The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop.

The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 19, March 18, 1897, by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

Title: The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 19, March A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls Author: Various Release Date: March 18, 2005 [EBook #15404] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND ***

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop.

Copyrighted 1897, By William Beverley Harison.

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Vol. 1 March 18, 1897. No. 19 Cuba has changed places with Greece this week, and again occupies the most important place in men's thoughts. An American citizen who was arrested there two weeks ago has been found dead in his cell, under very mysterious circumstances. This man was Dr. Ricardo Ruiz. He was born in Cuba, but came to the United States many years ago. He studied dentistry in Philadelphia, lived there several years, obtained his papers, and became an American citizen. A foreigner who wishes to become an American citizen has to go before a judge and declare his intention of becoming a citizen of the United States. The court then gives him what are called his "first papers." He must have lived here five years before he can become a citizen. To do this he asks for what are called his first papers, and then he must wait two years before he can get what are called his "second papers," which make him a citizen of the United States, and give him all the rights and privileges of a native-born citizen. Before the second papers are given him, he has to take an oath swearing to be a true and faithful citizen of his new country, and he has to give up any title that he may have borne in his former land.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop.

The oath he takes, which is called the oath of allegiance, binds him to give up his citizenship in his former country, and to become so completely an American that if a war were to break out between his old country and the United States, he would fight against her and for America. He went back to Cuba, after a while, and settled in Guanabacoa. Guanabacoa, if you will remember, is the town which is ruled by the cruel Fondeviella. In Number 13 of The Great Round World we told you about this man, and his cruelty. It would seem that Dr. Ruiz fell a victim to Fondeviella's cruelty. The Spaniards seem to have a very spiteful feeling against Cubans who have become American citizens. They vow vengeance against such men, and are ever on the watch to find an excuse for arresting or punishing them. Dr. Ruiz, though he seems to have attended to his own business, and obeyed the law in every way, interfering with no one, has been an object of suspicion to Fondeviella for some time past, and when, on January 16th, a train was thrown off the rails by insurgents, a few miles from Guanabacoa, Dr. Ruiz was accused of having taken part in the outrage. He was arrested and thrown into jail. When the reason for his arrest was known, some well-known citizens of Guanabacoa came forward, and said that they knew Dr. Ruiz was innocent. It seems that on that very night there was a birthday party at the house of Dr. Ruiz's father-in-law.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. The doctor was present, but, feeling tired, he left the party at ten o'clock and went to his own house. Two of his friends went with him, and sat chatting with him until after twelve o'clock. The train was thrown off the rails at ten-thirty, so that it was quite impossible that Dr. Ruiz could have had any hand in the work. The authorities refused to listen to these statements made by Dr. Ruiz's friends, and kept him shut up in a dark and filthy cell for fourteen days. At the end of this time word came to Consul-General Lee that Dr. Ruiz had died in prison. As he was a very strong and healthy man, the American Consul at once suspected that he had not died a natural death. On investigation it was found that the poor fellow had died from the effects of a blow on the head. No one knows, and probably no one ever will know, how he was killed, but there are dark rumors that he was murdered in his cell by Fondeviella's orders. When the Americans were going to see the cell in which poor Dr. Ruiz had died, they were obliged to pass along a corridor lined with other cells, in which more prisoners were confined. As they walked along this passage, several of the poor captives came to their doors, and whispered that Ruiz had been ill-treated, and they thought murdered. They declared that they had heard sounds of blows coming from his cell, and that the jail had rung with the poor doctor's cries for help. This may not be true, because Cubans shut up in jails by Spaniards are not likely to feel very friendly toward them, and these stories may have been invented with the hope of angering the Americans into making war on Spain. But whether these stories be true or false, it is very well known that the Spaniards do not treat their prisoners kindly, and there is good ground for suspicion in this case. Our Consul was so disturbed by the news that was brought to him, and by the sights that he saw in the jail, that he sent word to the government in Washington, asking that warships be sent to Havana to protect the American prisoners who are in Cuban jails. There have been, and still are, a number of our citizens under arrest in Cuba, and the case of Mrs. Rodriguez, about whom you read in Number 16 of The Great Round World, followed so closely by the death of Dr. Ruiz, has made General Lee feel that the Americans in Cuba need some better protection than they have at present. The government however, has refused him the help he asked for, and it is reported that the Consul-General has sent in his resignation, preferring to give up his office rather than remain in Cuba without the power to help his countrymen. This news has created the greatest excitement. The government denies that it is true, and declares that General Lee has neither asked for warships nor sent in his resignation. But signed telegrams come from Havana, stating that the whole matter is quite true, and that the General cabled his resignation, so that there might be no delay in its reaching our government. Both Houses of Congress are demanding to be told the whole truth about the matter. Senators, who, as a rule, are very loyal to the government, are asking for explanations, and insisting that all the papers and letters in School Books Wanted 5

