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The Yangon Gallery

wGifusif;yaom 14th Photo City "mwfykHjyyGJ


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20

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25

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26

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29

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acgufvdkuf pkwfwowfowfjzpfaewJhtcsdefyg/
uRefawmfeJY q&mwm&m[m tJ'DumvawGwkef;u aeYpOfawGUae
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qdk&if q&mu pmrlawGay;vdkufw,f/
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awmf rajym&ufbl;/ q&m atmifyef;NrdKUuav;rSm uG,fvGefoGm;wJh
txd 'DtaMumif;t&mudk odroGm;&Smbl;/
uAsmq&marmif a csmEG , f e J Y (33)vrf;xdyf a&TMunfat; vuf
zuf&nfqdkif&JU Aef'gyifatmufrSm
awGUawmh ]]a[haumif EkdYukvm;
'*kefwm&mudk rxdcvkyf xdcvkyf
vkyfaewJhaumifawG wpfaeY uHBuD;
xd k u f v d r f h r ,f / q&mwm&mu
wu,fh olawmfpifBuD;yguGm}}wJh/
'Dpum;udk vnf; q&mhukd uRefawmf
jyefajymjybl;w,f/ q&muawmh
olYrlydkifEIwfcrf;av;wGefYNyD; NyHK;ae
wmygyJ/
uRefawmfuvnf; rdom;pkpD;
yGm;a&;wpfzuf ausmif;wpfzufeJY
qdkawmh wpfcgwav q&mwm&mh
qD r a&muf w J h & uf a wG v nf ; &S d y g
w,f/
q&mhtdrfudk uRefawmfa&muf
oGm;NyDqdk&ifawmh q&mhudkpmzwf
ay;zdkYygyJ/
q&muvnf; raeYu b,f
olawG vmw,fAsqdw
k mrsKd; owif;
udk qufay;ygw,f/
wpfaeYrSmawmh
]wm&mr*Zif;} tESpf (40)jynfh
qd k N yD ; tJ ' D w k e f ; u ]td y f r uf z l ; }
r*Zif;vkyfaewJh armifomcsKdwdkY?
,rHw
k ?Ykd aZmif;xufwYkd vmoGm;w,f
vdkY ajymygw,f/
q&mu xl;xl;jcm;jcm; ajym
wmwpfck&Sdygao;w,f/ bdkiftdkrif;
opfeJY olYtrsKd;orD; ]&S,fvDxGm;}vnf; ygvmw,fwJh/
]&S,fvDxGm;}csufvmwJh bJom;eJY vufzuf? 0ufeHdk;eJY rQpfcsOf[if;
awGu odyfaumif;wmyJAsmwJh/
q&mu tpm;taomufrSmvnf; tvGefZDZmaMumifolyg/ yJ[if;
BudKufw,f/ ykpGefxkyfaMumf BudKufw,f/
]r&S,fvD}vuf&musawmh ol NidoGm;yHk&w,f/
rqv acwfrSm jrefrmhtoHrSm ]acR;NrdKUawmfa&eHajr} qdkwJh oDcsif;
"mwfjym; tqdkawmf ]oufouf}[m rr ]&S,fvD}ygyJ/

aemufwpf&uf naecif;
...uRefawmf q&mhtrd af &mufomG ;awmh ]]udak tmifcifvmoGm;w,f
As}vdkY q&mu ajymygw,f/
uRefawmfu ]udkatmifcif}udk rodygbl;/ ckaemufydkif;rS odwm
yg/ ]&mZmBuD;aygh}? ]atmifNrdKif}? wdkY ]atmifvdIif}wdkYeJY bmomjyefawG
bmawG a&;olaygh/
]udkatmifcif} q&mhtdrfudkvmwJhtcsdefrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD
twGuf NrdKUay:rSm ajratmufawmfvSefa&; tBuD;pm;vkyfaeolqdkwm
vnf; ckaemufydkif;rS od&wmygyJ/ trIrwGJoGm;wmaus;Zl;wifygw,f/
arSmfbDu jrefrmpmar*smeJY
bGJU&NyD; rlvwef;ausmif;tkyfq&m
av;vk y f a ewJ h

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q,fESpf? q,fESpftjynfhaecJh&ygw,f/
q&mu ]udkatmifcif}udk ]]rSefuGJprsm;ay:wGif vrf;avQmufjcif;}}
0wKzwfNyD;NyDvm;vdkY ar;owJh/
olYudk ajymqdka0zefaewJhtaMumif;vnf; ajymvdkufawmh udkatmif
cifu ]]q&mh0wKudk uRefawmfBudKufw,f? q&mu ]rmhcf0g'}&JU cspf
jcif;arwmtESpfudka&;xm;wm? taewl 0goemwl tusifhpdkufwlNyD;
wpfOD;eJYwpfOD; em;vnfolawGtaMumif;a&;xm;wmvdkY uRefawmf,Hk

&cdkiftmZmenf q&mawmftoQifOD;Owr ysHvGefawmfrljcif;


pdef&wkjynfUtxdrf;trSwftcrf;tem; usif;y

&ef u k e f puf w if b m 9
&cdkiftmZmenf q&mawmftoQifOD;Owr ysHvGefawmfrIjcif; pdef&wk
jynfh ESpyf wfvnftxdr;f trSwf tcrf;tem;udk pufwifbm (9)7ufaeYu
&efukef&Sd jrefrmuGefAif;&Sif;pifwm usif;yjyKvkyfcJhonf/
tcrf;tem;odYk q&mawmfoC
H mawmfrsm;? trsdK;om;'Dru
kd a&pD tzGYJ
csKyfem,uOD;wifOD;ESifh &cdkifEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh &cdkifwdkif;&if;om;
rsdK;EG,fpk0ifrsm;wwfa&mufcJhMuonf/
tcrf;tem;wGif &cdkifwdkif;&if;om;a&;&m0efMuD;OD;aZmfat;armifu
q&mawmtoQifOD;Owrkyfwktm; pufcvkwfESdyfzGifhvSpfay;cJhonf/
q&mawmftoQifO;D Owronf (1879)ckEpS f 'DZifbm(28)&ufaeYwiG f
&cdkifjynfe,f ppfawGjrdKU lyajrmuf &yfuGufwGifzGm;jrifjyD; (1939)ckESpf?

