You are on page 1of 33

SEA TRIAL ANALYSIS JIP

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials






Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



1
SEA TRIAL ANALYSIS JIP

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials


































Ordered by : STA-J oint Industry Project
Issued by Marin, PO Box 28, 6700 AA Wageningen
The Netherlands, www.marin.nl
Marin report 18200-2-TM issued 12 September 2006
Reported by :
Approved by :
H.J .J . van den Boom, G.G.J Mennen and J .B.Verkuyl
STA-J IP Meeting, Wageningen, 4 J uly 2006
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



2
CONTENTS
REVIEW OF TABLES AND FIGURES.............................................................................3
1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................4
2 TRIAL OBJ ECTIVE...................................................................................................5
3 PARAMETERS THAT SHOULD BE LOGGED.........................................................6
3.1 Primary parameters ........................................................................................ 6
3.2 Other associated measurements .................................................................... 6
3.3 General information........................................................................................ 7
Model test information.............................................................................................. 7
3.4 Important aspects with regard to the measurements....................................... 8
3.4.1 Ship track and Speed over Ground.....................................................8
3.4.2 Torque.................................................................................................8
3.4.3 Wind measurements ...........................................................................8
3.4.4 Depth measurement............................................................................8
3.4.5 Wave measurements ..........................................................................9
3.4.6 Density and temperature at the location of the measurements...........9
3.4.7 Current................................................................................................9
4 DATA ACQUISITION..............................................................................................10
4.1 General data................................................................................................. 10
4.2 Data on each run.......................................................................................... 10
4.3 Automated data acquisition.......................................................................... 11
4.3.1 Minimum data for acquisition system on each run............................11
4.3.2 Requirements of data acquisition system..........................................11
4.3.3 Location of data acquisition system..................................................11
4.4 Manual data acquisition................................................................................ 12
5 TRIAL PREPARATIONS.........................................................................................16
5.1 Step1 Installation and Calibrations................................................................ 16
5.2 Step 2 Trial agenda and pre-trial meeting...................................................... 17
6 TRIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS.........................................................................18
6.1 Location........................................................................................................ 18
6.2 Wind............................................................................................................. 18
6.3 Sea State..................................................................................................... 18
6.4 Water depth.................................................................................................. 19
6.5 Current......................................................................................................... 19
7 SHIP CONDITION..................................................................................................20
7.1 Displacement ............................................................................................... 20
7.2 Trim.............................................................................................................. 20
7.3 Hull & Propeller............................................................................................. 20
8 TRIAL PROCEDURES ...........................................................................................21
8.1 Trial preparations.......................................................................................... 21
8.2 The trial trajectory ........................................................................................ 21
8.3 Run Duration................................................................................................ 22
8.4 Trial Direction............................................................................................... 22
8.5 Steering........................................................................................................ 22
8.6 Approach...................................................................................................... 22
8.7 No. of Speed runs ........................................................................................ 23
8.8 Test sequence speed trials .......................................................................... 24
9 REPORTING ..........................................................................................................25
9.1 Report Breakdown........................................................................................ 25
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



3
10 REFERENCES..............................................................................................26
NOMENCLATURE.........................................................................................................27
APPENDIX I - ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR MINIMUM WATER DEPTH................29
APPENDIX II - GENERAL SHIP AND TRIAL CONDITIONS REPORTED....................30
APPENDIX III SEASTATE AND BEAFORT SCALE ...................................................31


REVIEW OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Tables
Table 1 Primary parameters............................................................................................ 6
Table 2 Other associated measurements ....................................................................... 6
Table 3 General information............................................................................................ 7
Table 4 Indication of required approach length and time.............................................. 23

Figures
Figure 1 Example of a logform...................................................................................... 12
Figure 2 Sign conventions............................................................................................. 13
Figure 3 Sign convention for wind directions................................................................. 14
Figure 4 Sign convention for wave directions................................................................ 15
Figure 5 Path of ship during typical speed/power manoeuvre....................................... 21

























Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



4
1 INTRODUCTION
The Sea Trial Analysis (STA)-J IP is a J oint Industry Project that has reviewed the
current standards for the performance and analyses of speed trials together with ship
owners.

In close cooperation with the participating companies, comprising 14 leading ship
owners and 6 major ship yards, MARIN has developed a Recommended Practice for
conducting speed trials. This document outlines the procedure for the performance of
the speed trial, which forms the basis for an accurate assessment of the speed of a
ship upon delivery by the yard to the owner.

This Recommended Practice comprises:
a) The trial parameters that should be logged
b) The trial conditions that should not be exceeded during the trial
c) The procedures that should be followed during the trial
d) The contents of the trial report

The trial procedures are based on best international practice outlined by the ISO
19019, 15016 Ref [1] and the recommendations to the 22
nd
and 23
rd
ITTC
(International Tank Towing Committee) by the Trials & Monitoring committee, Ref [2
to 8], discussions with the STA-J IP participants and on experience from MARIN.

In the ITTC recommended procedures extensive procedures are given for the
preparation of a speed trial and the execution thereof. The ISO procedure gives some
guidelines for the boundary conditions that should apply during the speed trial.
Furthermore, the existing procedures often give a good guideline, but are not specific.