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. Mr. Olney's hands that relate to the subject shall be given to the Senate. Havana is also highly excited. The report that General Lee had asked for warships set the Spaniards afire. They threatened, and raged, and became so angry and indignant that the Marquis de Ahumada, the governor of Havana, was afraid that riots would break out. He therefore sent for the colonels of the various volunteer troops in the city, and assured them that the reports were altogether false, and that Mr. Cleveland and Mr. Olney were the faithful friends of Spain. Despite the governor's proclamation, the Spaniards openly declare that if an American man-of-war enters Havana harbor they will attack the American Consulate, and declare war on the United States. Meanwhile, people are wondering what turn Cuban affairs will take, after they are in the hands of the new President. The Spaniards declare that Major McKinley will follow in the footsteps of Mr. Cleveland and Mr. Olney, and do nothing at all. In Washington it is said that great changes will be made. While war will not be declared on Spain, warships will be sent to Cuba to protect our citizens there, and the United States Navy will no longer be kept doing police work for Spain by preventing filibustering. One thing, however, is sure. Dr. Ruiz's death will be closely inquired into. General Lee's prompt and manly action has been of some little help to another poor American confined in a Cuban jail. This second prisoner is a Mr. Charles Scott, who is accused of having some postage stamps in his possession that were issued by the insurgent government. It is the custom of the Spaniards to keep important prisoners in solitary confinement until they have been examined by the judge. Their law says that a prisoner shall be shut up thus closely for seventy hours, and during that time he shall be completely cut off from the rest of the world, and therefore at the mercy of his jailers. It was during this confinement, and while he was waiting for his examination, that Dr. Ruiz was, if reports be true, beaten to death by the Spaniards. Mr. Scott was also waiting for his examination, but General Lee, fearing that he, too, might "happen to die" in his prison, made such a clamor for his release, that he has been put with the other prisoners, and where his friends can see him. Fighting still continues in Crete, and it seems as if the Powers were really sincere in their wish to make Greece keep the peace. Colonel Vassos has been doing some fine work as commander of the Corps of Occupation. He has attacked fort after fort, and has won several victories over the Turks. Encouraged by his success, he decided to advance on Canea.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. No sooner was word of his advance brought to the city, than the admirals in command of the various fleets set out for the Greek camp, and had a talk with Colonel Vassos. They would not tell what had passed, but on their return to Canea they sent to the commander of the Greek fleet, and asked him to call on them. When this gentleman met the admirals, they were all assembled together, and had evidently been talking the situation over. They informed him, as the result of their conference, that if Colonel Vassos did attack the city, the allied fleets of the Powers would fire upon him and drive him away. The same message was sent to Colonel Vassos. In spite of it, he advanced upon Canea, and the morning after the warning had been received his troops began to fire upon the town. Immediately, the admirals of the fleets in the harbor ordered the decks of their ships to be cleared for action, and fired their guns upon the Greeks. After a short while, the Greeks, finding that they could not stand against the terrible fire from the big guns, became disheartened, and withdrew. The moment the Greek flag was hauled down, the ships stopped firing. A good deal of indignation has been felt that Christian Powers should interfere to uphold the misrule of infidels, but the Great Powers say they are acting for the best interests of Europe. It seems quite sure that they do not mean to leave the Cretans under the care of the Sultan of Turkey. The latest news tells us that Greece has once more been ordered to leave Crete, and that this time she has agreed to do so, provided that the island be made independent. Lord Salisbury, the Prime Minister of England, suggested that Crete should be given home rule under the governorship of a Greek prince, and thus far the rest of the Powers are willing to agree with him. Nothing will be done until the Greek troops have been made to leave Crete, and this may not be so easy to accomplish. Word comes from Athens that the people are not at all pleased with the idea of home rule for Crete. They want the island to be joined to Greece, and would rather fight for it, than give it up. It is very natural that they should feel this way. If the people of some near-by country were almost all Americans and relations of ours, and were cruelly treated by their rulers, we would feel just as the Greeks do. There is hardly a family in Greece which has not suffered wrong from the Turks. It is but natural that they fight for their brothers, the Cretans. In Number 14 of The Great Round World, we spoke of the massacre of a number of white men in Africa by the King of Benin. We told how the Queen of England had ordered her soldiers to punish the African king for his cruelty. News has just come that the soldiers sent by England have captured Benin City, and that its king, Drunami, is fleeing before his angry foes.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. A part of the soldiers remained in Benin to hold the city, and the rest went in pursuit of the king. They expect to take him prisoner, and if they succeed in doing so, they will keep him a captive, to prevent any more of his cruel outbreaks. The English must be very glad to have Benin in their possession, because the king used to send out parties of his warriors to lay waste all the country round about the city. He would attack and capture the trading parties carrying ivory to the coast, and would bring the traders back within the walls of Benin, to torture and kill them in cruel and savage ways. His city was so strongly fortified that none of the surrounding tribes dared to attack it, and he had things pretty much his own way. So sure was he of the strength of his walls, and the cleverness of his warriors, that he laughed at the idea of the Queen of England punishing him for his wicked deeds, and waited for the soldiers to come to Benin, expecting to be able to make very short work of them. Now, however, he has learned that there are greater and more powerful monarchs than the King of Benin, and that his boasted stronghold was of no account when attacked by a clever foe. Obliged to flee for his life, leaving his city in ruins behind him, Drunami, King of Benin, is learning that he is not so great or powerful as he thought he was. It will probably be a very useful lesson to him, and make him a better man. A very curious law case has just come to an end in France. It is such a silly case, that it seems strange that the French lawyers waste their time over it. The Duke of Anjou and the Duke of Orleans each claim the right to the title of King of France. The lawyers on both sides argued and struggled over the matter with all seriousness. The Duke of Anjou did not want the Duke of Orleans to call himself the head of the Royal Family of France, nor did he want him to have the right to use the royal shield of France as his coat of arms. Only the King of France has a right to use the lilies of France, or fleurs-de-lis, as they are called, on his shield. The Duke of Anjou was, further, much troubled lest the Duke of Orleans should have the right to sign his proclamations with his first name only, after the manner of kings. After many a legal wrangle, and many a fine argument, the court finally gave its opinion that the Duke of Anjou had lost his case for the following very good reasons: First, because there is no longer a King of France—France being now a republic. Second, because the title of King of France is not one that can be handed down from father to son, like other titles. It is the sole property of the ruler of the kingdom of France. France being no longer a kingdom, it has no king, and therefore nobody has the right to the title at all. Third, because there being no longer a kingdom of France, nor a king of France, nobody has any especial right to use the coat of arms of the king. The court was of opinion that anybody may use it who feels inclined. Fourth, because there being no longer a kingdom of France nor a king, neither of the quarrelling dukes has any need to issue proclamations. If they do issue them, no one will take any notice of them, and therefore the court cannot see that it is anybody's business what name is signed to them. The Duke of Anjou has no right to School Books Wanted 8

