RENAISSANCE IN ITALY

THE CATHOLIC REACTION

In Two Parts BY

JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS
NEW YORK HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 1887 AUTHOR'S EDITION

PART I
PREFACE CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME. CHAPTER_I CHAPTER II CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V CHAPTER VI FOOTNOTES

PART II
CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME CHAPTER VII CHAPTER VIII CHAPTER IX CHAPTER X CHAPTER XI CHAPTER XII CHAPTER XIII CHAPTER XIV INDEX FOOTNOTES

PREFACE
At the end of the second volume of my 'Renaissance in Italy' I indulged the hope that I might live to describe the phase of culture which closed that brilliant epoch. It was in truth demanded that a work pretending to display the manifold activity of the Italian genius during the 15th century and the first quarter of the 16th, should also deal with the causes which interrupted its further development upon the same lines.

RENAISSANCE IN ITALY

1

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Renaissance In Italy in Two Parts, by John Addington Symonds. This study, forming a logically-necessitated supplement to the five former volumes of 'Renaissance in Italy,' I have been permitted to complete. The results are now offered to the public in these two parts. So far as it was possible, I have conducted my treatment of the Catholic Revival on a method analogous to that adopted for the Renaissance. I found it, however, needful to enter more minutely into details regarding facts and institutions connected with the main theme of national culture. The Catholic Revival was by its nature reactionary. In order to explain its influences, I have been compelled to analyze the position of Spain in the Italian peninsula, the conduct of the Tridentine Council, the specific organization of the Holy Office and the Company of Jesus, and the state of society upon which those forces were brought to bear. In the list of books which follows these prefatory remarks, I have indicated the most important of the sources used by me. Special references will be made in their proper places to works of a subordinate value for the purposes of my inquiry. DAVOS PLATZ: July 1886. WORKS COMMONLY REFERRED TO IN THE TWO SUCCEEDING VOLUMES OF THIS BOOK SISMONDI.—Histoire des Republiques Italiennes du Moyen Age. RANKE.—History of the Popes. 3 vols. English edition: Bohn. CREIGHTON.—History of the Papacy during the Reformation. 2 vols. Macmillan. BOTTA.—Storia d'Italia. Continuata da quella del Guicciardini sino al 1789. FERRARI.—Rivoluzioni d'Italia. 3 vols. QUINET.—Les Revolutions d'Italie. GALLUZZI.—Storia del Granducato di Toscana. PALLAVICINI.—Storia del Concilio Tridentino. SARPI.—Storia del Concilio. Vols. 1 and 2 of Sarpi's Opere. DENNISTOUN'S Dukes of Urbino. 3 vols. ALBERI.—Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti. MUTINELLI.—Storia Arcana ed Aneddotica d'Italia. Raccontata dai Veneti Ambasciatori. 4 vols. Venice. 1858. MUTINELLI.—Annali Urbani di Venezia. LITTA.—Famiglie Celebri Italiane. PHIUPPSON.—La Contre-Révolution Religieuse au XVIme Siècle Bruxelles. 1884. DEJOB.—De l'Influence du Concile de Trente. Paris. 1884. GIORDANI.—Delia Venuta e Dimora in Bologna del Sommo Pontefice Clemente VII. per la Coronazione di Carlo V., Imperatore. Bologna. 1832. BALBI.—Sommario della Storia d'Italia. CANTÙ.—Gli Eretici d'Italia. 3 vols. Torino. 1866. LLORENTE.—Histoire Critique de I'Inquisition d'Espagne. 4 vols. Paris. 1818. LAVALLÉE.—Histoire des Inquisitions Religieuses. 2 vols. Paris. 1808. MCCRIE.—History of the Reformation in Italy. Edinburgh. 1827. TIRABOSCHI.—Storia della Letteratura Italiana. DE SANCTIS.—Storia della Letteratura Italiana. 2 vols. PREFACE 2