The STA-J IP Practice combines the two latest standards and gives a practical overview
of the minimum requirements that should be met in order to obtain reliable speed trial
results.

Besides issuing the present report, the STA-J IP has also improved the analysis and
correction methods for the results of speed trials. These are described in the
Recommended Analysis of Speed Trials (Marin Report No. 18200-9-TM) and
implemented in the software package QSTAP.

The following companies participated in STA-J IP: CP Offen, ER Schiffahrt, Hapag
Lloyd, Kuwait Oil Tankers, Maersk, NDR-H.Schuldt, NSB, Shell, Teekay, UECC, Vela
Vroon, DSME, Hanjin, HHI, Samsung, STX and Sumitomo. It was decided by the
participants that MARIN will issue this Recommended Practice for use by all shipowners
and yards worldwide. Participating companies continue in the STA-group to exchange
trial experiences and improve the quality of speed trials.

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



5
2 TRIAL OBJECTIVE
The primary purpose of speed trials is to determine ship performance in terms of speed,
power and propeller revolutions under prescribed ship conditions, and thereby verify the
satisfactory attainment of the contractually stipulated ship speed. Ship speed that is
realised under the contractually stipulated conditions which usually are no wind, no
waves, no current, deep water, and smooth hull and propeller surfaces and for the ship
at a contract draught.

Such stipulated conditions cannot normally all be expected during the actual trials. In
practice, certain corrections for the environmental conditions have to be considered, as
for water depth, wind, waves and current and deviating ship draught. For this purpose
during the trials not only the shaft power and ship speed are measured but also relevant
ship data and environmental conditions.

All trials procedures and measurements should be conducted in such away that the
speed is determined within 0.05 knots and the power within 2%.
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



6
3 PARAMETERS THAT SHOULD BE LOGGED
In this chapter an overview is given of the parameters that influence the trial speed. All
these parameters should be recorded as accurately as possible.
For this purpose a division has been made between primary and secondary parameters.
For each of the parameters the acceptable measurement methods are given.

3.1 Primary parameters
Acceptable measurement devi ces Unit
Ship Track DGPS [Latitude, Longitude] or [m]
Speed over the
Ground
DGPS Knots
Shaft Torque
or Shaft Power
Torsion meter with strain gauges,
Calibrated permanent torque sensor.
Power to be calculated from torque and
RPM
[kNm], [kW]
Shaft RPM Pick-up, laser counter, ship revs counter [Hz, RPM]
Propeller pitch Bridge replicator
Time GPS Time, Stopwatch [s]
Water depth Ship echo sounder +nautical charts [m]
Rudder angle Angular potentio meter, string sensor,
Ship rudder repeater
[deg]
Ship heading Gyro compass, or DGPS [deg]
Relative wind Ship anemometer, external anemometer [m/s], knots, [deg]
Wave height &
direction
Wave measuring device (i.e. radar,
scanner. etc), Wave buoy, Hind cast,
observation by multiple observers
[m], [deg]
Draughts Physical observation and / or calibrated
draught gauges
[m]
Table 1 Primary parameters

3.2 Other associated measurements
Acceptable measurement devi ce Unit
Sea water density rho Salinity sensor, Conductivity Density
Temperature (CDT) sensor
[kg/m^3]
Sea water
temperature
Thermometer, CDT sensor [C]
Air temperature Thermometer [C]
Air pressure Barometer [hPa], [mBar]
Table 2 Other associated measurements
Other associated measurements must be carried out at the trial site
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



7

3.3 General information
Prior to the trial, the data specified below shall be recorded, based on measurements
where relevant:

Hull condition
Last date of cleaning hull

Hull appendages and Rudder
Geometry
Type
Rate of Movement during speed trials

Wind fetch
Height of wind meter above waterline
Frontal wind area

Propeller(s)
Geometry
Pitch
Direction of rotation
Number of blades

Shaft(s)
G modulus Shaft material properties to be provided
by yard (shaft supplier data)
Table 3 General information


Model test information
The quality and accuracy of model tests play a large role in the outcome of full scale
trials. Often sea trials are carried out in ballast condition, whereas the contractual
condition most often is defined in loaded condition. For the conversion from ballast to
loaded the difference between the ballast and loaded model test curves is used.
Therefore an accurate model test and consistent extrapolation method to full scale is
required.

For the analysis of the speed trials i.e the correction of rpm, it is required that the model
tests data include the results of propeller load variation measurements.

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



8
For the performance of model tests the International Towing Tank Committee (ITTC)
recommends the following procedures which are followed by international recognised
model test institutes:
23
nd
ITTC 2002; Recommended Procedure for Propulsion Tests [ref.4].

With regard to model tests two main items are important:
1) The standard deviation of power obtained from resistance and propulsion tests
should be smaller than 2% ;
2) The model test report should give sufficient information to enable a third party
institute to check the model test results using the above ITTC procedure or its
own extrapolation method. This means that in a model test report raw data
should be given, correlation coefficients, a detailed description of the
extrapolation method used and of course the full scale prediction.


