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Conditionals

Listed below are examples, uses and formation


of Conditionals followed by some exercises.
Examples Usage
Conditional 0
If I am late, my father
takes me to school.
She doesn't worry if
Julian stays out after
school.
Situations that are always true if something happens.
NOTE
This use is similiar to, and can usually be replaced by, a time
clause using 'when' (example !hen I am late, my father takes
me to school." #See note below#
Conditional 1
If it rains, we will stay
at home.
$e will arri%e late
unless he hurries up.
Simon will buy a new
car if he gets his raise.
&ften called the 'real' conditional because it is used for real # or
possible # situations. These situations take place if a certain
condition is met. The first conditional is used to talk about the
future or facts ( situations which are true in the present and
future.
NOTE In the conditional ) we often use unless which means
'if ... not'. In other words, '...unless he hurries up.' could also be
written, '...if he doesn't hurry up.'.
*+ro%ided, and *as long as, can also introduce a conditionE.g.
Provided you leave now, youll catch the train
Conditional 2
If he studied more, he
would pass the exam.
I would lower taxes if I
were the +rime -inister.
They would buy a new
house if they won the
lottery.
&ften called the 'unreal' conditional because it is used for
unreal # impossible or improbable (hypothetical" . situations,
(contrary to the present situation". It is also used to gi%e ad%ice
and express hopes and ambitions.
This conditional pro%ides an imaginary result for a gi%en
situation.
NOTE
The %erb 'to be', when used in the /nd conditional, is always
con0ugated as 'were'.
Conditional 3
If he had known that,
he would ha%e decided
differently.
Joanna would ha%e
found a new 0ob if she
had stayed in 1or23w.
&ften referred to as the 'past' conditional because it concerns
only past situations with hypothetical results. 4sed to express a
hypothetical result to a past gi%en situation. They always refer to
unfulfilled conditions in the past (contrary to what really
happened".
Notes:
Temporal clauses: In addition to if and unless, there are other words that are not followed by
the future tense. These words include: before, after, when, whenever, until, till, by the time,
once, the moment that, as soon as, as long as. These words are followed by the Present Simple
even when we talk about the future
When you are ready, we will leave.
Until you are ready, we won't leave.
Before you leave, could you tidy your room
Whenever I go on holiday, I buy a souvenir.
ixed Conditions
!or past events which have a result continuing in the past it is possible to use the form of a "
rd

conditional in the if clause and the form of a #
nd
conditional in the result clause.
E.g. If you had saved some money, you wouldnt be so hard up.
Conditional Clause Variations Scheme:
Conditionals! Time and "robability Table
"robability Conditional #xample Time
$ertain %ero conditional
If&'hen it rains, my father takes me home
If you heat water to ()) degrees celsius, it boils.
*+niversal Truths,
any time
-ikely first conditional If it rains, I will stay in. future
+nlikely
second
conditional
If I won the lottery, I would retire. future
Impossible
second
conditional
If I had the money, I would lend it to you present
Impossible third conditional
If I had seen him, I would have given him the
message.
past
EXERCISES
A. Choose the correct conditional form to complete the sentences belo. Once !o"
ha#e decided on !o"r anser$ clic% on the arro to chec% !o"r anser.
(. If I ...................*stay, in /arlinek, I would have found a new girlfriend.
#. $e would do more to help the poor if he 55555555555555(be" the +ope.
". If he goes to 6ondon on a business trip, he often 5555555555555(%isit" Soho.
0. !e won't go to the film unless they 555555555555555(arri%e" in the next 7 minutes.
1. She 5555555555555555(buy" a new car if she had had the money.
2. If 8oko were me, she 55555555555555555(go" to -anchester immediately.
3. They will talk to Jacek if he 555555555555555555(come".
4. 9o:ena comes to work ;< minutes late if her child 5555555555555(miss" the bus to
school.
5. If +eter 555555555555555(think" twice, he wouldn't ha%e made such a stupid mistake.
(). =asia 5555555555555(become" a uni%ersity lecturer if she studies hard.
((. If they 5555555555555(know" all the facts, they would ha%e found the defendant guilty.
