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CONTENTS

Introduction -
Ship Draft, TYjm and StabiJ-itY
l{otes
Page
ChaPter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Draft SurveY.
Cargo Deadweight----
Trjm and StabilitY
Grajn loading-
Rolling
Period Test for G'1"
"
Appendi.x.
Draft and Stability
hoblsrs
arrd Ansroers'
METRIC
INSTRUCTIONAL
MANUAL
for
"SHIPS
DRAFT
SURVEYS-
1
L4
30
50
5B
73
BB
94
94
I
((
0'
.6)
t"
Captain
Gordon G' Glover
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
MJRPOSE
[.lThisHandbookisintendedtoassistDeckofficerswith
their}oadingcalculations.Practicalsolutionsare
emphasized,
and the most common
guestions about ship
loading
are answered
'
L-2
DESCRI
PTION
1.3
-
describes
the
PurPose
of the
Handbook.
There
is a surnmary
of the contents
of each
chapter.Analphabeticallistingofabbreviati-onsused,
a listing
by chapter
of formulas'
and some
recommended
materialsandequipmentforperformingshiploading
comPutatlons
are also
included'
1.4 Chapter
two, Ship
Draft'
Trim and Stabitity
Notes -
defines
and discusses
points and
practices
which
have a
practical
ef f ect
9.,t
saf e
i:U
economic
ship
loading
'
; ''/
':
_1
.-. ;,',r
'
"
l
More detailed
ru.4-t
tomes
on the
of stabilitY -
knowledge
may be
subj ect whi-ch wilI
obtained
from
Published
provide fuller coverage
,tl
.-=f: h
?Anl"n
fi"'l,lr#tl='
'
-2
r.5 chapter Three, Draft survey
- describes
in detair,
complete with worked examples,
the procedure
for per_
forming an fnternational Standard Draft Survey.
1.5 chapter Four, cargo Deadweight
- summarizes
the main
considerations when performing
cargo deadweight
car_
culations. Each step in the procedure
is then described
in detail, complete with worked examples.
1..7 chapter Five, Trim and stability
- summarjzes
the mai-n
considerations when performing
trim and stability carcu_
rations. Each step in the procedures
is then described
in detail, complete with worked examples.
1.8 Chapter Six, Grain Loading
- summarizes the IMCO and
SOLAS requ
j_rements
for loading grain.
Each
the procedure
is then described in detail,
with worked examples.
t
;
;
il
F
q
d
step in
compl e t e
1.9 chapter seven, Rolling
period
Test for Timber carriers
describes
the procedure
for measuring the rolling period
of a ship- This is most frequently reguired when there
is timber deck cargo, but is applicable for any vessel
or cargo-
The calcurations
to convert rorling period
into
GM is then described in detail, comptete with
worked
exampres
. ,.ah
r' rl'Tf
&Frt"'
o ra9lt';-
t
r
-3
n-lo
Appendix
I, Prodlems -
guestions relating to
Handbook. Atl questions
consists of twenty-seven (27)
the material covered in this
are worked out in detail.
d#
vrtnir
il'ffit'i*-
1- 11
&P
DXSP
WT
F-P
@{
frts
fG
L-!J r
tB
I.cF
I.cG
LXU
tilG
r{Tc
D
@?{
C
SF
Sg
TKU
?FC
VIIH
wlr
E
The
out
-4-
following
abbreviations
are commonly used through-
the text t
,.-
-
After PerPendiculars
-
DisPlacement
-
Deadweight
-
Forward PerPendiculars
-
Metacentric
height
-
Transverse Center of BuoYancY
-
Transverse Center of GravitY
-
Length Between PerPendiculars
-
Longitudinal
Center of BuoYancY
-
Longitudinal
Center of Fl-otation
-
Longitudinal
Center of GravitY
-
Longitudinal
Metacentric
Distance
-
Center of Gravity from Midship ot'{G)
\-
*-_z
-
Moment to Change Trim by One Centimeter
-
Port
-
auarter
Mean
-
Starboard
-
Stowage
Factor
-
SPecific
gravitY
-
Transverse
Metacentric
Height
-
Tonnes
per Centimeter
(Immersion)
Volumetric
Heeling Moment
Volumetric
Vertical
Moment
Midships
I
,I
I
I
I
I
I
I
!
I
I
t
-1
---slJ--
fttv''
in
'{*ufr
tE$
-5
FORMULAS
I.L2 The followin9, formulas are
putat ions ,
'"
DRAFT SURVEY
(ChaPter 3)
Forward Draft =
Fwd(P) + Fwd(S)
2
used in ship loading com-
Aft Draft =
llid Mean =
Aft(P) + Aft(S)
2
Mid(P) + Mid(S)
2
2
QM =
Mean of Mean + Mid Mean
Trim =
Fwd
Fwd/Aft Mean
Mean of Mean
DISPLACEMENT
Displacement
First correct
Vessel trimmed by the
LCF is Fwd
-
you
LCF is Aft
-
you
Vesse1 trimmed by the
LCF is Fwd
-
you
LCF is Aft -
you
Aft
=
Fwd + Aft
______2-
=
Fwd & Aft v@
correction
=
TPC x Draft remainder in cm.
=
DISP + DISP correction
ion
=
TRII'1 x TPC x LCF x 100
=
corr for trim
I,BP
\,
STEI|N
'
\
\
I
SUBTRACT 1
j
ADD J
HEAD:
ADD
SUBTRACT
'l
1t'Prll6th
eAuu
'
-6
50 x l4TC diff
=
Final
Trim
Corr
Second Correction
Displacement
=
TPI
First Correction
=
=T2*
I
I
I
I
I
I
l
I
I
I
E
I
I
I
I
!
LBP
{- Draft remaining
Trim x TPI x LCF x
LBP
1
Second Correction
=
T' x 6tr x MTI diff
LBP
MTC difference (Metric)
:
(a)
QM
+
50 cm
=
MTC (Found
from Ship,s Data)
{b) QM - 50 cn
= MTC (Found
from Ship,s Data)
MTCdiff=a_b
(a)MTC
_(b)
Mrc
= MTC difference
MTI dif ference ( f mperial
)
: lild*<,
,.
trtrT-
(a)
QM
+
6"
=
MTI (Found
from Tables)
(b)
QU - 6"
=
MTI (Found
from Tables)
WEIGHT DEDUCTIONS (Metric)
:
FUEL OIL
DIESEL OIL
LUBE OI I,
FRESH W/\TER
DRINI( WATER
BOILER VJATER
BALLAST WATER
MT
SLUDGE
MT
STORES, etc
CONSTANT
totai,we@s
I{EIGHT DEDUCTIONS ( rmperial
)
:
Calculations
are done in
in i-nertia
I2"
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
,i
ri*a-
I,t A{
r,+^
&r'-,/,si.. -
lri
etn
t ,
IBP
lt
un::!.,
u
!_
-l:
.t,
LT
-
Long Tons
)
.r"i
I
l'*n
*
i1l
'
^\
Ik'(g\J\'r
\rsu#tv
\
-7
CARGO DEADWETGHT (Chapter
4)
cargo DWT
=
Drsp cotrectea for density (2nd
condition)
(minus)-
TorAL weight deductions (2nd
condition)
=
NETT displacement ( 2nd condition
)
(minus)-
NETT displacement (lightship
=
1st condition)
= CARGO LOADED
PERCENTAGE (?)
=
Hold Capacity x
Total Capacity
DEFLECTION
=
MID MEAN
- FWD & AFT
Hoggi-ng
= MfD MEAN
- FWD & AFT
Sagging
= MfD MEAN
- FWD & AFT
100
MEAN
MEAN
MEAN
AFT MEAN
Even Keel
=
MfD MEAN
=
FWD MEAN
=
TRIM FORMULAS (Chapter
5)
LCG(FP)
=
LBP + MG '':
--, t, t7r.
-z-
MG is Aft
-
you ADD
MG is Fwd
-
you SUBTRACT
LCB(FP)=LpB+LCB
2
LCB is Aft
-
you ADD
LCB i_s Fwd
-
you SUBTRACT
Longitudinal
Moment
=
Weight x LCG(Fp)
New LCG(FP)
=
Total Longitudinal Moments
TriM LCVCr
= LCG(FP)
- LCB(FP)
TRIM
=
MTC
ub
.^{er1W
af
{Vtrfir
T|alrr
IltrEtltp
'fnLrhldF
,r,<Ns
t
Y
_B
Final Longitudinal Moments
=
DISp x tCG(Fp)
Longitudinal Momenfg of Constant
=
Final
- all other Longitudinal
Moments
LCFG(FP) of the Constant
=
Longitudinal
Moment
Change of Draft
=
Trim
2
=
+ Weight
TPC
x MTC
TPC
Weight=TPCxTrim(cm)
2
Vertical Moment
=
Weight x KG
KG
=
Total MoqenI{ll
- Totat Moments(S)
Mean Sinkage
Di-stance - 2
Rise of G due
Where:
New KG
=
O1d KG
=
Total Change in Moments
GM - TKM
- New KG
*GG1
=
Total fnertia
- Total IrJeights
G1M=GM-GGt
Rolling Period ( Imperial
)
0.448 Ft
tffi-oF crq
to Free Surface
=
( Metric
)
0.797 BB Metres
Vsq.rt ot cM
Lx83xsg
L2xDISPxn2
, **oo*d
,-z t'
\
-.{$-
Yv'
L
=
Length of tank
B
=
Breadth of tank
Sg
=
Specific Gravity
n
=#ofLongitudinal
is divided
of liguid in tank
compartments into which the tank
Total Weights( P)
-9
RoLLTNG PERrop fEST (
chapter 7
)
( TMPERIAL
)
GM
= 0.1936.x 82
--r--
( METRIC
)
f
=
Rolling
B
=
Breadth
GG,=wxdKG
t-
.
DISP
Where:
Where:
GG.
I
DISP
W
w
dKG
GM
Where:
W
GoGt
Weight
Distance from water line
cot.O-
=
Angle of List
GRAIN LOADING (Chapter
6)
HHM
= VHM
SF( cargo
)
= VHM
blsP x sF
CUBIC METRES (U3)
=
Cubic
LONG TONS x 1.016
=
Metric
Tonnes (Mr1
D
GM
= 0.6532^x S2
T-
Period in
of Ship
Seconds of time
Shift in Centre of Gravity
W +/- w
Original Displacement
Weight to be loaded or discharged
Distance from KG to G of weight
WxDxcot.0-
r
Feet (
35.315
^dLfi
u thGfl
-^fi
v
Y'*-
-10
NECESSARY MATERIALS
f.13 Work Forms atre recommended to ease the
culations. Several forms are included
the examples in this Handbook. These
as is, or altered to suit personal
or
requirements.
work of cal-
as part of
may be used
operational
calculator wilI speed up calculations. Any
r.14 stability Booklet and Loading Manual, complete with:
-
hydrostatic and deadweight tables;
grain loading plan;
general arrangement plan;
capacity p1an. and
1- 1s
-
tank capacity plan or manual.
These items are all supplied by the shipbuilder to
the ship and should be studied with care.
Certified hydrometer and water sampler (water thief).
These are used to measure the specific gravi-ty (Sg)
of the water in which the ship is floating. A special
hydrometer for measuring the Sg of fuel and lubricating
oils should also be available.
A seunding tape for measuring tank contents, and a
standard tape for measuring ho1ds, lockers, and other
1.16
L.L7
spaces.
A good
of the
program
I
better scientific calculators will have a
for integration by Simpson,s Rute
-^.,f\av4f
-
u-1n'
-.ftfu
\'
W
I
I
t
PL}ISOLL MARKS
N
I
IJ
I
r,t
00I.t
E
E
$
o
ctl
td
J
g
{
F
tf
u
n
pa
t!
LI
v.
L!-
Ez
-l
@
cr)
rl
rl
Figure 1
NAFT !{ARKS
E___
a-88t*
?O cm
6-60 crn
5O cm
{-ro cn
30 cm
2-zgcm
lO cm
}IETRIC IN
-12
HOI.I TO READ I{ETRIC DRAFT I,IARKS
(METEFS
and CENTIMETERS)
LAH
9M
BH
7tl
6tt
l(
I
a
I
E
U
<)
d,
I
)a
i
a
E
o
o
r{
I
*
I
tr'
U
o
r{
I
I
I
r(
I
E,
o
o
r{
t
I
x
I
c
o
<)
r{
I
I
t
X
5t
10 cm
3il
sm
7O cm
6 so crn
5O cttt
4-lo cn
3O cn
2-2e cm
lO cm
9O cn
-8O
cn
?O cm
-6O
cn
5@ cm
4-4e_ em
3O cm
-2@
cm
1@ cm
8-go cm
6-Go cm
4-4o cm
2-zo c^
_
SOem
E-8o cn
?O cm
6-Go cn
5@ cm
4-{o cm
3O cm
2-zo cn
1O cm
8-Bo crn
6-Go cm
4-locm
2-zo cm
{t
90 cn
8-8o cn
?O cm
6-80 cm
50 cn
{-to cn
. 3Ocn
2-zo cn
8-Bo crn
6-goc*
4-4ocm
2-zo cm
8-go cn
6-80 cm
4-4o cm
2-z@ cm
2X
I
6
B-eo cm
6-so cn
4-q@ cm
2-zo
"^
2
1U
5tl-_-
I
L
Figure 2
4)t
rrpr$dtr'
Y60''
_
13
TMPERIAL MEASURE
IO? OF SECOI{D DECK
'TRINGER
PTAIE
DEADWEIGHT
9722 TONS
FREE EOARD DRAFI
z5'.lor|t
Fign:re
3
CHAPTER TWO
SHIP
DRAFT,
TRIM AND STABILITY
NOTES
,.,
OONSTANT
D.fr^"
constant,
in draf t survey calculations
'
includes
a)-J-
weights
aboard
ship which are not included
in
2.2
the manuals-
These
would include
crevt' crew's effects'
provisions
and
stores,
lifesaving
equipment,
water
in
pipelines,
mud in the chain
locker'
and fouling
of the hull.
A vessel's
constant
will alter appreciably
over-a
period
of time.
It must be checked'
and
probably recalculated'
for every
loading
survey'
Stores'
paint especially'
together
with
lubricating
oils'
spare
cylinder
liners'
andadditionalequipmentwilloftenchangetheconstant
by more than 100 tonnes
in 6 months'
3 The constant
also
increases
with age'
Corrosion
and
theaccumulationof''itmightbeuseful'.Storesare
the main causes
for this
increase'
The old rule of
thumb
was:
"For
a vessel
of L0'000
tons'
add one inch
of draft
for each five
years of vessel
life"'
Most vessels
are now
much larger'
so the estimate
wiII have
todependonthesurveyorlsexperience.Checkforunlisted
stores, especially
used
lumber and rope'
-*nl6*fl
'r
- <-hl-9
"
---N#
1
I
\aro"'
The weight bottom growth
is the rnost
difficult
to
allow for. fb is frequently
significant,
and value
)
of 50 kg/u' has been suggested.
A check of the fouring
exposed when the vessel is light
can be helpfur.
A bottom survey by a quarified
diver provides
the
most accurate data
2.5 one apparent change in constant must be guarded
agai.nst.
A draft survey at anchor, or'aiongside
with one anchor
down, wi-rI be minus the weight of the anchor and chain.
If, at the discharge port,
both anchors are put
on
the bottom whi].st alongside, the difference
between
the initial and final surveys wilr produce
an apparent
increase in the weight of the cargo out_turn.
