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NVQ Diploma in Processing Operations:

Hydrocarbons (QCF)

UNIT PO (H) 16

Learner Outcome 1

Know how to check the required information

  • 1.1 Can you explain how to access and interpret the following?

Shutdown instructions

Operations Instructions Shutdown Instructions

Shutdown defines a planned general outage of the process systems and equipments that are major means of production or service delivery for the purpose of significant maintenance and statutory checks. Information regarding the shutdown of plant will be accessed from the plant control room, the production superintendent/ permit office, the offshore conference room, the safety office or the offshore installation managers’ office. Information regarding plant shut down can include but not limited to; shut down procedures, shut down schedules, risk Assessments, standard operating procedures, isolation certificates, PTW, maintenance logs, plant de-isolation procedures, equipment manuals and emergency shutdown procedures, hand over logs, cause and effects charts etc

Principles of plant shut down include:

Before conducting a plant shut down, there should be a documented integrated management strategy (IMS) to manage the shut down operation safely and economically. The IMS will stipulate the requirements for a shut down program, shut down procedures, risk assessments, PTW, shut down work scope etc. Also there should be clear definition of shut down responsibilities and competencies, proper planning and coordinated procurement of desired materials & logistics, proper management of change process & contractor management procedures that will include trainings, communications guidelines etc, creation of a team organized to manage the overall shutdown planning process, establish a work identification and work scope development process that cut across all departments and functions that are involved and an adequate time for the detailed planning of all jobs included in the scope and to allow for the development of a detailed schedule for the shutdown.

Also there should be shut down team in place that comprises of the production management, maintenance management, planning and scheduling and engineering. The team's primary role is to manage the planning process and provide a mechanism for the input and review of proposed activities from all departments and authorise risk assessments and safe systems of work.

A shut down work scope may also be adopted from repetitive shutdowns, routine jobs (e.g. riser changes, media filter replacement) or mandated by regulatory bodies (e.g. vessel inspections, relief valve tests) and engaging vendors who technically understands the full scope of the proposed work for each job that is proposed for the shutdown. One that cannot be neglected is the human resource to perform the shut down. They should be available and competent i.e. Equipment specialists, manufacture representatives, tradesmen etc. To add to this, a shut down cannot be said to be successful if it is full of safety crises as a result a comprehensive risk assessment that identifies all the hazards for the stages of shut down should

be conducted and an audit & monitoring process put in place to ensure personnel safety during the shutdown period. Finally a proper pre-start up/post shutdown program generated to ensure the plant start up is safely conducted with a good procedure of checking at that all are has be worked on with respect to the PTW, de-isolations cancelled and the plant audited for safe start up.

Operational instructions

All information relating to operating the plant in a safe mode without causing harm to the personnel, environment and facility including Risk Assessment for all equipments can be accessed from the plant control room, the production superintendent/ permit office, the offshore conference room, the safety office or the offshore installation managers’ office. Cancelled, suspended and details active permit to works can be obtained from the department supervisor, permit issuer or permit receiver. Material Safety Data sheets for all chemicals stored or used on site can be located in the labs or directly were the chemicals are stored. Process and Instrument diagrams can be located in the Central Control Room, along with Standard Operating procedures, Company Policies and procedures, equipment operation manual, Work control permits, shift hand over logs, plant monitoring logs, control room logs, maintenance logs, task risk assessment, cause and effects charts and on the J-drive.

Detailed operations manuals, operational requirements, Environmental impact assessments, health and safety manual, policies can be accessed from the Offshore installation manager. The manager has overall knowledge and interpretation of this information and represents the company’s interests on this location.

  • 1.2 Identify the different sources of information?

All information relating to safety can be obtained from the site Safety Inspector or the Health and Safety Executive. Information /safety notices and posters are displayed on notice and bulletin boards located on site, on the plant and in the Office block section. Risk Assessments for all plant and equipment maintenance tasks can be found in the Shift Managers office. Material Safety Data sheets for all chemicals stored or used on site can be located in the labs or directly were the chemicals are stored. Process and Instrument diagrams can be located in the Central Control Room, along with Standard Operating procedures, Company Policies and procedures, equipment operation manual, Work control permits, shift hand over logs, plant monitoring logs, control room logs, maintenance logs, task risk assessment, cause and effects charts as well as the J-drive.