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. interfere with the Duke of Orleans' signature as a private individual, and therefore the court refuses to dictate to the Duke of Orleans how he shall sign his letters, whether with his first, his last, or with all of his names. The court therefore ordered the Duke of Anjou to pay all the costs of the trial, and dismissed the case. Does it not seem absurd for two grown men to quarrel about a title which neither of them has the slightest use for? On the 1st of January, 1897, a new law went into force, forbidding the convicts in State's prisons to do any other work than hard labor for the benefit of the State. Up to the time of passing this law, when a prisoner went to jail, the warden found out the work for which he was best suited, and gave him employment of that nature. A convict who was a good accountant would be put to keeping the books. A shoemaker would be set to mending and working in the shoe-shop. A bricklayer would be put to building and repairing, and so on. The new law stops this system entirely. Hard labor means lifting stones, digging, building walls, and work of that kind. If there are no prison buildings to be made, and no heavy work to be undertaken for the State, the prisoners must remain idle. To the convicts, idleness is the most cruel punishment that they can be given. They have nothing to interest or amuse them, nothing to think of but their own sad lives; they cannot speak to each other, as talking is absolutely forbidden, so taking their work from them is a very great cruelty. Since the law first went into effect, some of the convicts have become so unhappy that they have lost their reason. The wardens, seeing how their prisoners were suffering, have been much troubled, and have all been trying to think of some means of exercising or drilling, which will interest the convicts, and make up to them for the work they have lost. There have been so many complaints about convicts being allowed to do work that honest men can earn money by, that little by little all employment has been taken from them. A very good change has been made in the management of the prisons in New York State, by General Austin Lathrop, the Superintendent of Prisons. It has long been felt by people who have given serious thought to the matter, that it was wrong to mix all the criminals together. It was thought that men who had been dishonest should not be put with men who had tried to kill, or were guilty of other awful crimes. Many people have thought that some difference in the class of the prisoners should be made. The law does make a difference: some criminals are only given short sentences, while others have very long ones. But the jail makes no difference whatever. Once within the prison walls, all convicts are treated in the same way. School Books Wanted 9

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop.

General Lathrop's plan alters all this. He takes into account that some people commit crimes through ignorance, some through weakness, and some through wickedness. He thinks that the first two classes of convicts should be carefully separated from the really bad criminals. His plan is to divide all the convicts in the prisons into separate groups. Group A is to consist of those who are serving their first term of imprisonment, and who may therefore be supposed to have been led into crime by others, and not to be so wicked but that a chance remains of turning them back into the paths of goodness and honesty. Group B will be made up of men who have been in prison once before, and for whom there is still hope that they may reform. Group C will take in the men who have served more than one term of imprisonment, and whose reform is very doubtful, but even they will be separated from. Group D, into which will be put the hardened criminals, who are to be kept apart, that they may not harm the more innocent prisoners. The different groups will be kept entirely separated, and those who are young in crime will never come across the old offenders. The first group will have the greatest care from the prison officials. Every effort will be made to guide its members into better ways of life. They will be looked after by a physician, who will give them plenty of exercise and training to make their bodies strong. There will be a regular system for educating them, and training their minds into the knowledge that to be happy they must be good, and that sensible men will obey the law.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. When they are sent back into the world after their term of imprisonment is over, they will have learned how to be useful and honest men, and every effort will be made to help them to lead good lives. The next, Group B, and also Group C, will be treated in much the same sort of way as Group A, except that these groups will be disciplined more severely than the first one. Little time will be wasted over Group D. The men in it will be treated in the ordinary way, and the only especial attention they will get will be to see that they are never mixed with the other groups. It is hoped that, through these means, many men who are not really criminals at heart may be brought back to decency and good citizenship. New York State is not alone in this desire to reform its criminals. Last year, two Houses of Reform were established in Kentucky, one for boys and one for girls. These prisons are situated in healthy parts of the country, and they are built on what is called the "Cottage Family Plan." This means that they are divided into cottages, each of which holds about twenty-six criminals. Locks, bolts, and bars are not used any more than necessary. Each cottage is in the care of a matron, who has orders to keep it as much like a home as possible. The young prisoners are taught to be good citizens, and the result has been very fine. We were talking about right whales not very long ago. Now, if we may believe what we hear, a fine large right whale has been caught off the Long Island coast, and the fishermen are highly pleased. It seems that one of the beach patrol caught sight of some whales out at sea. Hurrying to the telephone, he called up the Life-Saving Station at Amagansett, and handed on the news. The whole fishing population of Amagansett immediately turned out, and in a few minutes five boats were launched, and were quickly in pursuit of the whales. A good many of the Amagansett men were old whalers, so they knew exactly what to do, and soon coming up with a fine young whale, they succeeded in harpooning him. Three of the five boats reached the scene in time to harpoon the whale, at the same time, and then the trouble began. A harpoon is a sort of a spear, to which a long rope is attached. This spear is hurled at the whale by a sailor who stands in the bow of the boat; it has a barbed end, like that of a fish-hook, and if it once gets into the flesh of a whale it will hold fast, and the struggles of the great fish cannot pull it out. The line attached to the harpoon is held fast by the men in the boat, and as the whale, in his pain and fright, plunges, dives, and swims about to get away from the spear that is hurting him, the boat and the men in it are dragged after him wherever he goes. The men of Amagansett were at first very proud that three boats had succeeded in getting near enough for their occupants to strike the whale. But their pride did not last long. Ere two minutes had passed, each boat-load was wishing that they had left the whale to the other, and everybody was as busy as could be blaming his neighbor. The trouble was that the harpoons had all been well thrown, and all had stuck fast—too fast, for when the whale gave a mighty plunge, and set off for the North Pole, at the rate of sixty miles an hour, all the three School Books Wanted 11