pufwifbm(9)&ufaeYwGif &efukef
ysHvGefawmfrlonf/
q&mawmf o nf t*F v d y f ?
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[dEL? jyifopf? tDwvD? wdbuf
ponfb
h mompum;aygi;f (9)bmomudk
wwfuRr;f onfq
h &mawmfwpfyg;jzpfonf/
xdpk Ofu jAdwo
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rsm; a[majymcJhaomaMumifh q&m
awmf o nf (1922)ck E S p f w G i f
yk'fr(124) jzifh axmif'Pf(4)ESpf?
(1924)ckESpfwGif yk'fr(144)jzifh
'kwd,tMudrf axmif'Pf(5)ESpf?
(1927)ckESpfwGif yk'fr(144)jzifh
wwd,tMudrf axmif'Pf (3)ESpf
ponfjzifh axmif'Pfrsm; csrw
S cf cH hJ
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jzpfonf/
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rsm;u q&mawmftoQifOD;Owr
tm; yxrqH k ; aom Ed k i f i H a &;
tusOf;om;tjzpf todtrSwfjyK
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'gawG[m
q&mwm&m uRefawmfhudk jyefajymjyvdkY odcJh&wmyg/ q&muawmh
ajymNyD;wJhtcg NyHK;aew,fAs/ OD;atmifcif&JU rSwfcsufudk auseyfaeNyD;
olYudk em;vnfwJholawGvnf; &Sdaeygao;w,fvdkY ,HkMunfaeyHkygyJ/
]]cifAsm;a&m b,fvdkjrifvJ}}vdkY uRefawmfhudk xyfar;aeygao;
w,f/
uRefawmfuawmh &Sif;&Sif;ygyJ/
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q&mht,ltqeJY vljzpfvmwJh vlawGav}}vdkY ajymvdkufygw,f/
q&mhtNyHK;u aysmufroGm;ao;ygbl;/
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jyefNyHK;ae&wmygyJ/ ]0if;udk} axmif
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xdcdkufoGm;ygw,f/
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txdvkyf&vm;}} wJh/
ajymNyD;awmh acgif;udk
tay:armh N yD ; tMumBuD ; yJ
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w,f/
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vnf ; rvk y f & pum;vnf ;
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puf H k t jyif b uf 0ef x rf ; td r f & m
opfom;tdrfuav;rSm &SdcJhbl;ygw,f/
wpfcgw&HrSmawmh ]]udkjrwfcdkifeJY awGUao;vm;}}vdkY
ar;wwfovdk ]]udk0if;Nidrf;eJY awGUao;vm;}}vdkYvnf;
ar;wwfygw,f/
wpfcgwavrSmawmh
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avh&Sdw,f/
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]]a*ghwpfqdkwmvnf; vdktyfwmyJAs? EkdifiHwumpme,fZif;awGrSm
&Sdygw,f/ 'Dvl pma&;wwfw,fAs? wcsKdUuawmh olYudkBudKufyHkr&bl;/
'gayr,fh uRefawmfBudKufw,f}}vdkY ajymcJhbl;ygw,f/
ckawmh
udkjrwfcdkifvnf; jyefa&;wJhtxJrSm ygaeygNyD/

yDtm&fpepfuefhuGufaMumif; vufrSwfrsm;udk vTwfawmfwifEkdif&ef


t&yfbuf vlhtzGJYtpnf;rsm; pkpnf;ae
&ef u k e f puf w if b m 7
vmrnfh (2015)a&G;aumufyGJ
wGif yDtm&fpepfajymif;vJusifhoHk;&ef
vTwfawmfwGif;tqdktm; uefYuGuf
aMumif;vufrw
S rf sm;udk vTwaf wmfoYkd
wifjyEdkif&ef t&yfzufvlYtzGJYtpnf;
rsm;u jynfolvlxkxHrS vdkufvH pk
aqmif;aeaMumif;od&onf/
jynfov
Yl yI &f mS ;rIjriw
hf ifa&; uGef
,uf? t&yfbufvlUtzGJYtpnf;rsm;
ESifh? wwf<uvSKyf&Sm;olrsm; yl;aygif;
jyD; pufwifbm (7)&ufaeYu &ef
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yDtm&fpepfESifhyufouf jynfaxmifpk a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&SifOu| OD;wifat;u a&G;aumufyGJ
pepfajymif;vJjcif;onf vTwfawmf\tqHk; tjzwfomjzpfjyD; vG,fulonfh a&G;aumufyGJpepfudkomusifhoHk;&ef
vTwf awmfodkYajymqdkxm;aMumif;ajymonf/
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tacstwiffaqG;aEG;aeqJomjzpfonf/
yDtm&fpepftm; trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJYcsKyfESifh wdkif;&if;om;ygwDrsm;u vufrcHaMumif;ajymqdkxm;onf/
yDtm&fpepfonf&SKyfaxG;vGef;aom a&G;aumufyGJpepfwpfckjzpf aMumif; w&m;vTwfawmfa&SUaetrsm;pku
ajymqdkaeMuonf/
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apmzd k ; cG m ;