  • 1.3 Can you explain how to interpret plant drawings and manuals?

Categories of drawings used on a hydrocarbon processing facility include; process flow diagrams (PFDs), Piping and Instrumentation drawings (P&IDs), plant elevation and plot drawings.

Plot Plans are detailed maps (to scale) which shows the location of the main items of equipment on a process system or platform. Elevation drawings are drawn to scale to show views of the process system or platform as seen from a particular direction. Both plot and elevation drawings are used to identify hazardous areas (zone classification), location of plant modules, escape routes and location of emergency equipment and facilities (lifeboats, life rafts etc)

Process flow diagrams (PFDs) are drawings (not to scale) used in the hydrocarbon process industry to indicate the general flow of plant processes and equipment. The PFD displays the relationship between major equipment of a plant facility and does not show minor details such as piping details and designations. A typical PFD of a single unit process will include the following; process piping, major equipment items, control/major valves, connections with other systems, major bypass and recirculation streams, operational data (temperature, pressure, mass flow rate, density, etc.), process stream names, and mass balance data.

A piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is a drawing (not to scale) in the hydrocarbon process industry which shows the piping of the process flow together with the installed equipment and instrumentation. It is critical to demonstrate the physical sequence of equipment and systems, as well as how these systems connect. The diagram also provides the basis for the development of system control schemes, allowing for further safety and operational investigations, such as the hazard and operability study (HAZOP). A typical P&ID of a single unit process will include the following; Instrumentation and designations, Mechanical equipment with names and numbers, All valves and their identifications, process piping, sizes and identification, vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers, permanent start-up and flush lines, flow directions, Interconnections references, control inputs and outputs, interlocks, computer control system input, Identification of components and subsystems delivered by other systems.

All the above types of drawings will have a title block (is located in the lower-right corner of the drawing) that contains information about the drawing such as the name of the drawn object, drawing number, and all information required to identify the part or assembly, the name and address of the command preparing the drawing, the scale, authentication and drawing date.

Plant manuals can be categorised as parts manuals, maintenance manuals, equipment operation manuals and can be used for obtaining parts specifications, parts drawings, performing plant maintenance and plant operation.

When using manual or plant drawings ensure you have the right manual in front of you by checking the drawing or manual model name/ number. Look for specific sections detailing the type of operation or repair you are going to perform or the section of the system you are checking for. Look in the "Index" (for manuals) of Legends (for engineering drawings) for keywords, equipment or phrases related to the specific task or equipment as a quick search. Look for specific warnings on hazardous activity or safety warnings highlighted in manuals/drawings. You can as well make any reference to specific tools, gauge, or other specialized equipment that is required to perform your maintenance or repair from manuals

Learner Outcome 2

Know the plant environment

  • 2.1 Can you describe the plant layout and its connection with other systems?

Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machines, equipment, tools etc. in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of raw material to the delivery of the final product. Normally a good plant layout has the objectives of proper and efficient utilization of available floor space. On the FPSO it is achieved separating the well fluids into its various components and routing the gas separated to the inlet cooler and then to the safety knock out drum and suction scrubber to remove traces of water droplets before it is compressed. The compressed gas is sent to the gas dehydration module for further drying and the part further compressed while the rest used for fuel gas and power generation. The produced water separated from the well fluid is sent to the produced water treatment module where it is treated to remove traces of oil from it before disposal. Part of the produced water is used as cooling medium to cool the compressed gasses in the gas compression modules, the produced water also is used in the Sea water injection pump motors and the glycol overhead coolers as a coolant. The oil separated is preheated with stabilized oil from the crude/crude exchangers and heaters before entering into the IP separated for further removal of gas and water. The oil separated under level control is sent to the Electrostatic Treater flash drum to flash of entrained gasses before entering into the Electrostatic Treater to finally remove water from it. The separated oil from the E-Treater is sent to the degasser for final removal of gasses. The stabilized oil is pumped through the crude/crude exchangers and through the sales oil coolers for cooling before storage. The gas removed from IP separator, Flash drum and degasser are sent to the LP compression module for compression to the MP compressor suction requirement. Nitrogen from the nitrogen generator skid is supplied to all areas within the plant for purging and blanketing. Examples of such areas include the Flare Knock out drums, the oil separation module, Gas compression modules, Produced water treatment modules, Power generation etc. Instrument is generated by the air compression skid to operate all control valves within the facility as well as utility air for all air services. To enhance more oil recovery from wells, the sea water treatment and filtration module is provided to treat sea water to meet the sea water injection requirement prior to injection and finally part of the sea water is tapped and further treated by the Reverse Osmosis unit for domestic use.

