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Lenido Lumanog v.

People of the Philippines (and other consolidated

cases), G.R. No. 182555, September 7, 2010



Appellants were the accused perpetrators of the ambush-slay of
former Chief of the Metropolitan Command Intelligence and Security Group
of the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National Police), Colonel
Rolando N. Abadilla.

The principal witness for the prosecution was Freddie Alejo, a
security guard employed assigned at 211 Katipunan Avenue, Blue Ridge,
Quezon City, where the ambush-slay happened. As a purported eyewitness,
he testified on what he saw during the fateful day, including the faces of the

All the accused raised the defense of alibi, highlighted the
negative findings of ballistic and fingerprint examinations, and further
alleged torture in the hands of police officers and denial of constitutional
rights during custodial investigation.

The trial court however convicted the accused-appellants. The CA
affirmed with modification the decision of the trial court. The CA upheld the
conviction of the accused-appellants based on the credible eyewitness
testimony of Alejo, who vividly recounted before the trial court their
respective positions and participation in the fatal shooting of Abadilla, having
been able to witness closely how they committed the crime.


1. Did the CA decision comply with the constitutional standard
that [n]o decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein
clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based?
2. Was the extra-judicial confession of accused Joel de Jesus
taken during the custodial investigation valid?
3. Was the right to speedy disposition of cases of the accused
4. Was the eyewitness testimony of security guard Alejo against
the accused credible?
5. Was the out-of-court identification of the accused-appellants
made by the eyewitness, security guard Alejo, in a police line-up was
6. Were the results of the ballistic and fingerprint tests
conclusive of the innocence of the accused-appellants?
7. Can the defense of alibi of the accused prevail over their
positive identification in this case?


1. YES, the CA decision complied with the constitutional
standard that [n]o decision shall be rendered by any court without
expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is

Perusing the CA decision, we hold that it cannot be deemed
constitutionally infirm, as it clearly stated the facts and law on which the
ruling was based, and while it did not specifically address each and every
assigned error raised by appellants, it cannot be said that the appellants
were left in the dark as to how the CA reached its ruling affirming the trial
courts judgment of conviction. The principal arguments raised in their
Memorandum submitted before this Court actually referred to the main
points of the CA rulings, such as the alleged sufficiency of prosecution
evidence, their common defense of alibi, allegations of torture, probative
value of ballistic and fingerprint test results, circumstances qualifying the
offense and modification of penalty imposed by the trial court. What
appellants essentially assail is the verbatim copying by the CA of not only the
facts narrated, but also the arguments and discussion including the legal
authorities, in disposing of the appeal. On such wholesale adoption of the
Office of the Solicitor Generals position, as well as the trial courts
insufficient findings of fact, appellants anchor their claim of failure of
intermediate review by the CA.

2. NO, the extra-judicial confession of accused Joel de Jesus
taken during the custodial investigation was NOT valid.

Police officers claimed that upon arresting Joel, they informed
him of his constitutional rights to remain silent, that any information he
would give could be used against him, and that he had the right to a
competent and independent counsel, preferably, of his own choice, and if he
cannot afford the services of counsel he will be provided with one
(1). However, since these rights can only be waived in writing and with the
assistance of counsel, there could not have been such a valid waiver by Joel,
who was presented to Atty. Sansano at the IBP Office, Quezon City Hall only
the following day and stayed overnight at the police station before he was
brought to said counsel.

Even assuming that custodial investigation started only during
Joels execution of his statement before Atty. Sansano on June 20, 1996, still
the said confession must be invalidated. To be acceptable, extrajudicial
confessions must conform to constitutional requirements. A confession is
not valid and not admissible in evidence when it is obtained in violation of
any of the rights of persons under custodial investigation.

Atty. Sansano, who supposedly interviewed Joel and assisted the
latter while responding to questions propounded by SPO2 Garcia, Jr., did not
testify on whether he had properly discharged his duties to said client. While
SPO2 Garcia, Jr. testified that Atty. Sansano had asked Joel if he understood
his answers to the questions of the investigating officer and sometimes
stopped Joel from answering certain questions, SPO2 Garcia, Jr. did not say if
Atty. Sansano, in the first place, verified from them the date and time of
Joels arrest and the circumstances thereof, or any previous information
elicited from him by the investigators at the station, and if said counsel
inspected Joels body for any sign or mark of physical torture.

3. No, the right to speedy disposition of cases of the accused
was NOT violated.

Section 16, Article III of the 1987 Constitution provides that all
persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all
judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies. This protection extends to
all citizens and covers the periods before, during and after trial, affording
broader protection than Section 14(2), which guarantees merely the right to
a speedy trial. However, just like the constitutional guarantee of speedy
trial, speedy disposition of cases is a flexible concept. It is consistent with
delays and depends upon the circumstances. What the Constitution
prohibits are unreasonable, arbitrary and oppressive delays, which render
rights nugatory.

It must be stressed that in the determination of whether the right
to speedy disposition of cases has been violated, particular regard must be
taken of the facts and circumstances peculiar to each case. A mere
mathematical reckoning of the time involved would not be sufficient. Under
the circumstances, we hold that the delay of (4) four years during which the
case remained pending with the CA and this Court was not unreasonable,
arbitrary or oppressive.

In several cases where it was manifest that due process of law or
other rights guaranteed by the Constitution or statutes have been denied,
this Court has not faltered to accord the so-called radical relief to keep
accused from enduring the rigors and expense of a full-blown trial. In this
case, however, appellants are not entitled to the same relief in the absence
of clear and convincing showing that the delay in the resolution of their
appeal was unreasonable or arbitrary.