31

,cifwpfywfrStquf
Q: kyf&Sifqdkwm zvifaumfjym;&SdrS dkufvdkY&w,fqdkwJhacwft
aMumif;udk ajymaeawmh zvifr&Sd&if kyf&Sifrjzpfbl;/
A: aocsmwmaygh/
Q: NyD;awmh tJh'Dzvifu oHk;rsKd;&Sdw,f? e*wpf ayghpwpf aqmif;
(toHzvifaygh)
A: rSefygw,f
Q: uRefawmfodcsifwmu tJ'DzvifoHk;rsKd;udk qwloHk;wmvm;/
A: bmudkar;wmvJ/
Q: 'Dvdkav ayghpwpf aywpfodef;qdk e*wpfaum? aqmif;aum
aywpfodef;qDvdkwmaygh/
A: tJhvdkr[kwfbl;av/ e*wpfwdkY aqmif;wdkYu uRefawmfwdkYEkdifiH
taeeJYajym&&if ayav;aomif;qdk av;aomif; ajcmufaomif;qdk
ajcmuf aomif; tJ'gtNyD;yJav/ Hkwifjyr,fh ayghpwpf zvifuom
NrdKUwum e,fwum vSnfhjy&rSmrdkY trsm;BuD;vdkwm/ tenf;qHk;
Zmwfum;ajcmufaumfyDul;&r,f/ wpfaumfyDudk ArmZmwfum;taeeJY
qd&k if wpfq,fEh pS yf ikd ;f ? aytm;jzifh wpfaomif;ESpaf xmif/ ajcmufaumfyD
aygh p wpf a v (72000)zvif y H k ; ck e pf q ,f h E S p f y H k ; / 'g tMurf ; ul ;
wmrygao;bl;/
Q: tMurf;ul;w,fqdkwmu b,fvdk[mrsKd;vJ/
A: Zmwfum;aumif;wpfum;jzpfzYkd ESpt
f m;jzifh &SnMf umpGm rysuf
rpD; xdef;odrf;EkdifzdkYqdkwJhae&mrSm tMurf;ul;jcif;qdkwmvnf;
rvkyfrjzpf aom vkyf&yfwpfckyJ/
Q: 'g urmh vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;vm;/
A: [kwfw,f/
Q: jrefrmjynfrSm rvkyfawmhbl;vm;/
A: rvkyfEkdifawmhbl; tMurf;ul;w,fqdkwm bmrSef;awmif
rod Muawmhbl;/
Q: b,fawmhavmufupNyD; rvkyfEkdifawmhwmvJ/
A: 1964 ckESpfavmufu pcJhwmyJ/
Q: 'Dht&ifuaum/
A: 'Dht&ifu Zmwfum;wdkif; tMurf;ul;Muw,f/
Q: tJ'g trsm;em;vnfatmif b,fvdkajymjyrvJ/
A: OyrmAsm (CLAP)vdkY wifpm;ac:wJh t"du Director-Production NyD;awmh Date qdkwm awGU&w,f/ usefwJh Scene &,f CVT &,fu
zvifwnf;jzwfcef;xGujf zpfw,f/ wpfcrk mS tenf;qH;k ESpu
f m;du
k w
f ,f/
olwEYkd idk if rH mS awmh 'gdu
k w
f mvnf; trsm;BuD;/ Zmwfum;awGvnf; trsm;
BuD;aygh/ tJ'Dawmh wpfaeY wpfaeY dkuforQ uifr&mxJu xGufvm
orQ? e*wpf zvifawGudk zvifaq;cef;ydkY&w,f/ aq;NyD;vdkY e*wpf
tkyftjzpfeJY xGufvmawmhrS Zmwfum;emrnf? 'gdkufwmemrnfawG
MunfhNyD; olYum;eJY olY'gdkufwm cGJjcm;Mu&w,f/ 'gudk aeYpOfvkyfwJh
twGuf Dalies a';vD;pfvdkY ac:w,f/ 'D a';vD;pfawG[m ckrS yxr
OD;qHk; tvif;a&mifudk jrifawGUcGifh&wJh zvifawGjzpfw,f/ wifpm;&
&ifawmh MuufrxJu ckrSxGufusvmwJh MuufOtopfav;vdkyJ/ tyGef;
tyJh tpif; tjcpf bmrS rxifao;bl;/ odkYaomf Zmwfum;dkufwkef;
u okyfaqmifpum;rSm;wm? 'gdkufwmrBudKufwm? uifr&m rD;pwJh
[mawG csKdU,Gif;csuf&Sdwm? tJ'gawGaMumifh jyefdkuf/ jyefdkuful;awG&Sdae
ao;awmh 'gdkufwmudk,fwkdif 'grSr[kwf vufaxmuf? 'grSr[kwf
rS w f w rf ; a&m rS w f o l a wG u / um;d k u f w k e f ; u Bud K uf r Bud K uf
,lr,fr,lbl;/ (Rejects) tysuftpD;awGudk rSwfwrf;eJY jyefwdkufNyD;
vHk;0 raumif;wmawG ckuwnf;u tNyD;tydkif y,fxkwfvTifhypfcJh&
w,f/ at; ,lr,fqdkNyD; rSwfxm;cJhwmawGudkawmh wpf? ESpf? oHk;?
av; pDum pOfum wGJqufNyD; 'D e*wpfudk toHrygao;aom aygh
pwpftkyf tMurf;tjzpful;w,f/ wpfaeukef kyf&SifdkufMuwJhtcg/
twGif;cef; (In Door)dkufwmvnf; &Sdw,f/ tjyifcef; (Out Door)dkuf
wmvnf; &Sdw,f/ wu,fhwu,f Hkay:wifr,fh aumfyDul;&NyDqdk&if
awmh twG i f ; cef ; eJ Y tjyif c ef ; tvif ; a&mif r wl w mawG u d k
tvif ; tarS m if n d w ,f ( Light Change )ay;w,f v d k Y v nf ;
uRefawmfwo
Ykd w
d ,f/ tck tMurf;ul;wJt
h kyrf mS toHrygHw
k ifr[kwb
f ;l ?
tvif ; tarS m if v nf ; rn d b l ; wpf r D ; wnf ; eJ Y tk y f x if & if
NyD;a&mqdkwJhoabmeJY ul;w,f/ 'gudk zkwfylrD;wdkuf ul;ovdkjzpfvdkY
Rush Print vdkY ac:w,f/ 'D tkyf Murf;eJYyJ zvifwnf;jzwfwJhtvkyfudk
vkyfawmhrSmrdkYvdkY Work Print vdkY vnf; ac:w,f/ apmapmu ajymcJhwJh
MuufOtopfuav;eJY Oyrm ay;cJhwJh rlve*wpf (Original Negative)
od k Y r [k w f rd c if r l v ( Mother Negative)ud k a wmh zvif w nf ; jzwf
aewJhtqifhrSm ay;rudkifawmhbl;/ rlveJY qufvdkY ysufpD;oGm;&if
jyeftpm;r&Ekdifbl;/ trSm;rcHEkdifbl;/ tpif; taysmuf tjzpfrcHEkdifbl;/
rSm;rSm; rSefrSef tMurf;eJYyJqufawmh/ wdk;csifvQif avQmhcsifvQif
jyifcsiv
f Qif if; Work Print udyk J vkyv
f &kd m vkyaf wmh/ bmeJw
Y rl vJqakd wmh
ukwftuscsKyfr,fhydwfpudk uwfaMu; eJY rnyfcif rdkif;udkifpuLvdkYac:wJh
vufzufajcmufxkyfwJh puLjzLrSm yHkpHcsNyD; nyfwJhoabmyJ/ tp
taumif;udk tysufrcHEkdifbl;/
Q: [kwfNyD 'gqdk e*wpfzvif ayav;aomif;eJYdkufNyD; raumif;
wJh tysuftpD;awG jzwfxkwf Editing rvkyfao;bJ ay oHk;aomif;
usefw,fqdk&if ayghpwpf tkyfMurf; Work Print udkvnf; ay oHk;
aomif; udk,ful;&r,fhoabmaygh/
A: [kwfw,f/ NyD;awmhrS tkyfMurf;&JU (Clap)*syfjym;ay:u tcef;
pOfeHygwf uwfeHygwfawGtwdkif; toHzvifrSmvnf; &SmNyD; tkyfeJY