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Renaissance In Italy in Two Parts, by John Addington Symonds. SETTEMBRINI.—Storia della Letteratura Italiana. 3 vols. CANTÙ.—Storia della Letteratura Italiana. Decreta, etc., Societatis Jesu. Avignon. 1827. CANTÙ.—Storia della Diocesi di Como. 2 vols. DANDOLO.—La Signora di Monza e le Streghe del Tirolo. Milano. 1855. BONGHI.—Storia di Lucrezia Buonvisi. Lucca. 1864. Archivio Storico Italiano. BANDI LUCCHESI.—Bologna: Romagnoli. 1863. BERTOLOTTI.—Francesco Cenci e la sua Famiglia. Firenze. 1877. GNOLI.—Vittoria Accoramboni. Firenze: Le Monnier. 1870. DAELLI.—Lorenzino de'Medici. Milano. 1862. DE STENDHAL.—Chroniques et Nouvelles. Paris. 1855. GIORDANO BRUNO.—Opere Italiane (Wagner). 2 vols. Leipzig. 1830. JORDANUS BRUNUS.—Opera Latina. 2 vols. Neapoli. 1879. BRUNO.—Scripta Latina (Gförer). Stuttgart. 1836. BERTI.—Vita di Giordano Bruno. Firenze, Torino, Milano. 1868. BRUNNHOFER.—Giordano Bruno's Weltanschauung und Verhangniss. Leipzig. 1882. PAOLO SARPI.—Opere. 6 vols. Helmstat. 1765. FRA FULGENZIO MICANZI—Vita del Sarpi. BIANCHI GIOVINI.—Biografia di Fra Paolo Sarpi. 2 vols. Bruxelles. 1836. Lettere di Fra Paolo Sarpi. 2 vols. Firenze. 1863. CAMPBELL.—Life of Fra Paolo Sarpi. London: Molini and Green. 1869 DEJOB.—Marc-Antoine Muret. Paris: Thorin. 1881. CHRISTIE.—Etienne Dolet. London: Macmillan. 1880. RENOUARD.—Imprimerie des Aides. TORQUATO TASSO.—Opere. Ed. Rosini. 33 vols. Pisa. 1822 and on. WORKS REFERRED TO IN THIS BOOK TASSO.—Le Lettere. Ed. Guasti. 5 vols. Firenze. 1855. CECCHI.—T. Tasso e la Vita Italiana. Firenze. 1877. CECCHI.—T. Tasso. Il Pensiero e le Belle Lettere, etc. Firenze. 1877. D'OVIDIO.—Saggi Critici. Napoli. 1878. MANSO.—Vita di T. Tasso, in Rosini's edition, vol. 33. ROSINI.—Saggio sugli Amori di T. Tasso, in edition cited above, vol. 33. GUARINI.—Il Pastor Fido. Ed. Casella. Firenze: Barbèra. 1866. MARINO.—Adone, etc. Napoli. 1861. CHIABRERA.—Ed. Polidori. Firenze: Barbèra. 1865. TASSONI.—La Secchia Rapita. Ed. Carducci. Firenze: Barbèra 1861. Il Parnaso Italiano. BAINI.—Vita di G. P. L. Palestrina. FELSINA PITTRICE.—2 vols. Bologna. 1841. LANZI.—History of Painting in Italy. English Edition. London. Bohn. Vol. 3.

PREFACE

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of Renaissance In Italy in Two Parts, by John Addington Symonds.

CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME
CHAPTER I
THE SPANISH HEGEMONY
Italy in the Renaissance—The Five Great Powers—The Kingdom of Naples—The Papacy—The Duchy of Milan—Venice—The Florentine Republic—Wars of Invasion closed by the Sack of Rome in 1527—Concordat between Clement VII. and Charles V.—Treaty of Barcelona and Paix des Dames—Charles lands at Genoa—His Journey to Bologna—Entrance into Bologna and Reception by Clement—Mustering of Italian Princes—Franceso Sforza replaced in the Duchy of Milan—Venetian Embassy—Italian League signed on Christmas Eve 1529—Florence alone excluded—The Siege of Florence pressed by the Prince of Orange—Charles's Coronation as King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor—The Significance of this Ceremony at Bologna—Ceremony in S. Petronio—Settlement of the Duchy of Ferrara—Men of Letters and Arts at Bologna—The Emperor's Use of the Spanish Habit—Charles and Clement leave Bologna in March 1530—Review of the Settlement of Italy affected by Emperor and Pope—Extinction of Republics—Subsequent Absorption of Ferrara and Urbino into the Papal States—Savoy becomes an Italian Power—Period between Charles's Coronation and the Peace of Cateau Cambresis in 1559—Economical and Social Condition of the Italians under Spanish Hegemony—The Nation still exists in Separate Communities—Intellectual Conditions—Predominance of Spain and Rome—Both Cosmopolitan Powers—Leveling down of the Component Portions of the Nation in a Common Servitude—The Evils of Spanish Rule