(#. 4nless you 555555555555555(hurry up", we will ne%er arri%e on time.
(". If I were in charge, I 55555555555555555(change" the standard business routines.
(0. $e takes his daughter out to dinner, if she 55555555555555(come" to town.
(1. If I hadn't known better, I 5555555555555555555(trust" him.
&. '"t the #erbs in brac%ets into the correct tenses.
). If my brother 555555555555555(eat" another cake, he 5555555555555555(get" sick soon,
that>s why he won>t
/. If I 55555555555555555(ask" you when I needed, 5555555555555555555(you help" me ?
;. John 555555555555555555 (not get" such poor marks if he 5555555555555555 (work"
harder
C. Complete the sentences ith the correct form of the #erbs in brac%ets. Use the first$
second or third conditional.
). If the film ........................ (not be" so boring, we wouldn't ha%e left.
/. They will miss their connection if the fiight........................ (not lea%e" on time.
;. It would be great if people ........................ (not pollute" the en%ironment.
@. If the band ........................ (gi%e" a concert here, all my friends would go to it.
7. ........................ you ........................ (cook" such a big meal if we hadn't had so many
guests?
A. If you ........................ (go" to 6ondon, you should %isit -adame Tussaud's !ax -useum.
B. 8ou won't get tickets unless you ........................ (get" to the stadium early.
C. If the police hadn't caught him, he ........................ (escape" with the money.
'"t the #erbs in brac%ets into the correct tenses. There ma! be more than one possible
anser.
). If you 555555555555 (1o" away, please5555555555555 (!rite" to me.
/. If she 555555555555 (9e" in, I 5555555555 (1i%e" it to her. Dow it>s too late.
;. -y aunt 555555555 (9e able to" help us if she55555555 (9e" on time last night.
@. If my brother555555555 (Eat" another cake, he555555555 (1et" sick soon. that>s why he
won't.
7. If you55555555555555 ($eat" water, it5555555555555(9oil".
A. If we 555555555 (1o" to 6ondon for our holiday last year, we 555555(See" The Tower of
6ondon.
B. I55555555555 (Speak" to Flement at the party if he55555555(Gpologise" for what he
said to me.
C. If I 55555555555(=now" Hob's address in Dew 8ork , I555555555 (Iisit" him.
J. I think Kiane55555555555 (6ook" much nicer if she 55555555555 ($a%e" a new hair
style.
)<. She555555555555 (6ook" better if she 55555555555555 (!ear" a dress to go to the
concert last night.
)). John55555555555 (Dot 1et" such poor marks if he5555555555(!ork" harder.
)/. If =aty555555555555 (9e" taller, she555555555555555555(+lay" in the ladies> %olleyball
team.
);. If the weather55555555555555(Dot 9e" so bad last week, they555555555(1o" for a
excursion.
)@. If I555555555 (9e" 1eorge I555555555555555 (Dot 1o" to the concert without a ticket.
)7. If Terry5555555555555 (1et up" earlier this morning, he5555555555 (Tidy" the house
instead of lea%ing it for his mother.
)A. +aul55555555555555 (+ass" his exams easily if he55555555555(!ork" harder.
)B. If I5555555555555 (Dot $a%e" so much work to do, I555555555555 (1o" to the cinema
tonight.
)C. -y brother5555555555 (6i%e" in the 4.S.G. if he555555555555 ($a%e" a work permit.
)J. If Jim55555555555555 (Dot Tell" so many lies, people5555555555(6ike" him.
/<. If Konald55555555555 (1o" to the theatre with us, he555555555 (Dot En0oy" that
comedy we saw.
/). If 9en55555555555 (Dot tease" the cat yesterday, it55555555555555 (Dot scratch" him
and he 55555555555555(Dot ha%e" to go to the hospital.
//. If he55555555555 (Tell" us his father was in hospital, we5555555555(1o" to see him.
/;. If I555555555555(9e" %ery wealthy, I55555555555555555(9uy" a couple of good sports
car.
/@. E%ince555555555555555(Share" his sweets if he555555555555(9e" less selfish.
/7. !e55555555555555(1o" to see Jerry if we555555555555(=now" his address when we
were in Gmerica.