32

e*wpfzvif

tkyful;NyD; ayghpwpfzvif

toH pNyD;wGJw,f/ tJovdkyJ Work Print tkyfMurf;eJY toHzvifudk


Zmwfum;wpfum;vHk;twGuf um;ydkif;wGJw,f/ ajymcJhzl;wJhjypuf rlAD
tdkvmay:rSm tkyftoH wpfNydKifwnf; armif;Munfhr,fqdk&if Zmwfum;
wpfum;vHk;udk tMurf;zsif; MunfhvdkY&aeNyD/ bmrSawmh rjzwfrawmuf
&ao;bl;/ 'Dvdk tkyfMurf;eJY zvifeJYquf&vdkY zvift,f'DwmtwGuf
vuf&JZuf&J wnf;jzwfEkdifw,f/ Zmwf0ifcef;wpfckudk qufvdkuf? jy
pufay:wif armif;Munfhvdkuf? jzwfwm vufvGefoGm;&ifvnf; tkyf
Murf;rdkY pdk;&drfp&mr&Sdbl;/ zmvdkY ax;vdkY&w,f/ ajymcsifwmuawmh
raumif;rcsif; pdwfBudKufrjzpfrcsif; qufvdkY&w,f/ raumif;bl;xif
NyD; vTifhypfvdkufwJh tkyfudk jyefaumufxnfhvdkYvnf; &w,f/
xH k ; pH t wd k i f ; wnf ;
jzwfNyD;wJhtcg Zmwfum;ydkif;
u &S n f a eNyD / ud p r &S d b l ; /
jypufay:wifNyD; xyfcg
wvJvJMunfh/ rygvdkY ta&;
rBuD;wJhtkyf/ Zmwfvrf;udk
rxdcu
kd Ef idk w
f t
hJ oH tJ'gawG udk
Ed I u f x k w f j zwf y pf ( Delete )
'vdqdkwJhpum;&JUt"dym,faygh/
ayavQmhwmaygh/
tMurf; Work Print eJY
rquf b J rl v Original
Negative e*wpfeJY quf&if
'grsKd; pdwfBudKuf vufraqmh
Ekdifbl;/ aqmhvnf; raqmh&J
ygbl;/ 'Dawmh um;qufwJh
ae&mrS m ( Compact )od y f
onf ; uspf v pf r I r&Ek d i f b l ; /
tenf;eJYtrsm; tydktvdkawG
awGU&w,f/
tkyfESifhtoH xyfwlul;xm;onfh
ayghpwpfzvif