- 15
2-1
2-6 Ensure the weights of anchors and chains are
added or subtracted from the loading and
constant calculati-ons.
SPECIFTC GRAVITY
2-7 Specific gravity (Sg) is ratio of
properly
unloading
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
volume of a substance compared
:l*"
vgIume
of distilled water.
of distitled
water is 1.000, the
1.025 times as much as one cubic
(fresh)
water.
Therefore, a ship
Iess sea water than fresh water.
the weight of a given
to the weight of the
The theoretical Sg
Sg of sea water is
meter of distilled
wil1 displace L.025
I
I
I
vnt'ot
{ou'o*dtr
- t6
A-t The actual Sg ig always changingr particularly
in the
_lrarbour.
The effect of tide water and rivers is such
that constant measuring of the sg. is reguired
through-
out loading. rn some harbours where the effects of
sea and fresh water mixing are extreme, it is necessary
to measure Fwd, Aft, and Midships Sg,s, dod use the
average for Draft and Deadweight calculations. It
may be necessary to get measurements for both port
and starboard sides of the ship if maximum accuracy
is reguired. Measuring the Sg at different depths
2-9
2. t0
may also be reguired.
Use a partly stopped, weighted container and a Iine
equal in length to the distance from the deck to the
kee1, to sample the water for Sg measurement. Drop
the container into the water and withdraw it at an
even rate. Witi: practi-ce, the container will be
j
ust
filIeo as it breaks the surface. Water samples collec-
ted in this way will represent a good average of the
water in which the ship is floating.
Sg measurements for Draft and Deadweight surveys must
be made with a certified hydrometer.
DENSITY AND TEMPERATURE
2.11 A great deal has been written regarding the effect
of temperature on density. This is important when
L7
consideratign,
or when specific gravity
sclentl-f ic calculat ions.
2.L2 However, in draft Burveys, it is unnecessary
to measure
the tempetature of the river, lake, or oeean water
in which the vessel is riding. The hydrometer
reading,
if taken as Eoon as the sample is drawn, will include
the tenperature' as welr as the salinity effect on
specific gravity.
A GOLDEN RULE IS, THEREFORE, MEASURE THE WATER TEMPER-
ATURE IF YOU MUST, BUT DO NOT USE IT IN DRAFT SURVEY
CALCUTATIONS.
The Slnka and Trlm caused b Currents and Ti dal .-.
y*l_"__g9jtt-v
r-"Lu
is reguired for
slml lar.
Host seafarers are well aware of the effect known
as
"squat"
whlch causes ships
to tncrease their
draft when traVelllng at speed in shaTiow water"
U!g!_!hey
may. not 6e aware of is that a ship
mooFef br anchored in-'sliallow water expeilences
the same effect when. there is a
';ldat
stream cr
current running. The cause of both effects ls
/
.{t,
-,i,,
,L-
-Y:..
r , t)
'.-1
Y
r<'{\
"-\_.-
Conslder a shlp moored ln a rlver (Figure a
).
llhen a current ls runnlng the shlp constrlcts the
flow. The water must then lncrease lts speed ln
order that the same
quantlty passes
through the
restrlcted space as does through the unrestrlcted
space, ln any glven perlod
of tlme. The water
flowlng at a hlgher speed under the botfomT-f-the
vessel causes a reductlbn ln piessui
on the
bottom (ttrts
occurs by vlrtue of til
-Be;;oritt
effect) and the shlp stnkS deepei ln the watr.
^
*Ci,
,, n?*L+t
o1
vq.ev
'
- L8
Piccr ol Gr?d rith
9rn
throslh crolrt
F'igure
Frrlrklr{
rlcltoa ol
reuel rloajridr
E. Stokoe, lleight/Volume Relationshlp Requlred for
Draft Suive
pp.15r17.
The Bernou'lli effect can be ddmonstrated by trying
to blow a piece of card off the end of a cotton
reel
(Figure 5). It is
,impossible
to blow the
card off.- The high air ve'locity on the inner face
of the cartl- causes a Toqal drop in pressure
rtTafiG
-To
the outbr face oT t!'e card, thus
keeping it firmly pressed on the end of the reel.
Berhouili's equation, which
governs this effect,
is P
+ p
!2
+
Pgh =
constant, where P ls pressure'
Z
p the water density, v is the
velocity, and h the dePth of
water.
C'learly dsi v
,increasesn
at a given water depth' P
must dlcreas6 for the equation to remain constant.'
Aclurl drttrclron cutra
-
---/
;-.-,-..".-.-
a
Fisr:re 6
^t"-to,'5,t:f
t"'-
-"t-vt
{ou*"as
.
Yo''
-19-
fh*q-
amount of sllkage gaused
by thls effect
wlll
dlpCnd,'therefore,
o-n the.lrater-vefoslW;
il ;iii
also depe4q gn
tle depth ofTatdr beneath fie fEEf
qrq-tTe shlp,s length. The-slnkage fn some cases
nlll be conslderabl-e. For example, a 11600 ionne
coaster mobred ln a rlver where the clrrent ls
runnlng at 4 knots nlll experlence a slnkage
of at
least 5 cm uhere there ls about 0.35 m df watir
under the keel. tt ls therefore deslrable
to ualt
untll the depth of water under the keel ls as
large as posslble
before measurlng draughts lf
there ls any current.
Clearly ln a tldal stream lt r*ould be better te
measure the draughts- at slack water thus avoldlng
thls slnkage effect lf at all posslble.
!{lth data
curreqtll avallable lt would not be.posslble for
the slnkage- llkely to be experlenced'to be estl-
mated ln all cases. An approxlmate theoreilcal
i:iltil:,;'1,H,111iJiilSBlffi"f 'f.,:lJlJ;:',1:
Sqgq!
of Full Form Shlps ln Shallow l{atir, fhtffi
fdf.ft5'-197f
DISPLACEMENT AND DEADWEIGHT
2.13 D1s-placement
.-is
t-he weight of water dj-splaced by the
ship which, for a floating vessef, eguals the weight
.of
the ship. i l-ght Ship
'
s weight plus,) Deadweight
equals Displacement (DISP).
2.L4) Deadweight is the total weight carried by the sh-ip.
Included in deadweight are: cargo, constant and stores,
fresh water, fuel and ballast.
SHIP STRUCTURE
A11 vessels must be able t.o
kinds of minor collisions
remain afloat after certain
at sea, or if damaged by
^
*- H
.ft6rtvt}
I
.,-i(l'!"
\
2.L5
w>
_20
heavy seas. Watertight bulkheads are one of the major
structural iteqs built into the ship for this purpose.
The number of these bulkheads is regulated by the
length of the ship
2.L6 Four i-s
2.16.1.,
/'
,/
2.t6.3
the usual minimum number of bulkheads required:
A collisj-on bulkhead placed
at one-twentieth
(I/20) of the shiprs length, measured from
the stem.
A bulkhead forward and the engine (and boiler,
if steam powered) space
An afterpeak bulkhead positioned to enclose
the shaft tubes in a watertight compartment.
-2r
CMIP
STRUCTURAL STRESSES
l,-17 A ship
ported
2.L7 .L
e
is considered
a variabty loaded,
variably
sup_
beam, for strength analysis.
That is:
The weight of the ship, its eguipment
and
cargo, will vary meter by meter along its
length.
2.17.2 The ship is supported
it floats. fn stitl
support per meter at
bow because the ship is
by the water in which
water, there is more
the stern than at the
fuller aft.
2.L7.3 rn a sea there is more displacement,
and there-
fore more support or upward force, dt the
crest of a wave. There is less displacement
and therefore less support in the troughs.
2-18 The major stresses are: longitudinal
tension (or
stretching), compression i-n the deck and keel, dDd
shearing forces, ds shown in Figure 7 .
2-L8-1 when the ratio of weight-to-support
is greater
at the ends than amidships, the ship "hogs,, .
The keel is in compression,
the deck is in
tension, and the ship bends upward in the
middte.
\^^t$
1frcttq^
l
I
t
I
I
t.xr2
I
I
I
I
-22-
When the ratio of weight to support is
amidsfips than at the ends, the shi-p
The keel is in tension, the deck is in
sion, and the ship bends downward in the
",
rlF
0x-ltgr"
'
2.]-8.2
I
greater i-
FJ-.t
"sags".
\=_/
compres-
middle.
L\
f- -, l.\.-
lJir,
'
!
2-19 Since the keel is constructed with a heavier weight
of metal, the deck is where almost all failures occur.
The deck of a cargo vessel is further weakened by
hatchways and other necessary openings. These openings
must be reinforced. Sharp corners tend to concentrate
stresses, So hatch corners reguire special attention.
2.2O The deck is subject to other stresses such as deck
cargo and the weight of water when heavy seas are
shipped. Since deck beams must be cut out at hatch
coamings, the load bearing strength is reduced. The
weight and placement of deck cargo and the effects
of heavy seas must be carefully considered. The deck
plates should be strengthened, if reguired. Hatch
coamings should be checked for strength and rigidity
I,ONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY
2.2L The longitudinal centre of gravity ( ;b
)
of a ship
is that point
along its ,.nnln where oJ"-nulf of all
weights are forward, and one-half aft. That is, it
is the balance point
for the ship and its contents.
b ,t
-tr \t
{r'9hN4r
r-
I
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I
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I
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E
L
ur
z
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u
a-
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z
tJ
= trt
=
ut
z
t{
trl
z
Ll
Frt
ut
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H
ur
ul
lf
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(
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ut
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tir
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a/1
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l-{
u
t_d
Fn
HI
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trl
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LJ
<?
Ult
lrj
z.
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Figrure
7
F
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ra
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nt
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Figure B
uv'ln3loN3du3d
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tri
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-25-
tf,
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Figure 9
rtrrtrtqN3du3d 'lJv
-26-
V., !:-
ffiITUD
l-22
The
tongitudiriaf
centre
of buoyancy
( LCB
)
is that
point
where
one-half
of the shiprs
buoyancy
is forward'
and
one-half
aft.
Because
a ship is finer at th9
bow
than
at the
stern' the
LCB is usually
aft of the
longitudinal
centre
of
gravity'
The
LCB will
a)-so
tend
to move
aft as displacement
increases
'
For cargo
vessels,
the
distance
is so sma1I'
however'
in ratio
to the length
between
perpendiculars
( LBP)
'
ilqt
91:
-
half
of LBP is used
for
practical
calculations '
?BIU
2.23
a'
b
When calculating
the
projected
trim
of a ship:
z--".__-:.
2.23.1)
When
LCG is Aft of LCB' the ship
is "trimmed
@"'
2 -23.2
when LCG is Fwd of--lca'
the ship
is "trimmed
bv the
head".
2 -23.3
When
LCG and
LCB are the
same'
the ship
is
on an "even
keel"
'
{f
,:[rr-,
2.24",
A shiP trimmed
bY the
head
It wiII also
be subj ect to
in a seaway.
A trim
of one meter
by th,e stern
is
generalry-
consider-
ed ideal.
Cargo
stowage'
fresh
water'
fueJ. oil' usage
and
ballasting
should
be calculated
to achieve
this
'
, .?gFilgfi
.-^E
f
' I
.
YaJ'''
will be difficult
to steer'
excessive
shiPPing
of seas
t/*
rd
(J
J
lr
E]
F
3cr
t!
V)
t9H
tJ
Ju,
U
J
tri
LrJ
r
IJ
I
F
m
z
tf
F
RJ
F
=
tl
o_
LrJ
\D:
3
JV)
F
Fm
3q
J
Ff
z
<
L-3
O
J
Lh$"rF
L-r I
z.l
r-r l,
il
0/l
[Jr
h-
4
u
Lrj
F
. rtc
td
2
F{
J
H/
>l
F-
o-- o-
Figure 10
2.26
2.29
2.34
_28_
Cargo segregation and port rotation sometimes make
ideal trimmirr,g difficult and costly. The consumption
of fresh water and fuel on a long voyage must be con-
sidered.
The removal of weight can make a poor trim
worse or it can improve it, depending on where the
weight is located.
2.27
BALLAST TANKS
2.28 All ships, except tankers, are built with double bot-
toms to form tanks for fuel oil or ballast. These
tanks are divided Fwd and Aft and Athwartship'
There are times when a shiP is
Put
on
of
port reguirements.
_The
only good
a ship down by the head is f.or making
to the rudder or
Propel-ler-
even keel because
reason for having
emergency repairs
checking ballast tanks, care must
water damage to cargo. It is best
above the tank is emPtY
When filling or
be taken to avoid
done when the hold
It is dangerous to assume these tanks are watertight'
e-ven in a new ship. To check the ballast vrater tanks,
fill them until the water escapes through the overflow
pipes. check the sounding to ensure the head is stable.
AIso check the tank top seams and the manhole covers.
-29
2-31
When a double,bottom
tank is filled
q
erable uPward force on the manhole
)
manhole of 1,300 cm- ( approximately 4
across) with a head of fresh water
the tank top, the uPward force is:
0.6 kg1cm2 x 1,300
"*2
=
780 kg.
there is consid-
covers. For a
I cm or l-6 inches
six meters above
''non\tdf
vr**r
'[
CHAPTER THREE
DRAFT SURVEY
SURVEY PROCEDURE
I
tl; This Survey ?rocedure is International
Standard for
any type of ship. The shli-p is first surveyed light,
to calculate the constant. It is then re-surveyed
after loading to determine the weight of cargo.
APPARENT
TRIM
3.2 The Forward
(Fwd), Aft (Aft), and Midships
(Mid) drafts
are read at both Port
(P) and starboard
(s) marks.
The P and s readings are added, and the result divided
by two.
g.Sifne
Aft draft is subtracted
from the Fwd draft,' and
the result is APParent Trim.
the ship is trimmed BY the Head;
t@d
BY the Stern.
Fwd Draft
=
Fwd(P)
+ Fwd(S)
2
Aft Draft =
a@
Mean Mid
=
Trim
=
Fwd -
Aft
DRAFT CORRECTIONS
TO THE PERPENDICULARS
3.4 The After PerPendicular
\^eel
Passing
through the
first frame marked 'O'
on
is a right angle line to
rudder post; it is also
ne
he
th
th
the vesser s drawin.g
^r,r"rnt
ld$
.
-4'u
t
13
v*-
If Tri-m is
Positive,
if Trim is negative,
li
-
3t
Th"
Forward
Perpendicular
is a right angle Iine to
the keel cutting
ffte vesselrs Summer Waterline at the
X-teF)
The vesselrs
stability
information
is calculated
l-
'
,/
i"-an"
drafts
measured
at the
perpendiculars; as the
draft
marks rarely
coincide
with these lines, a draft
as read must be corrected'
3-5rfthemarksarenotontheperpendiculars,thevessel
usuallyhasatabu]-atedplaninherhydrostaticbooks.
However'someoftheoldervess-elsdonothavetheir
tabulationanditisthereforenecessarytoworkout
thecorrectiontobeappliedbyreferringtothevessells
capacityplanandmeasuringthehgrizontaldistance
betweenthedraftmarksandtheperpendicularsofthe
waterline.
3-6
The correction
is, calculated
as follows:
Aft Perpendicular
Corr =
=]4
* 1.75(trim) =
0.0971
cm+
128.0
Fwd
perpendicular corr =
ilOll
"
I.75(trim) =
0.0165
cm-
;
r
I
I
t
I
t
I
I
t
I
&
[7.