/A. If -ary5555555555555555(6isten" to FDD occasionally while she was studymg English, it
55555555555555 ($elp".
/B. Farrie55555555555 (Dot +ass" her dri%ing test at the first attempt if she55555555555555
(Dot $a%e" such a good teacher.
/C. Sue55555555555 ($a%e" a better chance of being a model if she555555555555 (9e"
slimmer.
/J. -arianne5555555555555555 (Dot 1o" to the theatre with Tom last night e%en if
he55555555555 (Gsk" her.
;<. If we55555555555 (Grri%e" earlier, we555555555555555 (Sa%e" his life.
;). If they555555555555(Take" a cruise, they555555555555555($a%e" a better holiday.
;/. The Tylers5555555555555 (9e" pleased if she55555555555555(Iisit" them when she was
in Hhode Island.
;;. I you5555555555 ($eat" gold to )<A; degrees centigrades, it5555555(-elt".
;@. If someone55555555555 ($eat" alcohol to BC degrees,it555555555555 (9oil"
CO(')ETE T*E +O))O,-N. /ENTENCE/. Use your own ideas.
). 8ou will get into trouble if...
/. 8our dress would look better if...
;. The cake would ha%e been burnt if...
Complete the sentences.
$ If I pass my e6ams, ..........................................
% If it rains tomorrow, .........................................
& If we go on holiday ne6t year, .................................
' If I meet my friend tomorrow, .................................

+ill in the correct form of the #erbs in brac%ets.
). She will call you tomorrow if she ........................ (ha%e" time.
/. Tony hates being short. $e would be happier if he ........................ (be" taller.
;. If you ........................ (come" with us last week, you would ha%e seen some ama2ing things.
@. If it rains, we ........................ (not go" on the trip.
7. I>m sorry you don>t know her. If you knew her, you ........................ (like" her.
+ill in the correct tense of the #erbs in brac%ets.
). If 6isa ........................ (win" the contest, she ........................ (get" a trip to $awaii.
/. -arco is ner%ous about speaking to large groups. If he ........................ (be" more confident,
he ........................ (speak" more effecti%ely.
;. I didn>t earn much money last summer. If I ........................ (earn" more money,
I ........................ (not borrow" any from my dad.
@. If we ........................ (not hurry", we ........................ (be" late for school.
7. !hen I got to school, the doors were locked. I ........................ (not come" to school if
I ........................ (know" that classes were cancelled.
KEY TO THE EXERCISES
Choose the correct conditional form to complete the sentences belo. Once !o" ha#e
decided on !o"r anser$ clic% on the arro to chec% !o"r anser.
(2. If I ........had stayed......*stay, in /arlinek, I would have found a new girlfriend.
(3. $e would do more to help the poor if he 55555ere55555(be" the +ope.
(4. If he goes to 6ondon on a business trip, he often 55555#isits55555555(%isit" Soho.
(5. !e won't go to the film unless they 555555arri#e55(arri%e" in the next 7 minutes.
#). She 55555co"ld ha#e bo"ght555(buy" a new car if she had had the money.
#(. If 8oko were me, she 555555o"ld go555555(go" to -anchester immediately.
##. They will talk to Jacek if he 5555555comes555555(come".
#". 9o:ena comes to work ;< minutes late if her child 5555miss55555(miss" the bus to
school.
#0. If +eter 555555*ad tho"ght5555(think" twice, he wouldn't ha%e made such a stupid
mistake.
#1. =asia 5555ill became55555(become" a uni%ersity lecturer if she studies hard.
#2. If they 555555*ad %non5555(know" all the facts, they would ha%e found the defendant
guilty.
#3. 4nless you 55555h"rr! "p55555(hurry up", we will ne%er arri%e on time.
#4. If I were in charge, I 555555o"ld change555555(change" the standard business
routines.
#5. $e takes his daughter out to dinner, if she 55555ill come55555(come" to town.
"). If I hadn't known better, I 555555o"ld ha#e tr"sted55555555(trust" him.
'"t the #erbs in brac%ets into the correct tenses.
