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First Aid Manual

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Introduction
What is First Aid
What to do First
CPR
Heart attack
Common Conditions
Headache
Stomach Pain
Gastroenteritis
Dehydration
Fever
Fainting
Bleeding
Nose Bleed
Burns & scalds
Insect bites and stings
Animal Bite
Snake Bite
Poisoning
Hyperglycemia ( High Blood Sugar)
Hypoglycemia ( Low Blood Sugar)
Fracture
Head Injury
Eye Injury

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Introduction
What is First Aid?
First Aid is the immediate care of the ill or injured before treatment can be given by a
medical Professional/Certify First Aider.
Aims of First Aid:
To assess the Situation.
To recognize the problem.
To provide immediate care.
To preserve life.
To prevent worsening of Injury.
To promote Recovery.
To arrange transfer to a hospital, or for doctor advise.
What will you learn on this booklet?
You will learn the essential skills to deal with accident, Emergencies and sudden
illness, which are commonly seen in day to day life.
Note: First aid measure are not mean to replace the medical professional care and treatment, but
only to provide temporary support until medical help arrives.




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What to do first?
General Emergency Guidelines:
Assess the situation:
Check scene safety.
Take control your feelings-dont act impulsively.
Decide whether to call for emergency help or not.
Call for help.
Control your feelings:
Remain calm and communicate a calm, supportive attitude to the ill or injured
individual.
Never leave an ill or injured individual unattached, Have someone else call for
help in the form of medical help/ ambulance depending on the serious.
Do not allow unnecessary crowding of area onlookers.
Dont become involved in using treatment method beyond your skill.
When you doubt, call for help.
When to Call?
Has no Pulse.
Is unconscious or semi-conscious.
Is showing signs of shock.
Has a spinal injury.
Has a head Injury.
Has a fracture.
Is bleeding severely.
Cannot move easily.
Has breathing problem.
Burns( serious or covering large area)
Foreign body in throat

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Being Prepared:
When you call for help, be prepared to give your name, the location and the
details of emergency.
What to tell the doctor / medical staff / for ambulance.
What has happened?
Whatever symptoms or Signs and nature of Injuries.
Where is the victim?

Precautions:
It is important to prevent infections from spreading from one person to another
through contact with infections materials in routine and emergencies situations.









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CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation)


CPR is the technique of the manual inflation of the lungs with oxygen, and compression of
the heart, therefore pumping oxygenated blood around the body, and keeping the vital
organs supplied with oxygen. It is used in an attempt to revive a victim who has had a
Cardiac Arrest.
Method of CPR:
Untrained. If you're not trained in CPR, then provide hands-only CPR. That means
uninterrupted chest compressions of about 100 a minute until paramedics arrive
(described in more detail below). You don't need to try rescue breathing.

Trained, and ready to go. If you're well trained and confident in your ability, begin
with chest compressions instead of first checking the airway and doing rescue
breathing. Start CPR with 30 chest compressions before checking the airway and
giving rescue breaths.
Trained, but rusty. If you've previously received CPR training but you're not
confident in your abilities, then just do chest compressions at a rate of about 100
a minute.

*Seek medical help immediately *




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Heart attack

What is Heart Attack?
Occurs when blood supply to vital organs gets blocked.
Sudden arrest of breathing / heart function.
Clot in the arteries blocks blood supply.
Signs and symptoms:
Chest pain
Shoulder/arm pain
Shortness of breath
Sweating
Heartburn
First aid Treatment:
Try to relax
Loosen tight clothes.
If the person is conscious, and they aren't allergic to Aspirin, give them a 300 mg
tablet of Aspirin to chew.
Seek medical help immediately.
Prevention:
Routine health check-up
Avoid stress
Quit smoking / alcohol
Eat sensibly
Control blood pressure / diabetes
Control weight

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COMMON CONDITIONS

Headache

Most headaches are miner and can be treated with pain reliever. However, it is
important to note that sometimes, headaches can be caused by serious under laying
problems. If a headaches is severe, gets worse despite medication or has accompanying
symptoms such fever, stiff neck, vomiting, confusion, medical help should be sought
immediately. Migraine headaches usually start from one side, and may be associated
with nausea/vomiting.

