄ«gvÄlli, ok svÄ hlÄ«far, urðu at grjÅti. En er dagaði, stÅðu upp allir dauðir mÄnn, ok bÇ«rðusk, ok Ç«ll vÄpn vÄru Ã¾Ä nȳ. SvÄ er sagt Ä« kvæðum, at Hjaðningar skulu svÄ bīða ragna-rökrs. VI. The Death of Olaf Tryggvason Sveinn konungr tjÅ«gu-skÄgg Ätti Sigrīði hina stÅr-rÄðu. Sigrīðr var hinn mesti Å«-vinr ÅlÄfs konungs Tryggva-sonar; ok fann þat til saka at ÅlÄfr konungr hafði slitit einka-mÄlum við hana, ok lostit hana Ä« and-lit. Hon Äggjaði mjÇ«k Svein konung til at halda orrostu við ÅlÄf konung Tryggvason, ok kom hon svÄ sÄ«num for-tÇ«lum at Sveinn konungr var full- kominn at gÇ«Ìra þetta rÄð. Ok snimma 38

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet um vÄrit sÄndi Sveinn konungr mÄnn austr til SvÄ«-þjÅðar Ä fund ÅlÄfs konungs SvÄ«a-konungs, mÄgs sÄ«ns, ok EirÄ«ks jarls; ok lÄt sÄgja þeim at ÅlÄfr, Noregs konungr, hafði leiðangr Å«ti, ok ætlaði at fara um sumarit til Vind-lands. Fylgði þat orð-sÄnding Dana-konungs, at þeir SvÄ«akonungr ok EirÄ«kr jarl skyldi hÄr Å«ti hafa, ok fara til mÅts við Svein konung, skyldu þeir Ã¾Ä allir samt lÄggja til orrostu við ÅlÄf konung Tryggva- son. En ÅlÄfr SvÄ«akonungr ok EirÄ«kr jarl vÄru þessar fÄrðar al-bÅ«nir, ok drÅgu Ã¾Ä saman skipa-hÄr mikinn af SvÄ«a- vÄldi, fÇ«ru þvÄ« liði suðr til Dan-markar ok kvÄmu þar svÄ, at ÅlÄfr konungr Tryggvason hafði Äðr austr siglt. Ãeir SvÄ«akonungr ok EirÄ«kr jarl heldu til fundar við Danakonung, ok hÇ«fðu Ã¾Ä allir saman Å«-grynni hÄrs. Sveinn konungr, Ã¾Ä er hann hafði sÄnt Äptir hÄrinum, Ã¾Ä sÄndi hann Sigvalda jarl til Vindlands at njÅsna um fÄrð ÅlÄfs konungs Tryggvasonar, ok gildra svÄ til, at fundr þeira Sveins konungs mætti verða. FÄrr Ã¾Ä Sigvaldi jarl leið sÄ«na, ok kom fram Ä Vindlandi, fÅr til JÅmsborgar, ok sīðan Ä fund ÅlÄfs konungs Tryggvasonar. VÄru þar mikil vinÄttu-mÄl þeira Ä meðal, kom jarl sÄr Ä« hinn mesta kærleik við ÅlÄf konung. Ästrīðr kona jarls, dÅttir Burizleifs konungs, var vinr mikill ÅlÄfs konungs, ok var þat mjÇ«k af hinum fyrrum tÄngðum, er Ålafr konungr hafði Ätt Geiru, systur hÄnnar. Sigvaldi jarl var maðr vitr ok rÄðugr; en er hann kom sÄr Ä« rÄða-gÄrð við ÅlÄf konung, Ã¾Ä dvalði hann mjÇ«k fÄrðina hans austan at sigla, ok fann til þess mjÇ«k ȳmsa hluti. En lið ÅlÄfs konungs lÄt geysi illa, ok vÄru mÄnn mjÇ«k heim-fÅ«sir, er þeir lÄgu albÅ«nir, en veðr byr-væn. Sigvaldi jarl fekk njÅsn leyniliga af DanmÇ«rk, at Ã¾Ä var austan kominn hÄrr SvÄ«akonungs, ok EirÄ«kr jarl hafði Ã¾Ä ok bÅ«inn sinn hÄr, ok þeir hÇ«fðingjarnir mundu Ã¾Ä koma austr undir Vindland, ok þeir hÇ«fðu Ä kveðit, at þeir mundu bīða ÅlÄfs konungs við ey Ã¾Ä er SvÇ«lðr heitir, svÄ Ã¾at, at jarl skyldi svÄ til stilla at þeir mætti þar finna ÅlÄf konung. ÃÄ kom pati nakkvarr til Vindlands, at Sveinn Dana- konungr hÄfði hÄr Å«ti, ok gÇ«Ìrðisk brÄtt sÄ kurr, at Sveinn Danakonungr mundi vilja finna ÅlÄf konung. En Sigvaldi jarl sÄgir konungi: 'ekki er þat rÄð Sveins konungs at lÄggja til bardaga við þik með Dana-hÄr einn saman, svÄ mikinn hÄr sem þÄr hafið. En ef yðr er nakkvarr grunr Ä Ã¾vÄ«, at Å«-friðr muni fyrir, Ã¾Ä skal ek fylgja yðr með mÄ«nu liði, ok þÅtti þat styrkr vera fyrr, hvar sem JÅms-vÄ«kingar fylgðu hÇ«fðingjum; mun ek fÄ Ã¾Är ellifu skip vel skipuð.' Konungr jÄtti þessu. Var Ã¾Ä lÄ«tit veðr ok hag-stÅtt; lÄt konungr Ã¾Ä leysa flotann, ok blÄsa til brott-lÇ«gu. DrÅgu mÄnn Ã¾Ä segl sÄ«n, ok gengu meira smÄ-skipin Ç«ll, ok sigldu þau undan Ä haf Å«t. En jarl sigldi nær konungs-skipinu, ok kallaði til þeira, bað konung sigla Äptir sÄr: 'mÄr er kunnast,' sÄgir hann, 'hvar djÅ«past er um eyja-sundin, en þÄr munuð þess þurfa með þau in stÅru skipin.' Sigldi Ã¾Ä jarl fyrir með sÄ«num skipum. Hann hafði ellifu skip, en konungr sigldi Äptir honum með sinum stÅr-skipum, hafði hann þar ok ellifu skip, en allr annarr hÄrrinn sigldi Å«t Ä hafit. En er Sigvaldi jarl sigldi utan at SvÇ«lðr, Ã¾Ä röri Ä mÅti þeim skÅ«ta ein. Ãeir sÄgja jarli at hÄrr Dana- konungs lÄ Ã¾ar Ä« hÇ«fninni fyrir þeim. ÃÄ lÄt jarl hlaða seglunum, ok rÅa þeir inn undir eyna. Sveinn Danakonungr ok ÅlÄfr SvÄ«akonungr ok EirÄ«kr jarl vÄru þar Ã¾Ä með allan hÄr sinn; Ã¾Ä var fagrt veðr ok bjart sÅl-skin. Gengu þeir nÅ« upp Ä hÅlminn allir hÇ«fðingjar með miklar sveitir manna, ok sÄ er skipin sigldu Å«t Ä hafit mjÇ«k mÇ«rg saman. Ok nÅ« sjÄ Ã¾eir hvar siglir eitt mikit skip ok glæsiligt; Ã¾Ä mæltu bÄðir konungarnir: 'þetta er mikit skip ok Äkafliga fagrt, þetta mun vera Ormrinn langi.' EirÄ«kr jarl svarar ok sÄgir: 'ekki er þetta Ormr hinn langi.' Ok svÄ var sem hann sagði; þetta skip Ätti Eindriði af Gimsum. LÄ«tlu sīðar sÄ Ã¾eir hvar annat skip sigldi miklu meira en hit fyrra. ÃÄ mælti Sveinn konungr: 'hræddr er ÅlÄfr Tryggvason nÅ«, eigi þorir hann at sigla með hÇ«fuðin Ä skipi sÄ«nu.' ÃÄ sÄgir EirÄ«kr jarl: 'ekki er þetta konungs skip, kÄnni ek þetta skip ok seglit, þvÄ« at stafat er seglit, þat Ä Erlingr SkjÄlgsson; lÄtum sigla þÄ, bÄtra er oss skarð ok missa Ä« flota ÅlÄfs konungs en þetta skip þar svÄ bÅ«it.' En stundu sīðar sÄ Ã¾eir ok kÄndu skip Sigvalda jarls, ok viku þan þannig at hÅlmanum. ÃÄ sÄ Ã¾eir hvar sigldu þrjÅ« skip, ok var eitt mikit skip. Mælti Ã¾Ä Sveinn konungr, biðr Ã¾Ä ganga til skipa sinna, sÄgir at þar fÄrr Ormrinn langi. EirÄ«kr jarl mælti: 'mÇ«rg hafa þeir Ç«nnur stÅr skip ok glæsilig en Orm hinn langa, bīðum Änn.' ÃÄ mæltu mjÇ«k margir mÄnn: 'eigi vill EirÄ«kr jarl nÅ« bÄrjask, ok hÄfna fǫður sÄ«ns; þetta er skÇ«mm mikil, svÄ at spyrjask mun um Ç«ll lÇ«nd, ef vÄr liggjum hÄr með jafn-miklu liði, en ÅlÄfr 39

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet konungr sigli Ä hafit Å«t hÄr hjÄ oss sjÄlfum.' En er þeir hÇ«fðu þetta talat um hrīð, Ã¾Ä sÄ Ã¾eir hvar sigldu fjogur skip, ok eitt af þeim var drÄki all-mikill ok mjÇ«k gull-bÅ«inn. ÃÄ stÅð upp Sveinn konungr, ok mælti: 'hÄtt mun Ormrinn bera mik Ä« kveld, honum skal ek stȳra.' ÃÄ mæltu margir, at Ormrinn var furðu mikit skip ok frÄ«tt, ok rausn mikil at lÄta gÇ«Ìra slÄ«kt skip. ÃÄ mælti EirÄ«kr jarl, svÄ at nakkvarir mÄnn heyrðu: 'þÅtt ÅlÄfr konungr hÄfði ekki meira skip en þetta, Ã¾Ä mundi Sveinn konungr þat aldri fÄ af honum með einn saman DanahÄr.' Dreif Ã¾Ä fÅlkit til skipanna, ok rÄku af tjÇ«ldin, ok ætluðu at bÅ«ask skjÅtliga. En er hÇ«fðingjar rÅddu þetta milli sÄ«n, sem nÅ« er sagt, Ã¾Ä sÄ Ã¾eir, hvar sigldu þrjÅ« skip all-mikil, ok fjÅrða sīðast, ok var þat Ormrinn langi. En þau hin stÅru skip, er Äðr hÇ«fðu siglt, ok þeir hugðu at Ormrinn væri, þat var hit fyrra Traninn, en hit sīðara Ormrinn skammi. En Ã¾Ä er þeir sÄ Orminn langa, kÄndu allir, ok mælti Ã¾Ä engi Ä« mÅt, at þar mundi sigla ÅlÄfr Tryggvason; gengu Ã¾Ä til skipanna, ok skipuðu til at- lÇ«gunnar. VÄru þat einkamÄl þeira hÇ«fðingja, Sveins konungs, ÅlÄfs konungs, EirÄ«ks jarls, at sinn þriðjung Noregs skyldi eignask hvÄrr þeira, ef þeir fÄldi ÅlÄf konung Tryggvason; en sÄ Ã¾eira hÇ«fðingja er fyrst gengi Ä Orminn, skyldi eignask alt þat hlut-skipti er þar fengisk, ok hvÄrr þeira þau skip er sjÄlfr hryði. EirÄ«kr jarl hafði barða einn geysi mikinn, er hann var vanr at hafa Ä« viking; þar var skÄgg Ä ofan- verðu barðinu hvÄrutvÄggja, en niðr frÄ jÄrn-spÇ«ng þykk ok svÄ breið sem barðit, ok tÅk alt Ä« sæ ofan. ÃÄ er þeir Sigvaldi jarl röru inn undir hÅlminn, Ã¾Ä sÄ Ã¾at þeir ÃorkÄll dyðrill af Trananum ok aðrir skip-stjÅrn- ar-mÄnn, þeir er með honum fÅru, at jarl snöri skipum undir hÅlmann; Ã¾Ä hlÅðu þeir ok seglum, ok röru Äptir honum, ok kÇ«lluðu til þeira, spurðu, hvÄ« þeir fÅru svÄ. Jarl sÄgir, at hann vill bīða ÅlÄfs konungs: 'ok er meiri vÄn at Å«friðr sÄ fyrir oss.' LÄtu þeir Ã¾Ä fljÅta skipin, þar til er ÃorkÄll nÄfja kom með Orminn skamma, ok þau þrjÅ« skip er honum fylgðu. Ok vÄru þeim sÇ«gð hin sÇ«mu tīðindi; hlÅðu þeir Ã¾Ä ok sÄ«num seglum, ok lÄtu fljÅta, ok biðu ÅlÄfs konungs. En Ã¾Ä er konungrinn sigldi innan at hÅl- manum, Ã¾Ä röri allr hÄrrinn Å«t Ä sundit fyrir þÄ. En er þeir sÄ Ã¾at, þa bÄðu þeir konunginn sigla leið sÄ«na, en lÄggja eigi til orrostu við svÄ mikinn hÄr. Konungr svarar hÄtt, ok stÅð upp Ä« lyptingunni: 'lÄti ofan seglit, ekki skulu mÄ«nir mÄnn hyggja Ä flÅtta, ek hÄfi aldri flȳit Ä« orrostu, rÄði Guð fyrir lÄ«fi mÄ«nu, en aldri mun ek Ä flÅtta lÄggja.' Var svÄ gÇ«Ìrt sem konungr mælti. ÅlÄfr konungr lÄt blÄsa til sam-lÇ«gu Ç«llum skipum sÄ«num. Var konungs skip Ä« miðju liði, en þar Ä annat borð Ormrinn skammi, en Ä annat borð Traninn. En Ã¾Ä er þeir tÅku at tÄngja stafna Ä Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma, ok er konungr sÄ Ã¾at, kallaði hann hÄtt, bað Ã¾Ä lÄggja fram bÄtr hit mikla skipit, ok lÄta þat eigi aptast vera allra skipa Ä« hÄrinum. ÃÄ svarar Ūlfr hinn rauði: 'ef Orminn skal þvÄ« lÄngra fram lÄggja, sem hann er lÄngri en Ç«nnur skip, Ã¾Ä mun Ä-vint verða um sÇ«xin Ä« dag.' Konungr sÄgir: 'eigi vissa ek at ek ætta stafnbÅ«ann bæði rauðan ok ragan.' Ūlfr mælti: 'vÄr þū eigi meir baki lyptingina en ek mun stafninn.' Konungr helt Ä boga, ok lagði Ç«r Ä strÄng, ok snöri at Ūlfi. Ūlfr mælti: 'skjÅt annan veg, konungr Ä« þannig sem meiri er þǫrfin; þÄr vinn ek þat er ek vinn.' ÅlÄfr konungr stÅð Ä« lyptingu Ä Orminum, bar hann hÄtt mjÇ«k; hann hafði gyltan skjÇ«ld ok gull-roðinn hjÄlm; var hann auð-kÄndr frÄ Ç«Ã°rum mÇ«nnum: hann hafði rauðan kyrtil stuttan utan yfir brynju. En er ÅlÄfr konungr sÄ at riðluðusk flotarnir, ok upp vÄru sÄtt mÄrki fyrir hÇ«fðingjum, Ã¾Ä spyrr hann: 'hvÄrr er hÇ«fðingi fyrir liði þvÄ« er gÄgnt oss er?' Honum var sagt at þar var Sveinn konungr tjÅ«guskÄgg með DanahÄr. Konungr svarar: 'ekki hræðumk vÄr bleyður þær, engi er hugr Ä« DÇ«num. En hvÄrr hÇ«fðingi fylgir þeim mÄrkjum er þar eru Å«t Ä«frÄ Ä hÅgra veg?' Honum var sagt at þar var ÅlÄfr konungr með SvÄ«a-hÄr. ÅlÄfr konungr sÄgir: 'bÄtra væri SvÄ«um heima at sleikja um blÅt- bolla sÄ«na en ganga Ä Orminn undir vÄpn yður. En hvÄrir eigu þau hin stÅru skip, er þar liggja Å«t Ä bak-borða DÇ«num?' 'Ãar er,' sÄgja þeir 'EirÄ«kr jarl HÄkonar-son.' ÃÄ svaraði ÅlÄfr konungr: 'hann mun þykkjask eiga við oss skapligan fund, ok oss er vÄn snarpligrar orrostu af þvÄ« liði; þeir eru Norð-mÄnn, sem vÄr erum.' Sīðan greiða konungar at-rÅðr. Lagði Sveinn konungr sitt skip mÅti Orminum langa, en ÅlÄfr konungr SÅnski lagði Å«t frÄ, ok stakk stÇ«fnum at yzta skipi ÅlÄfs konungs Tryggvasonar, en ǫðrum megin EirÄ«kr jarl. TÅksk þar Ã¾Ä hÇ«rð orrosta. Sigvaldi jarl lÄt skotta við sÄ«n skip, ok lagði 40