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. boats, which were attached to him by their harpoon ropes, went bumping along after him, in a terrible confusion of ropes, reproaches, and bad language. The whale sped along. The bows of the boats which were flying in his wake were lifted high in the air, and the spray flew on every side, till it was like a morning mist. No one would let go his rope. Each man was sure his harpoon was the first thrown; so with hearts full of fury and fear, the brave whalers of Amagansett sped onward till they had made about six miles on their trip to the North Pole. Then the whale changed his mind, decided that the South Pole was nearer than the North, and, veering round, came charging down upon the boats. There was consternation among the whalers! One flip of the monster's great tail would have sent them all to a watery grave. They could not separate because of their twisted ropes, so, with a few more compliments to each other, they got ready for the fight. Before the whale had had time to do any serious harm, an old man, who had fought many such big fish in his day, seized another harpoon, plunged it into the whale's side, and finished the business. After churning the water with his tail till the whole surface looked like soapsuds, the whale gave up the fight, and was towed in to shore. Imagine the delight of the heroes of Amagansett, when they found that their prize was a right whale, with about 800 pounds of bone in his mouth. His value is supposed to be about two thousand dollars; this will be equally divided among the men who caught the prize. A new Immigration Bill has passed through Congress. It provides that no one who is over sixteen years of age shall be allowed to come into the country if not able to read. The bill passed both Houses, and was sent to President Cleveland for his signature. Some people thought that he would not sign the bill, because it is good for us to let all the immigrants into the country who want to come. Others hope that he did sign it, because they think we ought to be very careful about the kind of people we allow to enter our country, and share its privileges with us. The present immigration laws are very strict. Every foreigner who comes to our shores has to satisfy the authorities at Ellis Island as to his worthiness, before he can be allowed to land. Ellis Island is in New York harbor, and is used solely for the handling of immigrants. Every ship that carries immigrants is obliged to furnish the authorities at Ellis Island with lists of these passengers, and full information about them. The steerage passengers are landed at Ellis Island, the lists are given to the clerks, and the immigrants have to pass before these clerks, and answer all their questions before they are allowed to enter our country. Before they come to the desks where the clerks sit, they have to pass two by two before some doctors, who watch very carefully to see if there are any lame or deformed persons among them. If any such are found, the School Books Wanted 12

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. doctors separate them from the rest, and they are carefully examined to see what their trouble is. If it is serious, and they are cripples, and not able to earn their own living, they are not allowed to come into the country, but are sent back where they came from, at the expense of the steamship company. In Spain and Italy, and indeed in many of the European countries, there are an amazing number of cripples who make their living by begging. These professional beggars are a dirty, shiftless set of people, a disgrace and a danger to the countries they live in. If we allowed them to enter our country it would greatly increase our taxes and expenses, for we do not allow begging, and so, as the poor unfortunates must have food and shelter, we would send them to our almshouses, and have to pay to support them. So it is forbidden to allow cripples, or people incapable of earning their own living, to come into the country. While the doctors are watching for cripples, they also examine the immigrants carefully, to see that they have not any kind of sickness. Only healthy immigrants are allowed to land, sick people being sent back. When the immigrants have passed the doctors, they then reach the clerks, who must be satisfied that they have money, or friends in the country, before they give them permission to land. People who come without money are divided from the rest, and are taken before a board of inquiry. Here they are asked why they came to the country. If they have friends who have sent for them, and who agree to feed and shelter them, they are allowed to pass. If no friends come for them, they are kept on Ellis Island till their friends are found; and if no friends are found, they are sent back to their own country. When they have been passed from Ellis Island the immigration law has not done with them. The law says that no charity shall be given to an immigrant who has been in this country for less than a year. Any person who asks for help, and has been less than a year over here, is sent back to Ellis Island, and from thence he is carried back to his own country by the same steamship company that brought him. So you see that the laws are almost strict enough now, and the immigrants who succeed in passing through Ellis Island are a good, solid class of people, who are likely to become worthy citizens. Did you ever hear a singing mouse? A man wrote a long story to The Sun, a few days ago, telling how he was awakened one night, and frightened out of his wits by hearing a noise like the peeping of a chicken in the adjoining room. He got up and lit the gas, and saw a little brown mouse run across the floor. He set a trap, caught the mouse, which was no sooner in the trap than it began to sing. The man whistled to it, and the little creature replied. The man did not seem to realize that he had found a great prize, but pretending that his wife was afraid of the mouse, he drowned it in a pail of water. When it was safely dead, he began to search through his encyclopedia to see what kind of a "beastie" he had caught. But the encyclopedia, as studied by the good man, did not seem to be any wiser than he, and he finally wrote a note to the newspaper for information.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop.