3.4 Important aspects with regard to the measurements

3.4.1 Ship track and Speed over Ground
The speed is to be measured by a global positioning system such as GPS. The GPS
system should operate in the Differential mode to ensure sufficient accuracy; i.e. the
speed should be measured within 0.05 knots. The position and speed should be
monitored and stored continuously.

3.4.2 Torque
Shaft torque should be measured by means of strain gauges on the shaft for which the
zero offset is determined just prior to the trial. The measurement system should be
certified for measurements on a test shaft with a bias error smaller than 1% so that an
overall bias error of smaller than 2% (on board of the actual ship) can be achieved.
Alternative torque measurement devices with a certified accuracy equal to or better than
the above figures are acceptable.
The shaft material properties i.e. the G-Modulus as specified by the shaft supplier
should be provided by the yard. The shaft diameter used in the power calculation should
be derived from the shaft circumference in-situ measured at the location of the torque
instrumentation.

3.4.3 Wind measurements
The ships own sensor, or an external wind meter can be used. The wind meter must be
as clear as possible from the superstructure. In the analyses of the measurements the
wind data from two consecutive runs at the same power level are combined to eliminate
effects due to the ships superstructure. Continuous recording of the wind during each
run is recommended.

3.4.4 Depth measurement
This can be done by using the ship echo sounder. It is important that the echo sounder
is calibrated before the speed run in combination with the check of the depth on the
charts and that the vessel draught is taken into account. Continuous recording of water
depth is recommended.

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



9
3.4.5 Wave measurements
Preferably the wave height, wave period and direction of waves due to wind and swell
should be determined using instruments. Use can be made of wave buoys or
instruments onboard the ships such as a wave radar and wave scanner. Although less
accurate, wave observations may also be determined from observations by multiple
observers, including an experienced captain, supported by hind casting if the expected
effect of the seaway is significant.

3.4.6 Density and temperature at the location of the measurements
The local seawater temperature and density at the trial site need to be recorded to
enable the calculation of ships displacement and corrections with regard to viscosity.
The water temperature should be taken at sea water inlet level. Air temperature and
atmospheric pressure should be measured at the trial location using a calibrated
thermometer and barometer.

3.4.7 Current
Current speed and direction shall be obtained as part of the evaluation of each run.
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



10
4 DATA ACQUISITION
During the speed/power trial obviously accurate recording of the speed and power
relationship is of great importance.
Next to this an accurate quantification of the boundary conditions is necessary since the
ships speed and powering characteristics are extremely sensitive to conditions such as
ship and propeller condition, ship displacement, shallow water effects, sea state and wind
velocity. Consequently, these factors must be monitored and documented to the
greatest extent possible.

During the speed/power trial two types of data acquisition may be used. Automated
acquisition by means of a data acquisition system (measurement computer), and
information that is noted down by means of a log sheet. The objective must always be to
record as many parameters as possible by means of the measurement computer in order
to increase the level of accuracy of the trials.

In general, data to be acquired can be divided into general data which is applicable during
all speed runs and specific data that is varying throughout every run.

4.1 General data
Prior to the trial, the data specified below shall be recorded, based on measurements
where relevant:
Date
Area of trial
Weather
Mean water depth in area of trial
Water temperature and density
Air temperature
Height of wind instrument above waterline
Fore, amidships and aft draughts
Displacement
Absolute wind speed and direction by shore based station(s) or as measured
directly prior to and after finalising the speed trials while the vessel is still in the
water

4.2 Data on each run
Clock time at commencement (UTC)
Time elapsed over the measured distance
Course direction / compass heading
Ships speed over the ground
Ships course over ground
Offset of track
Propeller frequency of revolutions
Propeller shaft torque and/or power
Propeller pitch in case of CPP
Relative wind velocity and direction by anemometer
Mean wave period, significant wave height and direction of waves (Wind Seas)
Mean wave period, significant wave height and direction of waves (Swell)
Max. rudder angle
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



11

4.3 Automated data acquisition
The acquisition system must be able to record time histories of the measurements
described in chapter 4.3.1 in order to assure quality control and to provide information,
that will allow for the development of uncertainty analysis.

4.3.1 Minimum data for acquisition system on each run
An overview of minimum parameters that must be recorded during the speed trial is
given below.
Date
Run number
Time
Propeller shaft torque or power
Propeller shaft rpm
Ship positional data
Ship heading
Ships speed over the ground
Relative wind direction and relative wind speed

4.3.2 Requirements of data acquisition system
The data acquisition system must be able to:
Record all available parameters simultaneously on one computer
Perform a time trace recording of at least 1 Hz. (Data sampling during a run is
typically between 0.2 and 1 samples/second and is dependent on the physical
phenomenon being recorded)
Display time traces of all trial parameters
Calculating statistics (Mean, min, max, standard deviation)

At the end of each run the data acquisition system should be able to present all
recorded time histories to evaluate the quality and consistency of the acquired trial data
and be stored for on-line graphical presentation.
Furthermore the acquisition system must be able to present the following statistical
values for each of the measured data:
1. Trial start Time
2. Number of samples taken
3. Maximum value
4. Minimum value
5. Average value
6. Standard deviation
Filtering of the run data is recommended to avoid spikes in the recorded time histories.
ITTC suggests the use of Chauvents criterion that provides a ratio of maximum
acceptable deviation to precision index as a function of the number of readings, (N).
Readings are automatically rejected from use in the data analysis when they fall outside
of the selected mean value bandwidth.