). If my brother 5555555eats5555(eat" another cake, he 55555ill get5555(get" sick soon,
that>s why he won>t
/. If I 555555had as%ed55555(ask" you when I needed, 5ha#e o"ld !o" helped5555(you
help" me ?
;. John 55o"ldn0t ha#e got11 (not get" such poor marks if he 55had or%ed5 (work"
harder
Complete the sentences ith the correct form of the #erbs in brac%ets. Use the first$
second or third conditional.
J. If the film .....hadn0t been........ (not be" so boring, we wouldn't ha%e left.
)<. They will miss their connection if the flight.....doesn0t lea#e...... (not lea%e" on time.
)). It would be great if people ......on0t poll"te.... (not pollute" the en%ironment.
)/. If the band ..........ga#e........... (gi%e" a concert here, all my friends would go to it.
);. ...ha#e o"ld...... you .....coo%ed......... (cook" such a big meal if we hadn't had so
many guests?
)@. If you ........ill go........ (go" to 6ondon, you should %isit -adame Tussaud's !ax
-useum.
)7. 8ou won't get tickets unless you .......get....... (get" to the stadium early.
)A. If the police hadn't caught him, he .......o"ld ha#e escaped.. (escape" with the money.
'"t the #erbs in brac%ets into the correct tenses. There ma! be more than one possible
anser.
;7. If you 5555ill go5555 (1o" away, please55555 rite55555 (!rite" to me.
;A. If she 555had been555 (9e" in, I 5would ha%e gi%en55 (1i%e" it to her. Dow it>s too late.
;B. -y aunt 55had been able to55(9e able to" help us if she5 o"ld ha#e been55555 (9e"
on time last night.
;C. If my brother555 eats155 (Eat" another cake, he555 ill get55 (1et" sick soon. that>s
why he won't.
;J. If you555 heat55 ($eat" water, it555 ill boil5555(9oil".
@<. If we 55 had gone5555 (1o" to 6ondon for our holiday last year, we 55o"ld ha#e
seen5555(See" The Tower of 6ondon.
@). I555 ill spea%55555555 (Speak" to Flement at the party if he55
apologises55555(Gpologise" for what he said to me.
@/. If I 55had %non555(=now" Hob's address in Dew 8ork , I55 co"ld ha#e #isited55
(Iisit" him.
@;. I think Kiane55 o"ld loo%5(6ook" much nicer if she 555had5 ($a%e" a new hair style.
@@. She55 o"ld ha#e loo%ed55 (6ook" better if she 5555had orn55 (!ear" a dress to go
to the concert last night.
@7. John55 hadn0t got55 (Dot 1et" such poor marks if he55 o"ld ha#e or%ed55(!ork"
harder.
@A. If =aty55 ere5555 (9e" taller, she55 co"ld pla!555(+lay" in the ladies> %olleyball team.
@B. If the weather55 hadn0t been55 (Dot 9e" so bad last week, they55 co"ld ha#e
gone55(1o" for a excursion.
@C. If I55 ere55 (9e" 1eorge I555 on0t go555 (Dot 1o" to the concert without a ticket.
@J. If Terry5 got "p5 (1et up" earlier this morning, he55 co"ld tid!55 (Tidy" the house
instead of lea%ing it for his mother.
7<. +aul55 ill pass555 (+ass" his exams easily if he5 or%s555(!ork" harder.
7). If I55 o"ldn0t ha#e55(Dot $a%e" so much work to do, I5 5ill go5555 (1o" to the
cinema tonight.
7/. -y brother5 ill li#e55(6i%e" in the 4.S.G. if he55 has5555 ($a%e" a work permit.
7;. If Jim55 hadn0t told5 (Dot Tell" so many lies, people5 co"ld ha#e li%ed 55(6ike" him.
7@. If Konald55 had gone15(1o" to the theatre with us, he55 o"ldn0t ha#e
en2o!ed5555555 (Dot En0oy" that comedy we saw.
77. If 9en555 hadn0t teased555(Dot tease" the cat yesterday, it55 o"ldn0t ha#e
scratched5 (Dot scratch" him and he 555hadn0t had55555(Dot ha%e" to go to the
hospital.