The rule to aPPtY the correction:
Trimmed
by the STEM: Forward
Correction
After Correction =
Trimmed
by the STERN:
Forward
Correction
After Correction =
10
) -
represents
the distance
the draft marks
the
perPendiculars.
=
PLUS
(+)
MINUS
(
- )
are from;
the vessel between the
=
MINUS
(-)
PLUS
(+)
<'s*lo*(JL
f'ya"+ 12
[f28.0)
-
represents
the length
of
PerPendiculars.
{trim)
- the difference
between
the forward and
drafts.
after ,s
ll
^'
*
T"#;1-1
BF
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-32
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bf)
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HK
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- -l
${ ${ r+ilu u kl
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ililt
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sss
qq{li
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flll
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ft
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5
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a
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:
Fign:re 11
f,.8 CORRECTED
DRAFTS:
Aft
5 -019
Fwd
2.361
corrected
Trim
2
'656
=
Aft -
Fwd =
Corr. Trim
DmTE:Thisvalueisusedj-nTrimCorrectionFormulasto
adjust
the disPlacement'
I{EAN
DRAFT
lgRRESrrgN
3.9
The Quarter
Mean
(QM)
'
or Mean
Draft
Corrected
for
Deformation,
must
be solved
next'
Use the corrected
draft
values'
3-?
The above
corrections
are
v
after
drafts
read.
i.e.
Fwd
2'64
-Corr
0
'
0165
Correc'ted
Draft
2'6235
3.10
First
calculate
the
Aft, and divide
the
Fwd/Aft
Mean =
3.11
Next
Mean
the
3.L2
Now calculate
the QM'
in 3.11)
to the
Mid
two -
-
33
applied
to the forward and
m
Aft 4'30
+Corr 0.0971
Corrected
Draft ?'397f
Fwd/Aft
Mean Draft
'
Add Fwd to
result
bY tvro:
Fwd
+ Aft
-T- tlre FwdiAft
and divide
i
tt
rl
T
J
;
t
T
t
I
I
I
I
.
calculate
the Mean
of Mean
'
Add
( calculated
in 3
'
10
)
to the Mid Mean
'
result
bY two:
Mean of Mean =
Fwd/Aft
Mean
+ Mi-d Mea4
I
I
I
I
Add the Mean of Mean
Mean,
and divide
the
( calculated
result
bY
?di.%A^
NOTE:
EXAMPLE:
FWD
TRIM
FWD P 2.377
s 2.377
T:7s4
4.754
---T-
=
2.377
=
AFT - FWD
AFT P 5.017
s 5.017
1T.T3a
10.034
--z-
AFT
=
5.017
MIDSHIP P
S
3.59
3.72
zTl
7.31
---z-
3.655
I
The
the
-34-
Mid Mean is applied twice, first in calculating
Mean of
["lean,
and second in calculating the QM.
QM =
Mean of Mean j_Xid Mean
2
MEAN-MID
=
5.017 -
2.377
=
2.64 Trim by the Stern
DRAFT CORRECTION
Corrections for the Fwd and Aft Drafts
( Fv/d corr. and
Aft corr.
)
and Conected Trim must be calculated. The correc-
tions values are different for each ship, and are found in
the Stability Manuals" If required, they can be calculated
from the formula gi-ven in Figure 12.
EXAMPLE:
Fwd Correction Value
=(distance
from Fwd Draft to Fwd Perp)
(distance between Fwd and Aft Drafts)
Fwd Correction
=
Fwd Correction Value x Trim
=
0.016(
_
)
Aft Correction Valug
=
(distance from Aft Draft to Aft
perp)
(distance between Fwd and Aft tiEETE-t
Aft Correction
=
0.0347L6 x 2.64
-
' ';(tJf
l\
- 0.91(+)
n/-\v'
t--.-rz-u
E+f<
-
\l'-zl
'
-35
Corrected Draft:
F,it
=
2.377 Aft =
5.017
corr=
:ffi
corr=
*+#
corrected
Trim: Aft Draft -
Fwd Draft =
corr Trirn
Aft =
5.108
Fwd = -2.36L
--Tin
l5ote this value used in the Trim correction Formulas to
adjust
the disPlacement.
E)GMPLE:
I
I
t
t
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
l{ean Mean of
Hean Mean of
Quarter
Mean
Means =
7.345 M
------.-----
'2)
z
Means
+ Mid Mean =
=
J .327
--z-
Fwd + Aft =
).361 M
Fwd and Aft Mean =
7.38 M
2
T
=
3'69 14
Fwd and Aft Mean
+ Mid Mean
+ 5-01-9 M
=
3.69
+3.655
flE5 t'l
3.672 M
3.655
+ 3.672 =
7.327
OM =
3.663 M
HOrs) tne value for QM
is used
-'"'
Draf t SurveY
Calculations
'
throughout
the remaining
wr+i
-36-
[roTlcarroJ
uoTlcarroJ
^A
AA
t+ +t
\.r\,
\Jv
fi*t $trtr
:gE
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EEH
EEE
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.rl
t{
+J
X
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.
loo
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il
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+J
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A:
a
tq
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b
U
a
ft
d
Fignrre 12
37
3.13 Refer to the vessel's Stability & Hydrostatic Manuals
and Tables rot in" following values:
TPC: tonnes
per' Centimeter Immersion
MTC: Moment to change Trim One Centimeter
LCB: Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy
LCF: Longitudinal Centre of Flotation
KB: Transverse Centre of BuoYancY
TKM: Transverse
Metacentric Height
3.14 Calculate the Displacernent Correction
(DISP Corr.
)
Subtract the nearest smaller Draft from the calculated QM.
MultlPly the result by 100 to convert Meters to Centi-
meters.
Multiply this by the TPC for the displacement.
This correction is added to the displacement
given
for the nearest smaller draft.
NOTE: Refer to Figu.res
13 and
\4 for sample Hydrostatic
Tables.
Draft Remainder
(cm)
=
draft remainder x 100
DISP. Corr.
=
TPC x draft remainder
(cm)
Displacement =
DISP. + Disp. Corr.
=
Actua] Displacement
EXAMPLE:
m
T
T
t
T
T
T
t
t
I
T
H
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Draft remaining =
=
Draft remaining =
3.6635 - 3.66
.0035 M
Draft Remainder
(M) x
.35 cm
l-00
=
.0035
x 100
M
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-38
Raft[* SENRS
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Figure
14
-40
Displacement correction
lo
DISP.
(at
QM
draft) + correction
7587.00
+ 6.1-Bl
7593. 181 MT (corrected)
TRIM CORRECTION
3.15 Trim Correction values for a given Displacement are
tabulated
in the Ship Stability Manual. Even if these
are readily available, the following formulas should
be studied in order that the principles governing a
Draft Survey are ful1y understood.
3.16 Before calculating
the First Trim Correction, Corrected
Trim
(cT) (Ref. 3.3) must be converted from meters
to centimeters.
Multiply cT
(m) by 100 to get centi-
rneters.
3.L7 To calculate the First Trim Correction,
nrultiply TRIM
by Tpc, then multlply the
product by the Longitudinal
centre of Flotation
( Lcr) x 100. Then, divide the
final product by the Length Between Perpendiculars
( LBP).
=
TPC x Remaining draft (cm)
=
L7.66 x .35 cm
=
6. 181- MT
x Loo = t/4.1+,rTh4
LBP
Second Correction =
T2 x +/-50 cm x MTC diff .
=
fLnL.te fir(
il
lv.u?Tt\
l"
{
u
vt
i\
\
tr,
b
->
\..
\
CT
First Correction
CT x 100
TRIMxTPCxLCF
-
41_
3.1.8 The f irst . correction can be either
/
negative (suftract), depending on
LCF and the trim condition.
3.18.1 VESSEL TRIM},IED BY THE STEM
-
(Fwd) +
ADD Trim
(Aft) - SUBTRACT
positive (add),
or
the location of the
Correction
Trim Correction
\
Li
d
\r4
t{.
F-
\
t4.,
\
i:
r!
t
,/r,cr
is Forward
,/tcr is Aft
3.18.2 VESSEL TRIMMED BY THE STERN
/
LcF ie Fwd - SUBTRACT Trim Correction
TLCF
is Aft + ADD trlm Correction
3.19 The second Trim Correction is required when the Trim
is greater than the LBP divided by 100 - It may be
applied without adverse effect at smaller trims.
3.20 The second correction is always
I
(additive) regardless
of the trim or other factors.
3.21 Bef ore
ence,
3.21.1
calculating the Second Trim Correction. MTC diffef-
dl'l/ dz, must be f ound .
sometimes referred to as
ADD 50 cm to the Quarter
Mean Draft
(aU1 to
find the corresponding
MTC from the Vesselrs
Hydrostatic book.
SUBTRACT 50 cm from the Quarter
Mean Draft
(OM)
to find the corresponding
MTC from the Vessel's
Hydrostatic book.
3.2L.2
3.21.3 The difference between 3.21. 1
the MTC difference, or dM/dZ.
and 3.2L.2
as
{.
c-/
h
a
\<l
F
:i_
b,
t)
'ti
.^)
I
d_
Figure
l
cf
c)
st
\o
3
I
C}
c,
st
00
NtIII33UUTT3
z--
rf*
foz
irF
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rfr-
vH lHgnVU(I
- 43
$
s
R
\\
F
It-
t.
ry
F/
u.
^r_
EXAMPLE:
MTC diff.:
rrim=
2.74"{'
100
(<.
rv-t)
(t
rc,2)
V6g
1F.rva
f
rf
Sfefil
uc7 |c
yi)
G)
f,^-
i"*rt^
( 1) First
correction:
I
TRIMxLCFxTpC
r ;"
fLl
lx.
t
2.74 x (r)4.53
x 17.65
mx
(2)
Second
Correction:
T2 x
tFO
x MTC diff
.,lw"tt-c
^14
(a)
QM
+
50
(b)
eM - 50
MTC diff
(a)
eM
too
=
rsg.
gogi
rqr
(159,91 _
MT)
cm
cm
LBP
= MTC (Found
in Ship's
book)
=
MTC (Found
in Ship's
book)
(b)
eM
(a)
(b)
MTC diff
7.5 x 50 x 8.7
L37
=
(a)
-
(b)
= 3.675
+0.50
l:TE
Mrc
= t6s .4
=
3.675
-0. s0
-J:Tis
Mrc
=
L60.7
=
169.4
=-160.7
=---il7
= 23.81 + MT
I
I
( 3
)
DISP Corrected
for TRIM:
Lst Correction
7587.00
7427.09
2nd Correction
7427.09
74s0.90
=
159.9 1-
= 23. 81+
I
I
I
I
I
I
if,
NOTES fOT TRIM TORMULAS POR TMPERIAL
CALCULATIONS
TPr
=
Tons
per
rnch (r2
converts
all to inches)
6u
=
+/-
6" of the
eM draft
to obtain the two MTr
differences
TRTM
-44
xLCFx
TP]
a
cv
h
t
\3
F-
\
(w
<
E
$
\
1st Correction
=
2nd Correctiog
=
2
T' x +/-6"
x MTf diff
LBP
LBP
x\2
3.22
A Specific
Gravity (Sg)
for Sea Water
in calculat
the Sg. is almost
never
mus t be caicu-l-a
ted .
of 1.025
is generally
assumed
ing Displ-acement
(DISp).
Because
exactly
1.025,
Sg. correction
the measured
Sg.
is 1.026
or
3
"
22 . i Sg .
j_s
always
minus
-
if the measur:ed
Sg. is 1.025
or 1ess.
3.22.2
Sg. is plus
if
more.
3.23
Calculate
the Sg. correction
density
from
j,.025,
divide
th
ply
that answer
by the DISP.
EXA},IPLE:
by
is
subtract
ing
by 7.025
and
the measured
then multi-
Sg. corr.
=
1.02s
Measured
Density
= 1-O2O-4
1.025
- 7.020
.4
-
112 s.-
x
X DISP.
DISP.
corr.
Density
Corr
DfSP.
Corr-
for Trim
-
(sg.
)
for Density
7 450 .9 = 32.71
74 50. 90
-32.7 r
7 478 .79
-
45
-t^
b
n
v
r
t-
ry
E
{
a
;
;
;
;
t
;
;
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
VESSELI
S CONSTANT
3.24)
The
____/
ing
from
/
E
Constant of
-an
unladen vessel is solved
the LightshiP, weights, ballast and
the DisPlacement.
by subtract-
consumables
3 -25
Tank tables or graphs should be available so the tank
soundings
can be converted from measure to volumes and
corrected
for trim-
3.26 Figure16isatypicaltankgraph.Inadditiontovolume
against
sounding
information,
it provides KG and Inertia
data for trj-m and stability calculations.
Figure
L7
is a tank trim correction
table and Figure
LB is a typi-
cal tank table.
3.27
-Volume
mult iplied by Sg
'
equals weight
'
An Sg
'
of 1
'
000
isusedforFreshWater,andforSaltWaterBallast
anSg.ofl.025isused.Therefore'onecubicmeter
ofFreshWateregualsoneMetricTonneandonecubic
MeterofSeaWaterequalsL.o25MetricTonnes.
3.28 The Chief Engineer
is
various
fuel oils on
possible, to measure
are being sounded.
obliged
to suPPIY the Sg' of the
board.
It is good
Practice,
if
the Sg. at the same time the tanks
-46 s
v
$
$
tr
\
$
q
a
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
3.29 WEIGHTS
FUEL OIL
DIESEL OIL
LUBE OIL
FRESH WATER
DRINK WATER
BOILER WATER
BALLAST WATER
SLUDGE (BILGE)
STORES, etc.
CONSTANT
545. B6
100.70
2i,.00
no1:!o
MT
1870. 84 MT
5.50 MT
MT
200.42 Mr
TOTAL WEIGHT
NETT DISP.
TOTAL
NETT
3145.32 MT
WEIGHT
DTSP LIGHTSHIP
FINAL SURVEY
3.30 The Fina1 Survey follows the same procedure
as the Initial
Survey. Total cargo equals DISP. minus Lightship Weight.
NOTE: See completed form
- Figure 19.
74I8.19 MT
3145.32 MT
4272.87 MT
t
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t
;
;
r
t
t
I
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q
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h
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s
u
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u
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ts
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z
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{
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F
x
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1-
EXAHPLE.
SOUNDING AT B.sIH
s.G. 0,994
?
VIJL.=31.3M
o
K6=0.?6H
INERTIA=109.4H4
06=40.06
Figure l-6
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Figure 19
GEilERAL
t3-I
lThe
weight a ship can carry varies
considerably
with
location and season.
..More
can be loaded in Trop
countries,
but less in a Summer Season Zone' Seasonal
Winter Zone loading, when applicabl-e,
is smalfer
still'
rstudy
the Loadline certificate carefully to avoid con--
flict between the ship
"1d
the Port Authorities,
or with
lh.shipowners.AFreeboardTable..(Figurel)ispro-
vided in the Ship Stability Manual
'
CHAPTER
FOUR
CARGO DEADWEIGHT
such as fresh water, fuel oil, lube oi1'
,
necessary
for the intended voyage,
must
when calculating
Cargo Deadweight'
',Make
adjustments
for re-supply if a call at
a bunkering Port
is regui-red
'
If supply is much larger than
projected
consumption,
less Cargo Deadweight
may be
carried.
t
R
=(
vl
{l
tr
\-
IU
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a
NI
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4-3 Consumables,
ball-ast, etc.
be considered
4.3.1
4 .3.2
CARGO DEADWEIGHT CALCULATION
7.n ;Carculating
the cargo Deadweight
Availabre
is relatively
simple. consult the Freeboard Table f,or Draft and Dj-s-
placement al-lowed. subtract Lightship weight, constant,
Ballast and Consumables.