4.3.3 Location of data acquisition system
It is recommended that the data acquisition system is set-up on the bridge.

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



12
4.4 Manual data acquisition
For those parameters that can not be acquired automatically by means of the data
acquisition system, manual acquisition is required with use of a log sheet

The log sheet is important for two aspects:
1. First of all to complete the dataset
2. Secondly to provide a backup for the automated measurements and give a
written overview of the measurements.

It is important that the parameters that are varying in time will be recorded every few
minutes so that the average can be determined over the run period.

An example of a log sheet that can be used is given in Figure 1. The sign conventions to
be used for wave and wind direction are presented in Figures 2, 3 and 4.

Date: Positions X Y Z Shi p Environment
Anemometer Tfwd m T ai r C outer dia D1 mm
GPS Taft m T water C inner dia D2 mm
MQK Displ. tons water kg/m3 steel type
Waves visual Remarks
Time
[hh.mm]
Latitude
[deg]
Longitude
[Deg]
Heading
[deg]
Depth
[m]
speed
[m/s]
[kn]
Direction
[deg]
Rudder
angle [deg]
Log
[kn]
GPS
[kn]
Height
[m]
Period
[s]
Direction
[deg]
Torque
[kNm]
Power
[kW]
Revs
[RPM]
Torque
[kNm]
Power
[kW]
Revs
[RPM]


Ships name :
Run
No.
File name
Speed / Power Trials Log Form
Shaft
Speed Average pos. Propeller PS Propeller SB Rel. wind

Figure 1 Example of a logform









Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



13



Figure 2 Sign conventions



Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



14

Figure 3 Sign convention for wind directions
The wind direction is defined as the direction where the wind is coming from.
0 degrees on the bow and positive to starboard (clockwise).

Input parameters:
Heading: Heading of the ship; compass course [deg]
VAW: Apparent wind speed [knots]
BAWD: Apparent wind direction relative to the bow, ship fixed [deg]
VSM: Ship speed over ground [knots]

Computed parameters:
BTWD True wind angle in earth system [deg]
VTW True wind speed [knots]


Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



15

Figure 4 Sign convention for wave directions

The wave direction is defined as the direction where the waves are coming from.
0 degrees on the bow and positive to starboard (clockwise).

Input parameters:
Heading: Heading of the ship; compass course [deg]
HW13: Significant wave height [m]
MUWAVD Wave direction relative to the bow [deg]
VSM: Ship speed over ground.
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



16

5 TRIAL PREPARATIONS
The success of the speed/power trial largely depends on the preparations of the trial. The
ITTC 19019 gives an elaborate description of the actions that should be taken for a good
preparation. In this chapter the most important steps are summarized.

5.1 Step1 Installation and Calibrations
Assemble all trials instrumentation in the configuration that will be used on the ship. Test
the instrumentation system for malfunctioning instrumentation or any other
complications.
Apart from the obvious signals such as shaft torque, rpm and DGPS it is important to
check:
1. Gyrocompass heading
2. Relative wind direction
3. Relative wind speed
4. Rudder angle indicator
5. Log speed
6. Propeller pitch port and starboard if available
7. Ships draught measurement system
8. Water depth measuring system
All shipboard signals to be recorded during the trials must be calibrated after the
instrumentation installation is completed prior to the trials. For this purpose the sensors
should be cycled throughout the full operating range of the system.
This is accomplished by:
Slewing the gyrocompass
Moving the rudder to different positions
Changing the propeller pitch
The shafts will need to be rotated on the turning gear to zero the torsion meter
prior to getting underway
The ships draught measurement system needs to be verified prior to getting underway for
trials, by directly reading all draught marks seawater temperature, specific density and the
internal draught system at the same time.
The torque measurements system should be corrected for any zero offset. As part of the
pre-trial calibration, the torsion meters zero torque readings should be determined since
there is a residual torque in the shaft, which is resting on the line shaft bearings. The shaft
is jacked both ahead and astern and the average of the readings noted. The zeroes are
set at the midpoint of the torque required to jack each shaft astern. Setting the torque in
this manner, means that the measured torque underway includes the torque to overcome
any bearing friction. The final torque values used are derived from the drag shaft
procedure (ITTC 7.5-04-01-01.4).
Checks of the torque measurement calibration should be made just before and after the
speed trials. No difference is allowed between runs.