Learner Outcome 3

Know the function and operation of plant and equipment

  • 3.1 Can you describe the equipment and its function, relevant to the plant?

Well Head Assembly

A well head is an assembly of equipment installed on top of the well bore from which casings and tubing

strings are suspended. The Well head assembly consists of a number of safety and control valves that initiate Emergency Shutdown (ESD) or process control hence protecting the plant against threatening conditions i.e. fire, high/low pressures, and high/low flow rate from the wells. These safety valves include: sub-surface safety valves, lower master valves, upper master valves, kill wing valves:

The Sub-Surface Safety Valve (SSSV) is a fail close hydraulic valve, operated by signal from the

well head control panel to shut in the well in case of ESD The Upper Master Valve (UMV): A fail close pneumatic valve, operated by signal from the well

head control panel in case of ESD or start up The Lower Master Valve (LMV): Is a manual valve, used to isolate UMV for maintenance

The Production Wing Valve (PWV): Is a manual valve, opens crude flow to the well flow lines

Choke valve: Controls the flow rate from the well head to the well flow lines and manifolds

Manifold System

A manifold system is a set of valves, headers and flow lines that transmit crude from the well head

assembly to the separator trains. The crude flow line from the well head assembly splits into two streams namely; the well test manifold and the production manifold. Each of the 2 streams is installed with manual isolation valves (valve skids) that are used to switch flow into production/well test separators as per the process plant production schedule. Both the production and test headers are incorporated with independent (High Integrity Pipe Protection Systems) HIPPS safety systems to protect the equipment downstream from the upstream well head pressures.

Separators

In the separator the crude is separated into 3 streams namely: oil, produced water and gas

The oil stream: Oil is separated over a weir into the condensate accumulation section of the

separator and leaves the separators vessel under level control to the oil flush drum The produced water stream: Water separates/settles below the oil (by gravity settling) at the gravity settling section and leaves the separator via level control to the produced water storage tank.

The gas stream: Gas exits via the top of the separator vessel, through the pressure control valve after which it’s metered before entry into the dehydration process

The Produced Water System

Produced water from the separation process in gathered into water treatment tanks where residual oil is separated from the produced water through a gravity settling process, the separated oil is skimmed off and channelled to the condensate header. The produced water free of oil is then pumped through polishing filters where solid particles are removed, then the filtered water is discharged into water settling pits and

it’s subjected to further mechanical filtration and dilution treatment processes. Chemical treatment of the

produced water takes place in the water settling pits and the below are some of the additives for conditioning the water:

Lime for raising pH

Lime/Alum for settling the suspended solids

Biocides for reducing microbes’ activity

Sodium hypochlorite as a biocide for reducing BOD&COD (chemical oxygen demand & biological oxygen demand)

Flocculants for breaking emulsion and foam The treated water can be re-used for plant processes such as process coolers, steam boiler, heaters etc

Tri-Ethyl Glycol (TEG), Gas Dehydration System

The gas stream from separator train is piped to the dehydration process where the gas is further stripped off its moisture content a process called gas drying and it takes place in a TEG skid. TEG skid comprises of a glycol contactor tower, where gas enters via the bottom and flows through a cross current with lean glycol used to absorb any water vapour entrained in the gas. The rich glycol (moisture saturated) is regenerated in a re-boiler vessel where it loses its moisture in form of steam and is re-used as lean glycol (moisture free) in the glycol contactor tower. The moisture free gas leaves the top of the glycol contactor tower via a reflux coil where it pre-heats the incoming lean glycol before it’s piped to the gas metering skid then to the export line.