It is a great pity he did not keep the mouse until he had looked the matter up, for chance had sent him a very gentle and charming little pet. His singing mouse was a deer or white-foot mouse. This mouse is found all over the United States, and while several other kinds are known to sing, the deer-mouse is the sweetest of the singers. These mice can be very easily tamed, and live happily in cages, like dormice. In "Nature's Wonderland" an interesting story is told of a deer-mouse which was a famous singer. It was owned by Dr. Lockwood, who was so pleased with its songs, that he set them to music, and gave them names. He noticed that his mouse had certain songs for certain occasions. When she had awakened from a long sleep, and had taken some nice food, she would sing her great aria, which he called the "Grand Role." When she jumped into her wheel for a spin, she had another kind of song, which he called the "Wheel Song." She had another song that she used for state occasions, and this was so silvery and sweet, that those who heard it declared that no canary could imitate it. It is a pity that such a pretty and curious kind of creature should have been killed through ignorance. Genie H. Rosenfeld.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. We have another true story of a singing mouse, which will be published in "The Great Round World Animal Story-Book."—Editor.

Letters From Our Young Friends.
Dear Mr. Editor: I take The Great Round World and like it very much. I am interested to know what has become of Robinson Crusoe's Island, as I have not seen anything about it lately. I hope there will be something about it soon. Yours truly, New York, Feb. 19th, 1897.

Frederick D.

P.S.—We have a club every Saturday morning, and we read The Great Round World.

Dear Frederick: We have had no further news about Crusoe's Island. Rest assured that we will tell our young friends when anything more is heard of or from the island of Juan Fernandez. The Editor.

Dear Mr. Editor: I have of late become deeply interested in your delightful little paper, The Great Round World, and as I saw many of the enthusiastic readers writing to you, and asking different requests, I thought I would follow their example. I use your little book for different purposes. At school we have to begin topics, and I get a great deal of information from your little paper. I also spend many happy moments reading its contents. I wish you would send me the names of a few good books. I do not want anything like fairy tales, but something on the order of "Six Girls," by Miss Irving, or "Little Women"; or I would be more pleased with the names of a few good boarding-school stories. I would also like you to explain the relationship between Noah and Daniel Webster. Hoping I will receive an answer in a short time, I remain, Your interested reader, Cincinnati, O., Feb. 22d, 1897.

Grace G.

Dear Grace: We are very glad you take pleasure in The Great Round World, and that you find it useful. We are told by a girl who is fond of reading, that "A World of Girls," by Mead, is the most delightful school story ever written.

Letters From Our Young Friends.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. "Jackanapes," "Six to Sixteen," "A Flat-Iron for a Farthing," are all three by Mrs. Ewing, and are charming books. "An Old-Fashioned Girl," and Miss Yonge's "Pillars of the House," are both interesting. History does not tell us of any close relationship between Noah and Daniel Webster. Editor.

Dear Editor: I tried "Sylvia's Caramels," and found them very nice. The other day I went to the Zoo. It is very nice. Chiquita is twenty-six inches tall and twenty-six years old. She is very cunning. She slept in a cigar-box up to the time that she was six years old! The man that told about her said that there was nothing she disliked more than to be called "dear little thing." You asked us to tell you about any book that we like. "Timothy's Quest" is one of my favorite stories, by Kate Douglas Wiggin. All her stories end well, this one especially. It is very funny, also. Will you please send me a "Who? When? What?" chart? Wishing success to your little paper, I remain, Your true and constant reader, West Newton, Mass., Feb. 20th, 1897.

Clara M.B.

Grace may perhaps find Clara's favorite story, "Timothy's Quest," interesting to her. We are much obliged to Clara for her nice letter. Editor.

Dear Mr. Editor: It's Washington's Birthday, and a very gloomy day, too. I haven't anything to do, and mamma is in a great state of things, so I thought I would write, which I never like to do. Well, you know there is a lot of cruelty going on all around the world. Just think, in the summer time, how animals suffer, poor things. But I cannot do a thing. I just have to see and hear about it. Now there goes a horse-car driver whipping his horse, and here's a man pulling the reins so the poor creature's head is bent way back and his lip bleeding. I do beg you to write something in your paper about it, but don't say who told you to, for all the children whom I know that get your paper would laugh at me; but if you don't tell them they will think it all right. I'll tell you what to write: just something to ask them to be good to animals; and tell them some of the sufferings of animals. I don't know what to say now, so good-by. Letters From Our Young Friends. 16