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet ekki til orrostu. Ãessi orrosta var hin snarpasta ok all-mann-skÅð. Fram- byggjar Ä Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma ok Trananum fÅrðu akkeri ok stafn-ljÄ Ä« skip Sveins konungs, en Ättu vÄpnin at bera niðr undir fÅtr sÄr; hruðu þeir Ç«ll þau skip er þeir fengu haldit. En konungrinn Sveinn ok þat lið er undan komsk flȳði Ä Ç«nnur skip, ok þar næst lÇ«gðu þeir frÄ År skot-mÄli. Ok fÅr þessi hÄrr svÄ sem gat ÅlÄfr konungr Tryggvason. ÃÄ lagði þar at Ä« staðinn ÅlÄfr SvÄ«akonungr; ok þegar er þeir koma nær stÅrskipum, Ã¾Ä fÅr þeim sem hinum, at þeir lÄtu lið mikit ok sum skip sÄ«n, ok lÇ«gðu frÄ við svÄ bÅ«it. En EirÄ«kr jarl sÄ«-byrði Barðanum við hit yzta skip ÅlÄfs konungs, ok hrauð hann þat, ok hjŠþegar þat År tÄngslum, en lagði Ã¾Ä at þvÄ«, er þar var næst, ok barðisk til þess er þat var hroðit. TÅk Ã¾Ä liðit at hlaupa af hinum smærum skipunum, ok upp Ä stÅrskipin. En EirÄ«kr jarl hjÅ hvÄrt År tÄngslunum, svÄ sem hroðit var. En Danir ok SvÄ«ar lÇ«gðu Ã¾Ä Ä« skotmÄl ok Ç«llum megin at skipum ÅlÄfs konungs, en EirÄ«kr jarl lÄ Ävalt sÄ«byrt við skipin, ok Ätti hÇ«gg-orrostu. En svÄ sem mÄnn fellu Ä skipum hans, Ã¾Ä gengu aðrir upp Ä« staðinn, SvÄ«ar ok Danir. ÃÄ var orrosta hin snarpasta, ok fell Ã¾Ä mjÇ«k liðit, ok kom svÄ at lykðum, at Ç«ll vÄru hroðin skip ÅlÄfs konungs Tryggvasonar nema Ormrinn langi; var þar Ã¾Ä alt lið Ä komit, þat er vÄ«gt var hans manna. ÃÄ lagði EirÄ«kr jarl Barðanum at Orminum langa sÄ«byrt, ok var þar hÇ«ggorrosta. EirlÄ«kr jarl var Ä« fyrir-rÅ«mi Ä skipi sÄ«nu, ok var þar fylkt með skjald-borg. Var Ã¾Ä bæði hÇ«ggorrosta, ok spjÅtum lagit, ok kastat Ç«llu þvÄ« er til vÄpna var, en sumir skutu boga-skoti eða hand-skoti. Var þa svÄ mikill vÄpnaburðr Ä Orminn, at varla mÄtti hlÄ«fum við koma, er svÄ Ã¾ykt flugu spjÅt ok Ç«rvar; þvÄ« at Ç«llum megin lÇ«gðu hÄrskip at Orminum. En mÄnn ÅlÄfs konungs vÄru Ã¾Ä svÄ Åðir, at þeir hljÅpu upp Ä borðin, til þess at nÄ með sverðs-hÇ«ggum at drepa fÅlkit. En margir lÇ«gðu eigi svÄ undir Orminn, at þeir vildi Ä« hÇ«ggorrostu vera. En ÅlÄfs mÄnn gengu flestir Å«t af borðunum, ok gÄðu eigi annars en þeir bÄrðisk Ä slÄttum vÄlli, ok sukku niðr með vÄpnum sÄ«num. Einarr þambar-skÄlfir var Ä Orminum aptr Ä« krappa-rÅ«mi; hann skaut af boga, ok var allra manna harð-skeytastr. Einarr skaut at EirÄ«ki jarli, ok laust Ä« stȳris-hnakkann fyrir ofan hÇ«fuð jarli, ok gekk alt upp Ä reyr-bÇ«ndin. Jarl leit til, ok spurði ef þeir vissi, hvÄrr skaut. En jafn-skjÅtt kom Ç«nnur Ç«r svÄ nær jarli, at flaug milli sīðunna ok handarinnar, ok svÄ aptr Ä« hÇ«fða-fjÇ«lina, at langt stÅð Å«t broddrinn. ÃÄ mælti jarl við mann þann er sumir nÄfna Finn, en sumir sÄgja at hann væri Finskr, sÄ var hinn mesti bog-maðr: 'skjÅt-tu mann þann hinn mikla Ä« krapparÅ«minu!' Finnr skaut, ok kom Ç«rin Ä boga Einars miðjan, Ä« þvÄ« bili er Einarr drÅ it þriðja sinn bogann. Brast Ã¾Ä boginn Ä« tvÄ hluti. ÃÄ mælti ÅlÄfr konungr: 'hvat brast þar svÄ hÄtt?' Einarr svarar: 'Noregr År hÄndi þÄr, konungr!' 'Eigi mun svÄ mikill brestr at orðinn,' sÄgir konungr, 'tak boga minn, ok skjÅt af,' ok kastaði boganum til hans. Einarr tÅk bogann, ok drŠþegar fyrir odd Ç«rvarinnar, ok mælti: 'ofveikr, ofveikr allvalds boginn!' ok kastaði aptr boganum; tÅk Ã¾Ä skjÇ«ld sinn ok sverð, ok barðisk. ÅlÄfr konungr Tryggvason stÅð Ä« lypting Ä Orminum, ok skaut optast um daginn, stundum bogaskoti, en stundum gaflÇ«kum, ok jafnan tveim sÄnn. Hann sÄ fram Ä skipit, ok sÄ sÄ«na mÄnn reiða sverðin ok hÇ«ggva tÄ«tt, ok sÄ at illa bitu; mælti Ã¾Ä hÄtt: 'hvÄrt reiði þÄr svÄ slæliga sverðin, er ek sÄ at ekki bÄ«ta yðr?' Maðr svarar: 'sverð vÄr eru slæ ok brotin mjÇ«k.' ÃÄ gekk konungr ofan Ä« fyrirrÅ«mit ok lauk upp hÄsætis-kistuna, tÅk þar År mÇ«rg sverð hvÇ«ss, ok fekk mÇ«nnum. En er hann tÅk niðr hinni hÅgri hÄndi, Ã¾Ä sÄ mÄnn at blÅð rann ofan undan bryn-stÅ«kunni; en engi vissi hvar hann var sÄrr. Mest var vÇ«rnin Ä Orminum ok mannskÅðust af fyrirrÅ«ms- mÇ«nnum ok stafnbÅ«um; þar var hvÄrttvÄggja, valit mest mann-fÅlkit ok hæst borðin. En lið fell fyrst um mitt skipit. Ok Ã¾Ä er fÄtt stÅð manna upp um siglu-skeið, Ã¾Ä rÄð EirÄ«kr jarl til upp-gÇ«ngunnar, ok kom upp Ä Orminn við fimtÄnda mann. ÃÄ kom Ä« mÅt honum Hyrningr, mÄgr ÅlÄfs konungs, með sveit manna, ok varð þar inn harðasti bardagi, ok lauk svÄ, at jarl hrÇ«kk ofan aptr Ä Barðann; en þeir mÄnn er honum hÇ«fðu fylgt fellu sumir, en sumir vÄru særðir. Ãar varð Änn in snarpasta orrosta, ok fellu Ã¾Ä margir mÄnn Ä Orminum. En er þyntisk skipan Ä Orminum til varnarinnar, Ã¾Ä rÄð EirÄ«kr jarl annat sinn til uppgÇ«ngu Ä Orminn. Varð Ã¾Ä Änn hÇ«rð við-taka. En er þetta sÄ stafnbÅ«ar Ä Orminum, Ã¾Ä 41

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet gengu þeir aptr Ä skipit, ok snÅ«ask til varnar mÅti jarli, ok veita harða viðtÇ«ku. En fyrir þvÄ« at Ã¾Ä var svÄ mjÇ«k fallit lið Ä Orminum, at vīða vÄru auð borðin, tÅku Ã¾Ä jarls mÄnn vīða upp at ganga. En alt þat lið er Ã¾Ä stÅð upp til varnar Ä Orminum sÅtti aptr Ä skipit, þar sem konungr var. KolbjÇ«rn stallari gekk upp Ä« lypting til konungs; þeir hÇ«fðu mjÇ«k lÄ«kan klæða-bÅ«nað ok vÄpna, KolbjÇ«rn var ok allra manna mestr ok frīðastr. Varð nÅ« Änn Ä« fyrirrÅ«minu in snarpasta orrosta. En fyrir Ã¾Ä sÇ«k at Ã¾Ä var svÄ mikit fÅlk komit upp Ä Orminn af liði jarls sem vera mÄtti Ä skipinu, en skip hans lÇ«gðu at Ç«llum megin utan at Orminum, en lÄ«tit fjÇ«l-mÄnni til varnar mÅti svÄ miklum hÄr, nÅ« þÅtt þeir mÄnn væri bæði stÄrkir ok frÅknir, Ã¾Ä fellu nÅ« flestir Ä lÄ«tilli stundu. En ÅlÄfr konungr sjÄlfr ok þeir KolbjÇ«rn bÄðir hljÅpu Ã¾Ä fyrir borð, ok Ä sitt borð hvÄrr. En jarls mÄnn hÇ«fðu lagt utan at smÄ-skÅ«tur, ok drÄpu Ã¾Ä er Ä kaf hljÅpu. Ok Ã¾Ä er konungr sjÄlfr hafði Ä kaf hlaupit, vildu þeir taka hann hÇ«ndum, ok fÅra EirÄ«ki jarli. En ÅlÄfr konungr brÄ yfir sik skildinum, ok steypðisk Ä« kaf; en KolbjÇ«rn stallari skaut undir sik skildinum, ok hlÄ«fði sÄr svÄ við vÄpnum er lagt var af skipum þeim er undir lÄgu, ok fell hann svÄ Ä sæinn at skjÇ«ldrinn varð undir honum, ok komsk hann þvÄ« eigi Ä« kaf svÄ skjÅtt, ok varð hann hand-tÄkinn ok drÄginn upp Ä« skÅ«tuna, ok hugðu þeir at þar væri konungrinn. Var hann Ã¾Ä leiddr fyrir jarl. En er þess varð jarl varr at þar var KolbjÇ«rn, en eigi ÅlÄfr konungr, Ã¾Ä vÄru Kolbirni grið gefin. En Ä« þessi svipan hljÅpu allir fyrir borð af Orminum, þeir er Ã¾Ä vÄru Ä lÄ«fi, ÅlÄfs konungs mÄnn; ok sÄgir Hall- freðr vandræða-skÄld, at ÃorkÄll nÄfja, konungs brÅðir, hljÅp sīðast allra manna fyrir borð. SvÄ var fyrr ritat, at Sigvaldi jarl kom til fÇ«runeytis við ÅlÄf konung Ä« Vindlandi, ok hafði tÄ«u skip, en þat hit ellifta, er Ä vÄru mÄnn Ästrīðar konungs-dÅttur, konu jarls. En Ã¾Ä er ÅlÄfr konungr hafði fyrir borð hlaupit, Ã¾Ä Åpði hÄrrinn allr sigr-Åp, ok Ã¾Ä lustu þeir Ärum Ä« sæ Sigvaldi jarl ok hans mÄnn, ok röru til bardaga. En sÅ« Vinda- snÄkkjan, er Ästrīðar mÄnn vÄru Ä, röri brott ok aptr undir Vindland; ok var þat margra manna mÄl þegar, at ÅlÄfr konungr mundi hafa steypt af sÄr brynjunni Ä« kafi, ok kafat svÄ Å«t undan langskipunum, lagizk sīðan til VindasnÄkkj- unnar, ok hÄfði mÄnn Ästrīðar flutt hann til lands. Ok eru þar margar frÄ-sagnir um fÄrðir ÅlÄfs konungs gÇ«Ìrvar sīðan af sumum mÇ«nnum. En hvÄrn veg sem þat hÄfir verit, Ã¾Ä kom ÅlÄfr konungr Tryggvason aldri sīðan til rÄ«kis Ä« Noregi. VII. Auðun Maðr hÄt Auðun, Vest-firzkr at kyni ok fÄ-lÄ«till; hann fÅr utan vestr þar Ä« fjÇ«rðum með um-rÄði Ãorsteins bÅnda gÅðs, ok ÃÅris stȳri-manns, er þar hafði þegit vist of vetrinn með Ãorsteini. Auðun var ok þar, ok starfaði fyrir honum ÃÅri, ok Ã¾Ä Ã¾essi laun af honum--utan-fÄrðina ok hans um-sjÄ. Hann Auðun lagði mestan hluta fjÄr þess er var fyrir mÅður sÄ«na, Äðr hann stigi Ä skip, ok var kveðit Ä Ã¾riggja vetra bjÇ«rg. Ok nÅ« fara þeir utan heðan, ok fÄrsk þeim vel, ok var Auðun of vetrinn Äptir með ÃÅri stȳrimanni; hann Ätti bÅ« Ä MÅri. Ok um sumarit Äptir fara þeir Å«t til GrÅn-lands, ok eru þar of vetrinn. Ãess er við getit at Auðun kaupir þar bjarn-dȳri eitt, gÇ«Ìrsimi mikla, ok gaf þar fyrir alla eigu sÄ«na. Ok nÅ« of sumarit Äptir Ã¾Ä fara þeir aptr til Noregs, ok verða vel reið-fara; hÄfir Auðun dȳr sitt með sÄr, ok ætlar nÅ« at fara suðr til DanmÄrkr Ä fund Sveins konungs, ok gefa honum dȳrit. Ok er hann kom suðr Ä« landit, þar sem konungr var fyrir, Ã¾Ä gÄngr hann upp af skipi, ok leiðir Äptir sÄr dȳrit, ok leigir sÄr hÄr-bÄrgi. Haraldi konungi var sagt brÄtt at þar var komit bjarndȳri, gÇ«Ìrsimi mikil, 'ok Ä Äªs-lÄnzkr maðr.' Konungr sÄndir þegar mÄnn Äptir honum, ok er Auðun kom fyrir konung, kvÄðr hann konung vel; konungr tÅk vel kvÄðju hans, ok spurði sīðan: 'Ättu gÇ«Ìrsimi mikla Ä« bjarndȳri?' Hann svarar, ok kvezk eiga dȳrit eitthvÄrt. Konungr mælti: 'villtu sÄlja oss dȳrit við slÄ«ku verði sem þū keyptir?' Hann svarar: 'eigi vil ek þat, herra!' 'Villtu þÄ,' sÄgir konungr, 'at ek gefa þÄr tvau verð slÄ«k, ok mun þat rÄttara, ef þū hÄfir þar við gefit alla þīna eigu.' 'Eigi vil ek þat, herra!' sÄgir hann. Konungr mælti: 'villtu gefa mÄr þÄ?' Hann svarar: 'eigi, herra!' Konungr mælti: 'hvat villtu Ã¾Ä af gÇ«Ìra?' Hann svarar: 'fara,' sÄgir hann, 'til DanmÄrkr, ok gefa Sveini konungi.' Haraldr konungr sÄgir: 'hvÄrt er, at þū ert maðr svÄ Å«vitr at þū hÄfir eigi heyrt Å«frið þann er Ä« milli er landa 42