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



17
As part of the pre-trial calibration for a ship equipped with controllable pitch propellers
the following procedures have to be as following:
1. Prior to dock-out the OD mechanism showing the propeller pitch should be
checked for zero pitch;
2. Check zero pitch reading in the measurement system against the mechanical
reading in the OD box should be made;
3. Determine the maximum ahead pitch, design pitch, and maximum astern pitch
and then adjust the ship indicators to reflect the measurement. Determine the
corrections to account for changes in pitch due to shaft compression as thrust
increases and temperature effects on the propeller pitch control rod.
4. Verify the weight of the propulsor and hub from the manufacturers
specifications for use in making thrust measurement corrections
An important deliverable of this stage will be a document describing the test set-up, and
the calibrations including evidence of the calibrations that have been carried out.
It is important to note that there are two stages to consider in performing instrumentation
checks; the pre-trial check procedures and the post trial check to verify the calibration
results.

5.2 Step 2 Trial agenda and pre-trial meeting
Before departing, a pre-trial meeting should be held to fix the speed trial program and
trial agenda.
During the meeting two items should be addressed.
Approval of the trial agenda
Approval of the correction methods and procedures that will be used to calculate
the trial speed
The trial agenda is a document prepared by the yard, outlining the scope of a particular
Speed/Power trial. This document contains the procedures on how to conduct the trial and
table(s) portraying the runs to be conducted. It outlines the particular responsibilities of the
Trial Director, Trials team, Ships crew/ Shipbuilder, and the Owners representative.

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



18
6 TRIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
During the trial there are many conditions that deviate from the contract condition. The
objective during the trial is to keep the number of influencing factors as limited as
possible.
This is important since although there are correction methods to correct for certain
deviations from the contract condition, these methods are only valid up to certain limits.
In order to arrive at reliable speed trial results the boundary conditions should not
exceed the values given in this chapter.

6.1 Location
High wind and sea state can force the use of excessive rudder deflections to maintain
heading, and thus cause excessive fluctuations in shaft torque, shaft speed and ship
speed.

The speed trial should be conducted in a location where the environmental conditions
are constant and have only a small possible impact on the vessel in order to avoid
unexpected environmental effects in the trial results.

This means that the speed trial range should be located in a sheltered body of water
(i.e. limited wind, waves and current). Furthermore the operational area should be free
from substantial small boat traffic and commercial traffic.

6.2 Wind
During the trial wind speeds should not be higher than:

Beaufort number 6
1
, for vessels with a Lpp 100 m, or
Beaufort number 5, for vessel with a Lpp <100 m

6.3 Sea State
The total wave height, H , which is the sum of significant wave heights of sea
1/3
H and
swell
1/3 s
H , shall satisfy the following:
pp
L >100 m: the lower value of H 0.015
pp
L or maximum 4 m.
pp
L 100 m: H 1.5 m
Where:
2 2
1/3 1/3 s
H H H = +

In addition to the above limitations, it is required that when the significant wave height
H exceeds 3.0 m (for vessels with
pp
L >200 m), the actual wave spectrum
encountered during the trial should be measured accurately i.e. the significant wave
height should be known within 5%.

1
The Beaufort scale is given in appendix III
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



19

6.4 Water depth
There are correction methods that compensate for shallow water; however it is better to
avoid the corrections by the choice of the trial location.
An acceptable minimum water depth for the trials where data do not need to be
corrected for shallow water can be calculated using:

Use of the larger of the 2 values obtained from the two equations.

3 h B T > and
2
2.75
s
V
h
g
=

Furthermore significant variations in the bottom contours should be avoided

6.5 Current
Areas with known large current variations should be avoided.






Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



20
7 SHIP CONDITION

7.1 Displacement
The ships displacement should be within 2% difference of the actual required
displacement. If model test results are used for the analysis of the speed trials, the
displacement of the vessel during the trials should be within 2% of the displacement
used in the model tests for the trial draught.

Draft, trim and displacement of the trials must be obtained by averaging the ship draft
mark readings. The ship should be brought into a loading condition that is as close as
possible to contract condition and/or the condition at which model tests have been
carried out. Usually model test results at different draughts are used for the conversion
from the trial draught to the actual contract draught.

The loading condition must be confirmed at zero forward speed. Draft, trim and
displacement must be obtained at the beginning and at the end of the trial. This may be
accomplished by a second draft reading, by use of the calibrated draught gauging
system or by use of a loading computer. For this purpose the draught gauging system
should be tested and calibrated prior to the trials in port by direct draft readings both
port and starboard in conjunction with the loading computer. The trial team will verify the
accuracy of the draught gauging system prior to the Speed/Power trials.

Displacement must be derived from the hydrostatic data by using the draft data and the
density of the water.

7.2 Trim
Trim shall be maintained within very narrow limits. For the even keel condition the trim
shall be less than 1.0% of the mid-ships draught. For the trimmed trial condition, the trim
shall be within 3% of the trim tested at model scale and the immergence of the bulbous
bow should be equal to the model test condition.

7.3 Hull & Propeller
The ship should have a clean hull and propeller for the sea trial. Hull roughness and
marine growth can increase the resistance of the ship significantly but are not corrected
for in speed trials. Therefore it is recommended that the hull and propeller are cleaned
just prior to the sea trials.



Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



21

8 TRIAL PROCEDURES
On the day of the speed trial and during the speed trial a number of prerequisites should
be met in order to arrive at reliable trial results. In this chapter an overview is given of
the minimum requirements.