Cause: Commonly caused by exhaustion, eye strain, nervous tension, emotional upset
or stress, Migraine headaches are very common and often caused by triggers such as
exposure to bright light after eating certain foods.

First Aid:
Make the affected person sit down or lie down comfortably in a quiet place.
Give one tablet of Paracetamol if the person adult and syrup of paracetamol to
child as per recommended by doctor.
Apply cold compress on the forehead only.
If associated with any of the above- mentioned symptoms, or unrelieved, consult
to a doctor.



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Stomach Pain


Any pain in the abdomen area is commonly referred to as stomach pain. The
abdomen is an anatomical area is bounded by the lower of the ribs above, the pelvic
bone below, and the flanks on each side. The pain can be caused by a variety of
conditions. Many organs are found within the abdominal cavity. Sometimes the pain is
directly related to a specific organ such as the bladder or ovary. Usually the pain
originates in the digestive system. For example, the pain can be caused by appendicitis,
diarrheal cramping, or food poisoning.
The pain could be continuous or intermittent (colicky). Abdominal pain can range
from mild stomach ache to severe acute pain. It may be accompanied by symptoms as
belching, vomiting or loose motions.

First Aid:
Make the person lie or sit down in a comfortable position.
If he has vomiting, dont give anything to eat or drink. Seek medical help.







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Gastroenteritis


Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach / Infections
Common causes are:
Infections from viruses.
Food or water contaminated by bacteria or parasites.
Allergic reactions for certain food.
Signs and symptoms include:
Nausea and vomiting.
Diarrhoea
Abdominal cramps.
Indigestion, burning sensation in upper part of abdomen and bloating.
Fever may accompany these symptoms.
First Aid / Treatment:
Ask the person to rest and not exert.
Provide plenty of fluids in sips, to prevent dehydration, such as ORS (oral
rehydration solution/lemon water with salt.
May consider giving an anti diarrhoeal or anti vomiting medicine ( as advise by
Doctor )
Avoid giving heavy or oily food.
Seek medical attention if symptoms are severe, or there is accompanying fever.


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Dehydration


Dehydration can be caused heat-related condition such as heat exhaustion or
heat stroke, as well as a side effect of diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Children and person
over age of sixty are particularly susceptible to dehydration.
What causes are of dehydration?
Under normal conditions, we usually replace all lost body water (through sweat,
tears, urine and stool by drinking fluids and eating foods that contains water. When a
person becomes ill due to fever, diarrhea, vomiting, or if an individual is overexposed
to the sun, the body loses water content and essential body salts such as sodium,
potassium, calcium carbonate and phosphate and goes into a water and electrolyte
deficit.
What are the symptoms of dehydration?
The Following are the most common symptoms of dehydration, although each
individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Thirst
Less-frequent urination
Dry Skin
Fatigue
Light Headedness
Dizziness
Confusion
Dry mouth & tongue
Increased heart rate and breathing


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In Children, additional symptoms may include:
Dry mouth
Sunken abdomen, eyes or cheeks
High fever
Listlessness
Irritability
Skin that does not flatten when pinched and released.
First Aid Treatment for dehydration:
If caught early, dehydration can often be treated at home under a physicians
guidelines. In children, directions for giving food and fluids will differ according to the
cause of the dehydration, so it is important to consult also a physician/pediatrician.
In case of mild dehydration, simple rehydration is recommended by drinking fluids.
Many drinks are available, such as Electral (ORS), lemon juice etc. that effectively
restore body fluid, electrolytes and salt balance.
For moderate and severe dehydration, intravenous fluids may be required, so also
medical help should be sought early. Case of serious dehydration should be treated as
a medical emergency.
* If home made ORS
Ingredient Quantity
Table Salt 5 gm
Sugar 20gm
Water 1 liter
*Solution should be made fresh daily and use within 12 hrs.