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet þessa, eða ætlar þū giptu þīna svÄ mikla, at þū munir þar komask með gÇ«Ìrsimar, er aðrir fÄ eigi komizk klakk-laust, þŠat nauð-syn eigi til?' Auðun svarar: 'herra! þat er Ä yðru valdi, en engu jÄtum vÄr ǫðru en þessu er vÄr hÇ«fum Äðr ætlat.' ÃÄ mælti konungr: 'hvÄ« mun eigi þat til, at þū farir leið þīna, sem þū vill, ok kom Ã¾Ä til mÄ«n, er þū fÄrr aptr, ok sÄg mÄr, hvÄrsu Sveinn konungr launar þÄr dȳrit, ok kann þat vera, at þū sÄr gæfu-maðr.' 'ÃvÄ« heit ek þÄr,' sagði Auðun. Hann fÄrr nÅ« sīðan suðr með landi, ok Ä« VÄ«k austr, ok Ã¾Ä til DanmÄrkr; ok er Ã¾Ä uppi hvÄrr pÄnningr fjÄrins, ok verðr hann Ã¾Ä biðja matar bæði fyrir sik ok fyrir dȳrit. Hann kömr Ä fund Är-manns Sveins konungs, þess er Äki hÄt, ok bað hann vista nakkvarra bæði fyrir sik ok fyrir dȳrit: 'ek ætla,' sÄgir hann, 'at gefa Sveini konungi dȳrit.' Äki lÄzk sÄlja mundu honum vistir, ef hann vildi. Auðun kvezk ekki til hafa fyrir at gefa; 'en ek vilda þÅ,' sÄgir hann, 'at þetta kvæmisk til leiðar at ek mætta dȳrit fÅra konungi.' 'Ek mun fÄ Ã¾Är vistir, sem it þurfið til konungs fundar; en þar Ä« mÅti vil ek eiga hÄlft dȳrit, ok mÄttu Ä Ã¾at lÄ«ta, at dȳrit mun deyja fyrir þÄr, þars it þurfuð vistir miklar, en fÄ sÄ farit, ok er bÅ«it við at þū hafir Ã¾Ä ekki dȳrsins.' Ok er hann lÄ«tr Ä Ã¾etta, sȳnisk honum nakkvat Äptir sem Ärmaðrinn mælti fyrir honum, ok sættask þeir Ä Ã¾etta, at hann sÄlr Äka hÄlft dȳrit, ok skal konungr sīðan meta alt saman. Skulu þeir fara bÄðir nÅ« Ä fund konungs; ok svÄ gÇ«Ìra þeir: fara nÅ« bÄðir Ä fund konungs, ok stÅðu fyrir borðinu. Konungr Ä«hugÄði, hvÄrr þessi maðr myndi vera, er hann kÄndi eigi, ok mælti sīðan til Auðunar: 'hvÄrr er-tu?' sÄgir hann. Hann svarar: 'ek em ĪslÄnzkr maðr, herra,' sÄgir hann, 'ok kominn nÅ« utan af GrÅnlandi, ok nÅ« af Noregi, ok ætlaða-k at fÅra yðr bjarndȳri þetta; keypta-k þat með allri eigu minni, ok nÅ« er Ã¾Å Ä orðit mikit fyrir mÄr; ek Ä nÅ« hÄlft eitt dȳrit,' ok sÄgir konungi sīðan, hvÄrsu farit hafði með þeim Äka Ärmanni hans. Konungr mælti: 'er þat satt, Äki, er hann sÄgir?' 'Satt er þat,' sÄgir hann. Konungr mælti: 'ok þÅtti þÄr þat til liggja, þar sem ek sÄtta-k þik mikinn mann, at hÄpta þat eða tÄlma er maðr gÇ«Ìrðisk til at fÅra mÄr gÇ«Ìrsimi, ok gaf fyrir alla eign, ok sÄ Ã¾at Haraldr konungr at rÄði at lÄta hann fara Ä« friði, ok er hann vÄrr Å«vinr? Hygg þū at þÄ, hvÄ sannligt þat var þinnar handar, ok þat væri makligt, at þū værir drepinn; en ek mun nÅ« eigi þat gÇ«Ìra, en braut skaltu fara þegar År landinu, ok koma aldri aptr sīðan mÄr Ä« aug-sȳn! En þÄr, Auðun! kann ek slÄ«ka þǫkk, sem þū gefir mÄr alt dȳrit, ok ver hÄr með mÄr.' Ãat þÄkkisk hann, ok er með Sveini konungi um hrīð. Ok er liðu nakkvarir stundir, Ã¾Ä mælti Auðun við konung: 'braut fȳsir mik nÅ«, herra!' Konungr svarar hÄldr seint: 'hvat villtu þÄ,' sÄgir hann, 'ef þū vill eigi með oss vera?' Hann sÄgir: 'suðr vil ek ganga.' 'Ef þū vildir eigi svÄ gott rÄð taka,' sÄgir konungr, 'Ã¾Ä myndi mÄr fyrir þykkja Ä«, er þū fȳsisk Ä« braut'; ok nÅ« gaf konungr honum silfr mjÇ«k mikit, ok fÅr hann suðr sīðan með RÅ«m-fÄrlum, ok skipaði konungr til um fÄrð hans, bað hann koma til sÄ«n, er kvæmi aptr. NÅ« fÅr hann fÄrðar sinnar, unz hann kömr suðr Ä« RÅma-borg. Ok er hann hÄfir þar dvalizk, sem hann tīðir, Ã¾Ä fÄrr hann aptr; tÄkr Ã¾Ä sÅtt mikla, gÇ«Ìrir hann Ã¾Ä Äkafliga magran; gÄngr Ã¾Ä upp alt fÄit þat, er konungr hafði gefit honum til fÄrðarinnar; tÄkr sīðan upp staf-karls stÄ«g, ok biðr sÄr matar. Hann er Ã¾Ä kollÅttr ok hÄldr Å«-sælligr; hann kömr aptr Ä« Danmörk at pÄskum, þangat sem konungr er Ã¾Ä staddr; en ei þorði hann at lÄta sjÄ sik; ok var Ä« kirkju- skoti, ok ætlaði Ã¾Ä til fundar við konung, er hann gengi til kirkju um kveldit; ok nÅ« er hann sÄ konunginn ok hirðina fagrliga bÅ«na, Ã¾Ä Ã¾orði hann eigi at lÄta sjÄ sik. Ok er konungr gekk til drykkju Ä« hÇ«llina, Ã¾Ä mataðisk Auðun Å«ti, sem siðr er til RÅ«mfÄrla, meðan þeir hafa eigi kastat staf ok skreppu. Ok nÅ« of aptaninn, er konungr gekk til kveld- sÇ«ngs, ætlaði Auðun at hitta hann, ok svÄ mikit sem honum þÅtti fyrr fyrir, jÅk nÅ« miklu Ä, er þeir vÄru druknir hirðmÄnninir; ok er þeir gengu inn aptr, Ã¾Ä Ã¾Äkði konungr mann, ok þÅttisk finna at eigi hafði frama til at ganga fram at hitta hann. Ok nÅ« er hirðin gekk inn, Ã¾Ä veik konungr Å«t, ok mælti: 'gangi sÄ nÅ« fram, er mik vill finna; mik grunar at sÄ muni vera maðrinn.' ÃÄ gekk Auðun fram, ok fell til fÅta konungi, ok varla kÄndi konungr hann; ok þegar er konungr veit, hvÄrr hann er, tÅk konungr Ä« hÇ«nd honum Auðuni, ok bað hann vel kominn, 'ok hÄfir þū mikit skipazk,' segir hann, 'sīðan vit sÄmk'; leiðir hann Äptir sÄr inn, ok er hirðin sÄ hann, hlÅgu þeir at honum; en konungr sagði: 'eigi þurfu þÄr at honum at hlæja, þvÄ« at bÄtr hÄfir hann sÄt fyr sinni sÄl hÄldr en Är.' ÃÄ lÄt konungr gÇ«Ìra honum laug, ok gaf honum 43

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet sīðan hlæði, ok er hann nÅ« með honum. Ãat er nÅ« sagt einhvÄrju sinni of vÄrit at konungr bȳðr Auðuni at vera með sÄr Ä-lÄngðar, ok kvezk myndu gÇ«Ìra hann skutil-svein sinn, ok lÄggja til hans gÅða virðing. Auðun sÄgir: 'Guð þakki yðr, herra! sÅma þann allan er þÄr vilið til mÄ«n lÄggja; en hitt er mÄr Ä« skapi at fara Å«t til Īslands.' Konungr sÄgir: 'þetta sȳnisk mÄr undarliga kosit.' Auðun mælti: 'eigi mÄ ek þat vita, herra!' sÄgir hann, 'at ek hafa hÄr mikinn sÅma með yðr, en mÅðir mÄ«n troði stafkarls stÄ«g Å«t Ä Äªslandi; þvÄ« at nÅ« er lokit bjÇ«rg þeiri er ek lagða til, Äðr ek fÅra af Īslandi.' Konungr svarar: 'vel er mælt,' sÄgir hann, 'ok mannliga, ok muntu verða giptu-maðr; þessi einn var svÄ hlutrinn, at mÄr myndi eigi mis-lÄ«ka at þū fÅrir Ä« braut heðan; ok ver nÅ« með mÄr þar til er skip bÅ«ask.' Hann gÇ«Ìrir svÄ. Einn dag, er Ä leið vÄrit, gekk Sveinn konungr ofan Ä bryggjur, ok vÄru mÄnn Ã¾Ä at, at bÅ«a skip til ȳmissa landa, Ä« austr-veg eða Sax-land, til SvīþjÅðar eða Noregs. ÃÄ koma þeir Auðun at einu skipi fÇ«gru, ok vÄru mÄnn at, at bÅ«a skipit. ÃÄ spurði konungr: 'hvÄrsu lÄ«zk þÄr, Auðun! Ä Ã¾etta skip?' Hann svarar: 'vel, herra!' Konungr mælti: 'þetta skip vil ek þÄr gefa, ok launa bjarndȳrit.' Hann þakkaði gjÇ«fina Äptir sinni kunnustu; ok er leið stund, ok skipit var albÅ«it, Ã¾Ä mælti Sveinn konungr við Auðun: 'þŠvilltu nÅ« Ä braut, Ã¾Ä mun ek nÅ« ekki lÄtja þik, en þat hÄfi ek spurt, at ilt er til hafna fyrir landi yðru, ok eru vīða öræfi ok hætt skipum; nÅ« brȳtr þū, ok tȳnir skipinu ok fÄnu; lÄ«tt sÄr þat Ã¾Ä Ä, at þū hafir fundit Svein konung, ok gefit honum gÇ«Ìrsimi.' Sīðan sÄldi konungr honum leðr-hosu fulla af silfri, 'ok ertu Ã¾Ä Änn eigi fÄ-lauss með Ç«llu, þÅtt þū brjÅtir skipit, ef þū fær haldit þessu. Verða mÄ svÄ Änn,' sÄgir konungr, 'at þū tȳnir þessu fÄ; lÄ«tt nȳtr þū Ã¾Ä Ã¾ess, er þū fannt Svein konung, ok gaft honum gÇ«Ìrsimi.' Sīðan drÅ konungr hring af hÄndi sÄr, ok gaf Auðuni, ok mælti: 'þŠat svÄ illa verði, at þū brjÅtir skipit ok tȳnir fÄnu, eigi ertu fÄlauss, ef þū kömsk Ä land, þvÄ« at margir mÄnn hafa gull Ä sÄr Ä« skips-brotum, ok sÄr Ã¾Ä at þū hÄfir fundit Svein konung, ef þū hÄldr hringinum; en þat vil ek rÄða þÄr,' sÄgir hann, 'at þū gefir eigi hringinn, nema þū þykkisk eiga svÄ mikit gott at launa nÇ«kkurum gÇ«fgum manni, Ã¾Ä gef þeim hringinn, þvÄ« at tignum mÇ«nnum sÅmir at þiggja, ok far nÅ« heill!' Sīðan lætr hann Ä« haf, ok kömr Ä« Noreg, ok lætr flytja upp varnað sinn, ok þurfti nÅ« meira við þat en fyrr, er hann var Ä« Noregi. Hann fÄrr nÅ« sīðan Ä fund Haralds konungs, ok vill Äfna þat er hann hÄt honum, Äðr hann fÅr til DanmÄrkr, ok kvÄðr konung vel. Haraldr konungr tÅk vel kvÄðju hans, ok 'sÄzk niðr,' sÄgir hann, 'ok drekk hÄr með oss'; ok svÄ gÇ«Ìrir hann. ÃÄ spurði Haraldr kon- ungr: 'hvÄrju launaði Sveinn konungr þÄr dȳrit?' Auðun svarar: 'þvÄ«, herra! at hann Ã¾Ä at mÄr.' Konungr sagði: 'launat mynda ek þÄr þvÄ« hafa; hvÄrju launaði hann Änn?' Auðun svarar: 'gaf hann mÄr silfr til suðr-gÇ«ngu.' ÃÄ sÄgir Haraldr konungr: 'mÇ«rgum mÇ«nnum gefr Sveinn konungr silfr til suðrgÇ«ngu eða annarra hluta, þÅtt ekki fÅri honum gÇ«Ìrsimar; hvat er Änn fleira?' 'Hann bauð mÄr,' sÄgir Auðun, 'at görask skutilsveinn hans, ok mikinn sÅma til mÄ«n at lÄggja.' 'Vel var þat mælt,' sÄgir konungr, 'ok launa, myndi hann Änn fleira.' Auðun sagði: 'gaf hann mÄr knÇ«rr með farmi þeim er hingat er bÄzt varit Ä« Noreg.' Ãat var stÅr-mannligt,' sÄgir konungr, 'en launat mynda ek þÄr þvÄ« hafa. Launaði hann þvÄ« fleira?' Auðun svaraði: 'gaf hann mÄr leðrhosu fulla af silfri, ok kvað mik Ã¾Ä eigi fÄlausan, ef ek helda þvÄ«, þŠat skip mitt bryti við Īsland.' Konungr sagði: 'þat var Ä-gætliga gÇ«Ìrt, ok þat mynda ek ekki gÇ«Ìrt hafa; lauss mynda ek þykkjask, ef ek gæfa þer skipit; hvÄrt launaði hann fleira?' 'SvÄ var vÄ«st, herra!' sÄgir Auðun, 'at hann launaði: hann gaf mÄr hring þenna er ek hÄfi Ä hÄndi, ok kvað svÄ mega at berask, at ek tȳnda fÄnu Ç«llu, ok sagði mik Ã¾Ä eigi fÄlausan, ef ek ætta hringinn, ok bað mik eigi lÅga, nema ek ætta nÇ«kkurum tignum manni svÄ gott at launa, at ek vilda gefa; en nÅ« hÄfi ek þann fundit, þvÄ« at þū Ättir kost at taka hvÄrttvÄggja frÄ mÄr, dȳrit ok svÄ lÄ«f mitt, en þū lÄzt mik fara þangat Ä« friði, sem aðrir nÄðu eigi.' Konungr tÅk við gjÇ«finni með blīðu, ok gaf Auðuni Ä« mÅti gÅðar gjafir, Äðr en þeir skilðisk. Auðun varði fÄnu til Īslands-fÄrðar ok fÅr Å«t þegar um sumarit til Īslands, ok þÅtti vera inn mesti gæfumaðr. VIII. Ãrymskviða