8.1 Trial preparations
Prior to the speed trials the following items should be recorded.
Weather forecast
Water temperature and density
Air temperature and air pressure
Fore, amidships and aft draughts
Displacement

The schedule for the speed trials should be arranged such that the trials around the
contract speed/power settings are conducted at daylight, to ensure a clear observation of
the wave conditions during these runs.

Furthermore, it is important to check that the engine plant line up during the speed trial is
consistent with normal ship operations.

Before the actual start of the speed trials, the following actions should be conducted
when the vessel is stopped in the water (within the schedule of the trials):
1. draught reading as described in section 7.1
2. measurement of absolute wind speed and direction
3. zero setting of shaft torque meter.
For confirmation, the above actions have to be repeated during the first stop of the
vessel in the water (within the trials schedule) after completion of the speed trials.


8.2 The trial trajectory
The trial runs need to be conducted over the same ground area. For each base course,
each trial run will be commenced (COMEX) at the same place (within reason).

Figure 5 Path of ship during typical speed/power manoeuvre

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



22
Modified Williamson turns will be executed between each run to return the ship to the
reciprocal baseline and to the same ground area, in which the previous run was
conducted. This procedure is used to avoid the possibility of coming across different
magnitudes of seawater or wind due to large changes in the geographical position of the
ship. Engine throttles should not be moved during this evolution so that the ships
machinery plant will steady out sooner. The rudder angle used in this manoeuvre should
be such that ship speed and time loss will be minimised.

8.3 Run Duration
The trial duration should be between 5 and 10 minutes in order to accommodate a
speed/power measurement within the required accuracy. The following minimum run
lengths should be observed:

for speeds of 18 knots and above: 3 nm
for speeds below 18 knots: 2 nm.

8.4 Trial Direction
For large vessels it is strongly recommended to carry out the speed runs with and
against the dominant wave direction, because good correction methods exist for wind
from different wind angles, but not for waves.

Once the heading for the trial is fixed, and the reciprocal heading for the return run, the
selected tracks should be maintained very precisely throughout the trial. It is imperative
that extremely tight control is exercised during the conduct of the trials to minimize as
many variables as possible that could unduly influence the speed power relation.

8.5 Steering
An experienced helmsman will be required to maintain heading during each trial run. He
should use minimum rudder angles commensurate with maintaining a steady heading.

During the run, the single amplitude of variation of rudder angles shall be within 3
degrees. Furthermore the measured counter rudder to maintain a straight course shall
be within 5 degrees.

8.6 Approach
The trial approach should be long enough to ensure a steady state ship condition prior
to commencement (COMEX) of each run. During the approach run the ship should be
kept on course with minimum rudder not to retard the vessel.

No fixed approach distance can be given. To verify that the vessel reached the steady
ship condition the measured values of shaft r/min, shaft torque and ship speed in the
control position should be used. The condition is considered Steady when the ordered
r/min(s), shaft torque (kNm) and the ship speed (kn) are steady.

Table 4 provides an indication of approach lengths and corresponding times for various
ship speeds.

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



23

Size of ship
[DWT]
Approach
distance [nm]
Approach time [min]
15 knots 20 knots 25 knots
50,000 4 - 5 20 15 12
100,000 5 - 7 26 20 16
250,000 8 10 40 30 24
500,000 12 15 60 45 36
Table 4 Indication of required approach length and time

8.7 No. of Speed runs
All speed trials shall be carried out using double runs, i.e. each run should be followed by
a return run in the exact opposite direction performed with the same engine settings.

To determine the speed-power curve for the first of a series ship, a minimum number of 4
(four) double runs at 3 (three) different power settings are required. These runs comprise:
2 (two) double runs at the same power setting around the contract power
double runs at two other power settings between 65% and 100% MCR.

The 2 (two) double runs around contract power are required to compensate for tidal
currents and should be conducted at daylight to enable a clear observation of the wave
conditions.

If the results of the speed trials of the first of a series are acceptable, sister ships in that
series may be subjected to a reduced speed trial program. For identical sister ships it is
sufficient to conduct 2 (two) double runs at the same power setting around the contract
power in order to confirm the level of the speed/power curve obtained by the first vessel.

In case it is proven and accepted by both parties that the maximum current speed in the
speed trial area at the time of the speed trials is less than 0.2 (zero point two) knots, the
two double runs required for sister ships can be reduced to one double run.

For both the first of a series and following ships, one additional double run should be
conducted for each power setting in case:
Strong variations in current can be expected;
Wave height is around the limiting conditions and significant wave induced
motions are observed;
A long duration is required for the whole speed trials, the time and sequence
between all the speed runs and the presence of time gaps between the runs;



Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



24

8.8 Test sequence speed trials

1 Check displacement by draught reading fore, amidships at two sides and aft, prior
to the speed trials in the trial area; Check zero setting of the torque measurement,
measure the absolute wind velocity and direction. (All data collected with the ship
stopped in the water);

2 Measurement of specific mass of sea water prior to the trials in the trial area;
3 Weather observations (measurements of air and sea water temperature, relative
wind speed and direction);

4 Fixing of measuring course against direction of seaway;
5 Navigating through the approach distance on direct course;
6 Prepare all measurements to start (3 min. in advance of measurement);
7 Start speed run. Control levers should remain unchanged, maximum rudder angle
shall not be more than 3 deg. port and starboard. After agreed duration (5 to 10
minutes) or distance (2 to 3 nm) stop speed run;

8 Turn ship with small rudder angles to navigate the counter run at the same
geographical location as the first run;

9 Repeat steps 5 to 8.
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



25
9 REPORTING
In the trial report an overview is given of the trial conditions and results plus all
corrections necessary to arrive at the contractual speed.