ck Zmwfum;wpfckvHk;wnf;jzwfNyD;ygNyD/ qufNyD;
toH z vif r S m vnf ; trS e f j zpf y gw,f / quf N yD ;
tkyfjcrf;rSmvnf; trSefjzpfygw,f/ odkYaomf if;
toHrSm ZmwfydkY aemufcHaw;*DwoHrsm; rygao;bl;/
pum;ajym oufoufrQom &Sdygao;w,f/ xdkYtwl
aygh p wpf t k y f M urf ; rS m vnf ; toH r ygao;ygbl ; /
tvif;tarSmifvnf; rrSefao;ygbl;/ 'g yxrqHk;
tqifh qufNyD;jcif;omjzpfygw,f/ aemufwpfqifh
twGufu vHk;0 rudkufbJ &G&Gav; Oxm;wJh tNrD;
acgif; rEkwf&ao;wJh rlv e*wpfudk ,lyg/ NyD;&if
cke pdwfBudKuf qufxm;wJh tkyfMurf;eJY wpfuGufrS
rvGJatmif wdkufNyD;jzwfyg qufyg/ (Matching)
vkyfw,fvdkY ac:ygw,f/ 'g[m Zmwfum;twGuf
pif;vHk;acsm jzwfawmufNyD;om; e*wpfjzpf oGm;ygNyD/
NyD;&if apmapmu qufxm;wJh toHzvif
ydkif;rsm;ESifh yl;xyfNyD; ayghpwpf zviftopfay:rSm
(Print)ul;yg/ ck xGufvmr,fh tkyfaygh pwpf[m
toHyg ygvmcJhNyDjzpfvdkY Hkay:rSm jyvdkY&ygNyD/ 'gudk
(Married Print)tkyf toHxyful;vdkY odkYr[kwf
aw;*DwoHeJY wjcm;todawG
xyf a wmh r S r d k Y v d k Y ( Dubbing
Print)vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
'Dtqifah &mufwt
hJ cgrSm yxrqH;k
quf x m;wJ h aygh p wpf Work Print
tkyfjcrf;eJY toHum;ydkif;awGudk rvdk
awmhygbl;/ a0;ypfvdkufygawmh/
Q: 'gqdk tkyfMurf; ayghpwpf
ay oHk;aomif;? toHay oHk;aomif;
vTifhypfvdkufwmaygh/
A: 'gaygh NyD;&if aemufwpfqifh vTifhypfOD;r,f/
ck Dubbing Print vd k Y a c:wJ h tk y f t oH w G J v suf
ayghpwpf&NyD/ *DwrSL;awG? twD;trIwf q&mawG
ac:NyD; Zmwfum;ydkif;awGudkjyw,f/ ajymcJhbl;ygw,f/
kyf&Sifuifr&mvnfywfwJhEIef;? toHzrf;&Daumf'g
vnfwJhEIef;? kyf&SifHkBuD;ay:u jypuf (Projecter)
vnfwJhEIef;/ tm;vHk;[m (Speed)wlwlygyJ/ wpfrdepf udk zvifay
(90)ajy;ygw,f/ 'Dawmh *DwrSL;u ajy;ckefypfrSmoHk;wJh ( Stop
Watch)em&DudkufNyD; ydwfum;ay:jyaewJh tkyfawGudk MunfhrSwf
ygw,f/ rif;om;rif;orD; vGrf;aewm wpfrdepf tvGrf;wa,moH
wpfred pfpmxd;k yg/ rif;om;eJY vlMurf;awG ajy;Mu vdu
k Mf uwm oH;k rdepf/
qlqlnHnHwD;yg pojzifhaygh/ Zmwfum;wpfum;vHk;twGuf vdkufzuf
r,fh aw;oGm;? vdkufzufr,fh wl&d,m? ypnf;awG a&G;pyfNyD; wD;Mu
rIwfMuw,f/ ydwfum;ay:rSm tkyfudk jyefjycdkif;? twD;eJY vdkufrvdkuf/
tcsdefudkuf rudkuf tJovdk Zmwf0iftkyfeJY ZmwfydkY aw;wdkY vdkufzuf
NyDqdkrS aw;oHrsm;udk oyfoyf toHzrf;,lw,f/ apmapmu tkyf
toH xyful;xm;wJh (Dubbing Print)u pum;ajymoHawGeJY ckoGif;
wJhaw;oHawGeJY ndNyD; aemufxyf toHzviftopfay:rSm (Transfer)
ul;,lygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm *Dwaw;oH+pum;oH a&moGm;NyDjzpfvdkY
(Mixing Sound)vdkYac: w,f/ 'DtoH[m HkwifaumfyDul;zdkYtwGuf
zd k i f e ,f t oH y gyJ / 'gaMumif h yxrtqif h u quf N yD ; toH u d k
vTifhypfcJhwm/ ckwpfcg 'kwd,tqifhrSm ul;cJhwJh ayghpwpf toH
tkyf 'gbif aumfyDudkvnf; rvdkawmhwmrdkY vTifhypfwJhtxJ xnfh
vdkuf&ygNyD/
Q: 'gqdk tkyfMurf; ayghpwpf ay oHk;aomif; yxrtBudrf ck
aw;*DwtoH rygaom tkyfacsm toHyg ayghpwpfzvif Zmwfum;
wpfxkyfpm Oyrm ay aomif;ESpfaxmif vTifhypfvdkufNyD/ toHuawmh
yxrtqifh wnf;jzwfNyD; ay oHk;aomif; vTifhypfcJh&NyD/
A: [kwfw,f ckqdk&if HkwifaumfyDul;awmhr,fh tacsmqufNyD;
rlve*wpfeJY aw;*DwtoHeJY pum;oHawG (Mix)a&mxm;wJh zdkife,f
toHyJusefawmhw,f/ ajymcJhwJhtqifhawG jzwfausmfzdkY zvifoHk;cJhwm
awGudk jzKef;w,fvdkYqdkrvm;/ uRefawmf ckvdk &Snfvsm;avrsm;ajymae
&wm[m Zmwfum;aumif;wpfum;jzpfvmzdkY vkyfcJh&wJhtqifhawGudk
ausmfoGm;vdkY r&vdkYyg/
Oyrm jyp&mZmwfum;awGtrsm;BuD;yg/ vlodrsm;wJh rHIa&T&nf
Zmwfodrf;ydkif;jzpfwJh atmifvGifeJY cifoef;Ek ZmwfHkxJp0ifvmwJh
tcef;upNyD; 0if;OD; aoqH;k oGm;wJt
h xd zvifwnf;jzwfjcif;udk BuHKwJh
tcg jyefMunfhay;yg/ tJ'Dtydkif;udk rlv atmf&D*se,f e*wpfeJY
quf&if 'gavmufraumif;Ekdifygbl;/ dkufpOfu aytm;jzifh ESpfaxmif
ausmf em&Dtm;jzifh rdepf (20)&SdwJh tkyfawGudk ay (400) rdepftm;jzifh
av;rdepf ausmfausmftwGi;f rSm taMumif;t&mpHak tmif qufEidk cf w
hJ m/
y&dowf xdrdatmif qufEkdifcJhwm[m ayghpwpf tkyfjcrf;ul;NyD;
qufcGifh&cJhvdkY yg/
twwfEkdifqHk; jynfhpHkatmif ajym&wmuvnf; aemufaemifudk
uRefawmfwdkY ckvdk tkyfMurf;eJYul;NyD; qufcGifhr&SdawmhvdkYyg/ zvif0,f
,loHk;pGJcGifhqdkwmvnf; uefYowfcsufaygif;pHkeJYvmawmhrSmyg/ tJ'gu
awmh 1964 ckESpfrSm vkyfief;awGudk jynfolydkifodrf;vdkufwmu pcJh
wmygyJ/
a&SUwpfywfqufzwf&ef