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 1. Vreiðr var Ã¾Ä Ving-þÅrr, er hann vaknaði, ok sÄ«ns hamars of saknaði: skÄgg nam at hrista, skÇ«r nam at dȳja, rÄð Jarðar burr um at þreifask. 2. Ok hann þat orða alls fyrst of kvað: 'heyr-ðu nÅ«, Loki! hvat ek nÅ« mæli, er engi veit jarðar hvÄrgi nÄ upp-himins: Äss er stolinn hamri!' 3. Gengu þeir fagra Freyju tÅ«na, ok hann þat orða alls fyrst of kvað: 'muntu mÄr, Freyja! fjaðr-hams ljÄ, ef ek minn hamar mætta-k hitta?' Freyja kvað: 4. ÃÅ munda-k gefa þÄr, þÅtt År gulli væri, ok-þŠsÄlja at væri År silfri.' 5. FlÅ Ã¾Ä Loki, fjaðrhamr dunði, unz fyr utan kom Äsa garða, ok fyr innan kom jÇ«tna heima. 6. Ãrymr sat Ä haugi, þursa drÅttinn, greyjum sÄ«num gull-bÇ«nd snöri ok mÇ«rum sÄ«num mÇ«n jafnaði. Ãrymr kvað: 7. 'Hvat er með Äsum? hvat er með Älfum? hvÄ« er-tu einn kominn Ä« JÇ«tunheima?' Loki kvað: 'Ilt er með Äsum, ilt er með Älfum; hÄfir þū HlÅ-riða hamar of fÅlginn?' Ãrymr kvað: 8. 'Ek hÄfi HlÅriða hamar of fÅlginn Ätta rÇ«stum fyr jÇ«rð neðan; hann engi maðr aptr of heimtir, nema fÅri mÄr Freyju at kvÄn.' 9. FlÅ Ã¾Ä Loki, fjaðrhamr dunði, unz fyr utan kom jÇ«tna heima ok fyr innan kom Äsa garða; mÅtti hann ÃÅr miðra garða, ok hann þat orða alls fyrst of kvað: 10. 'HÄfir þū örindi sem Ärfiði? sÄg-ðu Ä lopti lÇ«ng tīðindi: opt sitjanda sÇ«gur of fallask, ok liggjandi lygi of bÄllir.' Loki kvað: 11. 'HÄfi-k Ärfiði ok örindi: Ãrymr hÄfir þinn hamar, þursa drÅttinn; hann engi maðr aptr of heimtir, nema honum fÅri Freyju at kvÄn.' 12. Ganga þeir fagra Freyju at hitta, ok hann þat orða alls fyrst of kvað: 'bitt-u þik, Freyja, brūðar lÄ«ni! vit skulum aka tvau Ä« JÇ«tunheima.' 13. Vreið varð Ã¾Ä Freyja ok fnÄsaði, allr Äsa salr undir bifðisk, stÇ«kk þat it mikla mÄn BrÄ«singa: 'mik veizt-u verða ver-gjarnasta, ef ek Äk með þÄr Ä« JÇ«tunheima.' 14. SÄnn vÄru æsir allir Ä Ã¾ingi ok Äsynjur allar Ä mÄli, ok of þat rÄðu rÄ«kir tÄ«var, hvÄ Ã¾eir HlÅriða hamar of sÅtti. 15. ÃÄ kvað þat Heimdallr, hvÄ«tastr Äsa (vissi hann vel fram, sem vanir aðrir): 'bindum vÄr ÃÅr Ã¾Ä brūðar lÄ«ni, hafi hann it mikla mÄn BrÄ«singa! 16. LÄtum und honum hrynja lukla ok kvenn-vÄðir of knÄ falla, en Ä brjÅsti breiða steina, ok hagliga of hÇ«fuð typpum!' 17. ÃÄ kvað þat ÃÅrr, þrūðugr Äss: 'mik munu æsir argan kalla, ef ek bindask læt brūðar lÄ«ni.' 18. ÃÄ kvað þat Loki, Laufeyjar sonr: 'þÄgi þū [nÅ«], ÃÅrr! þeira orða; þegar munu jÇ«tnar Äsgarð bÅ«a, nema þū þinn hamar þÄr of heimtir.' 19. Bundu þeir ÃÅr Ã¾Ä brūðar lÄ«ni ok inu mikla mÄni BrÄ«singa. 20. LÄtu und honum hrynja lukla ok kvenn-vÄðir of knÄ falla, en Ä brjÅsti breiða steina, ok hagliga of hÇ«fuð typðu. 21. ÃÄ kvað þat Loki, Laufeyjar sonr: 'mun ek ok með þÄr ambÄtt vera, vit skulum aka tvær Ä« JÇ«tunheima.' 22. SÄnn vÄru hafrar heim of reknir, skyndir at skÇ«klum, skyldu vel rÄnna: bjÇ«rg brotnuðu, brann jÇ«rð loga, Åk Åðins sonr Ä« JÇ«tunheima. 45

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet 23. ÃÄ kvað þat Ãrymr, þursa drÅttinn: 'standið upp, jÇ«tnar! ok strÄið bÄkki! nÅ« fÅra mÄr Freyju at kvÄn, Njarðar dÅttur, År NÅa-tÅ«num. 24. Ganga hÄr at garði gull-hyrndar kȳr, öxn al-svartir jÇ«tni at gamni; fjÇ«lð Ä ek meiðma, fjÇ«lð Ä ek mÄnja, einnar mÄr Freyju Ävant þykkir.' 25. Var þar at kveldi of komit snimma, ok fyr jÇ«tna Ç«l fram borit; einn Ät oxa, Ätta laxa, krÄsir allar, þær er konur skyldu, drakk Sifjar verr sÄld þrjÅ« mjaðar. 26. ÃÄ kvað þat Ãrymr, þursa drÅttinn: 'hvar sÄttu brūðir bÄ«ta hvassara? sÄk-a-k brūðir bÄ«ta breiðara, nÄ inn meira mjǫð mey of drekka.' 27. Sat in al-snotra ambÄtt fyrir, er orð of fann við jÇ«tuns mÄli: 'Ät vætr Freyja Ätta nÄttum, svÄ var hon Åð-fÅ«s Ä« JÇ«tunheima.' 28. Laut und lÄ«nu, lysti at kyssa, en hann utan stÇ«kk Änd-langan sal: 'hvÄ« eru Ç«ndÅtt augu Freyju? þykkir mÄr År augum eldr of brÄnna.' 29. Sat in alsnotra ambÄtt fyrir, er orð of fann við jÇ«tuns mÄli: 'svaf vætr Freyja Ätta nÄttum, svÄ var hon ÅðfÅ«s Ä« JÇ«tunheima.' 30. Inn kom in arma jÇ«tna systir, hin er brūð-fjÄr of biðja þorði: 'lÄttu þÄr af hÇ«ndum hringa rauða, ef þū ǫðlask vill Ästir mÄ«nar, Ästir mÄ«nar, alla hylli!' 31. ÃÄ kvað þat Ãrymr, þursa drÅttinn: 'berið inn hamar brūði at vÄ«gja, lÄggið MjÇ«llni Ä« meyjar knÄ, vÄ«gið okkr saman VÄrar hÄndi!' 32. HlÅ HlÅriða hugr Ä« brjÅsti, er harð-hugaðr hamar of þÄkði; Ãrym drap hann fyrstan, þursa drÅttin, ok ætt jÇ«tuns alla lamði. 33. Drap hann ina Ç«ldnu jÇ«tna systur, hin er brūðfjÄr of beðit hafði; hon skell of hlaut fyr skillinga, en hÇ«gg hamars fyr hringa fjÇ«lð. SvÄ kom Åðins sonr Ändr at hamri. Notes The references marked Gr. are to the paragraphs of the Grammar. I. Thor Line 3. Hann Ä Ã¾ar rÄ«ki er Ãrūð-vangar heita, 'he reigns (there) where it is called Ã.,' i.e. in the place which is called Ã. The plur. heita agrees with þrūðvangar, as in l. 14 below: þat eru jÄrnglÅfar 'that is (his) iron gloves.' l. 5. þat er hÅ«s mest, svÄ at mÄnn hafa gÇ«Ìrt, 'that is the largest house, so that men have made (it),' i.e. the largest house that has been built. Note the plur. hÅ«s of a single house; each chamber was originally regarded as a house, being often a detached building. l. 13. spÄnnir þeim, Gr. § 154; cp. 2. 49. II. Thor and Ūtgarðaloki l. 1. fÅr með hafra sÄ«na...ok með honum sÄ, Äss er... We see here that með generally takes an acc. to denote passive, and a dat. to denote voluntary accompaniment. l. 5. soðit refers to some such subst. as slÄtr (meat) understood. l. 11. sprÄtti Ä... Ä is here an adv. l. 12. til mÄrgjar. til here implies intention--to get at the marrow. l. 20. þat er sÄ augnanna, 'the little he saw of the eyes.'-- Thor frowned till his eyebrows nearly covered his eyes, and the man felt as if he were going to fall down dead at the mere sight of them. l. 21. The second hann refers, of course, to Thor. 46

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet l. 34. til myrkrs, till it was dark. l. 36. þeir, the masc. instead of the neut. pl., as in l. 32 foll., showing that leituðu is meant to refer only to the men of the party, and not to include RÇ«skva. (Gr. § 179.) l. 46. sÄr hvar lÄ maðr, 'saw where a man lay,' i.e. saw a man lying. l. 51. einu sinni, for once in his life. l. 52. nÄfndisk Skrȳmir, said his name was Skr. l. 66. bÅ«ið til (prp.) nÄtt-verðar yðr, prepare supper for yourselves. l. 77. Er þat þÄr satt at sÄgja. satt is in apposition to þat--'that is to be told you as the truth, (namely) that...' l. 88. sjÄ sik, see himself alive. l. 104. þann = þann veg, that way, course. l. 108. at æsirnir bæði Ã¾Ä heila hittask. The full sense is, 'that Thor and Loki expressed a wish that they and Skrȳmir might meet again safe and sound.' ll. 111, 112. sÄttu hnakkann Ä bak sÄr aptr, threw back the backs of their heads till they touched their backs, i.e. threw back their heads. l. 118. Årit stÅra, 'rather big,' i.e. very big. l. 120. glotti um tÇ«nn, 'grinned round a tooth,' i.e. showed his teeth in a malicious grin. Two MSS. read við instead of um. l. 121. er annan veg en ek hygg, at...? is it otherwise than as I think, namely that...? i.e. am I not right in thinking that...? l. 127. engi er hÄr sÄ inni er... = engi er hÄr-inni sÄ-er... l. 129. freista skal, Gr. § 192. l. 140. kallar þess meiri vÄn at hann sÄ... 'says that there is more probability of that, namely that he is...than of the contrary,' i.e. says that he will have to be... l. 150. fÅthvatari en svÄ, 'more swift-footed than so--under these circumstances,' i.e. than you. l. 156. ok er ÃjÄlfl eigi Ã¾Ä kominn... = Ã¾Ä er ÃjÄlfi eigi kominn... l. 172. at sinni, this time. l. 172. hann, acc. l. 173. laut År horninu, bent back from the horn.


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet l. 188. mestr refers to drykkr understood. l. 218. kalli, Gr. § 192. l. 241. þŠrefers to uni. III. Balder l. 7. engi agrees with dÅmr. IV. The Death of Balder l. 11. hann, acc. l. 20. ungr, too young. l. 31. Å«-happ is in apposition to þat; cp. 3. 7. ll. 33, 34. vÄru með einum hug til... had the same feelings towards. l. 36. var...fyrr, was beforehand, prevented. l. 42. vili, subj. 'whether he will';--change of construction. l. 55. nema, 'unless,' here = 'until.' l. 89. heim. This use of heim in the sense of 'someone else's home.' is frequent. Cp. our 'drive a nail home.' l. 94. svÄ refers to ok ef allir hlutir..., the ok being pleonastic. l. 108. hvar, cp. 2. 46. l. 113. karl, 'old man,' here = Odin. V. HÄðinn and HÇ«gni l. 6. HÄðinn = hann; this use of a proper name instead of a pronoun is frequent. l. 9. þar. Cp. 1. 3. VI. The Death of Olaf Tryggvason l. 17. svÄ at, so that, i.e. just when. l. 30. er, namely that. l. 33. austan at sigla, is in a kind of apposition to fÄrðina. l. 40. svÄ, also. l. 48. muni fyrir, awaits you, is impending. l. 53. meira, adv., better, faster. l. 149. bar hann hÄtt, impers. w. acc.; he was in a conspicuous place. 48

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet l. 244. við fimtÄnda mann, one of fifteen, with fourteen men. l. 259. vÄpna is governed by the second half of the genitival compound klæða-bÅ«nað, which is here considered as two independent words. VII. Auðun l. 17. var fyrir, was to be found. l. 26. tvau verð slÄ«k, double the price you gave. l. 55. fÄ is probably dat. here, but may be nom. l. 56. Äptir sem..., according as, in accordance with what. l. 64. nÅ«...nÅ«, lately...just now. l. 116. hÄldr is here used pleonastically in a kind of apposition to the preceding bÄtr. l. 125. en, and = while. l. 129. þessi einn var svÄ hlutrinn, at..., this single thing is the case, namely that... i.e. the only thing is that... VIII. Ãrymskviða l. 7. jarðar is governed by hvÄrgi. l. 9. tÅ«na. Poetical construction of gen. to denote goal of motion. l. 15. þŠgoes with the following at = ok sÄlja, þÅat (þÅtt) væri År silfri. l. 32. fÅri may be either sg. or pl. 3 pers.