The trial report should contain all relevant information to carry out all data analyses.
The report should be written in such a way that all results can be reprocessed.

9.1 Report Breakdown
The trial report should contain the following sections

(i) Trial Report Summary this should comprise details of

(aa) Ship particulars (including trial draughts and displacement)
(ab) Propeller Details
(ac) Engine Data
(ad) Details of Appendages and Rudder

(ii) Contract conditions including contract speed, power, displacement.

(iii) Description of Instrumentation this will describe the instrument set-up, calibration
procedure, Data Acquisition interfacing details, Location of sensors (e.g. wind meter),
etc.

(iv) Description of Trial Site. this will give information on geography, distance from land,
water depth, Air temperature, Water temperature, water density etc

(v) Environment Parameters this will list out the measured/estimated environmental
conditions at site during trials such as wave height, wave direction, sea state, Air
pressure, Wind direction, Wind velocity etc.

(vi) Trial Agenda this will give a complete and chronological order of the trial programme
(both planned and actual) with specification of duties of different recording/monitoring
stations on board

(vii) Trial Results (a) Date (b) Time (c) Run no (d) Ship position (e) Ship's heading (f)
Run duration (g) Average ship speed (h) Average and standard deviation torque (per
shaft) (j) Average shaft rpm (per shaft) (k) Average shaft power (per shaft) (m) Average
rudder angle (n) Relative wind speed and direction (p) Significant wave height and
direction (sea state)

(viii) Correction methods this should contain information about the used correction
methods including references, input and output

(ix) Conclusions / Recommendations

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



26

10 REFERENCES

[1] International standard ISO 15016 and ISO 19019 Ship and marine technology
Guidelines for the assessment of speed and power performance by analysis of
speed trial data, First edition 2002-06-15;

[2] ITTC Recommended procedures Speed/Power Trial preparation, 7.5-04-01-
01.1, 23
rd
ITTC 2002;

[3] ITTC Recommended procedures Speed/Power Trial Ship Inspection, 7.5-04-
01-01.2, 23
rd
ITTC 2002;

[4] ITTC Recommended procedures Speed/Power Hull and Propulsor Survey,
7.5-04-01-01.3, 23
rd
ITTC 2002;

[5] ITTC Recommended procedures Speed/Power Trial Instrumentation and
Calibration, 7.5-04-01-01.4, 23
rd
ITTC 2002;

[6] ITTC Recommended procedures Speed/Power Trial Conditions, 7.5-04-01-
01.5, 23
rd
ITTC 2002;

[7] ITTC Recommended procedures Speed/Power Trial Conduct, 7.5-04-01-01.6,
23
rd
ITTC 2002;

[8] The Specialist Committee on Speed and Powering Trials. Final report and
recommendations to the 23
rd
ITTC, page 314-367;

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



27
NOMENCLATURE
List of Symbols
L
wl
Length on waterline [m]
L
pp
Length between perpendiculars [m]
Displaced volume [m
3
]
Displacement [t]
B Breadth [m]
D Depth [m]
T
aft
Draught at aft perpendicular [m]
T
fwd
Draught at forward perpendicular [m]

L
CB
Longitudinal centre of buoyancy forward of midship % of LPP
C
M
Midship area coefficient [-]
C
WL
Prismatic waterline coefficient [-]
A
TRANS
Submerged area transom [m
2
]
A
BULB
Area bulb on FPP [m
2
]
H
BULB
Height centre of ABULB above base line [m]
S
w
Wetted surface hull [m
2
]
S
APP
Wetted surface appendages [m
2
]
K
APP
Form factor for appendages [-]

K
YY
Longitudinal radius of gyration % of LPP
L
ABDA
Model scale 1: [-]
H
ANEMO
Height anemo meter above water [m]
A
TRAN
Transverse area above water [m
2
]


NCR Nominal continuous rating [kW]
MCR Maximum continuous Rating [kW]

RPMMCR RPM at MCR [rpm]
RPMNCR RPM at NCR [rpm]
SEA
MAR
Sea margin in percentage NCR [%]
RPM
MAR
RPM margin in percent RPM at NCR [%]
ETA
S
Shaft efficiency [-]
CA Trial allowance coefficient*10^5 [-]
K
FAC
1+K factor [-]
AD
HULL
Hull roughness * 10 ^6 [-]

N
PROP
Number of propellors [-]
I
Z
Number of propeller blades [-]
D
PROP
Diameter propeller [m]
A
E
/A
O
Blade area ratio [-]
P/D Pitch/diameter ratio [-]
KB
clear
Propellor- baseline clearance [m]
A
AM
Propellor roughness [-]