OD;odef;GefY oCFef;uRef;rJqEe,f\ 1950 jynfhESpf ta&;ay: pDrHrItufOya' (tufOya'trSwf 17^1950)udk


kyfodrf;ay;yg&ef tqdkwifoGif;jcif;
odkY
OD;jrwfcdkifcifAsm;
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;tygt0if trsm;oligavhvmEkdifa&;twGuf
uRefawmfh&JU vTwfawmfqdkif&mar;cGef;rsm;? tqdkrsm;? Oya'Murf;rsm;udk
xnfhoGif;azmfjyay;wJhtwGuf vQyfwpfjyuf*sme,fudk txl;aus;Zl;wif
ygw,f/
2010 a&G;aumufyGJudk jzwfoef;NyD; jynfolYvTwfawmf? jynfaxmif
pkvTwfawmf tpnf;ta0;rsm;pwifcsdefu tckvdk owif;rD'D,mrsm;u
us,fus,fjyefjY yefY xkwaf zmfa&;om;Ekid jf cif;r&Syd gbl;/ tpd;k &ydik o
f wif;pm
rsm;uvnf; odwJhtwdkif;ygyJ/ Sky Net kyfoHuvnf; uRefawmfrSwf
rdoavmuf pwkwtBudrf vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;rSom xkwfvTifhEkdif
cJhygw,f/
'gaMumifh vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;rSwfwrf;rsm;udk tajccHNyD; 1950
jynfhESpf ta&;ay:pDrHrI tufOya'(tufOya'trSwf-17^1950)udk
kyfodrf;ay;yg&ef udpESifhywfoufNyD; (29?8?2011)rSm wifoGif;cJhwJh
uRefawmfhtqdkudk atmufygtwdkif; jyefvnfazmfjytyfygw,f/
Ou | / / oCFef;uRef;rJqEe,frS OD;odef;GefYtm; tqdkwifoGif;
zdkY zdwfac:ygw,f/
OD;odef;GefY(oCFef;uRef;rJqEe,f)/ / av;pm;tyfygaom jynfoYl
vTwfawmfOu|BuD;ESifh jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;cifAsm;/ tck
uRefawmf wifoGif;r,fhtqdkeJYywfoufNyD;awmh OD;pGm &Sif;vif;wifjy
csifwmuawmh tm;vHk;odwJhtwdkif;yJ Oya'qdkwm vlYtzGJUtpnf;wpfck
rSm b,fvdkaqmif&Guf&r,fqdkwm Tefjyxm;wJh Oya'jyKtzGJU&JU xkwf
jyefaMunmcsufygyJqdkwm uRefawmf OD;pGm wifjyyg&ap/ NyD;awmh
uRefawmfh&JU Oya'&yfwnfcsuf ESpfcsufudk wifjyvdkygw,f/ wpfcsuf
u Oya'ynm&SifBuD;rsm;&JU tqdktrdefYawGxJu uRefawmf tifrwef
ESpfoufwJh Oya'awGeJYywfoufwJh zGifhqdkcsufuawmh w&m;Oya'qdk
wm tjypfay;&efr[kwf vlYavmu om,mpnfyifatmif zefwD;ay;
aom vufeufwpfckom jzpfw,fqdkwJh tqdktrdefYudk uRefawmfcH,l
ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh vlYavmu om,mpdkjynfa&;twGuf aqmfvdkufr,f
[Jh? csvdkufr,f[Jh? ESufvdkufr,f[JhqdkwJh Oya'&yfwnfcsufrsKd;udk
uRef awmf vufrcHygbl;/ 'kw,
d uawmh w&m;Oya'qdw
k m bmvJqw
kd hJ
zGifhqdkcsufeJYywfoufvQif q&mawmfOD;aZmwdu&JU vGwfvyfwJhpdwfqdk
wJh pmtkyrf mS w&m;Oya'qdw
k m w&m;wJOh ya'udo
k m zGiq
hf w
kd mjzpfw,f
qdkwJhtcsufudkvnf; q&mawmf&JU oifMum;csufudk uRefawmf uaeY
txd tav;teuf rSwfom;xm;ygw,f/
av;pm;tyfaom jynfolYvTwfawmfOu|BuD;eJY vTwfawmfudk,fpm;
vS,frsm;cifAsm;/ 'DOya'udk bmaMumifhjyifzdkY vdktyfovJqdkwmeJYywf
oufvQif uRefawmf tusKd;taMumif; azmfjycsuftqdkxJrSm azmfjy
xm;ygw,f/ 1950 jynfhESpf ta&;ay:pDrHrI tufOya' (tufOya'