CHAPTER II
THE PAPACY AND THE TRIDENTINE COUNCIL
The Counter-Reformation—Its Intellectual and Moral Character—Causes of the Gradual Extinction of Renaissance Energy—Transition from the Renaissance to the Catholic Revival—New Religious Spirit in Italy—Attitude of Italians toward German Reformation—Oratory of Divine Love—Gasparo Contarini and the Moderate Reformers—New Religious Orders—Paul III.—His early History and Education—Political Attitude between France and Spain—Creation of the Duchy of Parma—Imminence of a General Council—Review of previous Councils—Paul's Uneasiness—Opens a Council at Trent in 1542—Protestants virtually excluded, and Catholic Dogmas confirmed in the first Sessions—Death of Paul in 1549—Julius III.—Paul IV.—Character and Ruling Passions of G. P. Caraffa—His Futile Opposition to Spain—Tyranny of His Nephews—Their Downfall—Paul devotes himself to Church Reform and the Inquisition—Pius IV.—His Minister Morone—Diplomatic Temper of this Pope—His Management of the Council—Assistance rendered by his Nephew Carlo Borromeo—Alarming State of Northern Europe—The Council reopened at Trent in 1562—Subsequent History of the Council—It closes with a complete Papal Triumph in 1563—Place of Pius IV. in History—Pius V.—The Inquisitor Pope—Population of Rome—Social Corruption—Sale of Offices and Justice—Tridentine Reforms depress Wealth—Ascetic Purity of Manners becomes fashionable—Catholic Reaction generates the Counter-Reformation—Battle of Lepanto—Gregory XIII.—His Relatives—Policy of enriching the Church at Expense of the Barons—Brigandage in States of the Church—Sixtus CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME 4

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Renaissance In Italy in Two Parts, by John Addington Symonds. V.—His Stern Justice—Rigid Economy—Great Public Works—Taxation—The City of Rome assumes its present form—Nepotism in the Counter-Reformation Period—Various Estimates of the Wealth accumulated by Papal Nephews—Rise of Princely Roman Families

CHAPTER III
THE INQUISITION AND THE INDEX
Different Spirit in the Holy Office and the Company of Jesus—Both needed by the Counter-Reformation—Heresy in the Early Church—First Origins of the Inquisition in 1203—S. Dominic—The Holy Office becomes a Dominican Institution—Recognized by the Empire—Its early Organization—The Spanish Inquisition—Founded in 1484—How it differed from the earlier Apostolical Inquisition—Jews, Moors, New Christians—Organization and History of the Holy Office in Spain—Torquemada and his Successors—The Spanish Inquisition never introduced into Italy—How the Roman Inquisition organized by Caraffa differed from it—Autos da fé in Rome—Proscription of suspected Lutherans—The Calabrian Waldenses—Protestants at Locarno and Venice—Digression on the Venetian Holy Office—Persecution of Free Thought in Literature—Growth of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum—Sanction given to it by the Council of Trent—The Roman Congregation of the Index—Final Form of the Censorship of Books under Clement VIII.—Analysis of its Regulations—Proscription of Heretical Books—Correction of Texts—Purgation and Castration—Inquisitorial and Episcopal Licenses—Working of the System of this Censorship in Italy—Its long Delays—Hostility to Sound Learning—Ignorance of the Censors—Interference with Scholars in their Work—Terrorism of Booksellers—Vatican Scheme for the Restoration of Christian Erudition—Frustrated by the Tyranny of the Index—Dishonesty of the Vatican Scholars—Biblical Studies rendered nugatory by the Tridentine Decree on the Vulgate—Decline of Learning in Universities—Miserable Servitude of Professors—Greek dies out—Muretus and Manutius in Rome—The Index and its Treatment of Political Works—Machiavelli—Ratio Status—Encouragement of Literature on Papal Absolutism—Sarpi's Attitude—Comparative Indifference of Rome to Books of Obscene or Immoral Tendency—Bandello and Boccaccio—Papal Attempts to control Intercourse of Italians with Heretics

CHAPTER IV
THE COMPANY OF JESUS
Vast Importance of the Jesuits in the Counter-Reformation—Ignatius Loyola—His Youth—Retreat at Manresa—Journey to Jerusalem—Studies in Spain and Paris—First Formation of his Order at Sainte Barbe—Sojourn at Venice—Settlement at Rome—Papal Recognition of the Order—Its Military Character—Absolutism of the General—Devotion to the Roman Church—Choice of Members—Practical and Positive Aims of the Founder—Exclusion of the Ascetic, Acceptance of the Worldly Spirit—Review of the Order's Rapid Extension over Europe—Loyola's Dealings with his Chief Lieutenants—Propaganda—The Virtue of Obedience—The Exercitia Spiritualia—Materialistic Imagination—Intensity and Superficiality of Religious Training—The Status of the Novice—Temporal Coadjutors—Scholastics—Professed of the Three Vows—Professed of the Four THE PAPACY AND THE TRIDENTINE COUNCIL 5