BN
REF
Reference Beaufort number [-]
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



28
TEMP
S
Reference sea water temperature [C]
TEMP
AS
Reference air temperature [C]
D
ISPLS
Reference displacement [m
3
]

H
RUD
Mean height of Rudder [m]
B
RUD
Mean chord of rudder [m]
T
RUD
Maximum thickness of rudder [m]
HW13 Significant wave height [m]

Heading Heading of ship; compass course [deg]
VAW Apparent wind speed [kn]
BAWD Apparent wind direction relative to bow [deg]
VSM Ship speed over ground [kn]
HW13 Significant wave height [m]
MUWAVD Wave direction relative to bow [deg]


V
s
Ship speed (VS) [kn]
P
s
Ship power (PS) [kW]
P
win
Power correction factor for wind (DPWIN) [k

W]
V
wav
Speed correction factor for waves (DVWAV) [kn]
V
dep
Speed correction factor for depth (DVDEP) [kn]
P
tem
Power correction factor for temperature (DPTEM) [k

W]
P
den
Power correction factor for density (DPDEN) [k

W]
P
dis
Power correction factor for displacement (DPDIS) [k

W]
P
rud
Power correction factor for rudder angles (DPRUD) [k

W]
RPM correction factor for RPM (DRPM) [-]
V
s,c
Corrected ship speed (VSC) [kn]
P
s,c
Corrected ship power (PSC) [kW]
RPM
c
Corrected RPM (RPMC) [-]

sea, ref
Sea water density according to contract [
kg
/
m
3
]

sea
Sea water density [
kg
/
m
3
]

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



29

APPENDIX I - ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR MINIMUM WATER DEPTH
Accepted methods for calculating the minimum water depth for the trials where the data
do not need to be corrected for shallow water influences:


SNAME 1973/21
st
ITTC Powering Performance Committee

( )
2
/ 10 L TV d

d =water depth
T =trial draft
V =speed
L =Length between particulars

Sname 1989 from Det Norske Veritas
Nautical Safety- Additional Classes NAUT-A, NAUT-B and NAUT-C, J uly 1986
5.0
m
h A >
and
2
0.4 h V >
Use the larger of 2 values obtained from the two equations.

22
nd
ITTC Trials & Monitoring Specialist Committee/12
th
ITTC based on ship
sections and Froude number

3.0 ( ) h BT >
and
2
2.75
V
h
g
>
Use the larger of 2 values obtained from the two equations.

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



30
APPENDIX II - GENERAL SHIP AND TRIAL CONDITIONS REPORTED

Ship Hull
Draft
Trim Displacement and load

Hull appendages and Rudder
Geometry, deviation, roughness
Type
Rate of Movement

Propeller
Geometry, deviations, roughness
Pitch
Direction of rotation
Number of blades

Propeller(s)
Geometry, deviations, roughness
Pitch
Direction of rotation
Number of blades

Trial Site
Water depth
Water temperature
Air temperature
Sea State
Specific gravity of water

Environmental conditions
Wind
Waves
Current
Atmospheric pressure

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



31
APPENDIX III SEASTATE AND BEAFORT SCALE

SEA STATE SCALE

Seastate Observation Wave height
(feet)
Wave height
(meter)
0 Calm-Glassy 0 0
1 Calm-Rippled 0 - 0.3 0 - 0.1
2 Smooth-Wavelet 0.3 - 1.7 0.1 - 0.5
3 Slight 1.7 - 4 0.5 - 1.25
4 Moderate 4 - 8 1.25 - 2.5
5 Rough 8 - 13 2.5 - 4
6 Very Rough 13 - 20 4 - 6
7 High 20 - 30 6 - 9
8 Very High 30 - 45 9 - 14
9 Phenomenal more then 45 more then 14
? Beyond Belief more then 90 more then


BEAUFORT WINDSCALE
Bft Description Mean Windspeed
m/s knots km/hr mi/hr
0 Calm <0.2 <1 <1 <1
1 Light 0.3 - 1.5 1 - 3 1 - 5 1 - 3
2 Light 1.6 - 3.3 4 - 6 6 - 11 4 - 7
3 Gentle 3.4 - 5.4 7 -10 12 - 19 8 - 12
4 Moderate 5.5 - 7.9 11 - 16 20 - 28 13 - 18
5 Fresh 8.0 - 10.7 17 - 21 29 - 38 19 - 24
6 Strong 10.8 - 13.8 22 - 27 39 - 49 25 - 31
7 Near Gale 13.9 - 17.1 28 - 33 50 - 61 32 - 38
8 Gale 17.2 - 20.7 34 - 40 62 - 74 39 - 46
9 Strong Gale 20.8 - 24.4 41 - 47 75 - 88 47 - 54
10 Storm 24.5 - 28.4 48 - 55 89 - 102 55 - 63
11 Violent storm 28.5 - 32.6 56 - 63 102 - 117 64 - 74
12 Hurricane >32.6 >63 >117 >74
Copyright 2002 KNMI

Recommended Practice for Speed Trials



32