Glossary æ follows að, ð follows d, Ä follows e, Å follows oð, Ç« follows o, ö follows Ç«, þ follows t. The declensions of nouns are only occasionally given. (-rs) etc. means that the r of the nom. is kept in inflection. A -a adv. not. Ä sf. river. Ä see eiga. Ä prp. w. acc. and dat. on, in. Äðr adv., cj. before. aðrir see annar. æsir see Äss. 49

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet ætla wv. 3, consider, deem: 'ætlask fyrir,' intend. ætt sf. 2, race, descent, family. ætta see eiga. af prp. w. dat. from; of; with; adv. 'drekka af,' drink off. af-hÅ«s sn. out-house, side room. afl sn. strength, might. af-taka wf. damage, injury. Ägætliga adv. splendidly. aka sv. 2, drive (a chariot, etc.). Äkafliga adv. vehemently, hard--'kalla a.' call loudly. akarn sn. acorn. akkeri sn. anchor. Älar-Ändir sm. thong-end, end of a strap. al-bÅ«inn adj. w. gen. quite ready. aldinn adj. old. aldri adv. never. Ä-lÄngðar adv. for some time. Älfr sm. elf. Ä-lit snpl. appearance, countenance [lÄ«ta]. all-harðr adj. very hard, very violent. all-lÄ«till adj. very little. all-mann-skÅðr adj. (very injurious to men), very murderous (of a battle) [skaði, 'injury']. all-mikill adj. very great. allr adj. all, whole; 'með Ç«llu,' entirely; 'alls fyrst,' first of all. all-stÅrum adv. very greatly. all-valdr sm. monarch, king. al-snotr adj. very clever. al-svartr adj. very black, coal-black. alt adv. quite. ambÄtt sf. 2, female slave, maid. and-lit sn. face [lÄ«ta]. annarr prn. second; following, next; other; one of the two--'annar...annarr,' one...the other. aptann sm. evening. aptastr adj. most behind. aptr adv. back, backwards, behind. Är sf. oar. Är sn. year. Är see Ä. argr adj. cowardly, base. Är-maðr sm. steward. armr adj. wretched. Äs-mÄgin sn. divine strength. 50

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Äss sm. 3, (Scandinavian) god. Äst sf. 2, affection, love, often in pl. Äst-sæll adj. beloved, popular. [sæll, 'happy']. Äsynja wf. (Scandinavian) goddess [Äss]. Ät see eta. at prp. w. dat. at, by; to, towards, up to; for; in accordance with, after. at adv. to. -at adv. not. at-laga wf. attack [lÄggja]. at-rÅðr (-rar) sm. 2, rowing against, attack. Ätta num. eight. Ätta see eiga. auð-kÄndr adj. easy to be recognized, easily distinguishable. auðr adj. desert, deserted, without men. auð-sÄnn adj. evident. auga wn. eye. aug-sȳn sf. sight. auka sv. 1, increase; impers., w. dat. of what is added 'jÅk nÅ« miklu Ä,' much was added to it (his hesitation increased). austan adv. from the east. aust-maðr sm. Easterner, Norwegian. austr sn. the east--'Ä« au.,' eastwards. austr adv. eastwards. austr-vegr sm. the East, especially Russia. Ävalt adv. continually, all the time. Ä-vanr adj. wanting; impers. neut. in 'einnar mÄr Freyju Ävant þykkir,' Freyja alone I seem to want. Ä-vinnr adj. toilsome, only in the impers. neut. 'mun Ä-vint verða um sÇ«xin,' it will be a hard fight at the prow. B bað see biðja. bÄðir prn. both, neut. as adv. in 'bæði...ok,' both...and. bÄðu see biðja. bǣða see biðja. bǣði see bÄðir. baggi wm. bag; bundle. bak sn. back, 'vÄrja eitt baki,' defend a thing with the back, i.e. turns one's back to it = be a coward. bak-borði wm. larboard. bÄl sn. flame; funeral pile. bÄl-fÇ«r sf. funeral. bani wm. death. bar see bera. bardagi wm. battle. 51

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet barð sn. edge, rim; projection in the prow of a ship formed by the continuation of the keel. barða see bÄrja. barði wm. war-ship with a sharp prow, ram. barn sn. child. batt see binda. bauð see bjÅða. beiða wv. 1, w. gen. of thing and dat. of pers. benefited, ask, demand. bein sn. bone. bÄkkr sm. 2, bench. bÄlla wv. 1, occupy oneself with, deal in, generally in a bad sense. bera sv. 4, carry, take; bear, endure. berask at, happen. b. fram, bring forward, out. b. vÄpn niðr, shoot down. b. rÄð sÄ«n saman, hold council, deliberate. berg-risi wm. hill-giant. bÄrja wv. 1b, strike--'b. grjÅti,' stone. bÄrjask, fight. bÄrr adj. bare, unsheathed (of a sword). ber-sÄrkr sm. 2, wild fighter, champion. [Literally 'bear-shirt,' i.e. one clothed in a bear's skin.] bÄtr see vel. bÄtri see gÅðr. bÄzt see vel. bÄztr see gÅðr. beygja wv. 1, bend, arch. bīða sv. 6, w. gen. wait for; w. acc. abide, undergo. biðja sv. 5, ask, beg, pray, w. gen. of thing, acc. of the pers. asked, and dat. of the person benefited; express a wish, bid--'bað hann vel kominn' (vera understood), bad him welcome; call on, challenge, command, tell. bifask wv. 1, tremble, shake. bil sn. moment of time. bila wv. 2, fail. bilt neut. adj. only in the impers. 'einum verðr bilt,' one hesitates, is taken aback, is afraid. binda sv. 3, bind, tie up; dress. birta wv. 1, show [bjartr]. bÄ«ta sv. 6, bite; cut. bittu see binda. bitu see bÄ«ta. bjarn-dȳri sn. bear. bjartr adj. bright, clear. bjÅ see bÅ«a. bjÅða sv. 7, w. acc. and dat. offer, propose--'b. einum fang,' challenge to wrestling; invite. b. upp, give up. bjÇ«rg sf. help; means of subsistence, store of food. blÄsa sv. 1, blow; blow trumpet as signal. bleyða wf. coward. blīða wf. gentleness, friendliness. blindr adj. blind. 52

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet blÅð sn. blood. blÅt-bolli wm. sacrificial bowl. bÅtr see bÅt. boga-skot sn. bowshot. bogi wm. bow. bog-maðr sm. bowman, archer. bÅndi sm. 4, yeoman, householder, (free) man [bÅ«a]. borð sn. side of a ship, board; rim, the margin between the rim of a vessel and the liquid in it--'nÅ« er gott beranda b. Ä horninu,' now there is a good margin for carrying the horn, i.e. its contents are so diminished that it can be lifted without spilling. borg sf. fortress, castle. borg-hlið sn. castle gate. bÅt sf. 3, mending, improvement; plur. bÅtr, compensation. bÇ«rn see barn. brÄ sf. eyelid. brÄ see bregða. bragð sn. trick, stratagem [bregða]. brann see brÄnna. brast see bresta. brÄtt adv. quickly. braut sf. way--Ä braut, adv. away. braut see brjÅta. braut, brott adv. away. bregða sv. 3, w. dat. jerk, pull, push; b. upp, lift, raise (to strike). change, transform. breiðr adj. broad. brÄnna wf. burning; incremation. brÄnna sv. 3, burn intr. brÄnna wv. 1, burn trans. bresta sv. 3, break, crack, burst. brestr sm. crack; loss. brjÅst sn. breast. brjÅta sv. 7, break--'b. (skip)' suffer shipwreck, also impers. 'skip (acc.) brȳtr,' the ship is wrecked. broddr sm. point. brÅðir sm. 4, brother. brotinn see brjÅta. brotna wv. 3, break intr. brott see braut. brott-laga sf. retreat. brÅ« sf. bridge. brūð-fÄ sn. bridal gift. brūðr sf. 2, bride. brÅ«n sf. 3, eyebrow. 53

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet bryggja wf. pier. brynja wf. corslet. brȳnn see brÅ«n. bryn-stÅ«ka wf. corslet-sleeve. bryti see brjÅta. brȳtr see brjÅta. bÅ« sn. dwelling, home. bÅ«a sv. 1, dwell; inhabit, possess, prepare. bÅ«ask, get ready, prepare intr. 'er bÅ«it við at...' it is likely to be that..., there is danger of... buðu see bjÅða. bÅ«inn adj. ready; in a certain condition--'(við) svÄ bÅ«it' adv. under such circumstances; capable, fit for--'vel at sÄr bÅ«inn,' very capable, very good (at). bundu see binda. burr sm. son. bȳðr see bjÅða. bȳr see bÅ«a. byrja wv. 3, begin. byr-vænn adj. promising a fair wind. D daga wv. 3, dawn. dagan sf. dawn. dagr sm. day. dalr sm. valley. dauðr adj. dead. dÄgi see dagr. deyja sv. 2, die. djÅ«pr adj. deep. dÅ see deyja. dÅmr sm. decision. dÅttir sf. 3, daughter. dÇ«gurðr sm. breakfast [-urð = -verðr, cp. nÄttverðr]. dÅkkr (-vir) adj. dark. draga sv. 2, draw, drag. d. saman, collect. drakk see drekka. drap see drepa. draumr sm. dream. drÄginn see draga. dreif see drÄ«fa. drÄki wm. dragon; dragon-ship, ship with a dragon's head as a beak. drekka sv. 3, drink. drepa sv. 5, strike; kill. dreyma wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of pers. and acc. of the thing dream [draumr]. 54

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet drÄ«fa sv. 6, drive; hasten. drjÅ«pa sv. 7, drop. drÅ see draga. drÅgu see draga. drÅttinn sm. lord. drÅttin-hollr adj. faithful to its master. drukkinn adj. (ptc.) drunk. drupu see drjÅ«pa. drykkja wf. drinking [drekka]. drykkju-maðr sm. drinker. drykkr sm. 2, draught. duna wv. 3, resound. dunði see dynja. dvalða see dvÄlja. dvÄlja wv. 1b, delay. dvÄljask, dwell, stop. dvergr sm. dwarf. dyðrill sm. (?). dȳja wv. 1b, shake. dynja wv. 1b, resound. dȳr sn. animal, beast. dyrr sfnpl. door. E eða cj. or. ef cj. if. Äfna wv. 1, perform, carry out. Äggja wv. 3, incite. eiðr sm. oath. eiga wf. property. eiga swv. possess, have: have as wife, be married to; have in the sense of must. eigi adv. not; no. eign sf. property. eignask wv. 3, appropriate, gain. eik sf. 3, oak. einka-mÄl snpl. personal agreement, special treaty. einn num., prn. one; the same; a certain, a; alone, only--'einn saman,' alone, mere. einn-hvÄrr prn. a certain, some, a. eira wv. 1, w. dat. spare. eitr sn. poison. ek prn. I. Äk see aka. ekki prn. neut. nothing; adv. not. eldr sm. fire. 55

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Älli wf. old age. ellifti adj. eleventh. ellifu num. eleven. em see vera. en cj. but; and. en adv. than, after compar. Ändask wv. 1, end, suffice for. Ändi, Ändir sm. end. Änd-langr adj. the whole length--'Ändlangan sal,' the whole length of the hall. Ändr adv. again. engi prn. none, no. Änn adv. yet, still; besides; after all. Äptir prp. w. acc. after (of time). w. dat. along, over; in quest of, after; according to, by. adv. afterwards; behind [aptr]. Äptri adj. compar. hind. er prn. rel. who, which, rel. adv. where; when; because, that. er see vera. er see þū. Ärfiði sn. work; trouble. ert see vera. eru see vera. eta sv. 5, eat. ey sf. island. F fÄ sv. 1, grasp; receive, get; give; be able. fÄsk, wrestle. fÄsk Ä, be obtained, be. faðir sm. 4, father. fær see fÄ. fæstr see fÄr. fagnaðr sm. 2, joy; entertainment, hospitality. fagr adj. beautiful, fair, fine. fagrliga adv. finely. fall sn. fall. falla sv. 1, fall. fallask, be forgotten, fail. fang sn. embrace, grasp; wrestling. fann see finna. fÄr adj. few--neut. fÄtt w. gen.: 'fÄtt manna,' few men. fara go, travel--w. gen. in such constr. as 'f. fÄrðar sinnar,' go his way; fare (well, ill); happen, turn out; experience; 'f. með einu,' deal with, treat; destroy, use up w. dat. farask impers. in 'fÄrsk þeim vel,' they have a good passage. farmr sm. lading, cargo. fastr adj. firm, fast, strong. fÄ sn. property, money.


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet fÄðrum see faðir. fekk see fÄ. fÄgrð sf. beauty [fagr]. fÄgrstr see fagr. feikn-stafir smpl. 2, wickedness. fela sv. 3, hide. fÄlagi wm. companion. fÄ-lauss adj. penniless. fÄ-lÄ«till adj. with little money, poor. fell see falla. fÄlla wv. 1, fell, throw down; kill [falla]. fengu, fÄnginn see fÄ. fÄr see fara. fÄrð sf. 2, journey [fara]. fer-skeyttr adj. four-cornered. fimm num. five. fimtÄndi adj. fifteenth. finna sv. 3, find; meet, go to see; notice, see. fjaðr-hamr sm. feathered (winged) coat. fjall sn. mountain. fjÄr see fÄ. fjara sf. ebb-tide; beach. fjogur see fjÅrir. fjÅrði adj. fourth. fjÅrir num. four. fjÇ«lð wf. quantity. fjÇ«l-kyngi sn. magic. fjÇ«l-mÄnni sn. multitude; troop [maðr]. fjÇ«rðr sm. 3, firth. fjÇ«rur see fjara. flÄ sv. 2, flay, skin. flaug see fljÅ«ga. flÄginn see flÄ. flestr see margr. fljÅta sv. 7, float, drift. fljÅ«ga sv. 7, fly. flÅ see fljÅ«ga. floti wm. fleet [fljÅtal. flÅtti wm. flight [flȳja]. flugu see fljÅ«ga. fluttu see flytja. flȳja wv. 1, flee. 57

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet flytja wv. 1b. remove, bring. fnÄsa wv. 3, snort. fÅra wv. 1, bring, take; fasten [fara]. fÅrir see fara. fÅti see fÅt. fÅlginn see fela. fÅlk sn. multitude, troop; people. fÅr see fara. for-tÇ«lur wpl. representations, arguments [tala]. fÅstra wf. nurse. fÅt-hvatr adj. swift-footed. fÅtr sm. foot; leg. fǫður see faðir. fÇ«r sf. journey [fara]. fÇ«ru-neyti sn. company [njÅta]. frÄ prp. from, away from; about, concerning. 'Ä« frÄ' adv. away. frændi sm. 4, relation. frÄ-fall sn. death. fram adv. forward, forth. compar. framar, ahead. framastr adj. superl. chief, most distinguished. frami wm. advantage, courage. framiðr see frÄmja. fram-stafn sm. prow. frÄ-sÇ«gn sf. narrative, relation. freista wv. 3, w. gen. try, test. frÄmja wv. 1b, perform [fram]. friðr sm. 2, peace. frīðr adj. beautiful, fine. frÅðr adj. learned, wise. frÅkn adj. bold, daring. frost sn. frost. fugl sm. bird. full-kominn adj. (ptc.) complete; ready (for). fullr adj. full. fundr sm. 2, meeting [finna]. fundu see finna. furðu adv. awfully, very. fÅ«ss adj. eager. fylgja wv. 1, w. dat. follow; accompany. fylki sn. troop [fÅlk]. fylkja wv. 1, w. dat. draw up (troops) [fÅlk]. fylla wv. 1, fill [fullr]. 58

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet fyr, fyrir prp. w. acc. and dat. before; beyond, over--'f. borð,' overboard; instead of--'koma f.' adv. be given as compensation; for; because of. 'f. þvÄ« at,' because. 'lÄ«till. f. sÄr,' insignificant. fyrir-rÅ«m sn. fore-hold, chief-cabin. fyrirrÅ«ms-maðr sm. man in the fore-hold. fyrr adv. compar. before, formerly. superl. fyrst, first. fyrri adj. compar. former. superl. fyrstr, first. fȳsa wv. 1, hasten trans.--impers. 'braut fȳsir mik,' I feel a desire to go away [fÅ«ss]. G gÄ wv. 1, w. gen. heed, care for. gæfa wf. luck [gefa]. gæta wv. 1, watch, take care of [geta]. gaf see gefa. gæfu-maðr sm. lucky man. gaflak sn. javelin. gamall adj. old. gaman sn. amusement, joy. ganga sv. 1, go, with gen. of goal in poetry; attack--'g. Ä skip,' board a ship. g. af, be finished. g. til, come up. g. upp, land; board a ship; be used up, expended (of money). garðr sm. enclosure, court; dwelling. gat see geta. gefa sv. 5, give. gÄgnum, Ä« gÄgnum prp. w. gen. through. gekk see ganga. gÄlti see gÇ«ltr. gÄnginn, gÄngr, gengu see ganga. geta sv. 5, w. gen. mention, speak of; guess, suppose. geysi adv. excessively. gipta wf. luck [gefa]. giptu-maðr sm. lucky man. gjafar see gjÇ«f. gjÇ«f sf. gift. glotta wv. 2, smile maliciously, grin. glæsiligr adj. magnificent. gnȳr sm. din, noise. gÅðr adj. good--'gott er til eins,' it is easy to get at, obtain. gÅlf sn. floor; apartment, room. gott see gÅðr. gÇ«fugr adj. distinguished [gefa]. gÇ«ltr sm. 3, boar. gÇ«mul see gamall. gÇ«Ìra wv. 1c, do, make. gÇ«Ìrask, set about doing; be made into, become. gÇ«Ìra at, accomplish, carry out.