trSwf 17^1950)onf 1949 ckESpfrS tpjyKaom vufeufudkif
aomif;usef;rIudk ESdrfeif;&efESifh Nidrf0yfydjym;a&;udk xdef;odrf;apmifh
a&Smuf&ef&nf&G,fcsufjzifh jy|mef;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmhEkdifiHa&; tajc
taeonf ,aeYwGif 1949 ckESpfESifh wlnDjcif;r&Sdawmhyg/ ,if;
tufOya'jy|mef;csufuJhodkY Nidrf0yfydjym;a&;ESifhywfouf wnfqJjypfrI
qdkif&m &mZowfBuD;Oya'rsm;vnf; jy|mef;csufyg&SdNyD; jzpfonf/
xdkYtjyif EkdifiHawmfvHkNcHKa&;ESifhywfouf ]]EkdifiHawmftm; aESmifh,Suf
zsufqD;vdkolrsm;\ab;tE&m,frS umuG,fapmihfa&SmufonfhOya'}}udk
jy|mef;xm;NyD; jzpfonf/ 'gaMumifh 1950 jynfhESpf ta&;ay:pDrHrI
tufOya'udk kyfodrf;ay;zdkY EkdifiHawmfESifh EkdifiHom;tusKd;udk tajccHNyD;
awmh uRefawmfwifjyjcif;jzpfygw,f/ Oya'wpf&yfudk uRefawmfwdkY
jyefvnfkyfodrf;zdkY a0zefqef;ppfwJhtcgrSm tJ'DOya'jzpfay:vm&jcif;&JU
orkdif;aMumif;udk odzdkYvdkygw,f/ 'gaMumifh uRefawmf[m 19451950 ygvDrefwGif aqG;aEG;csufpmtkyfrsm;udk wwfEkdiforQ BudK;pm;&Sm
azGcJhaomfvnf; pmtkyf? pmwrf;rsm; r&cJhyg/ 'gaMumifh uRefawmf
'D[meJyY wfoufNyD; Oya' ynm&Sit
f jzpf tm;vH;k u todtrSwjf yKxm;wJh
w&m;olBuD;csKyf a'gufwm armifarmifu,
kd w
f ikd f BuD;rSL;NyD;awmh jyKpkcw
hJ hJ
A[dkjynfolY0efxrf;ausmif;? jynfolYa&;&m t&m&Sdoifwef; Oya'bm
om&yf t xl ; eJ Y taxG a xG O ya'qd k i f & m rS w f p k r sm;Ek d i f i H a wmf w &m;
Hk;csKyfu 1971 ckESpfu xkwfa0cJhwJh pmtkyfudk udk;um;yg&ap/
av;pm;tyfygaom Ou|BuD;cifAsm;/ Oya'jy|mef;wJh &nf&G,fcsuf
udk tJ'DpmtkyfrSm a&;om;csuftm; uRefawmf aumufEkwfazmfjyyg&ap/
cGifhjyKay;yg/ 1950 jynfhESpf ta&;ay: pDrHrItufOya'udk bmhaMumifh
jy|mef;&ovJqw
kd m tJ'pD mtkyrf mS a&;om;xm;wJh tcsufuawmh jrefrm
EkdifiHwGif 1949 ckESpfrS tpjyK vufeufudkifaomif;usef;rIrsm; ay:
aygufvm&m xdkvufeufudkifaomif;usef;rIrsm;udk ESdrfeif;&efESifh Nidrf0yf
ydjym;a&;udk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smuf&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifh tufOya'udk
jy|mef;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ Nidrf0yfydjym;a&;udk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smuf&ef
wm0ef0w&m;onf vufeufudkifppfwyftpnf;tHk;rsm;? &mZ0wftrI
xrf;tzGJUrsm;wGif&Sdaeojzifh if;wdkYcsDwufoGm;vmjcif;? ta&twGuf?
taMumif;tcsif;t&m? tajctae? taetxm;? if;wdkY\ aqmif&Guf
a&;tpDtpOf ponfhvkyfief;rsm;ESifh ywfouf opmazmufzsufykef
uefrIBuD;udk usL;vGefolwdkYbufrS owif;aygufMum;jcif;udk [efYwm;
&eftvdkYiSm Oya'onf ta&;BuD;aom tufOya'jzpfonf/ qdkvdk
wmuawmh &efukeftpdk;&vdkY ac:avmufwJhtajctaeyg/ tif;pdefNrdKU
ywf0ef;usifudk autif,lawGeJY wdkufyGJqifETJae&NyD;awmh Armjynf