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. Your friend,

Dear Little Friend: We could not resist the temptation to publish your letter, though we have not put your name to it, and so no one will guess that it comes from you. Dear child, your gentle plea for dumb animals will do far more to make thoughtless people care for them than any words of ours. But we will do our best to help you, and will try to have the article you ask for written. There is a Society in New York for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and it publishes a lot of little books and papers telling people how to take care of animals. You should ask your mamma to let you go to the Society's rooms at No. 10 East 22d Street, and get Mr. Haines to give some of these books to you. When you grow up you should join the Society, and then you would be able to do a great deal for animals. They will love you for your kind little heart as much as we do. You might do something to help your favorites now, by getting all the boys and girls you know to join you in forming Bands of Mercy. These are clubs of young people who pledge themselves to be kind and helpful to all animals. Write to Mr. J.L. Stevens, the Secretary of the American Humane Education Society, Milk Street, Boston. Tell him The Great Round World gave you his address, and he will send you information about forming your club, and about the badges and rules. You can do a great deal for suffering animals by interesting other boys and girls in the work, and teaching them that we ought to be even kinder to animals than we are to one another, because animals are dumb, and cannot tell us when they suffer. Editor.

We have great pleasure in informing our readers that we are about to publish a volume of "Great Round World Natural History Stories." We know how much our young friends love true stories. This collection will contain only true stories, and has been written by one who was an intimate friend, as she says, of each of these interesting creatures. It has taken several years to collect them, and they are being prepared and illustrated with the greatest care. We publish one story as a supplement, and will be very glad if our readers will let us know if it pleases them. We are constantly having new books sent in to us. We would like to have our subscribers read the books, and write us what they think of them. Letters of this kind will be printed in The Great Round World from time to time. Any of our subscribers who have had a letter about some book published may become a "reader"—that is, new books will be given them to read, and write an account of. If the account is well-enough written to be published, the book may be kept; and others will be sent from time to time for criticism of this kind.

Letters From Our Young Friends.

17

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop.

INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.
Some lover of the wheel, who evidently cannot bear to lose the pleasure of wheeling even when the snow lies thick on the ground, has invented a sleigh attachment. This is a runner fastened beneath the driving-wheel of the bicycle.

What a great thing this will be! Fancy wheeling away over the snow, propelling our wheels as fast as the pedals can make us go. The bicyclists ought to be very happy this year; so many clever brains are working for their comfort and pleasure. All who ride have been troubled at times what to do with the bicycles when they are standing still.

It may be there is damp grass, which would make it impossible to lay the precious wheel down; or there may be a thousand other little inconveniences. Some one has come to the aid of the bicyclist, and invented a bicycle support, which can be secured to the machine, and raised at will, so as not to interfere with the wheel when in motion. It is just the thing all bicyclists have been longing for. Another busy brain has been at work in anticipation of the summer, and the glorious time in store, riding along the country roads.

INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.

18

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop.

An umbrella support is the result. It consists of an attachment composed of portions which can be connected or removed at will. What a boon it will be, on a hot summer's day, to have an umbrella comfortably held over one's head, while the hands are free to guide the wheel!

first bound volumes
of....

The Great Round World
Containing Nos. 1 to 15 WILL BE READY MARCH 20TH THESE VOLUMES WILL BE IN STRONG CLOTH, WITH TITLE ON BACK AND SIDE, WITH A HANDSOME DESIGN.... Price, Postage Paid, $1.25 Subscribers wishing their numbers bound will send them (express paid), enclosing 35 cents to cover cost of binding. Missing numbers or supplements will be supplied until exhausted, at regular price. william beverley harison 3 & 5 West 18th Street, New York City

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD NATURAL HISTORY STORIES.
A Series of True Stories

first bound volumes

19

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop.

BY

JULIA TRUITT BISHOP.
Attractively Illustrated by Barnes.
These stories will be issued in parts. Price, 10 cents each. Subscription price (12 numbers), $1.00. Part 1. issued as supplement to Great Round World. 19.

Author's Preface.
The stories published in this little volume have been issued from time to time in the Philadelphia Times, and it is at the request of many readers that they now greet the world in more enduring form. They have been written as occasion suggested, during several years; and they commemorate to me many of the friends I have known and loved in the animal world. "Shep" and "Dr. Jim," "Abdallah" and "Brownie," "Little Dryad" and "Peek-a-Boo." I have been fast friends with every one, and have watched them with such loving interest that I knew all their ways and could almost read their thoughts. I send them on to other lovers of dumb animals, hoping that the stories of these friends of mine will carry pleasure to young and old. WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON, 3 & 5 West 18th Street.

LIST OF MAPS. Small size, 9-1/2 x 11 { Plain, { With Waterproofed surface 5 10 cents each. " "

Europe, Asia, Africa; North America, South America, East Central States, New England, Middle Atlantic States, South Atlantic States, Palestine, Australia. Large size, 10 x 15 { Plain, { With Waterproofed Surface, 10 cents each. 15 " "

United States, British Isles, Roman Empire, Western Europe, North America, South America, Asia. (POSTAGE ON SINGLE MAPS, 5 CENTS.) "I would advise Sunday-school teachers to use, in connection with the lessons of 1897, Klemm's Relief Map of the Roman Empire. Every scholar who can draw should have a copy of it. Being blank, it can be beautifully colored: waters, blue; mountains, brown; valleys, green; deserts, yellow; cities marked with pin-holes; and the journeys of Paul can be traced upon it."—Mrs. Wilbur F. Crafts, President International Union of Primary Sabbath-School Teachers of the United States. DESCRIPTION OF THE MAPS. BY 20