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet gÇ«Ìrsimi wf. article of value, treasure. granda wv. 3, w. dat. injure. grÄr adj. gray. gras sn. grass; plant, flower. grÄta sv. 1, weep, mourn for. grÄtr sm. weeping. greiða wv. 1, put in order, arrange. greip see grÄ«pa. gres-jÄrn sn. iron wire (?). grey sn. dog. grið snpl. peace, security. griða-staðr sm. sanctuary. grind sf. 3, lattice door, wicket. grÄ«pa sv. 6, seize. gripr sm. 2, article of value, treasure. grjÅt sn. stone (collectively). grÅa sv. 1, grow; heal. grÅr see grÅa. gruna wv. 3, impers.--'mik grunar,' I suspect, think. grunr sm. 2, suspicion. gull sn. gold. gull-band sn. gold band. gull-bÅ«inn adj. adorned with gold. gull-hringr sm. gold ring. gull-hyrndr adj. (ptc.) with gilt horns. gull-roðinn adj. (ptc.) gilt. gȳgr sf. giantess. gyltr adj. (ptc.) gilt. gyrða wv. 1, gird. H hæstr see hÄr. hætta wv. 1, w. dat. desist from, stop. hættligr adj. dangerous, threatening. hættr adj. dangerous. haf sn. sea. hafa wv. 1, have; 'h. einn nær einu,' bring near to, expose to; use, utilize. at hafask, undertake. til hafa, have at hand. hafna see hÇ«fn. hafr sm. goat. hafr-staka wf. goatskin. hagliga adv. neatly. hagr sm. condition; advantage--'þÄr mun h. Ä vera,' will avail thee, be profitable to you. 60

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet hag-stÅðr adj. favourable. halda sv. 1, w. dat. hold (also with prp. Ä); keep. w. acc. observe, keep (laws, etc.). intr. take a certain direction, go. hÄlfr adj. half. hÄlfu adv. by half, half as much again. hallar see hÇ«ll. hallar-gÅlf sn. hall floor. haltr adj. lame. hamarr sm. hammer. hamars-muðr sm. thin end of hammer. hamar-skapt sn. handle of a hammer. hamar-spor sn. mark made by a hammer. hana see hann. handar see hÇ«nd. hand-skot sn. throwing with the hand. hand-tÄkinn ptc. pret. taken by hand, taken alive. hann prn. he. hÄr sn. hair. hÄr adj. high. harð-hugaðr adj. stern of mood. harðr adj. hard; strong. harð-skeytr adj. strong-shooting [skjÅta]. harmr sm. grief. hÄski wm. danger. hÄ-sæti sn. high seat, dais [sitja]. hÄsætis-kista sf. chest under the dais. hÄtt adv. high; loudly. haugr sm. mound. hauss sm. skull. heðan adv. hence. hÄfi see hafa. hÄfja sv. 2, raise, lift; begin. hÄfna wv. 1, w. gen. revenge, avenge. heill adj. sound, safe, prosperous. heil-rǣði sn. sound advice, good advice [rÄð]. heim adv. to one's home, home (domum). heima adv. at home (domi). heima-maðr sm. man of the household. heim-fÅ«ss adj. longing to go home, homesick. heimr sm. home, dwelling; world. heimta wv. 1, fetch, obtain, get back. heita sv. 1, call; w. dat. of pers. and dat. of thing promise; intr. (pres. heiti) be named, called. 61

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet hÄldr see halda. hÄldr adv. compar. more willingly, rather, sooner, more; rather, very. hÄl-grindr sf. the doors of hell. hÄllir sm. cave. helt see halda. hÄl-vegr sm. road to hell. hÄlzt adv. superl. most willingly, soonest, especially, most [hÄldr]. hÄndi, hÄndr see hÇ«nd. hÄnnar, hÄnni see hann. hÄpta wv. 1, bind; hinder, stop. hÄr adv. here--'h. af,' etc. here-of. hÄr-bergi sn. quarters, lodgings. hÄrða wv. harden, clench. hÄr-fang sn. booty. hÄrja wv. 3, make war, ravage [hÄrr]. hÄrr sm. army, fleet. herra sm. lord. hÄr-skip sn. war-ship. hestr sm. horse. hÄt see heita. heyra wv. 1, hear. himinn sm. heaven. hingat adv. hither. hinn prn. that. hirð sf. court. hirð-maðr sm. courtier. hiti wm. heat. hitta wv. come upon, find, meet; trans. go to. hittask, meet, intr. hjÄ prp. w. dat. by, at; in comparison with. hjÄlmr sm. helmet. hjÅn snpl. household. hlaða sv. 2, load, heap up; 'h. seglum,' take in sails. hlæja sv. 2, laugh. hlaupa sv. 1, jump, leap; run. hlaut see hljÅta. hleyp see hlaupa. hleypa wv. 1, make to run (i.e. the horse), gallop. hlÄ«f sf. shield. hlÄ«fa wv. 1, w. dat. shelter, cover, protect. hljÅp see hlaupa. hljÅta sv. 7, get, receive. hlÅðu see hlaða. 62

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet hlÅgu see hlæja. hlunnr sm. roller (for launching ships). hluti wm. portion [hljÅta]. hlutr sm. 2, share; portion, part, piece; thing [hljÅta]. hlut-skipti sn. booty. hnakki wm. back of head. hÅf see hÄfja. hollr adj. gracious, faithful. hÅlmr sm. small island. hon see hann. honum see hann. horn sn. horn. hÅgri adj. compar. right (hand). hÅla wv. 1, w. dat. praise, boast of. hÇ«fðingi wm. chief [hÇ«fuð]. hÇ«fða-fjÇ«l sf. head-board (especially of a bedstead). hÇ«fðu see hafa. hÇ«fn sf. harbour. hÇ«fuð sn. head. hÇ«gg sn. stroke. hÇ«gg-ormr sm. viper. hÇ«gg-orrosta wf. 'cutting-fight,' hand-to-hand fight. hÇ«ggva sv. 1, hew, cut, strike. hÇ«ll sf. hall. hÇ«nd sf. 3, hand; side--'hvÄrra-tvÄggju handar,' on both sides, for both parties. hræddr adj. frightened, afraid [ptc. of hræðask]. hræðask wv. 1, be frightened, fear. hræzla wf. fear [hræðask]. hrafn sm. raven. hratt see hrinda. hrauð see hrjÅða. hraut see hrjÅta. hreyfa wv. 1, move. hrīð sf. period of time. hrÄ«m-þurs sm. frost giant. hrinda sv. 3, push, launch (ship). hrista wv. 1, shake. hrjÅða sv. 7, strip, clear, disable. hrjÅta sv. 7, start, burst out. hrÇ«kk see hrökkva. hrökkva sv. 3, start back. hryði see hrjÅta. 63

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet hrynja wv. 1b. fall down. hrȳtr see hrjÅta. hugða see hyggja. hugi wm. thought. hugr sm. mind, heart; courage, spirit. hugsa wv. 3, consider, think. hundrað sn. hundred. hurð sf. 2, door. hÅ«s sn. room; house. hvar adv. where; that. hvÄrr prn. which of two; each of the two, both. hvÄrr-tvÄggja prn. each of the two, both. hvÄrt adv. whether, both in direct and indirect questions. hvÄrt-tvÄggja adv. 'hv...ok,' both...and. hvass adj. sharp. hvat prn. neut. what. hvart adj. brisk, bold. hvÄ adv. how. hverfa sv. 3, turn, go. hvÄr-gi adv. nowhere--'hv. jarðar,' nowhere on earth; in no respect, by no means. hvÄrnig adv. how [= hvÄrn veg.]. hvÄrr prn. who. hvÄrsu adv. how. hvÄ« adv. why. hvirfill sm. crown of head. hvÄ«tna wv. 2, whiten. hvÄ«tr adj. white. hyggja wv. 1b. think, mean, determine [hugr]. hylli wf. favour [hollr]. I Ä« prp. in. Ä«-huga wv. 3, try to remember, consider [hugr]. illa adv. ill, badly. illr adj. ill, bad. inn art. the. inn adv. in compar. innar, further in. inna wv. 1, accomplish. innan adv. within, inside. fyrir innan prp. w. gen. within, in. inni adv. in. it see þū. it see inn. Ä«-þrÅtt sf. feat. 64

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet J jafn-breiðr adj. equally broad. jafn-hÇ«fugr adj. equally heavy [hÄfja]. jafn-mikill adj. equally great. jafn-skjÅtt adv. equally quick. jafna wv. 3, smooth; compare w. dat. of thing compared. jafnan adv. always. jarl sm. earl. jÄrn sn. iron. jÄrn-glÅfi sm. iron gauntlet. jÄrn-spÇ«ng sf. iron plate. jÄta wv. 1, w. dat. agree to. jÅk see auka. jÇ«rð sf. earth. jÇ«tun-heimar smpl. home, world of the giants. jÇ«tunn, sm. giant. K kær-leikr sm. love, affection [kærr, 'dear']. kaf sn. diving; deep water, water under the surface. kafa wv. 3, dive. kalla wv. 3, cry out, call; assert, maintain; name, call. kann see kunna. kapp sn. competition. karl sm. man; old man. kasta wv. 3, cast, throw. kaupa wv. 2, buy. kÄngr sm. bend. kÄnna wv. 1, know; perceive. kÄrling sf. old woman [karl]. kÄrra wf. chariot. kÄtill sm. kettle. keypta see kaupa. keyra wv. 1, drive. kirkja wf. church. kirkju-skot sn. wing of a church. kjÅsa sv. 7, choose. klakk-laust adv. uninjured. klæða wv. 1, clothe. klæða-bÅ«naðr sm. apparel. klæði snpl. clothes. knÄ sn. knee. knÄ«fr sm. knife. 65

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet knÇ«rr sm. merchant-ship. knūði see knȳja. knÅ«i wm. knuckle. knÅ«tr sm. knot. knȳja wv. 1b, press with knuckles or knees; exert oneself [knÅ«i]. kÅlf-skot sn. (distance of a) bolt-shot. kollÅttr adj. bald. koma sv. 4. come; happen, turn out; w. dat. bring into a certain condition. k. fyrir, be paid in atonement. komask, make one's way (by dint of exertion). kona wf. woman; wife. konr sm. kind--'alls konar,' all kinds; 'nakkvars konar,' of some kind. konunga-stÄfna wf. congress of kings. konungr sm. king. konungs-dÅttir sf. king's daughter. konungs-skip sn. king's ship. kosinn see kjÅsa. kost-gripr sm. precious thing, treasure. kostr sm. 2, choice--'at ǫðru kosti,' otherwise; power [kjÅsa]. kÇ«gur-sveinn sm. little boy, urchin. kÇ«pp see kapp. kÇ«pur-yrði sn. boasting [orð]. kÇ«ttr sm. 3, cat. köm see koma. krappa-rÅ«m sn. back cabin. krappr adj. narrow. kraptr sm. strength. krÄs sf. 2, delicacy. krÄfja wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing, demand. kunna swv. know; feel; venture; like to. kunnandi wf. knowledge, accomplishments. kunnusta wf. knowledge, power. kunnr adj. known. kurr sm. murmur, rumour. kvæði sn. poem. kvæma see koma. kvÄn sf. wife. kveða sv. 5, say. kv. Ä settle, agree on. kvÄðja wf. salutation [kveða]. kvÄðja wv. 1b, greet. kveld sn. evening--'Ä« kv.,' this evening. kveld-sÇ«ngr sm. vespers. kvenn-vÄðir sfpl. woman's clothes. 66

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet kviðr sm. 3, stomach, belly. kvisa wv. 3, whisper. kvistr sm. 3, branch, twig. kvÇ«ddu see kvÄðja. kykr (-vir) adj. living. kykvendi sn. living creature, animal. kȳll sm. bag. kyn sn. race, lineage. kȳr sf. 3, cow. kyssa wv. 1, kiss. L lÄ see liggja. lægri see lÄgr. lær-lÄggr sm. thigh-bone. læt see lÄta. lagða see lÄggja. lÄgr adj. low; short of stature [liggja]. lags-maðr sm. companion. lagu see liggja. lamða, lamit see lÄmja. land sn. land, country. land-skjÄlfti wm. earthquake. langr adj. long, far. lÄt snpl. noise. lÄta sv. 1, let go; leave; lose; allow; cause, let; behave, act; say. lauf sn. foliage. laufs-blað sn. (blade of foliage), leaf. laug sf. bath. laun snpl. reward. launa wv. 3, reward, requite w. dat. of the thing given and of the pers., and acc. of the thing requited. lauss adj. loose; shaky, unsteady; free from obligation. laust see ljÅsta. laut see lÅ«ta. lax sm. salmon. leðr-hosa wf. leather bag. lÄggja wv. 1b, lay, put; 'l. eitt fyrir einn,' give, settle on; 'l. sik fram,' exert oneself; intr. w. skip understood sail, row--l. at, land; attack; l. frÄ, retreat, draw off; pierce, make a thrust. lÄggjask, set out, proceed; swim [liggja]. leið sf. way--'koma einu til leiðar,' carry out [līða]. leið see līða. leiða wv. 1, lead, conduct [līða]. leiðangr (-rs) sm. levy [leið]. 67

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet leiga wv. 1, borrow. leikr sm. game; athletic sports, contest. leita wv. 3, w. gen. and dat. seek; take to, have recourse to. leitask, feel one's way [lÄ«ta]. lÄmja wv. 1b, break. lÄngð sf. length [langr]. lÄngi adv. long (of time) [langr]. lÄngstr see langr. lÄt see lÄta. lÄtja wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing, hinder, dissuade. lÄtta wv. 1, w. dat. lift. leyniliga adv. secretly. leysa wv. 1, loosen, untie, open [lauss]. lið sn. troop. līða sv. 6, go; pass (of time); impers. līðr, w. dat. fare, get on. impers. 'līðr Ä (nÄttina),' (the night) is drawing to a close. lÄ«f sn. life--'Ä lÄ«fi,' alive. lifa wv. 2, live. liggja sv. 5, lie. l. til, be fitting. lÄ«k sn. body; corpse. lÄ«ka wv. 3, w. dat. please. lÄ«ki sn. form [lÄ«k]. lÄ«king sf. likeness, similarity [lÄ«kr]. lÄ«knsamr adj. gracious. lÄ«kr adj. like. lÄ«n sn. linen; linen headdress. list sf. art. lÄ«ta sv. 6, look at; regard, consider--'l. til eins.' turn to, acknowledge greeting. lÄ«task impers. w. dat. seem.litask wv. 3, look round one [lÄ«ta].lÄ«till adj. little, small--'lÄ«tit veðr,' not very windy weather. lÄ«tlu adv. by a little, a little.lÄ«til-ræði sm. degradation [rÄð].litr sm. 3, colour, complexion; appearance [lÄ«ta].lÄ«zk see lÄ«ta.ljÄ wv. 1, w. gen. and dat. lend.ljÅsta sv. 7, strike, w. dat. of instr. and acc. of the thing struck--'l. Ärum Ä« sæ,' dip the oars into the sea, begin to row.lofa wv. 3, praise.lÅga wv. 3, w. dat. part with.logi wm. flame.lokinn see lÅ«ka.lopt sn. air--'Ä l.,' up.lÅ«ka sv. 7, lock, close; impers. 'lȳkr einu,' it is finished, exhausted. 'l. upp,' unlock, open.lukla see lykill.lustu see ljÅsta.lÅ«ta sv. 7, bend, bow.lygi wf. lie, falsehood.lykð sf. ending--'at lykðum,' finally.lykill sm. key [lÅ«ka].lypta wv. 1, w. dat. lift [lopt].lypting sf. raised place (castle) on the poop of a warship [lypta].lȳsa wv. 1, shine.lȳsi-gull sn. bright gold.lȳst see ljÅsta.lysta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire. M mÄ see mega. maðr sm. 4, man. mæla (mælta) wv. 1, speak--'m. við einu,' refuse; suggest. mær sf. virgin, maid. mætta see mega. magr (-ran) adj. thin. mÄgr sm. kinsman, relation, connection. 68