Electrostatic coalescers

The oil stream from separator train is piped to the demulsifying process where the residual water contained in the water in oil emulsion is further separated in a process called de-emulsification and this takes place in an electrostatic coalesce unit.

Electrostatic coalescers use large settling tanks containing electrodes that create electrical fields to induce droplet coalescence in a water-in-crude-oil emulsion. The electric field created increases the water droplet sizes, settling speed hence achieving complete de-association of the emulsion. As the water droplets are very conductive, the induced electric charges upon them will create dipoles that attract each other causing the water droplets to coalesce (to join into bigger droplets). These larger water droplets further coalesce and eventually settle/separate out of the oil by gravitational separation process. The emulsion free oil then leaves the top of the electro-coalescer where it is it’s piped to the oil metering skid then to the export line.

  • 3.2 Can you describe the functioning of process control including instrumentation and process logic controllers?

Instrumentation is defined as the science of measurement and control of process variables within a production plant. An instrument is a device that measures and/or regulates physical quantity (such as weight, density) or process variables such as flow, temperature, level, pressure. Output instrumentation found on an oil and gas platform includes devices such as solenoids, valves, regulators, circuit breakers, sensors, ESDs and relays. These devices control a desired output variable (i.e. flow, temperature, level, pressure) and provide either remote or automated control capabilities. These devices are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system. Examples of final control

elements found on an oil and gas platform include transmitters, transducers, regulators, controllers, temperature probes, indicators, gauges as detailed below:

Transmitters are devices that produce an output signal, often in the form of a 4 20 mA electrical current signal, although many other options using voltage, frequency, pressure, hydraulic oil, instrument air or Ethernet are possible. This signal can be used for informational purposes, or it can be sent to a central control panel, local control panel, PLC, DCS, SCADA system, where it is interpreted into readable values and used to control other devices and processes in the system. Transducers are devices (sensors /detectors) that convert one form of energy to another. Energy types include electrical, mechanical, electromagnetic radiation, chemical, acoustic or thermal energy. Transducers are widely used in measuring instruments for pressure, temperature, level and flow on the platform Indicator (distance amplifying instrument), is any instrument used to accurately measure small distances/signals and amplify them to make them more significant as process variables. Examples of indicators include meters, gauges, thermometers Controllers are a control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems. A controller basically calculates the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the difference by adjusting the process control inputs/ process variable. Alarms or system of alarm devices gives an audible, visual or other form of alarm signal about a problem or condition of a process variable that have exceeded the controller set points, maximum or minimum allowable operating parameters of any process. Alarms are incorporated into ESD systems, low level and High level indicator systems

A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time.

  • 3.3 Can you explain how to operate integrated process systems, as appropriate to the plant?

Process Integration refers to the system-oriented, thermodynamics-based, integrated approaches to the analysis, synthesis and retrofit of process plants. The goals of process integration is to combine the use of materials and energy, and to minimize the generation of emissions and wastes. Note that Process Integration is not limited to the design of new plants, but it also covers retrofit design (e.g. new units to be installed in an old plant) and the operation of existing systems. Process integration is aimed at optimizing process designs in order to get more money from their raw materials and capital assets while becoming cleaner, more compact and sustainable.

The main advantage of process integration is to consider a system as a whole (i.e. integrated or holistic approach) in order to improve their design and/or operation. In contrast, an analytical approach would

attempt to improve or optimize process units separately without necessarily taking advantage of potential interactions among them.

For instance, by using process integration techniques it might be possible to identify that a process can use the heat rejected by another unit and reduce the overall energy consumption, even if the units are not running at optimum conditions on their own. Such an opportunity would be missed with an analytical approach, as it would seek to optimize each unit, and thereafter it wouldn’t be possible to re-use the heat internally.

Process integration techniques are common in crude preheating process, re-flux, re-boilers and regeneration systems in process plants.