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Renaissance In Italy in Two Parts, by John Addington Symonds. Vows—The General—Control exercised over him by his Assistants—His Relation to the General Congregation—Espionage a Part of the Jesuit System—Advantageous Position of a Contented Jesuit—The Vow of Poverty—Houses of the Professed and Colleges—The Constitutions and Declarations—Problem of the Monita Secreta—Reciprocal Relations of Rome and the Company—Characteristics of Jesuit Education—Direction of Consciences—Moral Laxity—Sarpi's Critique—Casuistry—Interference in Affairs of State—Instigation to Regicide and Political Conspiracy—Theories of Church Supremacy—Insurgence of the European Nations against the Company

CHAPTER V
SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC MORALS I PART I
How did the Catholic Revival affect Italian Society?—Difficulty of Answering this Question—Frequency of Private Crimes of Violence—Homicides and Bandits—Savage Criminal Justice—Paid Assassins—Toleration of Outlaws—Honorable Murder—Example of the Lucchese Army—State of the Convents—The History of Virginia de Leyva—Lucrezia Buonvisi—The True Tale of the Cenci—The Brothers of the House of Massimo—Vittoria Accoramboni—The Duchess of Palliano—Wife-Murders—The Family of Medici

CHAPTER VI
SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC MORALS: PART II
Tales illustrative of Bravi and Banditti—Cecco Bibboni—Ambrogio Tremazzi—Lodovico dall'Armi—Brigandage—Piracy—Plagues—The Plagues of Milan, Venice, Piedmont—Persecution of the Untori—Moral State of the Proletariate—Witchcraft—Its Italian Features—History of Giacomo Centini

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME
CHAPTER VII
TORQUATO TASSO
Tasso's Relation to his Age—Balbi on that Period—The Life of Bernardo Tasso—Torquato's Boyhood—Sorrento, Naples, Rome, Urbino—His first Glimpse of the Court—Student Life at Padua and Bologna—The Rinaldo—Dialogues on Epic Poetry—Enters the Service of Cardinal d'Este—The Court of Ferrara—Alfonso II. and the Princesses—Problem of Tasso's Love—Goes to France with Cardinal d'Este—Enters the Service of Duke Alfonso—The Aminta—Tasso at Urbino—Return to Ferrara—Revision of the Gerusalemme—Jealousies at Court—Tasso's Sense of His own Importance—Plans a Change from Ferrara to Florence—First Symptoms of Mental THE COMPANY OF JESUS 6

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Renaissance In Italy in Two Parts, by John Addington Symonds. Disorder—Persecutions of the Ferrarese Courtiers—Tasso confined as a Semi-madman—Goes with Duke Alfonso to Belriguardo—Flies in Disguise from Ferrara to Sorrento—Returns to Court Life at Ferrara—Problem of his Madness—Flies again—Mantua, Venice, Urbino, Turin—Returns once more to Ferrara—Alfonso's Third Marriage—Tasso's Discontent—Imprisoned for Seven Years in the Madhouse of S. Anna—Character of Tasso—Character of Duke Alfonso—Nature of the Poet's Malady—His Course of Life in Prison—Released at the Intercession of Vincenzo Gonzaga—Goes to Mantua—The Torrismondo—An Odyssey of Nine Years—Death at Sant Onofrio in Rome—Constantini's Sonnet

CHAPTER VIII
THE "GERUSALEMME LIBERATA"
Problem of Creating Heroic Poetry—The Preface to Tasso's Rinaldo—Subject of Rinaldo—Blending of Romantic Motives with Heroic Style—Imitation of Virgil—Melody and Sentiment—Choice of Theme for the Gerusalemme—It becomes a Romantic Poem after all—Tancredi the real Hero—Nobility of Tone—Virgilian Imitation—Borrowings from Dante—Involved Diction—Employment of Sonorous Polysyllabic Words—Quality of Religious Emotion in this Poem—Rhetoric—Similes—The Grand Style of Pathos—Verbal Music—The Chant d'Amour—Armida—Tasso's Favorite Phrase, Un non so che—His Power over Melody and Tender Feeling—Critique of Tasso's Later Poems—General Survey of his Character