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet makligr adj. fitting. mÄl sn. narrative; in plur. poem; proper time, time. mÄlmr sm. metal. mann see maðr. mann-fÅlk sn. troops, crew. mann-hringr sm. ring of men. mannliga adv. manlily. margr adj. many, much. mark sn. mark; importance. marka wv. 3, infer. marr sm. horse. mart see margr. matask wv. 3, eat a meal. matr sm. 2, food. mÄtta see mega. mÄttr sm. 2, might, strength. með prp. w. acc. and dat. with. meðal s. middle--Ä m. w. gen. between. meðan adv. whilst. mega swv. can, may. megin --'ǫðrum m.,' on the other side; 'Ç«llum m.,' on all sides [corruption of vegum]. mÄgin-gjarðar sfpl. girdle of strength [mega]. meiðmar sfpl. treasures. meiri see mikill. mÄn sn. necklace, piece of jewelry. mÄnn see maðr. mÄr see ek. mÄrgr sm. 2, marrow. mÄrki sn. mark; banner [mark]. mest see mikill. meta sv. 5, measure; estimate. mey see mær. mið-garðr sm. (middle enclosure), world. miðgarðs-ormr sm. world-serpent. miðr adj. middle. mik see ek. mikill adj. big, tall, great. mikit adv. much, very. miklu adv. (instr.) much. milli, Ä milli prp. between, among. minjar sfpl. remembrance, memorial. minn see ek. minni see lÄ«till. 69

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet minnr adv. less. mis-lÄ«ka wv. 3, w. dat. displease, not please. missa wf. loss, want. missa wv. 1, w. gen. lose; do without. mistil-teinn sm. mistletoe [teinn, 'twig']. mitt see ek. mjǫðr sm. 3, mead. mjÇ«k adv. very. mÅðir sf. 3, mother. mÅðr sm. anger. mÅtask wv. 1, meet intr. [mÅt]. mÇ«n sf. mane. morginn sm. morning. mÇ«rk sf. 3, forest. mÇ«rum see marr. mÅt sn. meeting. Ä« mÅti prp. w. dat. against. mÇ«tu-neyti sn. community of food--'lÄggja m. sitt,' make their provision into a common store [matr; njÅta]. mundu see munu. munnr sm. mouth. munr sm. difference--'þeim mun,' to that extent. munu swv. will, may (of futurity and probability). myndi see munu. myrkr sn. darkness. myrkr adj. dark. N nÄ wv. 1, reach, obtain; succeed in. nÇ£r adv. w. dat. near; nearly. superl. næst--'þvÄ« n.,' thereupon. nÇ£tr see nÄtt. nafn sn. name. nakkvarr prn. some, a certain. nakkvat adv. somewhat; perhaps. nÄtt sf. 3, night. nÄtt-bÅl sn. night-quarters. nÄtt-langt adv. the whole night long. nÄtt-staðr sm. night-quarters. nÄttÅ«ra wf. nature, peculiarity. nÄtt-verðr sm. 2, supper. nauð-syn sf. necessity. naut see njÅta. neðan adv. below. fyrir n. prp. w. dat. below. nÄfja adj. long-nosed (?). nÄfna wv. 1, name, call. nÄfnask, name oneself, give one's name as [nafn]. 70

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet nema sv. 4, take; begin. nema adv. except, unless. nest sn. provisions. nest-baggi sm. provision-bag. niðr adv. down, downwards. nÄ«undi adj. ninth. njÅsn sf. spying; news. njÅsna wv. 3, spy; get intelligence. njÅta sv. 7, enjoy, profit. norðr adv. northwards. nÇ«kkvi wm. vessel, small ship. nÅ« adv. now; therefore, so. nȳ-vaknaðr adj. (ptc.) newly awoke. nȳr adj. new. nȳta wv. 1, profit [njÅta]. O oddr sm. point. Åð-fÅ«ss adj. madly eager. Åðr adj. mad, furious. ÅÌpa wv. 1, shout [Åp, 'shout']. Årit adv. enough; very. of prp. w. dat. over; during; with respect to, about. adv. too (of excess). of adv., often used in poetry as a mere expletive. of-veikr adj. too weak. ofan adv. above; down. ofan-verðr adj. upper, on the top. Åk see aka. ok conj. and; also--'ok...ok,' both...and; but. okkr see þū. opt adv. often. compar. optar, oftener, again. År prp. w. dat. out of. orð sn. word--'Ä« ǫðru orði,' otherwise. orðinn see verða. orð-sÄnding sf. verbal message. orð-tak sn. expression, word. ormr sm. serpent, dragon; ship with a dragon's head. orrosta wf. battle. oss see ek. Åtta wf. the end of night, just before dawn. Åttalaust adj. without fear. Åx see vaxa. oxi wm. ox. 71

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet ǫðlask wv. 3, obtain. ǫðru see annarr. Ç«l sn. ale. Ç«ldnu see aldinn. Ç«ndÅttr adj. fierce. Ç«nd-vegi sn. high seat, dais. Ç«nnur see annar. Ç«r sf. arrow. ör-æfi sn. harbourless coast. örendi sn. errand. örendi sn. holding the breath, breath. örind-reki sm. messenger [reka]. öxn see oxi. P pati sm. rumour. pÄnningr sm. penny. R rÄð sn. advice; what is advisable--'sjÄ eitt at rÄði,' consider advisable; plan, policy, resolution. rÄða sv. 1, advise, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers.; consider, deliberate; undertake, begin w. prp. til or infin.; dispose of, have control over w. prp. fyrir. rÄða-gÇ«Ìrð sf. deliberation, decision. rÄðugr adj. sagacious. ragna-rökr sn. twilight of the gods, end of the world. [ragna gen. of rÄgin neut. plur. 'gods.'] ragr adj. cowardly. rÄku see reka. rann see rÄnna. rÄs sf. race. rauðr adj. red. rausn sf. magnificence, anything magnificent. rÄð see rÄða. reið sf. chariot. reið see rīða. reiða wv. 1, swing, wield, brandish. reið-fara adj. --'vera vel r.,' have a good passage. reiði sn. trappings, harness. reiðr adj. angry. reka sv. 7, drive; carry out; perform. 'r. af tjÇ«ld,' take down awning. rÄkkja wf. bed. rÄnna sv. 3, run. rÄtta wv. 1, direct; reach, stretch. r. upp, pull up. rÄttr adj. right, correct; equitable, fair. reyna wv. 1, try, test. 72

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet reyr-bÇ«nd supl. the wire with which the arrow-head was bound to the shaft. rīða sv. 6, w. dat. ride. riðu see rīða. riðlask wv. 3, set oneself in motion. rÄ«ki sn. power; sovereignty, reign. rÄ«kr adj. powerful, distinguished. ripti sn. linen cloth. rita wv. 3, write. rÅa sv. 1, row. rÅða wv. 1, talk about, discuss. röra see rÅa. rÇ«st sf. league. S sÄ prn. that; he; such, such a one. sÄ see sjÄ. sær sm. sea. særa wv. 1, wound [sÄr]. sæti sn. seat [sitja]. sætt sf. 2, reconciliation, peace. sættask wv. 1, be reconciled, agree. saga wf. narrative, history, story. sagða see sÄgja. saka wv. impers. w. acc.--'hann (acc.) sakaði ekki,' he was not injured. sakna wv. 3, w. gen. miss. sÄl sf. 2, soul. sÄld sn. gallon. salr sm. 2, hall. saman adv. together. sami weak adj. same. sam-laga wf. laying ships together for battle. samt adv. together. sannligr adj. probable; suitable, right. sannr adj. true. sÄr sn. wound. sÄrr adj. wounded. sat see sitja. satt see sannr. sÄ see vera. sÄ see sjÄ. sefask wv. 3, be pacified. sÄgja wv. 1b, say, relate [saga]. segl sn. sail. 73

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet seilask wv. 1, stretch intr. seinn adj. late, slow, tedious. seint adv. slowly. sÄlja wv. 1, give; sell. sem adv. as; w. subj. as if; to strengthen the superl.--'sem mest,' the most possible, as much as possible. sÄnda wv. 1, send. sÄndi-maðr sm. messenger. sÄnn adv. at the same time, at once; immediately, forthwith. sÄnn see sjÄ. sÄr see sik. sÄr see sjÄ. sÄt see sjÄ. set-berg sn. seat-shaped rock, crag [sitja]. sÄtja wv. 1, set, place. s. fram, launch (a ship). sÄtjask, sit down. sÄtjask upp, sit up [sitja]. sÄ«-byrða wv. 1, w. dat. lay a ship alongside another. neut. ptc. sÄ«byrt, close up to [borð]. sīð adv. late. comp. sīðar, later, afterwards. superl. sīðast, latest, last. sīða wf. side. sīðan adv. afterwards, then; since. sīðari adj. comp. later, second (in order). siðr sm. 3, custom. sÄ«ga sv. 6, sink. sigla wf. mast [segl]. sigla wv. 1, sail. siglu-skeið sn. middle of a ship. sigr (-rs) sm. victory. sigr-Åp shout of victory. sik prn. oneself. silfr sn. silver. sÄ«n see sik. sinn sn. time (of repetition)--'einu sinni,' once, for once. 'eigi optar at sinni,' not oftener than that time, i.e. only once. sinn see sik. sitja sv. 5, sit. s. fyrir, sit in readiness. sjÄ = þessi. sjÄ sv. 5, see; 's. fyrir einu,' look after, take care of. impers. 'lÄ«tt sÄr þat Ä, at' will hardly be seen that... sjÄsk, see one another, meet. sjÄlfr prn. self. sjÅða sv. 7, boil; cook. sjÅn sf. sight. sjÅn-hvÄrfing sf. ocular delusion. skal see skulu. skalf see skjÄlfa. skÄli wm. hall. 74

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet skammr adj. short. skap sn. state, condition; state of mind, mood, humour. skapligr adj. suitable, fit. skapt sn. shaft, handle. skar see skera. skarð sn. notch, gap; defect. skaut see skjÅta. skÄgg sn. beard; beak (of a ship). skeið sn. race-course, running-ground; race--'taka sk.,' start in a race. skeina wv. 1, graze. skellr sm. knock. skÄmtun sf. amusement, entertainment [skammr, literally 'shortening (of time)']. skera sv. cut, cut up; kill (animal). skiljask wv. 1, separate, part intr. skillingr sm. shilling, coin. skilnaðr sm. separation, parting. skip sn. ship. skipa wv. 3, order, arrange, prepare, fit out. 'sk. til um eitt,' make arrangements for. skipask, take one's place; change, alter intr. skipa-hÄrr sm. fleet. skipan sf. arranging; ship's crew. skips-brot sn. shipwreck. skip-stjÅrnar-maðr sm. (steerer), commander of a ship, captain. skjald-borg sf. wall of shields, testudo. skjÄlfa sv. 3, shake intr. skjÅta sv. 7, w. dat. shoot, throw, push. skjÅt-fÅri sn. swiftness. skjÅt-leikr sm. swiftness. skjÅt-liga adv. swiftly, quick. skjÅtr adj. swift, quick. skjÅtt adv. quickly. skjÇ«ldr sm. 3, shield. skÅgr sm. forest, wood. skorta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of pers. and of thing, want, fail. skot sn. shot; missile [skjÅta]. skot-mÄl sn. shot-measure, range. skotta wv. 3, dangle--sk. við drift (of ships). skÇ«kull sm. shaft (of a cart). skÇ«mm sf. disgrace, shame. skÇ«r sf. hair of the head. skreppa wf. bag, wallet. skulfu see skjÄlfa. skulu swv. shall. 75

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet skuta wf. small ship, cutter. skutill sm. trencher, small table. skutil-sveinn sm. page, chamberlain. skutu see skjÅta. skykkr sm. shake--'ganga skykkjum,' shake. skylda see skulu. skyldr adj. obliged, obligatory, bound [skulu]. skyn sn. understanding, insight--'kunna, sk.' understand. skynda wv. 1, hasten, bring in haste. skyndiliga adv. hastily, quickly. skynsamliga adv. intelligently, carefully. skȳt see skjÅta. slÄ sv. 2, strike. 'slÄ eldi Ä«,' light a fire. slæliga adv. sluggishly, weakly. slær adj. blunt. slær see slÄ. slÄtr sn. meat. sleikja wv. lick. sleit see slÄ«ta. slÄttr adj. level, smooth; comfortable, easy. slÄ«kr adj. such. slÄ«ta sv. 6, tear--sl. upp, pull up; w. dat. break (agreement). smæri see smÄr. smÄr adj. small, insignificant. smÄ-skip snpl. small ships. smÄ-skÅ«ta wf. small cutter. smjÅ«ga sv. 7, squeeze through, slip. smugu see smjÅ«ga. snarpligr adj. vigorous. snarpr adj. sharp; vigorous. snimma adv. early. snöra see snÅ«a. snÅ«a sv. 1, w. dat. turn or (trans.) direct; twist, plait. snÅ«ask, turn (intr.). soðinn see sjÅða. sÅkja wv. 1c, seek; go--'s. aptr,' retreat. sÅmð sf. honour [sÅma]. sÅtti see sÅkja. sofa sv. 4, sleep. sofna wv. 3, go to sleep. sÇ«gur see saga. sÇ«k sf. cause--'fyrir Ã¾Ä s. at'..., because. sökkva sv. 3, sink. 76

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet sÅl sf. sun. sÅl-skin sn. sunshine. soltinn adj. hungry [ptc. of 'svelta,' starve]. sÅma wv. 2, w. dat., be suitable, befitting. sÅmi wm. honour. sonr sm. son. sÅtt sf. illness. sÅtta see sÅkja. sÇ«x snpl. raised prow of a war-ship. spala see spÇ«lr. sparask wv. 2, spare oneself, reserve one's energy. spÄnna (spÄnta) wv. 1, w. dat. of thing, gird, buckle on. spjÅt sn. spear. sporðr sm. tail. spori sm. spur. spÇ«lr sm. rail. sprakk see springa. sprÄtta wv. 1, split. springa sv. 3, burst. spurða see spyrja. spyrja wv. 1b, ask; hear of, learn--'sp. til eins,' have news of, hear of his arrival. spyrjask, be known. spyrna wv. 1, kick. staddr adj. placed, staying [ptc. of 'stÄðja,' place]. staðr sm. place--'Ä« staðinn,' instead. stafaðr adj. (ptc.) striped. staf-karl sm. (staff-man), beggar. stafn sm. prow. stafn-bÅ«i wm. prow-man. stafn-lÄ wm. grappling-hook. stafr sm. 2 (gen. sg. stafs), staff, stick. stakk see stinga. stallari sm. marshall. standa sv. 2, stand. st. upp, stand up, rise. starfa wv. 3, work. stÄfna wv. 1, steer; take a course, go. steig see stÄ«ga. steinn sm. stone; jewel. stela sv. 4, w. dat. of thing and acc. of pers. steal, rob. stÄndr see standa. stÄrkliga adv. vigorously. stÄrkr adj. strong. steypa wv. 1, w. dat. of thing, throw; pull off. steypask, throw oneself. 77