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Fever

Body temperature higher than the normal (> 99 degree F). Usually fever is caused
by infection.
Fever may be caused by:
A bacterial or a viral infection.
The becoming overheated at play or in the sun.
Temperature above 104
0
F can be dangerous as it may trigger fits in children and infants.
What are the symptoms of Fever?
Signs that may indicate fever may include:
Flushed face
Hot, dry skin
May also have any of following:
Chills and shivering
Headache
Body ache
Respiratory symptoms such as sore throat, cough, or running nose.
Loose stools
Nausea and vomiting
First Aid Treatment for Fever:
Make the casualty comfortable in a cool room.
Advise to take rest.
An adult can be given Crocin (Paracetamol) tablet as advice by doctor.
Give lot of fluids to drink.
A child can be given the recommended dose of paracetamol as advice by physician.
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Seek medical opinion.
Contact the physician immediately in case of:
Seizures
Feeling sleepy or dull
Irregular breathing
Stiff neck
Confusion
Rashes
Ear Pain
Persistent throat pain
Vomiting
Diarrhoea
Painful and burning urination













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Fainting


Fainting occurs when the blood supply to brain is inadequate for a short time.
This is cause, loss of consciousness. The loss of consciousness is usually for a brief time.
Fainting may be due to normal physiological causes or may be caused by an under laying
medical disorder.
Common causes:
Standing for long hours
Sudden Change in position
Injury
An unpleasant sight
Emotional upset
How to Recognize:
Weakness
Giddiness
Blurred vision
Cold and clammy skin
Slow and weak pulse
First Aid Treatment:
Make the casualty lie down on the back.
Make sure the legs are elevated above the heart level
Open the windows for fresh air and loosen the tight clothing.
Look for any injury that may have occurred during fall and treat accordingly.
Seek medical assistance.


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Bleeding


Bleeding may be from ARTERY, a blood vessel which carries oxygen rich blood
from the heart throughout the body. Bleeding may be from a VEIN, which carries blood
back to the heart to be oxygenated or bleeding may be from CAPILLIARY, which are tiny
blood vessels.
How to recognize:
Arterial bleeding is bright and spurts out from a wound (severe form of
bleeding) this requires immediate attention as large amount of blood loss
can occur quickly. If uncontrolled.
Blood that oozes out slowly and darker red in colour indicates venous
bleeding (Milder form of bleeding). Venus bleeding is easier to control that
arterial bleeding. Capillary bleeding is usually slow, oozing in nature.
How to control bleeding:
Apply pressure directly over the wound by placing sterile gauze piece, dressing on
the bleeding point.
Apply pressure by fingers by hand.
Once pressure is applied, keep it in place. If dressings become soaked with blood,
apply new dressing over the old dressings.
Support and elevate the bleeding part above heart level and treat the shock.
Once the bleeding stops, do not try to remove the cloth that is against the open
wound as it could disturb the blood clotting and restart the bleeding.
Cover and bandage the wound before transporting to the hospital.



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Nose Bleeding


The nose is a part of the body that is very rich in blood vessels (vascular) and is
situated in a vulnerable position on the face. As a result, any trauma to the face can
cause bleeding. The bleeding may be profuse, or minor. Nosebleeds can occur
spontaneously also. This is common in dry climates, or during the winter months when
the air is dry and warm from household heaters. People are more susceptible to bleeding
if taking medications, which prevent normal blood clotting.
Causes:
Trauma to the nose (nose picking, foreign bodies, forceful nose blowing).
Drying of the nasal membranes.
Tumors, of the nose or sinuses.
High Blood Pressure.
Inflammation of the nose or sinuses and cold.
Foreign objects in the nose, or other nasal obstruction.
Recognition:
Bleeding from one or both nostrils.
Frequent swallowing.
Flow at the back of the nose and throat.
First Aid:
Calm the patient.
The patient should sit with the upper part of the body tilted forward and the mouth
open so that he/she can spit the blood instead of swallowing.
Pinch all the soft part of the nose together between the thumb and index finger.
Apply ice (crushed in a plastic bag or washcloth) to the base of the nose.
Seek medical help.