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. These maps are made in two forms, both with beautifully executed relief (embossed)—the cheaper ones of plain stiff paper similar to drawing paper (these are to be substituted for and used as outline map blanks), the others covered with a durable waterproof surface, that can be quickly cleaned with a damp sponge, adapted to receive a succession of markings and cleansings. Oceans, lakes, and rivers, as well as land, appear in the same color, white, so as to facilitate the use of the map as a geographical slate. WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 & 5 W. 18th St. · · · New York City

Evolution of Empire Series
UNITED STATES
BY

MARY PLATT PARMELE
AUTHOR OF "Who? When? What?" "France," "Germany," "England," Etc. Price, Post-paid 75 Cents From New York Sun Editorial Dec. 30, 1896. In too many of the little school histories there is but a tedious, bare narrative of apparently unconnected facts, and there is a profitless rigmarole of dates and names: but when the sequence of cause and effect is not obscured, and form and life are given to the actors, and the development of events and institutions is traced, the story of the United States becomes, as it should become, the most, fascinating as it is the most important of histories to Americans; and whatever in historical inquiry and writing promotes accuracy, adds detail, and clears up obscurity, increases the worth and the, charm of the work. W.B. Harison has published in his "Evolution of Empire" series, a brief historical sketch of the United States, by Mary Platt Parmele, whose other volumes in the series have received cordial praise. In this book one finds the story of our country told in about 300 pages, and very interestingly is it written. The book leaves out the innumerable incidents and figures which are of great importance to students, but which are not necessary in a book for general reading, and presents the narrative in a graphic manner, in which the interest of the reader never flags. The book is bound in blue buckram and costs but 75 cents. The other volumes in the series deal with the histories of France, England, and Germany, in the same brilliant vein.—Hartford Post. Its value does not lie in the multitude of facts which it contains, but rather in the lucid, natural way in which a few really important facts are presented and grouped, and in the stimulus which it imparts to a rational study of our country's history.—The Review of Reviews. In "The Evolution of an Empire," Mary Platt Parmele has endeavored to give in outline the story of the discovery, settlement, and development of the United States of America, touching only upon vital points and excluding all detail. The task has been a most difficult one on account of the constant temptation to deal with matters of minor importance. The author has, however, succeeded in making a very acceptable book.—Boston Transcript. Author's Preface. 21

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. The latest issue in the "Evolution of an Empire" series is Mary Platt Parmele's "History of the United States." It is a short and simple outline, which presents in a book of about 300 pages the main facts of our national history, and a very fair and judicial presentment it is, too. While the general reader will find it of interest, it has been prepared more particularly for the young, who are easily wearied by the prolix details which encumber so many of the histories prepared for them. Mrs. Parmele very truly remarks that the child, bewildered in a labyrinth of unfamiliar names and events, fails to grasp the main lines and soon dislikes history, simply because he has been studying, not with a thinking mind, but with one overtaxed faculty, memory, intended to be the humble handmaid of the higher faculties. In the work under consideration, she begins with the first voyage of Columbus and brings us down to the principal events of 1893; she is sparing of details, and has merely skeletonized her theme, adding sufficient of incident, to avoid dryness. It seems a meritorious and well-prepared work, and a chronological table adds to its value.—The Detroit Free Press. WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 and 5 West 18th St.—44 East 49th St. NEW YORK CITY

THE INAUGURATION.
We have a new President. March 4th, William McKinley was duly inaugurated as Chief Officer of our country. For once the weather was perfect, and everybody was in the best of good humor, and up early to see the sights. At about ten o'clock Major McKinley was escorted from his hotel to the White House by a company of soldiers. Here he was received by Mr. Cleveland, who up to the very last moment was busy writing and attending to the final duties of his office. The members of Mr. Cleveland's Cabinet also came to pay their respects to the President-elect. After the greetings were over, Mr. Cleveland and Major McKinley walked out on the porch side by side, ready to make their journey to the Capitol. As they passed down the steps through the crowd that was waiting to see them, every hat came off, and the spectators stood bareheaded as the two most important men in the country passed before them. The state carriage, drawn by four horses, was waiting for them; stepping into it, they started on their trip to the Capitol. MARY PLATT PARMELE 22