Below are examples of process integration systems designed into the process plant:

Heat dissipated off the stabilised crude of the crude oil system and it is absorbed by the raw crude

from the HP separation system through interaction in the crude/crude exchangers Residual heat from the exhaust of the turbine generators is used to generate heating medium for the process and for use in the cargo tanks. Here there is a process integration between the power generation system and the heating media.

Process integration is very suitable for oil and gas process plants since this is a continuous process in which parameters can be continuous monitored and regulated without hindering adjacent systems.

Process variable control in integrated processes is achieved by employing set point signal controllers that simultaneously monitor the signals from the two adjacent/ integrated processes. Here a signal measured from one system (a set point signal) is fed into the controller that compares it with the measurement from the adjacent process and if a discrepancy is identified between the two then a correcting signal is generated by the controller to stabilise the integrated system.

Learner Outcome 4

Know how to shut down integrated process systems

  • 4.1 Can you explain how to input and set shutdown settings, process variables and services?

A plant would be referred as operating under normal conditions when all its operating parameters are controlled with in safe acceptable ranges that do not pose any potential risks as low as reasonably practicable to personnel, equipment, production and environment. The offshore oil and gas is a continuous process and plant conditions/ operating parameters must be regulated within certain limits. The operating parameters that must be kept within certain limits are process variables and they are:

Temperature

Liquid Level

Pressure

Fluid Flow

Control of these process variables in a continuous process can be controlled by use of a control loop. A typical control loop would constitute of 4 elements, namely:

The process variable

The measuring unit

The controller

The correcting Unit

The process variable is the factor of the process that must be brought under control in order to achieve and maintain a desired value/ set point. The process variables are brought under control by use of set points/desired values that configured into process controllers of the process systems i.e. Level controllers, pressure controllers etc.

The Measuring unit measures the actual values of the process variables i.e. flow meters, gauges, thermometers. The measuring unit obtains the measured values of the process variable

The controller compares the measured value of the process variable and the desired value/set points; if it senses a deviation between the two it then sends a correcting signal to the final element in the control loop, the correcting unit

The correcting unit receives signals from the controller and opens or closes (regulates) the process variable, then the measured value is returned to the one indicated as a desired value. Correcting units are usually level control valves, flow control valves, pressure control valves etc

Controllers are a control loop feedback mechanism widely used in hydrocarbon control systems to basically calculate the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the difference by adjusting the process control inputs/ process variable.

Process controllers are fed with process desired values/ control limits or set points that imply the desired normal conditions and tolerances the plant should operate at. In case the plant normal operating

conditions/set points are exceeded the controller will display alarms (first degree of protection) as initial warnings of the situation, examples of these warning alarms include:

Level Alarm High-LAH

Level Alarm Low-LAL

Pressure Alarm Low PAL

These alarms will display in the control room or the field and notify the operators to adjust the system back to normal operating conditions or within the desired set points. If the prevailing condition is not adjusted by the control loop or remains unattended by the operators, the control loop will fail to maintain control of the process variables and this may escalate into a potentially hazardous situation. For this reason the control loop is further protected by a second degree of protection involving preset executive alarms & switches that are tied into the Emergency shutdown (ESD) system. These second degree executive switches & alarms include:

Level switch High High-LSHH

Level switch Low Low-LSLL

Pressure switch Low Low PSLL

These switches (HH or LL switches) once triggered by the extremity of the process variable will initiate shut downs of systems and plant emergency shutdown.

  • 4.2 Can you explain how to isolate plant and utilities from operating sources?

An isolation procedure is a set of predetermined steps that must be followed to ensure that plant and related hazards cannot jeopardise the safety of those working on the plant. There must be an isolation procedure for each item of plant, including the application of isolation devices, locks and tags, as practicable. To isolate a plant and utilities from operating sources, I will prepare a marked out P&ID indicating all energy sources and equipments to be separated. After marking out the P&ID, I will use it to prepare the isolation certificate and hand it over to my supervisor and superintendent to sign their respective signatories authorising me to go on with the isolation. When all is set, I will prepare the isolation tags with prologs and then communicate to CCR of my intention to isolate the plant. After approval from CCR, I will then carry out the following to isolate the plant:

Identify the plant involved and the corresponding energy sources.