The remainder is Cargo Deadweight
Available.
- 51
E,KAMPLE:
For a s5-mple vo1fuge with a
through a Seasonal Winter
Timber Winter DisPlacement
Displacement
Lightshi-p Weight
Constant
Ballast
Fresh Water
Fuel Oils
CARGO DEADWEIGHT AVAILABLE
CONSUMABLE CONSUMPTION
Timber Cargo, in winter,
Zone -
5
u
\1
s
{
tjr
_-.-
3-
U
R
*/-
I
L
I
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t
- 8.819 MT Draft
=
21654.000 MT
= -434L.000
MT
rJSfTloTT rqr
= -L96.000
MT
17 717 . 000
-265
1.000
lZZ 6E .TTI-
-308.000
TaTSE -To-0
-696.000
L3462.000
4.5 If oil- and fresh water are to be replenished at an
intermediate
port, the cargo Deadweight may have to
be reduced. If the planned intake, plus the fresh
water and fuel remaining after passage to the bunkering
port, is greater than the consumables on board at Final
Survey, the difference must be deducted from cargo
Deadweight Available.
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
EXAMPLE:
Fresh
FueI
Total
Length
of voYafe
Water
Water
Consumables
-52
to bunkering
port
=1
=
carried if a shiP
a Seasonal Winter
6.5 days.
150 MT
+660 MT
B1O MT
132 MT
+396 MT
\
q(
u
\A
N
t-
\
\,
2
ri
R)
tL
Fresh
Water GonsumPtion @
B-0/daY
Fuel OiI Consum,Ption @24-OldaY
x
Total- ConsumPtion
Balance
of Fuel and Water Left(810-528)
Planned Intake -
Fresh Water
-
FueI Oil
-
Total
Balance of Fuel and Water
Total after RePlenishment
Consumables
at Port of- f,eqilg
Di-fference of
-AA
The 72 MT must be deducted from Port of
Deadweight Available.
SEASONAL ZONES
x 16.5 =
16.5 =
528 MT
=
282 MT
=
200 MT
=
+400 MT
=
600 MT
=
+282 MT
=
882 MT
= -BL0
MT
=
72 MT
Lading Cargo
/' 4 .6 Less
Zone
EXAMPLE:
cargo may be
and wilI enter
loads in a
Zone.
Summer
Summer Timber
Winter Timber
Difference
Loadline
Loadline
9.07 |"1
=
22336.00 MT
8.819M=2L654.00MT
=
642-00 MT
Y^;'
l^,e
1r^,
ul{rs
-5:
1.7 r The weight of Consumables used in the voyage from port
of lading to the ldinter Zone may U"G-Od"] to the winter
\./
Zone al1owab1e displacement when cal-E[fating allowable
Cargo Deadweight.
l.B\ If the ship is to take on consumables at an intermedi-ate
J
bunkering port in the Winter Zone, the total planned
weight
";
consumables on board at that port wil-1 govern
the allowable Cargo Deadweight.
LOW DENS]TY CARGO
t_
r1 -
t
t
*
F
]
t
I
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t
'l
\
C-../
Lr\
.tr
F 1.9 Total Cubic Capacity of the ship is available
Capacity P1an. Bale Capacity
j-s
used if the
cargo is not grain or other bulk commoditi-es.
EKAMPLE:'
Load a fuJ-I, homogeneous cargo with Stowage
of 65 0F/LT.
conversion -
I rt3/LT
=
o.o2grz u3/ut
??
1 MJlMT
=
35.3145 Ft'/LT
Therefore sF 65 r't3/."O 0.023L7 =
t./s06050
Bale Capacity =
19183-82 M3
Weight of Cargo =
Bale Capacity
SF
=
19183. B2
---i150-
=
12789.273 MT
in the
booked
Factor
i
\r
F
-
\.lp
^\
e
u3
/vr
NOTE: A number of good books on cargoes and their Stowage
Factors are available. "sTowAGE - THE PROPERTIES
AND STOWAGE OF CARGOES*, by Captain R- E. Thomas,
is a particularly complete reference.
I
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il
-54
CARGO DISTRIBUTTON
4. 10
,z--.-:
a
The
q15g9 conslderation is to distribute cargo so
that weight is evenly spread throughout the ship.
4.10.1
If Weight-to-Flotation is greater at the ends
of the ship than in the middle, the a"g!{]
deflect up. This is called "Hogging". <^"i
4.IA.2 If Weight-to-Fl-otation is greater in the middle
than at the ends of the ship, the deck will
deflect down. This
j-s
called "Sagging".
[/
In a Hogging condition, the deck is placed in'tension,
and the keel in compression. In a sagging condition,
the deck is placed in compression, and the-.. keel in
tension.
4 .IL
4.L2 The keel
j.s
stronger than the deck because of the
gi"ut". weight of metal used in construction. The
deck is further weakened by necessary openings, such
as cargo hatches. These openings are reinforced,
but, sjnce they are the weakest
point in the ship's
structure, careful inspection is required-
13 To determine the arnount that the ship is hogging or
sagging, measure deflection.
Deflection =
Mid Mean
-
Fwd and Aft Mean
v/
q.13-1
rf Mid Mean is less than Fwd and Aft Mean, the
ship is Hogging.
\
s/
$
\t
V)
F
\
IJ
<-
Yr
+
R
c!_
V.13.2
/13.3
If Mid Mean is greater than Fwd and Aft Mean,
the ship is Sagging.
If the Mid Mean eguals Fwd
Mean, the ship is on an even
Ship
I
s decks are stronger
j-n
tension
pression, therefore, a small amount
preferred to Sagging.
Mean eguals Aft
kee1.
NOTE: r
than in com-
rf=.---)z
of Hogging is
ftg-'-'6
Y
9etr'r
sl
f
;
;
T
t
t
F
T
t
I
t
"q
{-
t.
I/
2
<q
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F
:(_
$,
l-
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.v-
4.
-55
modern ships have their machinery and superstruc-
Aft. This
Qroduces
a large trim By the Stern,
"
H9g-9|11-moment, in the light condition.
.1 First load the midships holds to eliminate
the Hogging.
4.L4.2 Next ]-oad the Forward hold to decrease the
trim.
4.15
part
loading, or other conditions may produce sagging.
4.15.1 F;rrs_t load the forward hold to eliminate sagging.
4.15.2 Distribute the remaining l-oad for desired
trim.
4.16 Distributing weight is easier with a homogeneous bulk
cargo, such as grain or concentrates. General cargoes
are often more difficult because of factors such as
port rotation and cargo segregation.
14
'j
Most
ture
and
4.L4
EXAMPLE:
( 1
)
Check the CaPacitY
Hold Number 1
Hold Number 2
Hold Number 3
Hold Number 4
TOTAL CAPACITY
Uxat
of each hold
(ll3)
=
1680.35 M3
- 5 2g3.g1 M3
=
5 2gI.50 M3
=
4918.06 M3
il
T
t
T
Solve for
Percentage
Hold No. 1
Hold No. 2
Hold No. 3
HoId No- 4
=
19183.81 M3
Percentage of each
=
Hold Capacity
Tota1 CapacitY
=
199!!g: x loo
19 t_B 3 -82
=
-!4141
* 1oo
19 18 3 .82
=
-.!-4fr1
* 1oo
1918 3 .82
=
-j-919-99
* Loo
1,918 3 .82
hold
x 100
=
19.18%
=
27.602
=
27 .5BZ
=
25.642
il
il
il
(3) Order is to
Hold No. l-
Hold No. 2
Hold No- 3
Hold No. 4
-56
carry 16,000 MT
l-6000 x .19l-B
l- 6000 x .27 60
l-6000 x .2758
16000 x .2564
TOTAL
Cargo.
=
3068.80 MT
=
441,6.00 MT
=
4412.80 MT
- 4LO2.40 MT
=
16000.00 MT
q
\(
$
$
F
\
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)
.t
_-P
4.17 The percentage of cargo per hold calculation will
often produce a concentration of weight
j-n
the middle.
This wi-11 cause Sagging. This can be minimized by
shifting some weight forward.
4.18
)
rn"p".tion of the calculated results, and rounding
--/
to 100 Metric Tonnes, wil]- give a good approximation.
EXAMPLE:
NOTE: If the ship has Tween Deck Ho1ds,
cargo space as demonstrated.
solve for each
4100.00 MT
4300.00 Mr
4300.00 MT
3300.00 Mr
to avoid overloading.
the Midships Drafts.
reason, a Draft and
Hold No. 4
Hold No. 3
Hold No. 2
Hol-d No. 1
4L02 .40
4412.80
4416.00
3068. E0
2.40
112.80
1 16.00
23L.20
TOTAL
4.19
4.20
=
16000.00 MT
The best practice is to part load each hold in rotation.
Deflection and Trim can be checked as loading progresses.
Draft must be watched constantly
Tli.s
gan be done by checking
If loading is critical- for any
Deadweight
Survey must be done.
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+
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=
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+
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+
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=
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\o
CHAPTER FIVE
TRIM AND STABILITY
GENERAL
/
5.1
)
Trim and Stability calculations are mainly a matter
J
of correctly interpreting pians, tables, a.ta graphs.-
ship stability and Tank manuals
provide va]ues for
Longitudinal Center of Gravity
( LCG
) ,
Transverse Center
of Gravity
( KG)
,
Moment of Inertia, and other data
necessary for ship loading calculations -
5.2 This data may be
j_n
graph form
(Figure 14), or tabul-ar
(Figure 16). Tabl-es are more common, and are easier
to work from.
/'^
(S.:)
Lonqitudinal Center of Gravity can be calculated from
\./
'--/
the Forward
perpendicular (LCG FP), the After Perpendic-
ular
(LCG AP), or from Midships
(MID)-
Carcurations of LcG from the6p)are shorter, and avoid
dealing wlth two sets of longitudinal moments. This
greatly reduces the chance of error, so a1I our examples
will be based on LCG FP.
The LCG of a hol d is assumed to be at the longitudina]
center of that hold. The LCG of uniformly distributed,
homogeneous cargo, such aS grain, is also at the center
of the hold.
5
X
\{,
+
\0
r
\
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U
R
\t
,{.
q
5.5
',,
S.l If the hold is to be loaded with mixed cargo, then
an LCG is assumed to be at the center of each type
of cargo.
5.7
I
For
or
special cargoes such as heavy machinery, the center
gravity information should be supplied by the shipper.
-59-
"t'-
F{
\ r,
U
\
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L
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V
;5
di-
IRIM
CALCULATION
(
t't) The
r.cG ,method;is the.*.most
accurate
for calculating
\--l
the trim of a ship,
i""u,r";
Jr thfi.J
";-#;""
;;Tfi;
ffi-the;h$]
inctuains
buoyancy,
are consid_
ered.
5'9
'
llt from
the Forward
Perpendicular
Lcc (
Fey is egual
to one_ha]f
of
the Length
Between perpendicu.l_ars
( LBp
)
pf us or
mj_nus The Center
of Gravity
From Midships
(MG).
LCG (FP)
= LBp
--7-
+
MG
5 .9. 1 If MG is Af t
, it i_s added.
5.9.2 If MG is Forward,
it is subtracted.
5' 10
Tht From
the
Forward
perpendicular
LCB (Fp)
is egual to one
half LBp plus
or minus
the iongitudinar
Center
of Buoyancy (tCB).
LCB (FP)
= LBp
__T_
+ LCB
5. 10. 1 If LCB is Af t, it i.s added.
5 .I0 .2 If LCB is Forward,
it i_s subtracted.
5
'
11 The Longitudinar-
Moment
of everything
aboard
the ship, whether
Cargo,
Constant,
Consumables,
or Bal1ast,
is the Weight
times
the LCG ( Fp)
for that cargo.
Longi_tudinal_
Moment
=
Weight
x LCG ( Fp
)
5-12 The Lcc (Fp)
changes
whenever
cargo is loaded
or unloaded,
supplies
are taken
or consumed,
and bal_1ast
tanks
are fil1ed
or discharged.
The new LCG (Fp)
is equal to the total Longitud_
inal Moments
divided
by the Displacement.
T-ful3x::l'&"/
lrdc
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il
fl
Az.ut/ LcA (fp)
DoV/*"--"'--7
s.13
5 .12 .1
5.12.2
5.13.3
-60
Cargo
,unloaded,
ballast discharged, and
suppliEs consumed are subtracted.
Cargo, ballast, and supplies loaded are
added.
Trim Lever
=
LCG(FP)
-
LCB(FP)
If the Trim Lever is Positive, that is,
if LCG(FP) is greater than LCB(FP), the
ship
j-s
trimmed By the Stern.
If the Trim Lever is Negative, that is,
if LCG( FP) is less than LCB( FP)
, the
ship is Tri-mmed by the Head.
If the Trim Lever is Zero, that is, if
LCG( FP) equals LCB( FP)
,
the shi-p is on
an even keel.
5
$:
{.
\J
F
\_
t\
i'1
u.
\
-\L
New LCG(FP)
=
Total Longitudj-na1 Moments
Displacement
The Tri-m Lever is equal to the LCG( FP
)
m
j_nus
the LCB( FP) .
, ,r-
-.--,
/(,:9
Trim
=
Tri-m Lever x Dispiacement
MTC
LCG(FP) OF THE CONSTANT
5. 15 It is best practice to solve for the LCG( FP)
of the Constant after each Initial Survey of
the Ship's Light Condition (Chapter Three).
An average may be used, unless an unusual amount
of stores has been delivered.
e
s.13.2
Trim is egual to the product of the Trim Lever
and DispJ-acement, divided by the Moment to Change
Trim by One Centimeter (MTC).
61 -
5.16
The
LCG(FP)
of the Constant
moves fore and aft'
depending
on Ln" Iocation
and weight
of crew
effects,stores,andalltheadditionalweights
that
tend
to accumulate
over the service
].ife
of a shiP'
5.: Tltisofinteresttocomparetheworkformsgiven
in Figure
11 and
Figure
19
'
The
procedure used
in the example
is the reverse
of the
procedure
used
in Figure 11
'
The LCG( rP) of the constant
j-n
Figure 11
is 200'42
M' which
was the average
for that
shiP'
EXAMPLE:
( see
Figure 11 )
Fromlnitialsurvey'ChapterThree(Figuresll
and
19):
I
I
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N
\$
*.
v]
F
.\
u
'\
v
\b
$
\
\
DRAFT
DISP
LCB
MTC
CT
(1) Trim
Lever
(2) LcB( FP)
( 3) New LCG( FP)
New LCG( FP)
Since
the shiP is
is Aft of LCB( rP)
3.5326s
803s.5
3.01-
LB2. l-
1.773
Trim x MTC
DISP
=
L77.3
cm.
Jr,,-'
L'arY
D'<7'T"n
M
MT
M
MT
M
xMT6
177.3 x LB2.L
----8035
.s-
4.02
M
"3n
*,- LcB
136
_
3.01 M
2
64.99
M
LCB(
FP)
+ Trim
Lever
=
64.99
+ 4.02 =
69'01
M
.trimmed
BY the Stern'
the LCG(FP)
Lc&
is
PJ
-t
H
NOTE:
I
(4)
-62
Final
Longitudinal
Moments =
l=
it
DISP x LCG( FP)
8035.5 x 69.01
5545 29 .85
q
\
<-
<(
M
F
\
Total Moment
calcul-ate
the lightshio
weight
Iongitudinal
moments
of each tank'
Subtract
these
from
the Final
Longitudinal
Moments'
The differ-
ence
is the Longitudinal
Moment of the Con-
stant.