uGefjrLepfygwDu jynfNrdKUudk XmecsKyfvkyfxm;wJhtcsdefyg/ tvHeD? &Jabmf


jzL pwJh a&mifpHkaomif;usef;olrsm; tifrwefrS rsm;jym;aewJhtcsdefrSm
jynfaxmifpktpkd;&eJY wyfrawmf[m 'Dtiftm;pkawG? aomif;usef;olawG
udk &ifqdkif&wJhtwGuf tJ'Dumvu vdktyfwJh tajctaeaMumifh 1950
jynfhESpf ta&;ay:pDrHrI tufOya'udk jy|mef;cJhjcif;jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D
umveJY uaeY EkdifiHawmf&JU tajctae[m wlygovm;/ ,ck tm;vHk;
odwJhtwdkif; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m yJcl;dk;rrSmaomfvnf;aumif;?
e,fpyfa'orSmaomfvnf;aumif; r&Sdawmhygbl;/ ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;ygNyD/ 'Dvdk
ygyJ tvHeDuGefjrLygwD? &JabmfjzL ponfwdkY[mvnf; jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;
ZmwfcHkrSm ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;cJhygNyD/ ,cktajctaerSm Nidrf;csrf;a&;&,lxm;
wJh tzGJUtpnf; (17)zGJU &SdNyD;awmh e,fjcm;apmifhwyf tiftm;pktjzpf
ajymif;vJaeygNyD/ usefwJh vufeufudkiftiftm;pkqdkwmvnf; 1949
ckESpftajctaeeJY EdIif;,SOfvdkuf&if tifrwefrS enf;yg;wJhta&twGuf
a&mufoGm;ygw,f/
av;pm;tyfygaom Ou|BuD;cifAsm;/ 'Dvdkajymif;vJvmwJh EkdifiHa&;
tajctaerSm tJ'Dumvu jy|mef;vdkufwJhOya'[m vdktyfyg&JUvm;
dk;dk;om;om; jyefvnfoHk;oyfMuzdkY vdkygw,f/ uRefawmfwdkY a&SUaevdkuf
wJh oufwrf;tawGUtBuHKt&ajym&&if 'DOya'[m emrnfqdk;eJY ausmf
Mum;aewJh Oya'jzpfaeygNyD/ wcsKdUtrIawGrSm rdcifawG? tpfrawGu
uRefawmfwdkYudk ar;ygw,f/ ighom;? igharmifwdkY 5(n)eJYpGJwm bmjzpf
vdkY ig;ESpfcsvdkufygovJqdkwJh tcgusawmh rMumcP jyefvnf&Sif;jy
&ygw,f/ 'DOya'[m 'Dbuftydkif;rSm tifrwefus,fjyefYwJh t"dym,f
zGifhqdkcsufawGeJY a&;qGJxm;wJhtwGuf Oya't*Fg&yfrSm w&m;Hk;rsm;u
t"dym,fzGifhqdkwJhtcgrSm t"dym,fzGifhqdkcsifovdk zGifhqdkEkdifavmufwJh
Oya'jzpfvmwJhtwGuf 'DOya'[m 'DaeYumvrSm avmuygvw&m;
oHk;yg;udk uRefawmfwdkY vufcHxm;wJhumvrSm jyefvnfpOf;pm;oHk;oyfzdkY
vdktyfygNyD/ tm;vHk; Oya'wpfckvHk;udk uRefawmf rzwfjyayr,fh tcke
u tvHkrJqEe,frS vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fBuD; aqG;aEG;oGm;wJhtxJ
rSmygwJh 5(n)eJY ywfoufwJhtydk'fav;udkawmh uRefawmf zwfjyyg&ap/
5(n)rSm jy|mef;xm;wmu jynfaxmifp\
k vHNk cHKa&;udak omfvnf;aumif;?
Nidrf0yfydjym;rI jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;udkaomfvnf;aumif; xdcdkufap&ef
taMumif;&Sdaom enf;vrf;jzifh trsm;jynfol odkYwnf;r[kwf jynfol
wpfpk\ udk,fusifhw&m;udkjzpfap? tjyKtrludkjzpfap azmufvGJazmuf
jyef BuH&G,f wpfckckudkvkyfvQif odkYwnf;r[kwf ,if;odkYjzpfapaom
taMumif;&Sdaom trIudkjyKvQif 'Dtydk'frSm jy|mef;csufu tck zGJUpnf;yHk
tajccHOya'uay;xm;wJh yk'fr 354 vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkcGifh? vGwf
vyfpGmxifjrifcGifh? vGwfvyfpGm pnf;Hk;toif;zGJUpnf;cGifhawGudk xdyg;
Ekdifw,fvdkY uRefawmfdk;om;pGm ,lqygw,f/
av;pm;tyfaom vTwfawmfOu|BuD;cifAsm;/ aemuf uRefawmf
udk,fwdkif BuHKcJhwJh tawGUtBuHKwpfcktaeeJY ajym&&if 'DEkdifiHawmftm;
aESmifh,SufzsufqD;olrsm;\ ab;tE&m,frS umuG,fapmifha&Smufonfh
Oya'udk rlMurf;a&;qGJpOfu uRefawmf vrf;pOf vli,fXmecsKyfrSm
&Sdygw,f/ tJ'Dumvwkef;u Oya'Murf;a&;qGJa&;aumfrwD twGif;a&;
rSL;[m vrf;pOfvil ,fpnf;H;k a&; A[dak umfrwDtwGi;f a&;rSL; jzpfygw,f/
tJ'Dawmh tJ'DOya'udk a&;qGJwJhtcgrSm olwdkYatmufrSm jyefvnfkyf
odrf;oifhwJh Oya'xJrSm 'D 1950 jynfhESpf ta&;ay:pDrHrIOya'udk
xnfhoGif;cJhygw,f/ odkYaomf jynfolYvTwfawmf&JU Oya'trSwfjzpfwJh
(3^75)EkdifiHawmftm; aESmifh,SufzsufqD;vdkolrsm;\ ab;tE&m,frS
umuG,fonfhOya' xGufvmwJhtcgusawmh 1950 jynfhESpf ta&;ay:
pDrHrItufOya'udk jyefvnfkyfodrf;&ef yg0ifcJhjcif;r&Sdygbl;/ 'gaMumifh
uRefawmf[m toufxif&Sm;&SdaewJh vrf;pOfygwD A[dk tvkyftrIaqmif
aumfrwD vlBuD;ESpfOD;udk uRefawmf ar;jref;cJhygw,f/ tJ'Dwkef;u tJ'D
Oya'wifwJhtcgrSm 1950 jynfhESpf ta&;ay:pDrHrItufOya'udk jyef
vnfkyfodrf;&ef tcsufygovm;vdkY ar;wJhtcgrSm olwdkYudk,fwdkifu

'gygaMumif; uRefawmfhudk ajymjycJhygw,f/ tJ'Dawmh uRefawmfu bm


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33

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35

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18^'D? jynfaxmifpk&dyfom? '*kHNrdKUe,f
(13) OD;tkH;(opfawm) (tzG J U 0if )
nGefMum;a&;rSL; (tNidrf;pm;)
35^'D? usKduf0kdif;bk&m;vrf;? r&rf;ukef;NrdKUe,f
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65^bD? 2^pD
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(17) OD;azoef;OD; (tzG J U 0if )
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122^7vrf;? ysOf;rem;NrdKU
(18) OD;jrihfpdef (tzG J U 0if )
pufrItif*sifeD,m
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trSwf(7)pdrf;vJhNrdKif&dyfom
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wdkuf(9)? tcef;(3)? oxkHvrf;? wuodkvf0if;
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a&TawmifMum;(1)&yfuGuf? A[ef;NrdKUe,f
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tcef;(9)? wkduf(211)
ta&SU&efuif;? &efuif;NrdKUe,f
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pD;yGm;a&;wuokdvf
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&efukefNrdKUawmfpnfyifom,ma&;aumfrwD
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