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Burns & scalds

The severity of a burn depends upon its size, depth and location. Burns are most
severe when located on the face, neck, hands, feet and genitals.
Burns can causes damages to the body tissues by:
Dry heat-flames, Hot iron.
Moist Heat (scalds) - Boiling Water or Hot Oil.
Cold Liquid Nitrogen.
Chemical- Acids or Alkali
Electrical Burn Electricity or lightning.
Radiation- Sun Rays or Laser.
First Aid:
Cool the burnt part by keeping it under running water for at least 10 minutes. Do
not put ice on the burn.
Constrictors should be removed immediately like ring, bracelets before swelling
occurs.
Cover the burnt part to prevent infection by using any clean cloth / sterile gauze
piece.
Consult a doctor immediately.
Precautions:
Do not touch or interfere with the burnt area.
Do not apply toothpaste, hair cream, butter or any other ointment without doctor
advice.
Do not cover with cotton.
Do not break the blisters

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First Aid in Chemical Burns:
In case the burns are caused by chemicals, It is important to remove clothing on
which chemicals have spilled and flush the affected area with copious amount of
water for 15 to 30 min.
First Aid in Electrical Burns:
An electrical burn may be appear minor, but the damage can extend deep into the
tissues beneath the skin.
Management:
Look first, dont touch.
Turn off the source of electricity if possible.
Assess breathing, check pulse.
Cover the affected area.
Call for help.











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Insect bites and stings



Signs and symptom of an insect bite result from the insertion of toxins and allergic
in to skin. Mild to severe allergic reactions can rapidly develop including difficulty, facial
swelling and shock.
Bites from wasps, bees, hornets and fire ants are usually painful rather than
dangerous which can be relieved by first aid.
First Aid:
Scrape or brush off the stinger with a straight- edged.
To reduce pain and swelling. Apply ice or cold pack.
Consult to a doctor.












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Animal Bite


Domestic Pets cause most animal bites. Bites from sharp Et pointed teeth can
cause superficial and deep wounds. Bite may also be caused by pet puppies, stray
dogs/cats/monkeys. In these cases, there is immediate requirement to take treatment to
protect rabies. Medical advice should be taken immediately.
What to do?
Calm and reassure the person. Wear latex gloves or wash hands thoroughly before
attending to the wounds. Wash hands afterwards as well.
Superficial Wounds:
If the bite is not bleeding severely, wash the wound thoroughly with mild soap and
running water for 5 to 10 minutes. Then, cover the bite with antibiotic ointment
and a sterilize dressing.
Deep Wounds:
If the bite is actively bleeding, apply direct pressure with a clean, dry clean cloth
until the bleeding subsides. One the bleeding stop, place sterilize dressing and
apply bandage. Elevate the area the bite.
Seek medical help.






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Snake Bite

Snakes are commonly found in tropical climates. They can be poisonous or
nonpoisonous. People who walk in jungles, camp, hike, picnic, or live in snake-inhabited
areas should be aware of the potential dangers posed by venomous snakes.
Symptoms of poisonous snake Bites:
While each individual may experience symptoms differently. The following are the
most common symptoms of poisonous snake bites.
Anxious look
Fang marks in the skin and redness / swelling at the site of the bite.
Pain localized to site of the bite.
Convulsions
Fainting
Dizziness/weakness
Excessive sweating
Loss of muscle coordination
Nausea and vomiting
Numbness and tingling
Rapid pulse
Difficulty in breathing
First aid for snake Bites:
Reassure the casually to stay calm.
Dont attempt to cut or suck the part to remove the venom.
Dont try to capture the snake.
Immobilize the bitten part.
Maintain the part below the level of the heart.
Wash the wound carefully and dry with clean cloth/sterilize gauze piece.
Lightly compress the limb above the wound.
Rush to the hospital immediately.
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Poisoning

A poison is any substance that is harmful to the body. Poisons may enter the body
through the mouth, lungs, or the skin. Substances that can commonly cause of poisoning
include a variety of medicines (overdose), household substances and industrial products.
The poison may cause more serious effect if larger quantities are consumed, or if time
elapse. Most poisoning occurs accidentally and specially by due to accidental ingestion by
children.
The common agents are:
Insecticides such as baygon.
Cleaning agents like Harpic that contain acids
Kerosene
Medicine kept at home: Painkillers, Sedatives
Signs and symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of poisoning depend on the substance involved and on
the amount of poison taken. One should look out for:
Abdominal pain
Breathe that smells of the substance such as insecticide.
Nausea and / or vomiting
Drowsiness/ Falling level of consciousness.
Burning sensation in chest/stomach
Sudden collapse
Behavioral Change
Convulsions


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Act Fast:
It is important to act quickly. Action is the most important factor in first aid if
poisoning is suspected.