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet stÄ«ga sv. 6, advance, walk, go. st. upp, mount (horse). stÄ«gr sm. path, way. stikill sm. point. stilla (stilta) wv. 1, arrange. st. til, arrange, dispose. stinga sv. 3, pierce; 'st. stÇ«fnum at skipi,' run the prow against a ship's side. stirt adv. harshly [neut. of 'stirðr,' stiff]. stÅð see standa. stÅrri see stÅr. stÅkkva sv. 3, spring, rebound, start back. stolinn see stela. stÅrliga adv. bigly, arrogantly. stÅr-mannligr adj. magnificent, aristocratic. stÅr-mÄnni sn. great men (collective), aristocracy. stÅrr adj. big, great. stÅrum adv. greatly. stÅr-rÄðr adj. (great of plans), ambitious. stÅr-skip sn. big ship. stÅr-virki sn. great deed. strÄ wv. 1, strew, cover with straw. strauk see strjÅ«ka. strÄngr sm. 2, string. strjÅ«ka sv. 7, stroke. stund sf. period of time, time. stutt adv. shortly, abruptly [neut. of 'stuttr' short]. stȳra wv. 1, w. dat. steer. stȳri sn. rudder. stȳris-hnakki wm. top piece of rudder. styrkr sm. strength; help. sÅ« see sÄ. suðr adv. southward. suðr-ganga wf. journey south (to Rome). sukku see sökkva. sumar sn. summer. sumr prn. some. sund sn. sound, channel. svÄ adv. so, as; as soon as. 'ok svÄ,' also. svaf see sofa. svara wv. 3, w. dat. of thing, answer. svardagi sm. oath. sveinn sm. boy. sveinn-stauli wm. small boy. sveit sf. troop. svelga sv. 3, swallow, gulp. 78

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet sverð sn. sword. sverðs-hÇ«gg sn. swordstroke. svipan sf. jerk; moment. svipting sf. pull, struggle. sȳnask wv. 1, seem [sjÅn]. syni see sonr. systir sf. 3, sister. T taka wv. 2, w. acc. take, seize, take possession of; w. inf. begin; w. dat. receive (well, ill, etc.). takask, take place, begin. t. at, choose. t. til, engage in, try. t. upp, take to, choose. tala wf. talk, speech. tala wv. 3, speak, talk about, discuss. taliðr see tÄlja. tÄlma wv. 3, hinder. tÄr sn. tear. taumar smpl. reins. tÄkinn see taka. tÄlja wv. 1b, count, recount; account, consider; relate, say [tala]. tÄngðir sfpl. relationship, connection by marriage. tÄngja wv. 1, bind, fasten together. tÄngsl snpl. cable. tīða wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire. tīðindi snpl. tidings, news. tīðr adj. usual, happening--'hvat er tÄ«tt um þik?' what is the matter with you? tÄ«tt adv. often, quickly--'sem tīðast,' as quickly as possible. tiginn adj. of high rank. tigr sm. --'fjÅrir tigir,' forty. til prp. w. gen. to; till; for (of use)--'alt er t. vÄpna var,' everything that could be used as a missile; for (of object, intention)--'brjÅta lÄgg til mÄrgjar,' break a leg to get at the marrow; with respect to--'til vista var eigi gott,' they were not well off for provisions. til adv. too (of excess). til-vÄ«san sf. direction, guidance. tÄ«tt see tīðr. tÄ«vi wm. god. tjald sn. tent. tjÅ«gu-skÄgg sn. forked beard. tÅka see taka. tÅk see taka. tÇ«nn sf. 3, tooth. trani wm. crane. trÄ sn. tree. troða sv. tread. trog sn. trough. 79

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet tros sn. droppings, rubbish. trÅ«a wf. faith--'þat veit tr. mÄ«n at...,' by my faith. trÅ«a wv. 2, w. dat. of pers. believe, trust, rely on. tÅ«n sn. enclosure, dwelling. tveir num. two. tȳna wv. 1, w. dat. lose. typpa wv. tie in a top-knot. Ã Ã¾Ä see sÄ. Ã¾Ä see þiggja. Ã¾Ä adv. then. þær see sÄ. þakðr see þÄkja. þakka wv. 3, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers. thank; requite, reward. þambar-skÄlfir sm. bowstring-shaker (?). þann see sÄ. þannig adv. thither; so [= þann veg]. þar adv. there; then; 'þ. af,' etc., thereof. 'þar sem,' since, because. 'þar til,' until. þarf see þurfa. þat see sÄ. þau see sÄ. þegar adv. at once. 'þ. er,' as soon as. þÄginn see þiggja. þÄgja wv. 1b, be silent. þeim see sÄ. þeir, þeirra see sÄ. þÄkja wv. 1b, roof. þÄkkja wv. 1, notice. þÄkkjask, take pleasure in; accept. þÄr see þū. þess see sÄ. þess adv. w. comp. the, so much the. þessi prn. this. þiggja sv. 5, receive. þik see þū. þing sn. meeting, parliament. þinn see þū. þit see þū. þjÅð sf. nation, race. þŠadv. though, yet. þǫkð see þÄkja. þǫkk sf. thanks, gratitude [þakka]. þola wv. 2, endure, put up with. 80

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet þora wv. 2, dare. þǫrf sf. need. þorrinn see þverra. þÅtt adv. though [= þŠat]. þÅtta see þykkja. þraut see þrjÅta. þreifask wv. 3, grope, feel. þreyta wv. 1, make exertions, try. þriði adj. third. þriðjungr sm. third. þrÄ«r num. three. þrjÅta sv. 7, impers. w. acc. of pers. come to an end, fail. þrūðugr adj. mighty. þū prn. thou. þumlungr sm. thumb of glove. þunn-vangi wm. temple (of head). þurðr sm. diminution. þurfa swv. often impers. require, need. þurr adj. dry. þurs sm. giant. þverra sv. 3, diminish. þvers adv. across. þvÄ« see sÄ. þvÄ« adv. therefore; w. compar. the, so much the more. þvÄ«likr adj. such. þykkja wv. 1c, seen, be considered. 'þykkir einum fyrir,' there seems to be something in the way, one hesitates. 'myndi mÄr fyrir þ. Ä«,' I should be displeased. þykkjask, think. þykkr adj. thick, close. þynna wv. 1, make thin. þynnask get thin. þyrstr adj. (ptc.) thirsty. U Å«-fÅra wf. impassable place; fix, difficulty. Å«-friðr sm. hostility, war. Å«-grynni sn. countless number [grunnr, 'bottom']. Å«-happ sn. misfortune. Å«-hreinn adj. impure. um prp. w. acc. around, about, over; of time in, at; of superiority beyond; concerning, about. um-rÄð sn. advice, help. um-sjÄ sf. care. una wv. 1, w. dat. be contented--'u. illa,' be discontented. undan prp. w. dat., adv. away (from). undarliga adv. strangely. 81

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet undarligr adj. strange. undir prp. w. acc. and dat. under. undr sn. wonder. ungr adj. young. unninn see vinna. unz adv. until. upp adv. up. upp-ganga wf. boarding (ship). upp-haf sn. beginning [hÄfja]. upp-himinn sm. high heaven. uppi adv. up; at an end. urðu see verða. Å«t adv. out. comp. utar, outer, outwards, farther away. utan adv. outside; outwards. utan-fÄrð sf. journey abroad. utar see Å«t. Å«ti adv. outside, out on the sea. Å«t-lausn sf. ransom. Å«-vinr sm. enemy. V vægð sf. forbearance. vænn adj. likely, to be expected. væri see vera. vætr neut. nothing. vaka wv. 3, be awake, wake up. vakna wv. 3, awake. vald sn. power, control. val-kyrja sf. chooser of the slain, war-goddess [kjÅsa]. valr sm. corpses on the battle-field. vÄn, sf. hope, expectation, probability. vandræða-skÄld sn. the 'awkward' poet, the poet who is difficult to deal with. vandræði snpl. difficulty. vangi wm. cheek. vanr adj. accustomed. vÄpn sn. weapon. vÄpna-burð sm. bearing weapons, shower of missiles. vÄpn-lauss adj. without weapons. var see vera. vÄr sn. spring. vÄr see ek. vara wv. 2, impers. w. acc. of pers.--'mik varði,' I expected. varð see verða. 82

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet varði see vÄrja. vargr sm. wolf. variðr see vÄrja. varla adv. scarcely. varnaðr sm. goods, merchandise. vÄru see vera. vatn sn. water. vaxa sv. 2, grow; increase. veðr sn. weather. vegr sm. road; way, manner; direction, side; in composition, region, tract, land. veik see vikja. veit see vita. veita wv. 1, give, grant; make (resistance, etc.). vÄkja wv. 1b, wake [vaka]. vÄl sf. artifice, cunning. vÄlja wv. 1b, choose. vÄndi see vÇ«ndr. vÄr see ek. vera sv. exist; remain, stay, happen; be. 'hvat lÄtum hafði verit,' what had caused the noise. v. at, be occupied with. verð sn. worth, value; price. verða sv. 3, happen; happen to come. 'v. fyrir einum,' come in one's way, appear before one; become; come into being, be; 'v. til eins,' be ready for, undertake; w. infin. be obliged, must. 'nÅ« er Ä orðit mikit fyrir mÄr,' now I have come into a great perplexity, difficulty. v. at, happen. verðr adj. worth; important. ver-gjarn adj. desirous of a husband, loose. verit see vera. vert see verðr. vÄrja wv. 1b, defend--'v. baki,' defend with the back, turn one's back on. vÄrja wv. 1b, dress; lay out money, invest. verk sn. work, job. verr sm. man; husband. vÄrr adv. comp. worse. superl. vÄrst, worst. verÇ«ld sf. world. vestan adv. from the west. 'v. fyrir' w. gen. or acc., west of. vestr adv. westwards. vetr sm. winter; year. vÄx see vaxa. vÄxti see vÇ«xtr. við prp. w. acc. by, near; towards (of place and time); with (of various relations). w. dat. towards, at (laugh at, etc.); in exchange for, for. vīða adv. widely, far and wide, on many sides.


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet viðar-teinungr sm. tree-shoot, plant. við-bragð sn. push. viðr sm. 3, tree. vīðr adj. wide, broad. við-skipti snpl. dealings. við-taka wf. reception; resistance. vÄ«gja wv. 1, consecrate, hallow. vÄ«gr adj. warlike, able-bodied. vÄ«king sf. piracy, piratical expedition. vÄ«kingr sm. pirate. vÄ«kja sv. 6, turn, move, go. vilja swv. will. villi-eldr sm. wildfire, conflagration. vinÄtta wf. friendship. vinÄttu-mÄl snpl. assurances of friendship. vinna sv. 3, do, perform; win, conquer. vinnask til, suffice. vinr sm. 2, friend. virðing sf. honour [verðr]. vÄ«sa wv. 2, w. dat. show, guide. vÄ«ss adj. wise; certain. vissa see vita. vist sf. 2, board and lodging; provisions. vit see ek. vita swv. know; be turned in a certain direction. v. fram, see into futurity. vÄ«ti sn. punishment, penalty. vÄ«tis-horn sn. penalty-horn (whose contents were drunk as a punishment). vitkask wv. 3, come to one's senses. vitr (-ran) adj. wise. vÇ«llr sm. 3, plain, field. vÇ«ndr sm. 3, twig, rod. vÇ«rn sf. defence, resistance. vÇ«xtr sm. 3, growth, stature. vreiðr = reiðr. Y yðr see þū. yfir prp. w. acc. and dat. over [ofan]. ȳmiss adj. various, different. ymr sm. rumbling noise. ytri adj. comp. outer. superl. yztr, outside(st) [Å«t]. Proper Names


An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Äki sm. Äsa-þÅrr sm. (divine) Thor. Ästrīðr sf. Auðun sm. Baldr (-rs) sm. Barði wm. 'the Ram' (name of a ship). Bil-skÄ«rnir sm. BrÄ«singa-mÄn sn. Freyja's necklace. Burizleifr sm. DÄins-leif sf. relic of DÄinn ['leif,' leaving, heritage]. Dana-konungr sm. king of the Danes. Danir smpl. the Danes. Dan-mÇ«rk sf. 3, Denmark. Draupnir sm. Einarr sm. Eindriði wm. EirÄ«kr sm. Erlingr sm. FÄn-salr sm. 2. Finnr sm. Finskr adj. Finnish. Freyja wf. Freyr sm. Frigg sf. wife of Odin. Fulla wf. Frigg's handmaid. Geira wf. Gimsar fpl. Gjallar-brÅ« sf. the bridge over the river GjÇ«ll. GjÇ«ll sf. 'the Resounder,' the river of Hell. GrÅn-land sn. Greenland. Gullin-bursti wm. 'Golden-bristle.' Gull-toppr sm. 'Gold-top.' HÄ-ey sf. 'High-island.' HÄkon sm. Hall-freðr sm. Haraldr sm. HÄðinn sm. 85

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet Heim-dallr sm. HÄl sf. the goddess of the infernal regions. HÄr-mÅðr sm. Hildr sf. ['hildr,' war]. Hjaðninga-vÄ«g sn. battle of the Hjaðnings. Hjarrandi wm. HlÅriði wm. the Thunderer, Thor. HÇ«gni wm. Hring-horni wm. 'Ring-prowed.' Hyrningr sm. Hyrrokin sf. Hǫðr sm. Īs-land sn. Iceland. Īsland-fÄrð sf. journey to Iceland. ĪslÄnzkr adj. Icelandic. JÅms-borg sf. JÅms-vÄ«kingar smpl. the pirates of JÅmsborg. Kol-bjÇ«rn sm. Laufey sf. Litr sm. Loki wm. MÅð-guðr sf. MÅri wf. Nanna wf. Nepr sm. Njarðar see NjÇ«rðr. NjÇ«rðr sm. NÅa-tÅ«n snpl. Noregr sm. Norway [= norð-vegr]. Ǫku-þÅrr sm. Thor (the driver) [aka]. ÅlÄfr sm. Åðinn sm. Odin. Orkn-eyjar sfpl. Orkneys. RÅma-borg sf. Rome. RÅ«m-fÄrli wm. pilgrim to Rome [fara]. 86

An Icelandic Primer, by Henry Sweet RÇ«skva wf. Sax-land sn. Saxony, Germany. Sif sf. Sigrīðr sf. Sig-valdi wm. SkjÄlgr sm. Skrȳmir sm. Sleipnir sm. Slīðrug-tanni wm. [tÇ«nn]. SÅnskr adj. Swedish. Sveinn sm. SvÄ«a-konungr sm. king of Sweden. SvÄ«ar smpl. Swedes. SvÄ«a-vÄldi sn. Sweden [vald]. SvÄ«-þjÅð sf. Sweden. SvÇ«lðr (-rar) sf. island of Svolder, near Rügen. Tann-gnjÅstr sm. [tÇ«nn]. Tann-grisnir sm. [tÇ«nn]. Tryggvi wm. 'Trusty.' ÃjÄlfi wm. ÃÅrir sm. Ãor-kÄll sm. ÃÅrr sm. Thor. Ãor-steinn sm. Ãrūð-vangar smpl. 'plains of strength.' Ãrymyr sm. ÃÇ«kk sf. Ūlfr sm. Ūtgarða-loki wm. Ūt-garðr sm. Ūt-garðar pl. 'outer enclosure,' world of the giants. Vanir smpl. race of Gods. VÄr sf. goddess of betrothal and marriage. Vest-firzkr adj. of the west firths (in Iceland). VÄ«k sf. 'the Bay,' the Skagerak and the Christiania fjord. Vinda-snÄkkja wf. Wendish ship. Vind-land sn. Wendland. Vindr smpl. the Wends. Ving-þÅrr sm. name of Thor. 87

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