Longitudinat
Moment
of Constant
=
Final -
aII other
Longi-tudinal
Moments
- 5 54529 -85 -
536968
'
2s
17561.60
Tota]
Moment
[i
e
I
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*
(6) LcG(FP)
of Constant =
Longitudinal
L7561.60 2
(P9@*-+:
89.55
M
uo*..,t
/weight
CHANGE
OF DRAFT
5. 18 Change
of draf t at one end of the ship
only
j-s
sometimes
reguired'
Notice
of draft
reguirements
or
I imj-tations
are normally
forwarded
to a vessel
in advance,
because
weigtrt
aclded
nleans
greater
mean draft
"
As IittJ-e
as
Possible
should
be
added to achieve
the desired
trim'
If
possi-bIe'
without
adversely
affecting
the ship's
stability'
weight
should
be removed'
The change
of draft
is cal-culated'
theoretically'
as a ratio
of the trim to the
proportion
of the
distance
of the actual
Longitudinal
Centre
of
Flotation
(LCf) to the FP and AP'
s. 19
!:9
-63
For
practical, purposes, because the distance
f rom LCF to frl-Asnips is so small in relat
j-on
to the length of the ship, LCF is assumed to
be mj-dships. Therefore, change of draft is calcu-
lated, with sufficient accuracy, ds trim divided
by two.
fr
{
,u
F
\
V
:-
E
a
\
q_
Change of Draft
=
Trim
-T-
5.2L Mean Sinkage is equal to weight divided by TPC.
If weight is added, the mean sinkage is greater;
if the weight is removed, the mean sinkage is
less
Mean Sinkage - +/- Weight
TPC
NOTE: TPC here is the final TPC. That is, the TPC
for the final loaded condition.
5.22 The weight i-s placed forward of the tipping center
to increase the forward draft; it is placed aft
of the tipping center to increase the after draft.
5.22. 1-JThe weight required is egual to TPC times
. the tri-m in centimeters divided by two.
t.
\'
-l'
*
/
.\ weight
=
TPC x TRrM
l
lL',
:-
{"'
'
--T-
I
r'"'
5.22.2
The
distance to locate the weight is
two times the MTC divided by the TPC-
i ,\-
-fi]/
-{
rri r
Distance=) xMTC
\Y\ri\'-
r fi'
i 'l
{:
e'
iL
*\
\t(
''
. \Y\'
: 1 {,!
'
\ f I'
,t
TPC
EXAMPLE: A vessel, trimmed by the
on an even kee1.
Fwd Draft
=
8.36 M
:""
=
27
t
1?t'
;' f
':-1"
stern, must be put
Aft Draft
=
8.46 M
MTC
=
233
l
I
il
rl
(
-64
-r ttc
f
'*
27 x (8.46
,n,a!{rpn^,
t,' / i'i,i
/ '/
'isrt
tt
f l(
ll!
,C
r'le+er-t
i."^
k,:
@'.ln*,
lh'
I 1-r
2
rttfc
Distance=2x233.0
_---zT-=
TF.
A weight of 135 . 0 t'4/T
of the tipping center.
STABILITY CALCULATTON FORMULI
8.36
)
100
,'=
135. O M/T
17.26 t{F
placed 17.26 1"1 forward
Weight
(
*
h
-s
\t'
F
\
,\t,
Yl
*
d_
5.23 It is the responsibility of an office to always
maintain a stable ship, in order to protect Iives,
the ship and its cargo;
5.24 Stability calcufations are the most important
aspect of the loading calculations. Not only
the crewrs comfort but stress on a shiprs struc-
ture is affected by stability, .ld a ship in
_1!aUfe
equilibrium is not so liable to capsize.
5.25 Transverse Stability
j-s
a subject all Deck Officers
are familiar with, so only the main, practical
points are summarized here.
5.26 The following forrnuli
Transverse Stability.
are used in calculating
Vertical- Moment =
Weight x KG
New K'G
=
ol-d xc
ltotar
-Ctran{"
i" vo*.;?
.GM
=
TKM
-
New KG
lii
ii
i
I
I'
ti
i
1,
,i
il
;
GGt
=
GM
=
Rolling
Total Inertia -
Total Weight
b
L
t'
GM - GGt
Period ( IMPERIAL)
=
0.44B
( feet
GM
0.7978
(meters
)
sg.rt G M
n
.771 b
.-
\ 6r'4
Rolling Period (METRIC)
Where B
=
Breadth of Ship
- 65
FREE SURFACE EFFECT
5-27.Full or empty tEnks have no free surface, since
there is no liquid moving as the ship rolrs in
the seaway.
fvoid
slack tanks to the
greatest
extent possible
to minimize the l-oss of GM caused
by free surface
-s.
id'i rn a heavy seaway, the liquid in a sr-ack tank
will- surge with considerable
speed and force,
sometimes causing damage to the tank itsel-f.
5.29 Fuel oil tanks are normaJ-ly only f i]l_ecl to B 0
or B 5 percent capacity so as to a.,,oid overf low
oil polluticri.
Fresh wei-er anc fuel- are bcth
subject to daily consumption, so it is impossible
to keep these tanks fu11 for the entire voyage.
Dividers, or swash plates,
can minimize the free
surface to a large extent.
5.30 Sea water ballast tanks shou]d be either filIed
to their l-imit, or empty. When filling these
tanks, it is good practice
to let them overf l-ow
sufficiently to ensure no air pockets are trapped
inside -
5.31
available,
f or metri-c
Ri-se of G due to Free Surface
=
L x 83 x SeLr
l2 x DrsP=-zI
.v
Where L
=
Length of Tank
B
=
Breadth of Tank
Sg
=
Specific Gravity of Contents
n
=
Number of Longitudinal Compartments
into which tank is divided
q.
\
$
r
t
s,
t*
R,
t/
v
\
t
H
!
*
B
F
F
I
F
;
h
l
n
T
t
T
'l
If Free Surface Correction data is not
the following formula can be used
.I:*9::ae-
r*e!1199!9r
-.
t adss--e
t,.J v
-
EXAMPLE:
( Figure
DISP
KG
TKM
L
B
Sg
(1)
(21
-66
I
22L29.6 MT
8.277 t'4
9.24O l"l
25M
10M
L.O24
s
Y
{
X\
s
\--
u
ft
\
g;';|i
If the tank is
Rise of G due
KG
New KG
TKM
New GM
Rise of G due to Free Surface =
=
KG=
New KG =
TKM
New GM =
undivided:
to Free Surface =
zf
"
rol x 7.024
12x 22,I29.6 x (1
6
0.096 M
8.277 M
.
8.373 M
9.240 NI
0.867 M
ol-|\.fi
'
.1U3
rf the tank is
ffi1*{g!._in.te*31r9--!oa.*i!}9ina1
section:
25 x 103 x I.O24^
rm
a.o24 M
8.277 M
B. 301 M
9.240 M
0.939 M
NOTE: The Rise of G due to Free Surface Effect can be min-
-.'
j:mized
by Longitudinal divisions
in tanks. Property
arranged dividing of tanks can make the
problem neg-
ligible
5.32 Stability and Trim calculation
Report was worked
as follows
( FJ-gure 22
):
-67
5.32.I For Trimf, Using
LCG(FP)
=
LCG( FP) of Constant
= 'tT6--+..53.40
M
,l
F
T
t
$
s
F
F
;
;
;
I
t
.A
Vr,t^"'f,' -tt
t)
S
.4
{
b
-\
{
\N
F
i
lir
$
a
q
=
LCG(FP) of No. L FOT=
=
Longitudinal- Moments=
46.51 M
Weight x LCG(FP)
Isa V r2r-40
23794.40 Total Moment
Tota1 Moments
TotaI- wETgirts
1483410. 1-3 Total Moments
22L29.60 T
67.03 M
ry:rc'
^r
ucB
I
New LCG( FP)
LCB( FP)
trP
-l'
Trim Lever
,"'
rrim
=
ry
Ot-.;2+
I'f
itufir
- 66.58 M
=
LCB( rp
)
: Sc-e
(f
v1
=
67.03 - 66-58
=
0.45 M
=
Trim Lever x DISP
{l
MTC
0.45 x 22129.6
t c(
241'8
.^.,.\
ut"\*
v
=
41 Cm
ltlu
",
-
ao-\
\ts
s--
change of Draft
=
Trim
=
+
=
20.5 cm or 0.205
LCG(FP) is Aft of LCB(FP), therefor" Sh; is trimmed "By
the
Stern"
NOTE: Draft, MTC, LCB and DISP lvere calculated in Chapter
I
I
I
I
L2r.40 W.
/'
136 r:-)21.49
J* tt't 'f
H
n(r,!
fr
(,:
T\,rro, Draft and Deadweight Surveys.
6B
5.32-2
For
StabilitY
l-
NOTE:
KG of Holds
aid
tanks are found
in the Stability
Manuals
'
KG of a Cargo
is assumed
to be at its Geometrical
Center
( Figure
20
)'
Vertical
Moments
of Constant =
Weight
x KG
=
196 x 9.52
=
l-865.92
Total l'loments
New KG
=
Iglef Ig+e++:
Total Weights
=
183154.
B4
22L29 .60
=
8.277
M
=
Total Inertia
GGt
r=l
Total
Weight
777 L.8
ffi
0. 351 M
Tables at DISP of
$
q
ft
R
I
-r\
tl
)
t
$_
NOTE:
rKM was read
ryg11 !v-d399*t-ati9
22t29.6
tuT
(Figure
13)'
Inertia,
KG and GM are found
Tabtes or GraPhs
( Figures
16
GM
-
tr1
l''
I
i
I
I
i
!
l
IN
?t7
GM
RolJ.ing Period
in the Hold and Tank
and
18) -
=TKM-KG
=
9.24O
M
-
8'277
=
0-963
=cM-GGt
=
0.963 -
0.35 1
=
0.612
M
V<o,r
o.rst *
(zz.
B6q) M
ffi
- _-6M
23 seconds
s
\[
+
a
\A
F
I
\
tu
f-
b.
\iJ
t-
a_
-,69 -
j
'il
9sr
.n
=S
-:.S
-b r 5:
iii r. rc5 t.
EE E* 3;
ooo
oFl ea
EE :: i.;
.E
e
F.E
E.i
gq
rE
sA
g!
Ei E
E6
Eg
g
Cii c H
g.S
iH ;* F5
tt E
?E
T: E
gE
FF
Egg
IE
gE
?F$
3;
FF
=HE
tEE E*,gii
E;g
;gE :sr
;:,
g
g
Rolllng co.ttici.nt t (
-
I
t.05
t.00
l-t
t.o
0.9
l7
r6
t5
l4
r3
,T,
B!.f
i,tg'ryl
-|
flr\
Er..npl.: f
.
0.8;8. GM;l
I
.
12 r.c GM
.
0.38 m
itETRlc tJwtT
-
s1a. tt-:-!r2
T
0.90
r
(
(-t
t.
Ercrdth
B
(ml
RollinO prriod T (rccl
I
Figure 21
22,t32.8 r
6.7s9 |
14.r.60rJ3
|
7,77t.8
DECKHEICHTS CCM
xi-r
-
rxr{
9220
No.2
--
fC 6'7t9
No.3
-
cM
31I-
No.t-
cfi'0365
No.5 _-
Gtyl.o65
No.6
-
ROLUNGPERIOD'J@_
sTAflsncs:
wr/Pc-
'
ut(BMYFc
rr/(Mr) BM
-
^CTU^L
DRAFT DEPARTURE:
F- )t-
A-g
lr-
y
yd-
x
EB(FP) 66.,r5YF lJ5
!IEwIJCG(FP) 66..32U
TRIX LEVER 0.0ll]t
CIIANCE OF DRAFT 0.l ca
r a.6esY F t59 A t.69
IO^DTNG ?ORT:
-70-
STA8ILITY ANO TRIM CALCULATION
REPORT
DEPARTURE/ARRIV^L
LOADINC DATE:
-
VOY. NO.:
lO^DIl{C QUA}{T!TY:
-
E.tr.:
.t
{-
\t.]
)
<t
\11
F
\
t
V
\-)
{
DECTIARGNCIORT:
3l,r&TOT^L
Cl4o
Fi:g'ate 22
-7L-
S
F.
[1
s
$-
+_
Iu
s
V
\'
\_
ffi
F
t
F
F
p
F
F
t
t
:
I
n
I
r
t
il
il
i!
i
j
:
i
lt
i+
,l
STASILIIY AND IRIM CALCULAIIOII trEFORT
'a
DEarnrRE/ArRrvAL
y.s.-
tOeDDlG Xlll:
-
ll)/rDltlc DATI: t!|y. t{O.: _
DECHATCNC FORI:
-
llADtt{C QUA}ITITY:
-
E.Tl: _
ITEI VEICHT toG (F?)
!.I'I{GITT,DNAL
LotaENt
xc
t.ERttcll.
I'OMENT
ntnru
STUP: LTCHTUEIGHT .'}.1 t69r tt .t?o.rt 9rat aortts!
CONST^NT'OI}IERS tt{ tltao 23.?9...O rJl r165t2
JIJB.TOTAI a5n ttt964Jt a2JOrJt
f OJf .YJlr[Ir/Btr/dc.
rt ta t-L L l-L lf TutNn lorou (llr
F, I rg.a. f:5-a rl6jl
t6J]95t o62 2,20J5 ltt? 9
No.2 FO.T. t02t ?3.7t ?J6l.5J o.tt tl-a7 zrt?.9
l{o. t F.O.t. t86.t 9.Jt 17 ts1!7 0J2 I rJr2 IJtT J
No. I D.O-l 25.6 tot06 :r?l..{o olt 6-5t to9.a
No.? DO,I 21t I t?.62 2' r69r l!7 26Ja 2tt
LO5.T. t2t t2:.to lJ3E..6 0.iaE 6!5 .J
Df.w_T. !t.4 139:6 ,J.7Jt l2r? a9ro! ,7A
AT.T. 2599 tt4J5 t6r6t t? ,J9 lJrt3.
No- I B.rV.T. 65 t.? 22s8 l4JE9Jil to7 611 32
No.2 3.1.t. JI6J $97 26,t29.4t toJ 5t..t2
No.!lYT. J6J.I ?lJ6 .t J6E.75 t& 555.t0
15.4l.vr- to., tooJ6 t0rt3:t t:0 @t.t8
f,io. If5.f. 2t-tt tot?