CHAPTER IX
GIORDANO BRUNO
Scientific Bias of the Italians checked by Catholic Revival—Boyhood of Bruno—Enters Order of S. Dominic at Naples—Early Accusations of Heresy—Escapes to Rome—Teaches the Sphere at Noli—Visits Venice—At Geneva—At Toulouse—At Paris—His Intercourse with Henri III.—Visits England—The French Ambassador in London—Oxford—Bruno's Literary Work in England—Returns to Paris—Journeys into Germany—Wittenberg, Helmstädt, Frankfort—Invitation to Venice from Giovanni Mocenigo—His Life in Venice—Mocenigo denounces him to the Inquisition—His Trial at Venice—Removal to Rome—Death by Burning in 1600—Bruno's Relation to the Thought of his Age and to the Thought of Modern Europe—Outlines of his Philosophy

CHAPTER X
FRA PAOLO SARPI
Sarpi's Position in the History of Venice—Parents and Boyhood—Entrance into the Order of the Servites—His Personal Qualities—Achievements as a Scholar and a Man of Science—His Life among the Servites—In Bad Odor at Rome—Paul V. places Venice under Interdict—Sarpi elected Theologian and Counselor of the Republic—His Polemical Writings—Views on Church and State—The Interdict Removed—Roman TORQUATO TASSO 7

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Renaissance In Italy in Two Parts, by John Addington Symonds. Vengeance—Sarpi attacked by Bravi—His Wounds, Illness, Recovery—Subsequent History of the Assassins—Further Attempts on Sarpi's Life—Sarpi's Political and Historical Works—History of the Council of Trent—Sarpi's Attitude towards Protestantism His Judgment of the Jesuits—Sarpi's Death—The Christian Stoic

CHAPTER XI
GUARINI, MARINO, CHIABRERA, TASSONI
Dearth of Great Men—Guarini a Link between Tasso and the Seventeenth Century—His Biography—The Pastor Fido—Qualities of Guarini as Poet—Marino the Dictator of Letters—His Riotous Youth at Naples—Life at Rome, Turin, Paris—Publishes the Adone—The Epic of Voluptuousness—Character and Action of Adonis—Marino's Hypocrisy—Sentimental Sweetness—Brutal Violence—Violation of Artistic Taste—Great Powers of the Poet—Structure of the Adone—Musical Fluency—Marinism—Marino's Patriotic Verses—Contrast between Chiabrera and Marino—An Aspirant after Pindar—Chiabrera's Biography—His Court Life—Efforts of Poets in the Seventeenth Century to attain to Novelty—Chiabrera's Failure—Tassoni's Life—His Thirst to Innovate—Origin of the Secchia Rapita—Mock-Heroic Poetiy—The Plot of this Poem—Its Peculiar Humor—Irony and Satire—Novelty of the Species—Lyrical Interbreathings—Sustained Contrast of Parody and Pathos—The Poet Testi

CHAPTER XII
PALESTRINA AND THE ORIGINS OF MODERN MUSIC
Italy in Renaissance produces no National School of Music—Flemish Composers in Rome—Singers and Orchestra—The Chaotic, Indecency of this Contrapuntal Style—Palestrina's Birth and Early History—Decrees of the Tridentine Council upon Church Music—The Mass of Pope Marcello—Palestrina Satisfies the Cardinals with his New Style of Sacred Music—Pius IV. and his Partiality for Music—Palestrina and Filippo Neri—His Motetts—The Song of Solomon set to Melody—Palestrina, the Saviour of Music—The Founder of the Modern Style—Florentine Essays in the Oratorio

CHAPTER XIII
THE BOLOGNESE SCHOOL OF PAINTERS
Decline of Plastic Art—Dates of the Eclectic Masters—The Mannerists—Baroccio—Reaction started by Lodovico Caracci—His Cousins Annibale and Agostino—Their Studies—Their Academy at Bologna—Their Artistic Aims—Dionysius Calvaert—Guido Reni—The Man and his Art—Domenichino—Ruskin's Criticism—Relation of Domenichino to the Piety of his Age—Caravaggio and the Realists—Ribera—Lo Spagna—Guercino—His Qualities as Colorist—His Terribleness—Private Life—Digression upon Criticism—Reasons why the Bolognese Painters, are justly now Neglected

FRA PAOLO SARPI

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of Renaissance In Italy in Two Parts, by John Addington Symonds.

CHAPTER XIV
CONCLUSION
The Main Events of European History—Italy in the Renaissance—Germany and Reformation—Catholic Reaction—Its Antagonism to Renaissance and Reformation—Profound Identity of Renaissance and Reformation—Place of Italy in European Civilization—Want of Sympathy between Latin and Teutonic Races—Relation of Rome to Italy—Macaulay on the Roman Church—On Protestantism—Early Decline of Renaissance Enthusiasms—Italy's Present and Future

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