7A. If he55 had told555 (Tell" us his father was in hospital, we55 co"ld ha#e gone
555555(1o" to see him.
7B. If I5 5ere555(9e" %ery wealthy, I555 co"ld b"!55555(9uy" a couple of good sports
car.
7C. E%ince555 o"ld share555(Share" his sweets if he5ere55(9e" less selfish.
7J. !e55 co"ld ha#e gone55(1o" to see Jerry if we55 had %non 5555(=now" his address
when we were in Gmerica.
A<. If -ary55 listen555555(6isten" to FDD occasionally while she was studying English, it
55ill help5555 ($elp".
A). Farrie55 on0t pass55555 (Dot +ass" her dri%ing test at the first attempt if she555
doesn0t ha#e 55555555555 (Dot $a%e" such a good teacher.
A/. Sue55 o"ld ha#e555 ($a%e" a better chance of being a model if she5 ere555 (9e"
slimmer.
A;. -arianne55 o"ldn0t ha#e gone5555 (Dot 1o" to the theatre with Tom last night e%en
if he55 had as%ed5555 (Gsk" her.
A@. If we555 had arri#ed5555 (Grri%e" earlier, we55 co"ld ha#e sa#ed555555 (Sa%e" his
life.
A7. If they55 ta%e555(Take" a cruise, they555 ill ha#e555555($a%e" a better holiday.
AA. The Tylers5 o"ld ha#e been55555 (9e" pleased if she5 had #isited 55(Iisit" them
when she was in Hhode Island.
AB. I you555 heat5555 ($eat" gold to )<A; degrees centigrades, it55 ill melt 55(-elt".
AC. If someone55 heats5555 ($eat" alcohol to BC degrees, it55 ill boil 555 (9oil"
CO(')ETE T*E +O))O,-N. /ENTENCE/. Use your own ideas.
). 8ou will get into trouble if...- don0t follo the ad#ice of m! parents
/. 8our dress would look better if...it ere more ne
;. The cake would ha%e been burnt if...- o"ldn0t ha#e t"rned off the o#en in time
Complete the sentences.
$ If I pass my e6ams, .( will go to college.....................
% If it rains tomorrow, .we won)t leave home....................
& If we go on holiday ne6t year, .we could go to London..........
' If I meet my friend tomorrow, ..( will go to play with him.....

+ill in the correct form of the #erbs in brac%ets.
). She will call you tomorrow if she ....has................. (ha%e" time.
/. Tony hates being short. $e would be happier if he ........ere....... (be" taller.
;. If you ......had came.......... (come" with us last week, you would ha%e seen some ama2ing
things.
@. If it rains, we ......on0t go.......... (not go" on the trip.
7. I>m sorry you don>t know her. If you knew her, you ....o"ld li%e...... (like" her.
+ill in the correct tense of the #erbs in brac%ets.
). If 6isa ....in.. (win" the contest, she ....ill get............ (get" a trip to $awaii.
/. -arco is ner%ous about speaking to large groups. If he ...ere... (be" more confident,
he ....o"ld spea%....... (speak" more effecti%ely.
;. I didn>t earn much money last summer. If I .......had earned.....( earn" more money,
I .....o"ldn0t ha#e borroed..(borrow" any from my dad.
@. If we .....don0t h"rr!....... (not hurry", we ....ill be...... (be" late for school.
7. !hen I got to school, the doors were locked. I ......hadn0t came.......... (not come" to school
if I ....o"ld ha#e %non........... (know" that classes were cancelled.
3elated ,eb lin%s4
http455.ego6".com5en5cram7"p5grammar5conditional7sentences 8Theor! and
Exercises9 7 -ntermediate
http455.englishpage.com5conditional5mixedconditional.html 8:ariations Theor!
and exercises ;Upper7-ntermediate
http455.slideshare.net5g"esta6<=a=5conditionals7re#ision 8'oerpoints
presentations on conditionals
http455.slideshare.net5i#anet5conditionals71>?60@ 8,ith &art /impson9
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http455.slideshare.net5torrestorres5conditional7cla"ses7presentation
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8(ore Conditional )in%ers s"ch as pro#ided$ as long as$ etcA
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