Identify all other hazards.

Shut the plant down.

De-energise all stored energy sources by draining and venting and removal etc. where necessary.

Isolate and lock out all energy sources through opening and closing of applicable valves as per

P&ID. Tag plant controls, energy sources and other potential hazards.

After all these, I will re-assess my isolations to ensure it is well isolated before handing over the isolation

certificate to my senior Technician and supervisor for verification.

Learner Outcome 5

Know how to minimise and deal with safety issues in the work place

  • 5.1 Can you explain how to use Safe Systems of Work processes to:

Identify hazards

Mitigate or reduce risk to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP)

Safe systems of work are a formal procedure which results from systematic examination of a task in order to identify all the hazards. They are put in place to ensure that all hazards associated with a task are eliminated or risk reduced or mitigated to as low as reasonably practicable. Some of the safe systems of work processes used on the facility to identify hazards and mitigate or reduce risk to as low as reasonably practicable are; The Hazard Identification (HAZID) system: is a process that breaks a task down into component parts for detailed analysis. This analysis helps identify hazards that could cause injury to personnel, asset damage or loss, environmental damage and loss of production. Hazards require some form of control in order to mitigate risks. During the early stages of commencing a task, a hazard identification (HAZID) is done to identify all the hazards that can be easily recognised and eliminated and if not the risk it posses to individuals or personnel exposed to it. After a HAZID is carried out to identify all the hazards, a Task Risk Assessment is carried out to know whether these hazards can be overcome by physically separating people from them. When the hazards cannot be eliminated, then control measures have to be put in place to reduce the risk to ALARP. e.g. putting guards on equipment, personnel wearing appropriate PPEs, obtaining Permit and having toolbox talks before starting a job. Risk ASSESSMENT provides a basis for identifying, evaluating, defining and justifying the selection of control measures for eliminating or reducing the risk. It provides the employer and employee sufficient objective knowledge, awareness and understanding of the risk of major accidents at the facility, record knowledge of risk of major accidents at the facility so it can be managed, e.g. if the employer intends to base the safety report

largely on the facility’s compliance with specific codes of conduct or standards, the basis of the codes and

their applicability to the facility. The purpose of the risk assessment sheet is to prompt the assessment team to think about the different nature of health hazards and risk when rating likelihood and consequences. All incidents have to be reported being it an accident or a near miss. An accident or incident needs to be

investigated and the outcome reported to the team leader for it to be documented and actions taken on them. The team leader will further report this accident or near miss to the safety department and management for recording. All incidents will be investigated to prevent future recurrence of them. Control measures are put in place to ensure personnel and process safety on the facility and is audited and

inspected intermittently to ensure they are serving their purpose. An audit is an in depth survey of one, or a number of, aspects of the Management System. It will follow document trails, check the understanding of the workforce and look for evidence to demonstrate whether or not the management system is functioning properly and the undertakings given in the Health and Safety Policy are being met. An inspection in a tour of the workplace to identify unsafe acts or conditions. To be done in the best way, the inspector normally involves discussions with the workforce to understand and correct the root causes of the unsafe acts and conditions. In this way, it is easy to avoid the same unsafe condition, for example

“fire escape blocked by materials” being repeated all the time. Toolbox talk is also a safe measure put in

place to ensure only competent people are made to lead a team when a task is about to be done. It explains

to all involved in a task the procedure to be used, the hazards identified and the control measures to be put in place. The Permit to Work system is a formalised process to control work and access to identified areas designed to prevent incidents in the workplace. The written system is used to control certain types of work or work areas that are potentially hazardous and contains a permit to work document which specifies the work to be done and the precautions to be taken. This process authorises work only after safe procedures have been defined and they provide a clear record that all foreseeable hazards have been considered.