4. YES, the eyewitness testimony of security guard Alejo
against the accused was credible.

In giving full credence to the eyewitness testimony of security
guard Alejo, the trial judge took into account his proximity to the spot where
the shooting occurred, his elevated position from his guardhouse, his
opportunity to view frontally all the perpetrators for a brief time -- enough
for him to remember their faces (when the two [2] lookouts he had
earlier noticed walking back and forth in front of his guard post pointed
their guns at him one [1] after the other, and later when the four [4]
armed men standing around the victims car momentarily looked at him as
he was approached at the guardhouse by the second lookout), and his
positive identification in the courtroom of appellants as the six (6) persons
whom he saw acting together in the fatal shooting of Abadilla on June 13,
1996. The clear view that Alejo had at the time of the incident was verified
by Judge Jose Catral Mendoza (now an Associate Justice of this Court) during
the ocular inspection conducted in the presence of the prosecutors, defense
counsel, court personnel, and witnesses Alejo and Maj. Villena.

The trial judge also found that Alejo did not waver in his detailed
account of how the assailants shot Abadilla[,] who was inside his car, the
relative positions of the gunmen and lookouts, and his opportunity to look at
them in the face. Alejo immediately gave his statement before the police
authorities just hours after the incident took place. Appellants make much of
a few inconsistencies in his statement and testimony, with respect to the
number of assailants and his reaction when he was ordered to get down in
his guard post. But such inconsistencies have already been explained by Alejo
during cross-examination by correcting his earlier statement in using number
four (4) to refer to those persons actually standing around the car and two
(2) more persons as lookouts, and that he got nervous only when the second
lookout shouted at him to get down, because the latter actually poked a gun
at him. It is settled that affidavits, being ex-parte, are almost always
incomplete and often inaccurate, but do not really detract from the
credibility of witnesses. The discrepancies between a sworn statement and
testimony in court do not outrightly justify the acquittal of an accused, as
testimonial evidence carries more weight than an affidavit.

5. YES, the out-of-court identification of the accused-appellants
made by the eyewitness, security guard Alejo, in a police line-up was

Applying the totality-of-circumstances test, we reiterate that
Alejos out-court-identification [of the accused] is reliable, for
reasons that, first, he was very near the place where Abadilla was shot and
thus had a good view of the gunmen, not to mention that the two (2)
lookouts directly approached him and pointed their guns at them; second, no
competing event took place to draw his attention from the event; third, Alejo
immediately gave his descriptions of at least two (2) of the perpetrators,
while affirming he could possibly identify the others if he would see them
again, and the entire happening that he witnessed; and finally, there was no
evidence that the police had supplied or even suggested to Alejo that
appellants were the suspects, except for Joel de Jesus whom he refused to
just pinpoint on the basis of a photograph shown to him by the police
officers, insisting that he would like to see said suspect in person. More
importantly, Alejo during the trial had positively identified appellant Joel de
Jesus independently of the previous identification made at the police station.
Such in-court identification was positive, straightforward and categorical.

6. NO, the results of the ballistic and fingerprint tests were NOT
conclusive of the innocence of the accused-appellants.

[T]he negative result of ballistic examination was inconclusive, for
there is no showing that the firearms supposedly found in appellants
possession were the same ones used in the ambush-slay of Abadilla. The fact
that ballistic examination revealed that the empty shells and slug were fired
from another firearm does not disprove appellants guilt, as it was possible
that different firearms were used by them in shooting Abadilla. Neither will
the finding that the empty shells and slug matched those in another criminal
case allegedly involving ABB members, such that they could have been fired
from the same firearms belonging to said rebel group, exonerate the
appellants who are on trial in this case and not the suspects in another
case. To begin with, the prosecution never claimed that the firearms
confiscated from appellants, which were the subject of separate charges for
illegal possession of firearms, were the same firearms used in the ambush-
slay of Abadilla. A ballistic examination is not indispensable in this
case. Even if another weapon was in fact actually used in killing the victim,
still, appellants Fortuna and Lumanog cannot escape criminal liability
therefor, as they were positively identified by eyewitness Freddie Alejo as
the ones who shot Abadilla to death.

The negative result of the fingerprint tests conducted by
fingerprint examiner Remedios is likewise inconclusive and unreliable. Said
witness admitted that no prints had been lifted from inside the KIA Pride and
only two (2) fingerprints were taken from the car of Abadilla.

7. NO, the defense of alibi of the accused CANNOT prevail over
their positive identification in this case.

Alibi is the weakest of all defenses, for it is easy to fabricate and
difficult to disprove, and it is for this reason that it cannot prevail over the
positive identification of the accused by the witnesses. To be valid for
purposes of exoneration from a criminal charge, the defense of alibi must be
such that it would have been physically impossible for the person charged
with the crime to be at the locus criminis at the time of its commission, the
reason being that no person can be in two places at the same time. The
excuse must be so airtight that it would admit of no exception. Where there
is the least possibility of accuseds presence at the crime scene, the alibi will
not hold water.

Deeply embedded in our jurisprudence is the rule that positive
identification of the accused, where categorical and consistent, without any
showing of ill motive on the part of the eyewitness testifying, should prevail
over the alibi and denial of appellants, whose testimonies are not
substantiated by clear and convincing evidence. However, none of the
appellants presented clear and convincing excuses showing the physical
impossibility of their being at the crime scene between 8:00 oclock and 9:00
oclock in the morning of June 13, 1996. Hence, the trial court and CA did not
err in rejecting their common defense of alibi.