No. ! Ts.t. a6t2 10..t
No. ! lSJ. 1t12 t0.at
No.. T5.1. )996 t0Jt
rt.T t12S aJ6 lr24.ro 6J2 23r.:0
su8-ToT^! 3.66t-5 22! t?0J0 t_286.t9 ,.771 .t
cr,ro
3
Efr
tio.tCh tJoTt I 2r.a6 rt}{0fl 612 t0,r2?o{
l{o.2 C ll :rl?! 46J5 t2 r .?97.95 6JO t?,0r0.t0
io.l C ll 2.rE7.0 | 733E I E9J14.06 5a8 t 6,763_?6
No.{Cll ::l f.0 999? ::3.0!.107 6.55 t.-r36_r 5
le. I D.d tJoo
'2.70
t9:95.@ r390 I I,El5!O
l{o. ! D.d I,t.t.0 11 0t 53Jt..?o t4rJ t5.9t2-?0
No.1D3d rJ!JO 71.15 I r3106:5 t!.15 23:55:5
l{o. a D.d t,at o tot oo la?r5..m t5:J 22J26I)O
suE.TOT^t_ r3.925.O 9m-2251t 132p66..O
Crul.DToTAL
Drtf 22.r:95 I 6?.01 t..t3It0.ll t277 Itl.l5..t/t 7,nlt
DR.^FT I99X
lllc z.t"l
tar
t{ErJ Lrc altt
ItlI LEvEn O..J
fnlll at il
c-'l,tNCEOfD&rF
20J a
f t.?rt
IIAS'EI;
ChIEF OFFICEI:
t.rt5
DECITIEIGHTS C.I'
ib.t-J1-- rxrl-4-
No.2
a.6 g6 3.27?
No. t
6.t
cx
--Ug!-
No..-
?o--
cct-91!!-
No.t- dr-0,!ll-
No.a-
23 rmdr
SIATISTICI:
r./T/ic
-
rr/(x')!H:94i-
AcruALDt FrDE riTruf:
r-lJl-- r
-
^-Tl;-
-
-
r-g-- t
-
td
t.9lt
r
-.-
Figure 23
-72
LCG(FP)
METHOD
CHECK
LIST
t
5.33
The fotlowing-list
summarizes
the steps to calcu-
lateTrj-mandFwd/AftDraftsatthenextloading
or discharge Port'
5.33.1
Check
Fwd and Aft Drafts upon arrival
and solve
for corrected
trim'
5.33.2
Deduct
fuel oil and water consumed from
DISP at
previous
port
'
Add ballast water
if taken
in; subtract
if discharged'
5.33.3
Using
DISP calculated
j-n
5
'
33
'
2
'
refer
to Hydrostatic
Tables
and obtain
Draft
'
MTC and LCB. Check Sg to account
f.gr any
difference
from Mean Draft found in 5'33'1'
5.33.4
Solve
for Total
Longitudinal
Moments
on arrival.
Work back from Trim to Trim
Lever to LCG(FP)'
5.33.5
Measure
the LcG(FP)
of all weights to
be loaded or discharged'
Solve for their
Longitudinal
Moments'
5.33.6
The New Total Longitudinal
Moments equals
5.33.4 Plus
or minus 5'33'5'
5.33.7
Add alI weights
taken
in and subtract
all weights
discharged
to find new DISP'
Refer
to Hydrostatic
Tables
for new Draft
'
MTC and
LCB'
5.33.8
Solve
for new Trim and Fwd and Aft Drafts'
-R
x-
q
+
M
F
*t
\rr
ft
R
{
GENERAL
CHAPTER SIX
GRAIN LOADING
6.1 If a ship i.s to darry grain, it must have a Grain
.
Loading
Plan. This plan must meet with IMco and
SOLAS reguirements,
and must be approved by the
approPriate
Government AgencY-
IMCO ANd SOLAS REQUIREMENTS
6.2 The IMCO and SOLAS requlrements for loading grain
are:
6.2.1 The Angle of Heel due to shift of grain
shall not be greater than twelve
( \2') degrees
'
6 -2.2 ' The residual stab
j-lity
area shal-1 not be
Iess than 0.075 metre-radi-ans.
6.2.3 The correct metacentric
height sha1l not
be less than 0.30 metres.
GRAIN STABILITY CALCULATIONS
6.3 The trim and stability and Grain stability should
be made as soon as details of the grain cargo
to be l-oaded are received.
Depending on the stowage
Factor(SF)ofthegraintobeloaded,slackholds
may be reguired.
check the approved Graj-n Loading
Ptand for the designated slack hol-ds in this situ-
6.4
ation.
The actual- Horizontal
Heeling Moment
( HHM) is
equal to the Volumetric
Heelj-ng Moment
(vHM) divided
by the Stowage Factor
(SF) of the cargo'
Heeling Moment
=
Volumetric Horizontal Mo{ten!
'
Stowage Factor of Cargo(rq3/r3)
q
\\/
\rr
-\
\$
$-
I
\
hi
I
F
N
{{_
Fr
$E
iF
$r
-74
T
I
t
I
I
T
t
t
I
E
I
l
dJ'
.it
c\l
o
a
-.1
F.
FFtC'\
rqFtO
O\
Fa
lrf
\0
t\ t\
(alat(f
o\ t\ co
ca k.)
c'\
c\ r\ t\
oo
$t+\O
o.{.
C-
(rl !f, r/rt
oo('r
ca ra
c'\
00
rn
O\
F.
ra \O F.
t\c\t
@c
ca\o
o(a
c!$
o\ o\ o\
ot co (\l
\o
o\ \o
\oca
o\o\()
r-a
r..lNr\
Fr \O
Ct)
Fr
f"l
ooo
F. FI FI
ooo
ooo
r
O r,'l
OFtFa
t\NN
A
cta
*F
I
dE
()t\
+
isa
F
2 + I*
t!
!r{
:F()4 o
eu5
p
a
2 ! E
dtg
3
at7
+ n
i F
igg
E
t
Sh
r\
rC)O
E4,
x
rrl
t
,;3
-v
*
)zr'
-)
t'''
&
9d
ut
FI
a
{,
!
{
l\J
F
=t
\'
R
\)
"t
JI
J
tf
trl
ut
e.
LI
o
z
lN3hulH DNI'133H
-lV3IlU3n
(r,i) g10H
JE Hrd30
F.
z
t.tj
=
trt
E
L:'
z.
H
J
Ld
trj
:f
(J
H
u
F,
td
=J
J
trt
t:-
trl
(/')
t^J
3
(-}
ct
C}
ct
cl
C'
ct
\o
(t
cl
CI
ut
Fign:re 25
-t
1
i
- 76 _
-VsIfL=l
- 9:-t3:s--eI_*9=,,,ig__*(
cco
)
Volumetric
Verti""i*00"rn."a
(VW1
product
of
the
Displacement
and
GGO
= Vo1ume
"
NOTE:
rf
carglo
data
is given
in
rmperial
Measure,
then
convert
your
fj.gures.
Metri_c
Tonnes
cubic
uetres
(u3;
= il:"r;::.1"1i
olu.r.
314
6.6
VHM,
VVM
and
allowable
HVM
are
found
in
the
Grain Loading p]-an.
The
actual
HVM
is
calcu.l_ated
and cornpared
with
the
allowable
HVl,t.
f f the
actual
HVM
is greater
than
the
allowab.Le
HVM,
a nek/
stow_
;:'r:::::;:"tt""
with
less
heel'ns
rnoment
must
EXAMPLE:
-
is
to
be Loaded
at
slack
hold
is No.
3.
42 13/rr.
6.5
The
increase
in
is
equal
to
the
divided
by
the
SF.
'.
A grain
cargo
The
designated
tor
is given
as
$
E
$
r
{
$
til
l)
\
\i-
summer
draft.
Stowage
Fac_
t (1)
Stowage
Factor
42 v3
/ r,y
42
33rTmu
r . 17 06 ,t3
/u,
(2)
Cargo
Deadweight
16959.0
MT
_196.0
r{T
-6?,63:T
1,67
63. O
-t_017.0
T57Am
F
;
I
l
It
t
42
MT
!rr
Summer
Draft
Deadweight
Constant
19'
Lo:
Fw, Bal-tast,
etc.
Cargo
Deadweight
-77
(3) Ships Capacity
$
.$r
{
\3
F
*
Q
s
l-t
1i)
t
\i_
HOIID # f
=
HOLD #2
HOLD
#3
HOLD #4
HOLD #1 =
HOLD
#2 =
HOLD #4 =
Cargo space
HOLD #3
a
3976.51 M'
-l:ito6-
?
5623.28 14'
--1.f703-
.>
5654.54 M'
---il]]T
6-
')
s158.16 M'
---i.-im3--
TOTAL
3396.9844 MT
4803.7587 Mr
4830.463
4406.424
17437.63
MT
MT
This exceeds the cargo deadweight,
therefore we
must solve f or allowable loading i-n No. 3 Ho1d,
the designated slack ho1d.
(4
)
A1lowable Loading in the Slack Ho1Q.-
Cargo Deadweight
=
15746.00 MT
3396.9844 MT
4803.7585 MT
4406.424 Mr
available in
Cargo
:gqgs*g-gS
in HOLD #3 x Stowage
- 3138.834 x 1.
= 3674.319 M3
TOTAL
=-L2607.166 MT
- 3138.834 MT
Factor
1706
( 5
)
Stability and Trj-m catcuJ.at
j-ons
( Chapter
Five) revealed that the ship would be
down by the Head by 1.6 cm. To correct
the Trim, it was decided to shift
100.0 MT of fuel from No. 1 Fuel Oi]-
Tank to No. 3 Fuel Oil Tank.
- 78
CALCULATION
OF STABILITY
FOR A GRAIN SHIP LOADING
TO THE GRAIN RULE
EOUIVALENTOF
r9@.
cARGo PLAtr: TNDT.ATE Holos. T. ocKs, ENG. R@M. cAR@. FEoERs. TRUNKs, sEcuRo ANo uNsEcuRED
GRAIN SURFACES,
S'AT AilY XEMPTIO'{S FROM THE 1960 OUIVALEI{T:
I CFTIFY THAT TH CALCULATIONS SHdVN IN THIS DOCUMET{T INDICAT STASILITY VALUES WHICH II'ILL 8E IIIAINTAINEO FOR THIS VESSEL THROUGHOUT IH VOYAGE.
-!
{
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-79
c
a
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IVHEN USIT{G A COTiPUTER @MPLET WEIGHT AT{D KG COLUMNSONLY'
STAT NAME AND SERIAL l'lUM8R OF COIIIPUTER'
raaL I.CALCULATION
OF KG 6Y:-
lrl crncdcelrrnes
cosPASA
No.
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IF
-82
$
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A.r.rnJ t nuv gNttl3sdn
DISP =
2L300.
l-0 MT
.
Longitudinal
Momerlts =
L4I4999
'L3
Total Moments
#3
r.O.T.=
+ 100 x 94.51 M - + 945L'00
#1
F.O.T.= -
100 x 46.51 M
= -
4651'00
h
)
fr
a4
sr
F-
\
h
\
B
$
\
+ 4800.00
New Grand Total =
L4L4999
'I3
=
I4L9799.13
At DlSPlacement
of 2l-300'10
MT
=
DRAFT
MTC
LCB
LCG
TL
TRIM
CD
Aft Draft =
8.690 M
=
+ .093
=
8'783
M
Total Moments
+ 4800.00
Total Moments
=
8.69 M
=
237.45 T-M
-
66-45 M
66.657 M
0.20 M
18 . 6
-'bm
9.3 cm
0.093 M
Mid =
8.69
or
Fwd Draft =
Correction=
New Draft =
No. 1 tank =
No. 3 tank =
Old Vertical
New Vertical
NCw KG
8-690 M
-
.093
8.597 M
=
No change
( 6
)
Calculate
the new KG
To calculate
the new KG' we must first
c a I cul a t e t he c han ge iD
*Vr-!-]-Q-aI- !!ome
n t s
caused
by shifting
the Fuef Oi1 from
No. 1 tank to No' 3 t.ank'
$/*YO
355.4 -
100 =
255.4 MT x O'44 M - 112'38
T-M
186.8
+ 100 =
286.8 MT x O'82 M
=
235'18 T-M
TOTAL I*'IOMENT =
347
'56
T-M
Moment =
L4L9799.L3 -
347
'56
Moment =
L4I9451.57
=
141"9 45L.57
-7ETT:TO_
=
6.64 M
Cargo
Cargo
Cargo
Cargo
TOTALS
Ho.]-d
#1
Hold
#2
Hold
#3
Hold
#4
_84_
(7)
GRATN
STABILTTY
,_
#:;"T:l*"'
_--
669.857
949.
B3B
8350.000
|
984.570
lft,t*u,-.u
{
tf 10954.26s
ffi-o.oe2M
6.78e
+
0.36s
l'1'{.0r,
= 7 .246
r4
Vertical
Moments
-
154.946
233.758
1675.000
237
.828
2295.532
-t
I
I
q
a'v
p
(
e0
r
I
*\
kr
F
$
.N
"Go
=
KG.
t-
Allowable
Heeling
Moment
(
Figure
)
Actua-l_
Heelj_ng
Moment
JUDGEMENT
GOOD!
= 99270.20
=
70954.265
-llirTS-
= 9358.08
t
I
il
H
:
f,
I
r
t
ilI
"t
Departnent
of 1tansport
Canadian Coast
Grard
Ship Safedr
kanch
$
R
\
\,
F
V
{
CAT'IIIJ||IION
OF STABILIry
IN ACrcRDAIffi
WTTH
CATIADIAIV GRAfN RmUIATfONS
Captain:
You are reguired
to cordet_ei
.a
stabili\z
ca.r_culation
prior
to the ccnrnencernelt
9f
roading.
This is to in&icate your
vessel,s
worst
cordition
during the rbrtncmri"g
,"y"g;
The calcuration
shoul-d
be nade on this form and presented
to tne Fort warden
before
the vesser
can be issued with a certificate
of Readiness
to Load.
rf there are any subeequent
chr,anges
to the oriqinal
stomge plan,
(
tonnages,
ccrnrcdities.
or sto"age-f".t".",
*"alJ
you
should prepare
a ctrected plan
for the Fort Warden,"
uppro.rJ.
rlre manner
in wtrich
this calculation
is nnde wir_l depend
t4Dn:
(a) yor
t1rye of vessel;
(b)
T:e geograptrical
position
of your
loading port;
and
(c)
Ttre tlpe of gain
stabili{
inforrnation
with vhich your
vessel has been provided.
TypE 1 CAICUTATTOw (5.
AI6I_E OF HEEL)
If your
vessel is a bulkcarrier
and an
,,existing
ship" under
the provisions
cf r'tcO Resolution
A264
{vrrir
p"rt,8,
Sec. v(B), you
are rrequi::ed
to pro'e
that your
vegsg]_rs
angre
of heel, if grain
shifts,
w"[r not exceed 5".
your
stability
rlrtrrmtion
will
indi_
cate if your
vessel i-s of this type ard ii so-you
strould
corprete
only Tables
I, II, IIf, IV and Vfi a.
ff yor:r
vessel
has to nleet
the provisions
of Regrulation
4 of
the abo'e
Resolution;
i.e. iru"in*,'vJu"J-#
"rrl
Angles
of Heel
72",
and
M_y*":"
"t
lit Ru"i-;;
ilau'ity
0.07s
netre
:frffr"ffi#l
#|"h::
rq'-
v"l snoura
-ocnirele
the rorm by
one
TYPE
2 CAIfiII.ATTON
ff your
of
Allovaable
fV,
V and
\|r.
IYPE
6 CAIfi,IATIOAI
- 86-
RED{-rcED
STABTLTTY
CRTTERIA
s
E
<.
F
\
b
F
N.
3
TYPE
OF HI
t 12.
AI\GLE
oF
TIF.,trL
]AT.1i"fi*:no111,iror*u t ion
con
ta
jns
Llpetting
Mon.;i-"*rcv
rnrorrrElti-on
contajn
ts,
corplete
on:.y
fabl;-;:
a table
rr,
rrr,
" AIVGIIS
ff you
are
uoo.,t.,'
;ffi
:"ra$Tj3ff"'i.n-
:
t3b1e
or
Al_lowable
rrpse
t tins
.--
rr,
however.E
";.
il ll;rlli
rl
I
vrr
B
#;il,.
ilffTl:1
YT"t
tnal
r.