Learner Outcome 6

Know how to work to organisational and operational procedures

  • 6.1 Can you explain how to select, use and care for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

The primary methods for preventing employee exposure to hazardous materials are engineering and administrative controls. Where these control methods are not appropriate or sufficient to control the hazard, personal protective equipment (PPE) is required. Usually a work area assessment is required to

determine the potential hazards and select the appropriate PPE for adequate protection. Employees must receive training which includes the proper PPE for their job, when this PPE must be worn, how to wear, adjust, maintain, and discard this equipment, and the limitations of the PPE. All training must be

documented. In the selection of PPE’s, it is the duty of the employer to;

Identifying the appropriate PPE based on the hazards of the task/ work area.

Providing and paying for required PPE. Assure appropriate equipment is available

Enforcing the proper use of PPE

Maintaining PPE in a clean and reliable condition (clean, sanitary, replace worn or defective

parts) Training employees (document the training) on the following: when PPE is needed, what PPE is needed, how to properly put on, adjust, wear, and remove the PPE, useful life and limitations of the PPE , Proper care, storage, and disposal of the PPE

PPE’s includes;

Goggles-Eye protection against flying particles, acids or caustic liquids, welding arcs. Hard Hat-Head protection against moving or falling objects, the possibility of bumping heads on objects or equipment. Safety Boots-Foot protection from chemical spills and sharp objects. Overalls-Body protection as a safeguard against hazardous material spills, splashes, intense heat, impact, cuts, infectious materials, and radiation exposures. Ear Plugs-Hearing protection against exposed high noise levels. Gloves- Hand protection from possibility of severe cuts, lacerations, or abrasions, punctures, temperature extremes, and chemical hazards.

  • 6.2 Can you describe the implications of statutory and organisational requirements?

The Oil and gas offshore industry is regulated through a permissioning regime. At the heart of this are the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005. The Safety Case Regulations require those who have duties under the law, known as duty holders, to demonstrate that they have identified the major accident hazards, assessed the major accident risks and implemented control measures and to ensure compliance with all relevant statutory provisions. Other legislation that applies offshore includes the Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995, the Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc) Regulations 1996, the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974.

Health and Safety at Work Act (1974)

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, sometimes referred to as HASAWA 74, is the fundamental piece of health and safety legislation that applies to all work activities in the oil and gas sector. It requires employers to ensure so far as reasonably practicable the Health and Safety of their employees, other people at work and members of the public who may be affected by their work. The act is the foundation of today's health and safety regulations and codes of practise and forms the basis for other/subsequent regulations which focus on specific areas

Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, sometimes

HASAWA 74 places a general duty on; employers, employees, trainees, self-employed, manufacturers, suppliers, designers, importers of work equipment, people in control of premises and everyone has a duty to comply with the Act.

Employers' responsibilities

The Act places a general duty to 'ensure so far as is reasonably practicable the health, safety and welfare at work of all their employees'. Employers must comply with the Act. They must:

provide and maintain safety equipment and safe systems of work

ensure materials used are properly stored, handled, used and transported

provide information, training, instruction and supervision - ensure staff are aware of instructions

provided by manufacturers and suppliers of equipment provide a safe place of employment and a safe working environment

provide a written safety policy/risk assessment

look after the health and safety of others, for example the public

talk to safety representatives

An employer is forbidden to charge his or her employees for any measures which he or she is required to provide in the interests of health and safety (for example, personal protective equipment).

Employees’ responsibilities

Employees have specific responsibilities too - they must:

take care of their own health and safety and that of other persons (employees may be liable)

co-operate with their employers

not interfere with anything provided in the interest of health and safety

Enforcement of Health and Safety legislation

For your type of business the Local Authority Environmental Health Officer will be your enforcement officer. For manufacturing or large construction or industrial sites the Health and Safety Executive carries out inspections.

The powers of an inspector include:

rights of entry at reasonable times (without appointments)

right to investigate and examine

right to dismantle equipment and take substances or equipment

right to see documents and take copies

right to assistance (from colleagues or Police)

right to ask questions under caution

right to seize articles or substances in cases of imminent danger

Enforcement action

  • 1. Legal Notices - Written document requires person to do/stop doing something.

    • Improvement: say what is wrong and how to put right within a set time.

    • Prohibition: prohibits use of equipment/unsafe practices immediately.