First aid Treatment:
Move the causality away from the poison to an area where fresh air area is
available.
Give CPR if required.
If conscious, reassure the casualty.
Poisonous fumes or Gases:
Immediately carry or drag the person to fresh air. Minimize your own
and the casualtys exposure to the fumes. If the victim is not
breathing, start artificial respiration immediately and continue it until
the victim is breathing.
Seek medical help.
Poisons on the skin :
Flood the affected area with large amount of plain water for 5 to 10
minutes.
Seek medical help.
Poisons in the Eye :
Pour water from a glass on the bridge of the patients eye and allow
water to flood the eye gently for 15 minutes.
Do not allow the victim to rub his/her eyes.
Seek medical help.
Swallowed Poisons :
Do not give any medication, food, or liquid until told to do so by
Doctor.
Seek medical help immediately.
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Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar)


Hyperglycemia is the condition when glucose levels in the blood are higher than
normal range.
Signs and symptoms:
Drowsiness.
Frequent Urination.
Excessive thirst.
Hot and dry skin.
First aid Treatment:
Make the casualty sit comfortable in a cool place.
Seek medical help immediately.
Give sugar free oral fluids.











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Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)


Hypoglycemia is the condition lower blood sugar than the normal range.
Causes:
Insulin or anti- diabetic medicine overdose.
Insufficient food intake.
Excessive exercise.
Signs and symptoms:
Weakness, trembling or shaking.
Dizziness.
Numbness around lips and fingers.
Pallor.
Sweating profusely.
Altered mental status.
First aid Treatment:
Reassure the casualty and make him/her comfortable.
Give oral fluids with glucose or a sweetened drink.
Seek medical help immediately.







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Fracture


Fracture means broken or cracked bone.
Causes:
Direct force - Bone broken at the point where severe force applied.
Indirect force Bones broken away from the point where severe force is applied.
Excessive exercise.
Types of fracture:
Closed Fracture: Skin is intact with broken bone.
Open Fracture: Broken bone with open wound.
Signs and symptoms:
Immobility.
Deformity.
(1) Look for tenderness
(2) Look for swelling
(3) Look for loss of function
(4) History of heavy blow or fall.
First aid Treatment:
Immobilization and support to the fractured part.
Minimizing the painful movement.
Stop bleeding with direct pressure if possible.
Transport the casualty to the hospital.
To design a splint to the limb with gauze, bandage, and strip of cloth, string or even
a belt.
Stop using injured part.
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Head Injury


Any blow to the head can result in a head injuries can cause damage to the:
Scalp: layer outside the skull bone.
Skull: bony cage.
Brain: A concussion, a contusion (the brain tissue is bruised), or a hematoma
(blood collects in an area of the brain from a broken blood vessel).
Signs and symptoms of head injuries that alert the need for medical attention
include:
Loss of consciousness, confusion, drowsiness.
Inability to move any part of the body or weakness in an arm or leg.
Bruise, cut on the scalp.
Severe headache
Stiff neck
Vomiting
Blood or fluid that comes from the mouth, nose or ear.
Loss of vision, blurred or double vision, pupils of unequal size.
First aid Treatment:
Immobilization and support to the injured part.
Do the scene survey for safety to self and the casualty.
Call for the ambulance and seek medical help immediately.





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Eye Injury


You can treat many minor eye irritations by flushing the eye with clean normal
water.
Routine Irritations: (Sand, dirt, and others foreign bodies on the eye surface)
Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the eyelids to examine or
flush the eye.
Do not touch, press, or rub the eye itself.
Do not try to remove any foreign body except by flushing.
Consult a doctor immediately.
Embedded foreign body: An object penetrates the globe of the eye:
Call for the ambulance and seek medical help immediately.
Cuts of the eye and lid:
Seek medical help immediately.
Chemical Injury:
Flood the eye with water immediately, using your fingers to keep the eye
open as wide as possible.
Seek medical help immediately.