"Ji;:""1".:'I,T,-U::
srain stabilirv
of
such
curve
;-
nornral
.o,',ffi1"t
.to
vour
ot"T^=T_
r*oiig:;oi-
ryo.
4 carcr.r_ratiil:*.
L;;;'rt.","?k#""1t
:F
3ii"o^--
d,
"Ju.,,u
nou_Id
conplete
the
" AI\GIJI
rx-
rn
this
case'
corplete
Tables
r,
rr,
rrr,
rv,
v,
vrr
B and
ff your
vr
.'rR"t.'f
*3ir'il5.
ITH;'*'rhT?]e'nt
-t,-
(tr+,c
wins
IIEEL)
-nditions
described
fu
-ffii yort
will
be requirei
abcnre
(5"
ar,rCi,E
OF
your
Adrninistration
nny
h
ilSt*g
jhut your.
vesser-
at
all
ave provided
you
with
a statenent
i:'"S:'":#:tt*.fl;:i.:"'"H{ffi;i""":Tf
":i:il'}*"
voy to
"o,pi"tu
#$T.,.t::rtk.,I-"1_n'v
_
h#
ffi.#&;'
:Hfil;
""rv
iuurlSl=,
=ri,
Tr"
io"*fliti-o.--'
#;;,-"o,,
shourd
ccrqrrete
rf your
vesser.
is r.oading
at nrrre *n^S
lTl'.I"u
rnav
not
be
abre *.",,111 :.1:,p".t
withia
shelter-
ff r'i'ffi
'J";"ff
""1""i","#"":*T",*?:ff.f
tJTy
laid
doron
i"
-rra ""t
rreL
oe
abl-e
to meet
ful_-L---
g
wrLrr'rrl
snelter
such
porrs.
,-.,'*
stabititv
o"",-.it"T;tittY-
tl"
requirernents
ation a
^..^L
trr;."
-6$;'"","THT.:
P*"_.-
in
t..nsi_i-;;L."
:::n
;+'".-' r"""H*"t*#L*."
docr-rnents
*t:-E{
tne
requ-irenents
ll,ii;l;'-"u.r.'i"q.,irenen ts *,,{? P-
.#";"*.$Yllt
"
Tjf:
ff i3'":'", ";:l
mtro{iy*li
"F.ff}:,.*Hgg:'*
:"q
SHELTERED
WATERS
of a relax_
this
case,
you
J&;:A?.Tffil"I;.?:*r5;.^iii
I
-87-
If it
j-s
decided
tJo
take advantage
of thi-s relaxation,
it
should
be borne
jn
milld that
your vessel will have to corply fully
iltn
in" Regiulations
prior to departure
frsn sheltered waters.
OII{ER
COTIDITIOT\S
Vesselsharzingonboarddocr.rrentsrequiringotherthanthe
criteria
described
abcve,
or no docr.rrrents,
should consult with
in"
p"tt
warden
for further instrrctions'
*Itistrlossiblethattheterm.'heelingrndnent',isusedinsgne
stabiJ-iqlbook]-ets.T}r.istermisanalternativefor''up6etting
rurent" tnd the trac are to be taken to rnean the sarne'
s
E
$
R
\
\,.
$t,
k
\./
"l
;
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
-1
GENERAL
CTTAPTER SEVEN
rcLLING PERIOD IESI FOR G,I
7.L l{tren a large anount of deck cargo is ca:ried, or dien port
rctation
produces unusual weight concentration in upper ho1ds,
stabiJ-ity must receive careful- attention. l,lhren a ship is
nearing her stabi-l-ity liJrit, and there is a significant anpunt
of cargo deadweight al-lowances yet available, it is goo'd
practice to conduct a rolling period test in stjl-1 waters.
7.2 The Rollilg Period Test i-s nrost freguently used for tjmber
carriers, but should be applied vtrcnever G,l is an important
factor for loading. It should be noted that safe ocean cross-
ings have been nnde by ships having a minirnrn corrected Gtr4
of not nrcre ttran 0.03 M at any point in the vo\zage.
7.3 The loss of A{ t}rrough constrrption of Fuel Oi1 and Ftesh
Water nn:st be taken into account. An average loss of 04
per day can be derived f:ron the.detrnrture ard arrival. Ttim
ard Stabil-ity calculations.
7.4 Ttre nnin advantage of conducting a rolling period test is
that the actual GM is observed, making the result alnost
error free. There will be a large difference between the
corputed G"1 based on the shipcuiJder's data and the actual
G'1 based on test. This is because the shipbuilders base
their ccrrputations on the Inclining Eperinrent of an enpty
ship.
T]}{BER DECK CARGO
7.5 When loading a deck cargo of tinber, particularly drlr, sawn
tjnber, add fifteen
(15) percent to the deck cargo weight.
Tirber terds to absorlc water at sea, ard this causes a consid-
erable loss of GM.
t
K.
ul
)
$
R
\-
Iru
$
N-
(
(-
Lu
$
F
i
lt
i
I
\
{J*
*
*
"
r
qF
t
4
7.7 The difference in rolljlg period
waters, and the average taken
enough to cause al_arm.
ROLLII\G PERIOD STILL WATER TEST
obtained
at sea,
testing
jn
stiJ-l
not sigrnificant
B9
7.6 A rule of thrrilc for carculating timber deck cargo weight
is:
,_
Deck cargo weight
=
50 percent
of Hord cargo weight
that is, one third of the total cargo roaded is deck cargo.
IO.IE: This approxirnation is not reriable for purgrcse-built
timber
carrl_ers.
ROLLI}IG PERIOD DIFFERN\CE
N
;
;
F
I
I
I
;
T
I
I
I
I
T
F
t
I
T
t
by
is
7.8 For the rolling period test to give good resul-ts, the follow-
ing conditions must be nret:
7.8.1 ff the ship i-s alongside, she nmst be clear of her
berth, wj.th her lines slack, so she can roll freely.
7.8.2 Barges
And
lighters nn:st be vlell clear so as to not
hinder the ship's novernent.
7.8.3 Enough weights rnust be available to l_ist the ship
at least fifteen ( 15
)
degrees. T\,vo or more derricks may
be reguired.
IWTE: The stsredores should be infornred in advance if the need
for a test sesns likeIy. Their co-operation in iifting
the weights is often required.
7.9 ltre best position for the observers is the forecastle deck.
There they can note the incunation of the supersbrrcture,
especially the bridge wing, against a reference point.
7
-L0 Lift the weights on one side of the ship. when the ship
has been steadied in the listed
lnsition,
drop the weights
onto the dock or into the water. Ensure the cargo r:unners
are slack, so they offer no resistance.
7.LL It is best to tine the ccnplete period
of roll frcrn nraxinrrn
angle of ]-ist
frhrough
upright to opposite 1ist, and al-1
the way back to original listed side. Ttnt is:
STARBOARD-PORI-STARMARD
or
PORT STARBOARD
- PORT
7.L2 Tjnre the period of ro11 at least three (3)
tjnres to ensure
good accuracry of the average. use this average in the Rolling
Period Fornu1a to calcu]-ate the G'1.
CArcUI,ATIAIG GvI FRC[4 ROLLING PERIOD
s
&
"* \r
r
\
tU
M
s
( IMPERIAL)
T- 0.448
..8:Rt:o4
Therefore:
G{=0.1936xF.2
(MErRrC)
T
=
0.797 B
./E:ftrc'4
GM=0.6532xi.2
IWTE:
Where T
=
Ro]-ling Period in Seconds
B
=
Breadth of Ship
G1
=
w x dIrG
DISP +/- w
Where Gl
=
Shift of Center of Gravity
w
=
Weight to be Ioaded or Discharged
W
=
Origila]- Di-splacenent
dKG
=
distance frqn KG to G of the Weight
DISP
=
Displacenrent
If w is added abcnze KG, or rernoved fron below KG, the shift
of G is up\^rard, and CG, is subtracted. If w is renpved
abore KG, or added below KG, the shift of G is downward,
ard CG,
is added.
DGMPLE:
-91 -
2?1,29.6
r{r
8.277 t"I
0.61,2 I-{
(.
$
{
FA
F
\
I
;,,
t
ll
t
{_
DfSP
=
KG=
au=
(1)
Find the Nerrv @1 if 200 Mr is l.aded
g.5
M aborre
the KG.
GG].
=
= 200 x 9.5
zZEqTT-m
= 0.085 M
Since
the str_ift of G is uprnrd:
New @1
= GM
_
CGl
- 0.612
_
0.085
= 4.527 M
(2)
Find the new G,r if 200 Mr is discharged
frqn 8.0 M abore KG.
GG'
= 200x8.0
-m
=
0.073 M
Since the shift of G is dovnrward:
New G,l
=
GM *
G1
=
0.612 +
0.073
= 0.685
S}IPLIFIED
G4 MEASUREMH\TS
7'13 rf a close estinnte
of @1 is all that i-s reguired,
it can
be calculated
frun a deriberate
listing
of the sh,-ip. weights
are suspended
frqn a derrick,
or placed
on the deck if no
derrick
is available.
7
'r4
the
'"eight
(w),
thg distance
of the rrcight
frun the center
line of the strip (D),
arxl the angle of list (0-)
are rneasured.
rhe product
of the weight (w)
and the distance (D)
are divided
by the Drsp.
Ttre result
is then rnrltipried
by the cotangent
of the Angle
of
r.ist
(cot
0_):
O,l
=
WxDxcot0-
DrSP
I
I
t
I
I
WxdKG
DGMPLE:
-92-
A fortlz
(40)t-ton weight is suspended frorn a derrick;
the derrick head is fifteen (15) netres frorn the ship
centerline; and the angle of list is read fron the clino-
neter as five (5) degrees:
DISP
=
8000 MI
G4 =
WxDxcot0-
DISP
G4 =
40x15xcot5"
8000
=
0.075 x 11.43
=
0.857
{
K
{(/
q
\{
s.
ts,
\
\,
*)
6
W
\
\
s
M
tu
$
ts-
\
tu
\
F,
t
i/ETRtC
t Ntr
---;.;_
Solting pariod
T Gccl
* 3s
-a.,
;:
Y
g
s+
o
ea s;l
8g s!
E E5
64
^o
a, c! \.F
E.g
3E
$; 5f
l
:g E
I
E'I 5E
;F f*l
Fi
;gs$
i,c'e i
s$l
ig is$n
vg
eo-r
le
l8x
l'= <-
IFE
I
a.g
l
g
l5e
la
ls:
ls;
I sii
liF
l
g'
lsE
l"oll
is9
t6H
;8..
Eoi
tr o
3b-E

o'ct
I F-8
sr
g
g
s
His
ag
>i Cl
;'
I
o'-rt'l,fl
r+f
lll llrlda
\,,
il
5r
ir
Fotllne
cocfficient
t I
_
|
I
m
I
!2,
GM rnd T rnd
l. 0.8; I
.
GM;T - 12 rcc
Fignre
APPENIDIX
DRAFT AI{D STABILITY
PROBLEI.IS AIVD AI{ShIERS
g.,EsrroN
1
,_
(a) Constmct a TPC ctrve frun the followjng data:
DRAIT in METERS
0.65 L.6O 2.55
3.50
TPc
3.2 5.4 6.48 7.05
(b) Fbqn the surve, find the TpC for the following:
DRAFTS
2.0 M 3.0 M 4.0 M
(c) At a draft of 3.25 M, an additional 25 tonnes of
taken on board. Firrd New Draft.
AIVSIdSRS
s
(D
$
r
.\
ttL
>.
V
\
\
\_
4.45
7.4
Flesh Water is
(a)
(b) Draft
I"C
u,
&
!r{
t{
!r
E
3
z
H
E2
I
E
ol
T.P.C. 7.4 H/T
T. P.C. 7 .3 H/T
T.P.C. 7.03 WT
a.P.c. 6.43 t1/"1
T.p.c. 6.15
t|/T
?.P.c. s.1 Wr
r.P.c. 3.2 tl/T
=
2.0M
=
7.26
3.0 M
8.39
4.0 M
9 -19
?PC IN t{ETRIC TONNES
il
-95-
(c) F)rdn the
$:'aph
-,
TPC et 3.25 lf draft
=
B.6i- tonnes
Sinkage equals tdrnage added ttrerr divided bY TFC
Irlevv Draft equals oltl draft plus sirrkage.
w
<t
{
s
\--
*
\,
F-
rY
$
N=
,l
I
25.0
=
2.90 crn
2.90+3.25M=3.279VL
Z5-
-.1
-
trt I
Yb'
QUESTIOI\
2
A Sh_iprs centre of Disc corresponds to a Mean Draft of 2.82 M.
If the FYesh Water rnark is l-.5 crn abcrue the centre of the disc,
ard the water density is 1.015 by tlzdrcnreter, to what Mean Draft
nay the ship be loaded so that the centre of the disc wil-l not
be sutnrerged wtren the ship
passes into Ffesh Water?
t' wh
7,r/ '
Al'lstilER
t''o?i,ur*'9'?lutspt
=
o'otlols'''
=
1.0 crn
2.82 Nl + 1.0 cnr
=
2.83 Draft
Q{JESTION
3
A ship of 1000 tonnes displacerent is floating
jn
sea water.
I,that wil-I the ctrange of draft be vjtren she sajas into River Water?
TPC at loadline is 23.5 tonnes-
ANWER
aparent change in tonnage =
*3*
=
0.98 or 9Bt
1000 -
(1000 x 0.98)
=
1000 -
980
=
20
Irrcrease in draft =
;3;$
=
0.85 crn +
QUESTION
4
A ship has a Flesh W4ter Allowance of 2 crn and the Harlcour specifj_c
gravibr is 1.010. How rmch can the loadline be sutrnerged before
proceeding to sea?
ANSWER
q
F(
{|
s
I
\
\
S
tt
\iJ
\-")
a_
(1.025-1.010)x2
=
(1.02s
- 1.000)
QUESTION 5
0.015x2
= 0.03
--{-:625-
b.O,'
= i.r crn
A ship is 65 M long; 10 M
jn
the top of the weather deck
is 0.8 M and the coefficient
her displacenent in sal-t water?
AIVSWER
breadth and has a draft of 5 M to
Midshln. The freeboard midships
of displacenrent is 0.65. trthrat is
5M-0.8M
=
4.2V1
6x6 x a. z\ x 0.65
i-
=
1731.219Mt
'" L.O2
-
----
::-z
QUESTIOI.{ 6
A ship displaces 6342 M3 wlren sg. is neasured at 1.018. Displace-
nent changes to 6358 M3. I{Lrat is the lrlao Sg.?
A}ISWER
6342 x 1.018
--?i58-
=
1'015 New specific c'raviqz
{
6
$
R
-97-
QUESTION 7
A str:ip is 138 r.r i6rrg;
IT M breadth
and
at a draft
of 5.49 M.
Coefficient
of
at that
draft is 0.758.
(a)
Find
her TpC;
and
(b)
r{hat
witl_
the draft
be irt Sg.
ANShIERS
is floating
in salt
water
Finesse
of her
watertrrlane
\
I
'i-
it,
c
s(
of 1.018?