  • 2. Prosecution - Both employers and employees face prosecution.

    • Maximum £5000 in Magistrates' Court

    • Unlimited fine and jail in Crown Court.

  • Enforcement officers will give advice and explain anything you are not sure about

    The main Health and Safety Regulations under HASAWA 1974, include:

    Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999: The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 generally make more explicit what employers are required to do to manage health and safety under the Health and Safety at Work Act. Find out more

    Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992: Cover a wide range of basic health, safety and welfare issues such as ventilation, heating, lighting, workstations, seating and welfare facilities

    The Health and Safety Information for Employees Regulations 1989: Requires employers to display a poster telling employees what they need to know about health and safety

    Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences (RIDDOR) Regulations 1995: Require employers to notify a government body on certain occupational injuries, diseases and dangerous events

    Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002: Require employers to assess the risks from hazardous substances and take appropriate precautions

    Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992: Require employers to provide appropriate protective clothing and equipment for their employees

    Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998: Require that equipment provided for use at work, including machinery, is safe.

    Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992: Covers the moving of objects by hand or bodily force, includes partly mechanically assisted systems, and tasks employers to ensure adequate attempts are made to eliminate handling activities or at least reduce their risk as far as practicably possible.

    Noise at Work Regulations 1989: Requires employers to take action to protect employees from hearing damage

    Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992: Sets out requirements for work with Visual Display Units (VDUs)

    Employers' Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969: Pre 1974, but still relevant and requires employers to take out insurance against accidents and ill health to their employees

    Electricity at Work Regulations 1989: Requires persons in control of electrical systems to ensure that they have been properly constructed, maintained and are used in such a way so as not to give rise to danger or risk to life.

    Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981: Require employers to provide adequate and appropriate equipment, facilities and personnel to ensure their employees receive immediate attention if they are injured or taken ill at work. These Regulations apply to all workplaces and to the self-employed.

    Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998: The regulations aim to reduce the risk to

    person’s health and safety from the use of lifting equipment provided for use in the work place. It asks

    questions on equipments strength and stability including fitness for purpose, also, its installation, methods of use and its maintenance.

    Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000: Requires the user of an installed pressure system, i.e. a system containing a relevant fluid (such as compressed air or liquefied gas), at a pressure greater than 0.5bar (about 7psi) above atmospheric, must have a written scheme for periodic examination by a competent person. This includes; establishing safe operating limits, provide adequate operating instructions, ensure plant is properly maintained and keep records of the most recent examination and supplied parts

    • 6.3 Can you explain how to interpret operational requirements?

    Operational requirements are those statements that "identify the essential capabilities, associated requirements, performance measures, and the process or series of actions to be taken in effecting the results that are desired in order to address mission area deficiencies, evolving applications or threats, emerging technologies, or system cost improvements [1]." The operational requirements assessment starts with the Concept of Operations (CONOPS) and goes to a greater level of detail in identifying mission performance assumptions and constraints and current deficiencies of or enhancements needed for operations and mission success. Operational requirements are the basis for system requirements on the FPSO and this includes;

    Hand Over

    All positions on the facility require formal shift and crew change handovers that contain a summary of all relevant information and occurrences relating to their particular duties over the period of the shift. These handover notes shall be read by the oncoming person and shall be used in conjunction with the verbal summary of the department’s status by the corresponding supervisor or head. It's the responsibility of the

    person receiving the hand over report to ensure that the information recorded as part of the handover must in most cases tally with the plant status. Additional background and historical information is available from supporting documents after the formal handover is completed through:

    Central Control Room logs.

    Well/Equipment status logs

    Plant/Equipment status logs

    Process/Equipment parameter log

    HSE Lessons learned

    Permits/Certificates Software Change Control Records Correspondence by telephone, fax and e-mail

    Policies and Procedures

    Policies and Procedures files and documents will be found in the plant control room or dedicated document control room in a location where everybody can easily get access to, these files will contain all the information required to safely and environmentally operate the plant, everyone that works on the plant will be trained on how to follow the procedures stated in the files, again, regular table top exercises would be taken to keep staffs up to speed.