(a)
(b)
TPC
- AREA
=
ffi
-
138 x 1Z-x
o'758
= 17.78
Trc,
New Draft
= (Ofa Draft
x ot_d Specific
cravj-tv)
A"*
.
g.
e
= 5.48 x 1.025
E
_^
)7
-l:Dm--
= r'52
M
qESTTONI
B
A ship fl0ats
at a draft
of 6.8g F\,{d arxl 6.g3
Aft.
Her Total
lhrent
i_s 105 Metric
Tonnes,
and thd Centre
of Flotation
is on
the rongi-tudiaal
centre
u.ne.
Find
the change
in Trim
and the
New Drafts
if a weight
of 40 tonnes is shifted
60 M forward-
ANShIER
Change
of Tyim
=
t"lonent
to Ctrange
Ttim
I'fIC=-----
-
FVd Draft
Aft Draft
= 40x60
10s
= 22.85
--T
=
6.88 +
0.114
6.93
- 0.114
= 22.85 crn
11.425
crn Change
of Ttim
= $.994 tq
- 6.816 M
Qt.iEsrlo[r 9
A ship has
of L7 cm.
densidz of
ANSI/IJER
-98-
f
-'
a sunrrer draft of 8.15 M
To wtrat draft nny
she
I.O07?
and FIesh
lilater
A11ouance
load in Dock
Water
of a
q
tr(
\\,
a
q.
\0
R
t
v
<'
\;
t
{
100 x 12
2000
QUESTTON 11
-
A weight
of 550
CG of the weight
ship.
rf
the
3250
tonnes,
what
ANSWER
8.15M+12.24crn
8.2724 M
2000
tonnes.
Find
gravity
if a weight
her hold
12 meters.
1200
20TO
0.60 M
tonnes
is loaded
on a ship.
The
is located
3 M from
that of the
shi-prs
original
displacement
was
will be the change
of the CG?
550x
?
3zEo--ffi
_
1650
3800
(I.O25
- 1.007)
x 17
_
0.018
x 'ffi)
--TTr#=12.24qn
Allowable
draft at dock water
=
=
QUESTTON 10
A ship has a displacement
of
the change
of her centre
of
of 100 tonnes
is shifted
across
ANSWER
0.434 M
x
-99-
QUESTION 12
A ship and her cargo
displace g4O0
a weight
of I2O tonnes
j.s
removed
35 M from the original
CG, what
will
of the CG?
ANSWER
tonnes.
ff
from
a point
be the change
0. s07
= 0.51 M
is loaded
into a vessel.
2550
tonnes.
The old KG
new KG under
the foJ-lowing
(
6
'd.
s{
r
\
ll
)
e
N-
I20 x 35
8400
_
I20
QUESTTON 13
4200
E2EO
A weight
of 35 tonnes
The new di_spJ.acement
is
v/as 4.52
yI.
What is the
condit i_ons ?
(
a
)
Loaded
6 .2 t"I above the
(b)
Loaded
6.2 14 below the
ANSWER
35 x 6-2
-255T--
= 0.085 M. KG.
CG?
CG?
( a) Loaded
(b)
Loaded
above CG
=
below CG
0.08
(New
KG)
0.08
(New
KG)
4.52
4 .60
4.52
4 .44
+
M
M
-100-
QUESTION
14
,n
A vessel displaces 3250 tonnes, and her KG is 6.8 M.
1150 tonnes are loaded with the CG 2.4 M above
the keel. What i-s the new KG?
^ANSWER
(6.8-2.4)x1150
(r
u
\t
\
F
{
(u
FA
\t
N
4.4 x 1150
_ffi
=
1.15
(
3250
+
6.8
11s0)
-
1.15
QUESTION
15
A derrick is used to
the hold. The heads
the original CG of
3200 tonnes. What is
ANSWER
5.65 M (New KG)
l-ift a 12 tonne weight from
of the denick is 15 M above
the weight. Displacement is
the shift of CG?
12 x 15
---2TT-
QUESTION
16
0.056 M upwards
A vessel displaces 4600 tonnes, and her KG is 4.6.
A weight of 25 tonnes is lifted from the lower
hold and stowed on the deck with the vesselrs der-
rick. The head of the derrick is 2I.5 M above
the keel. The CG of the weight was 1".4 M above
the keel when it was i-n the ho1d, and i-s L0 .4 M
above the keeJ- when on deck. Find the following:
-101-
(a) What is
fhe
KG when the weight is suspend_
ed ,from the derrick?
(b) What is the KG when the weight is landed
on the deck?
ANSWER
(a) (2L.5
-
I.4) x 25
.$
t
{t
v_1
F-
\
l!
,{
l:r
g
"{
(b)
4600
4.6 + 0.11
(10.4
-
1.4) x 25
4 600
4.6 + 0.05
20.1 x 25
---?600
-
=
4.77 M (New
9.0 x 25
--16IT- =
4.65 M (New
0. 109
KG)
0.049
KG)
I
I
I
il
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
QUESTION
].7
20 tonnes are lifted by a derrick, the derrick-head
is 15 M above the original position of the weight.
Vessel's displacement is 1750 tonnes. KG is 3.2 M.
Find the following:
( a
)
What is the new KG when the weight is
1.3 M above the keel?
(b) 10.4 M above the keel?
ANSWER
(a) 20 x l-5
1 750
3.2 + 0. 17
(b)
The same.
acts at the
- 0.1-7r
= 3.37 KG
Weight suspended from a derrick
derrick-head.
I
a
I
I
-L02-
QUESTION ],8
,_
A vessel displaces 2635 tonnes and a KG of 4.2g;
loads a weight of 35 tonnesi the derrj-ck with it's
head 17 M above the keel is used. when the weight
is stowed in the ho1d, the f inal positi_on
of it
's
CG is 2.8 M above the keel. Find the following:
(a)
What is the KG when the weight is suspend_
ed from the derrick?
(b)
What is the KG when the weight is loaded
in the hotd?
ANSWER
(a)
2635 +
35 2670 DrsP
35xL7
w
0.22 + 4.28
4.50 M
2670 DrsP
35 x 2.8
--2616-
0.04 x 4.28
4.24 M
(b)
2635 +
35
QUESTTON 19
Double
bottom
tank can hold 420 tonnes of sea-water.
When fu1l it's CG is 0.8 M above the keel. With
the tank empty,
DISP is 3700 tonnes and KG is B.7g
M. What is the KG when the tank is fil1ed?
{,
FI
\tr
$
ft
tr-
\
LN
s
i"l
\1,
N)
^\t
\
ANSWER
B.78
3700.0 +
420 x 7 .98
4I20
B.7B
QUESTION 20
Vessel's
tank
is 41.3 M from
ment is 2974
is the shift i_n
ANSWER
2974
- L92
I92 x 41.3
2782
QUESTION 21
The vessel
transferred
the forepeak
to an after
the tanks CG's i_s IZs
What i-s the shift i_n G?
ANSWER
=
2.2I M Aft
7.98
41,20.0
. 813
7 .97. ( new KG)
tl*
F{
$
sr
$
F
\
I{,
R
\)
\
\_
d
Ww
-103-
0.8
420.o
0.813
holds
I92
tonnes of water;
it,s
CG
that of the ship.
If the displace_
tonnes when
the tank is ful1,
what
G when it is pumped
out?
2782 New D.i_splacement
2.85 M
135 tonnes
of fuel from
tank. The di_stance
between
M; DfSP is 7620
tonnes-
QUESTION
22
The shiP's
are shifted
is 130 M.
was 6.13 M.
ANSWER
a
i
LCF is 4
aft to
Forward
Find the
-104-
M af t of mi-dships. WeJ_ghts
change the trim O.4 M. LBp
Draft was 5.97 M. Aft Draft
new draft.
(
F
s,
M
F
\
\tr
S,
t!
t,
v
\_
Forward Draft
After Draft
Mean Draft
By Proportional Methods
Change Draft
=
Change Aft
Forward Draft
After Draft
Mean Draft
QUESTION 23
SHIFT IN G
A plank weights
of itrs Centre
kg.
j-s
placed a
ina]. CG?
25.09 kg. What
of Gravity if a
distance of 3.66
5.97
-
0.4
-_-T_-
6-13 + 0-4
5.77 6.33
= 5.77 M
=
6.33 M
=
6.05 M
2
+
M
M
.x
tgr,/z
= +4
5 -97 -
0.2\
=
5.7 6
6.31 + 0.19
=
6.32
5.7 6 + 6.32
T=6'04
=
0.21
=
0.19
will be the shift
weight of L7.24
M from itrs orig-
-10s-
q
E
s
f,
\
\"
\
ts-
u
t\/
\
<{_
equal
to
the
by
the
shift
by
the
total
- 1.49
14
a body
moves
parallel_
to
the
the,
CG
of
any
weight
shifted
ANSWER
-
(a)
(b)
QUESTTON 24
'7-.&\
GG
= wXd
W
f
tEe
CG
of
shift
of
within
it.
The
distance
it
moves
is
weight
shif
ted,
mult.iplied
of
i-t
t
s CG;
all
divided
weight
of
the
body.
_
63.09
42-33
A beam
carries
2438
kg at
a distance
of
1.83
M
from
one
end
and
the
Centre
of Gravity
of the
whole
mass
is
6.09
M from
the
end.
ff
the
weight
of
.the beam
aLone
is 4267
.47 kg,
what
is the
dj-stance
of the
cG of the
origj_nar
beam
from
the
end?
r
6'\-1
"_; --
t''rl
r''L;J
u't:
-----
q'il"1:1\
t d) ANSWER
F
*i-'o
_+-,, -
L
t\ - 1,t11
&
,
b."-t
'
,,
W=ffi#
= 2.434 +
6.09
= 8.524
TPC
Find
the Tonnes
shaped
vessel
64
per
Centimeter
Meters
long
by
fmmersion
of
a box
10.668
Meters
breadth.
-106-
1 .025 x 1-0. 668 x 64.0
6.99 TPC
gJESTTON 26 ( II',IPERTAL)
VIEIGHT OFF TTIE CENTRE OF FI.OTATION
Vessel's length is 380 feet, TPI is 38 tons, ITM (Inch Ttim l'Idrnt)
is 840 tons. Centre of Flotation on the centre 1ine. There-is 57
tons rernlred 130 feet aft of the stern. Original drafts ate L7t2"
nrd ard 17'6" Aft. Find nenr drafts-
AT{S$IER
I"engrth
=
380
?
2
=
L90 feet -
130 feet
=
60 feet
{"
F
e
*.
\c
F
\
hr
-
U
R
l',lsnent to Chlange Trim
Change of Trim
Rencnral of weight the vessel will rise
=
W x D
=
57 tons x 60 feet
=
3420
3420 3420
=
-
=
a
ITM B4O
57
=
1ru
38
tz
17'6"
-0r
1.5"
TrT.5.l
+0t 2"
TT6ry_
w
TPI
I
i
J
I
i
I
f
a
i
Original Dnaft
Rise
Trim
FVd =
L712"
-0,1-5"
l7m-r
-o'2"
T6.rioEr
Aft
=
QUESIION
27 (METRIC)
IIEIGIIT OFF TI{E CEI{IRE OF FT,CIATION
Vesselrs length is l-15.82
yl,
TPC is L4.96 tonnes, MIC is 330.7
torlnes. Centre of Flotation on ttre centre l-ine. Ttrere is 57.9
torunes rennnred 39.62 M aft of the stern. Original drafts are
5.23 M nid ard 5.33 M Aft. Find new drafts.
'
#sr--t:,:1
!l':;* -':.:-;.,
'npc =
1.025
x Area of the Waterplane
(A)
100
ANsr4ER
- 107
-
Length
=
?,F
^
Mrrrent*o
^,ttt'ut
t
= 57'
chanse
;,
*T""=;x":';:i-
=";'r';*=.
t.-zg
t,r
Renr:var
of
weigh
=
.,s##
= 3.20
qn
78'29
= 1058'99
t
the
vesseL
wi-l.
lrise
=
W
orisinal
T:ra
Frac *
c
--
t"t =
#*
3-6
crn
Rise
.'-
- J.23
14
?rim
i#.-
Aft
= s';1
M
{"
i#-
*#-
*#-t
-[
\
^\
tN.
I'r
J+r
)
$.
N-1
F
\
\r'
t
d-]
LV
w
\
q
l
a
J
r
r
l-08
WEIGHT
OF ICE AND SNOWON
DECK
iirO:t
*" SL larvrence
Seaway
and the Great lakes
il;
i;*",
ir, thcsc
areas
may be subjected
ro the fonowing wind and sea conditions during the midsummer and
j- .,-';.*;.- .:,.'
i.. ,
1:"(i}l*fr{
spccds
in excess
of s3,:'{ph
11-^*1,:.f:-Y::f5":,Tch
are regularlv recorr
tlt'S-rriiilt;;
-"
usually associated
with steep short seas; and
:ss of 96 kph (60 mph) coupled with seas having a wave height of 6 metres (20 feet) with 15 to 21
ft)
wind spccds
in elce
. . --,L:^L
^-a ^^^-"i^-qrv,ecnrde.d
#;J(rr;ro
r""g betruee.,
crests which are occasionally
recorded.
Thc stability
information
for the ship when loaded to a draught equal to the tropicar fresh water load nne mark should
,l"r"fo."
bc
prepared
having regard to the foregoing'
It is recommcnded
that items (a) and (b) above be included in.the stability Infonnation Booklet as guidance notes to
thc mastcr.
A-S.10:2
Areas n'here the formation of ice should be taken into account
A ship which may trade in such an area during winter should be in possession of stability information which indicates the
cffcct of thc formation
of ice on the exposed hull, superstructure and deck cargo.
,I.his
cffect should be taken as either a "full icing allowance" or "half icing allowance' depending upon the particular
arca of operation.
These allowances and areas of operation are as follows
Fult icing allowance
An exoosed horizontal surfaces
(decks, house tops and tops ofdeck cargo etc) should be assumed to carry an ice weight
ornig# Gztbtth.
To account for the weight of ice considered
likely to form on all exposed vertical surfaces it should be assumed that
this weight equates to that ihictr woutd result if the lateral area of one side of the ship (and any deck ergo) above the
waterline was subjected to an ice weight of lskght
(3'l lb/O'
The position of the centre of gravity shoutd be calculated having regard to the respective heights of the assumed ice
covered areas. In the case of the projected lateral area the elfect of sundry booms, rails,
'*'ires
etc (which will not have
been included in the area calculated) shculd be taken into accouni by increasing the calculated weight by 5 per cent and
the calculated moment of this weight by 10 per cent'
Half icing allowance
This should be taken as one half of the "full icing allowance"'
Areas where a "full icing allowance" should be applied
(a) The area north of latitude 660 30'N between longitudes 10o w and the Norwegian coast'
(b) The drea north of latitude 630 N between longitudes 28o W and 10o W'
(c) The area north of latitude 4f N between the North American continent and longitude
28o W'
(d) All sea areas north of the European, Asian and North American continents east and west of the areas defined in
(a),
O)
and (c) above.
(e) The Okhotsk and Bering Seas and the Gulf of Tatary'
(0 All areas south of latitude 600 S.
Areas where a Aalf icing altowance" should he applied
All areas north of latitude 610 N between longitude zsp w and the Norwegian coast which are south of the areas which
require a'full icing allowance.' other areas frthin the Seasona! Winter Zone (as defined in the Rules) agreed between
!L
owners and thc Department when warranted by experience'
:.ts***
q
$
(
$
F
I
\
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s\
ir-
U
.\
v
a_
ri:1'