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. The streets through which the carriage passed were thronged with people, who cheered and yelled, some even dancing up and down in their excitement. There was a trifling accident to the President's carriage in the course of the journey, but it did not delay the procession much, and, except for the excitement it caused, would hardly have been noticed. One of the rear horses slipped and fell, and in his fall broke one of the silver links that held the traces. It was mended in less time than it takes to tell about it, but every one feared that some accident had happened to the Presidents, and for a few minutes there was a good deal of galloping back and forth, and excitement among the leaders of the procession. As soon as the trace was mended the procession swept on, and reached the Capitol without further delay. An interesting part of the parade was the squad of soldiers on bicycles which brought up the rear. Inside the Capitol all was excitement, for the President and President-elect were to be received in the Senate Chamber. As a rule, the Senators and their desks spread out in a semicircle round the raised dais on which is the Speaker's chair, and they take up pretty much the whole of the Chamber. On inauguration days the desks disappear, and the Senators are seated in rows on one side. On this occasion they were placed on the right of the chamber, packed just as closely together as they could be. All the galleries of the Senate were also closely packed with the families of the Ambassadors and Ministers, and the friends of the Senators. In a place set apart for them were Major McKinley's family and friends, amongst them being his wife and his mother, Mrs. Nancy Allison McKinley, a bright, active old lady, over eighty years of age. The Senators being in their places, the President of the Senate gave one stroke of his gavel, and immediately the doors of the Senate were thrown open, and the usher of the Senate announced: "The Ambassadors of foreign countries." All the Senators rose to their feet, and in filed the Ambassadors in full diplomatic dress. Their dress-coats and trousers were decorated with gold bullion, they carried their white-feathered, three-cornered hats in their hands, and across their shoulders, from left to right, were sashes of colored satin, according to their rank or their country—pink, white, yellow, and red satin. They were ushered to seats in front of the Vice-President's dais, and almost immediately the doors were again thrown open and the page announced: "The Ministers of foreign countries." The Senators again rose, and in walked the Ministers, and were ushered to their seats. All wore the full diplomatic costume, which, as you will see, varies considerably according to the Minister's country. The Chinese Minister wore a slate-colored, figured silk, his official hat being of black velvet with a red silk crown. The Turkish Minister was dressed in black broadcloth and white satin, all covered with gold embroidery, and wore the national red fez as a hat. The Japanese Minister wore dark clothes magnificently THE INAUGURATION. 23

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. embroidered in gold. The Coreau Minister had a loose robe of sea-green silk with a tortoise-shell belt. The Austrian Minister wore the beautiful Hungarian costume, with the short cloak hanging from the shoulder. The Ministers appear from all accounts to have made a most gorgeous group with their jewels and their gold embroidery and their orders and colored dresses, making a strong contrast to the simple, ordinary dress of the Senators. After these persons, the Judges of the Supreme Court were announced; then came the members of the House of Representatives, headed by their speaker; then President Cleveland's Cabinet; and then the whole house rose to receive the Vice-President-elect of the United States, Mr. Garret A. Hobart, of New Jersey. He had no sooner arrived in his place, than the usher made the important announcement of the day: "The President and the President-elect of the United States." Down the aisle came Mr. Cleveland and Mr. McKinley, side by side. The whole assembly remained standing until the two Presidents had taken their seats, and then the official proceedings of the day commenced. Mr. Hobart took his oath of office as Vice-President of the United States. The former Vice-President then made a farewell speech to the Senate, and handed his gavel to Mr. Hobart. The gavel is a little ivory or wooden mallet used by a presiding officer to rap on a table or stone when he wishes to gain the attention of an assembly. The first use made of the gavel by the incoming Vice-President was to rap for order while the blind Chaplain of the Senate, the Reverend Dr. Milburn, called for a blessing from on High. The prayer over, the Vice-President made his first address to the Senate, and immediately after administered the oath to fifteen newly elected Senators. The little bustle of people leaving the galleries while this latter was proceeding, showed that the great moment had come—and it was time to inaugurate the new President. The President always takes the oath of office on the porch of the Capitol—in full view of the people—and so, the work in the Senate being finished, the two Presidents walked side by side out to the eastern front of the building. As soon as the Judges, Senators, and Congressmen had taken their places on the stand provided for them, Chief Justice Fuller came forward to the little enclosure which had been railed off and fitted with two great leathern arm-chairs for Major McKinley and Mr. Cleveland. He told Mr. McKinley that it was time to take his oath of office: and standing bareheaded, his hand resting on the Bible, William McKinley swore to be true and faithful to the great trust he was receiving from the people. His oath being taken, he kissed the Bible, and the ceremony was complete. He is the twenty-fifth President of the United States of America. The moment had now come for the new President to deliver the inaugural address. Great anxiety has been felt about this speech, because it was expected that it would give the people some idea of the way Major McKinley meant to treat the several questions that are vexing us at the present time. He opened his speech with these beautiful words: THE INAUGURATION. 24

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. "Fellow Citizens:—In obedience to the will of the people, and in their presence, by the authority vested in me by this oath, I assume the arduous and responsible duties of President of the United States, relying on the support of my countrymen and invoking the guidance of Almighty God. Our faith teaches that there is no safer reliance than upon the God of our fathers, who has so singularly favored the American people in every national trial, and who will not forsake us so long as we obey His commandments and walk humbly in His footsteps." He then took up the subject of Money, and said that he thought the Government wanted to look closely into the Treasury matters, and devise a means whereby we might be able to have as much money as we needed in circulation, without having to keep the enormous reserve of gold, which costs us such ruinous interest every year. He would like to have all the laws relating to the coining of money and banking of money carefully revised, and to put our money system on such a sound basis that it will not be threatened with change at each change of party. He said that he hoped to make the other Powers of the world agree with him about the wisdom of bimetalism—which means the equal use of silver and gold. Many of our present troubles have been supposed to come from the fact that we cannot pay our debts to foreign countries in silver, but only in gold, and that we have not enough gold to pay all the debts we owe, and so we are obliged to borrow gold from these foreign countries at ruinous interest, to pay back again to them. President McKinley hopes that we may arrange with other countries to take silver or gold equally the one with the other, just whichever happens to be most plentiful at the time. He went on to say that we must be economical, and try to reduce our national debt, and that the Government should not be allowed to spend more than its income, but that if it was necessary to increase the income to meet the just expenses of pensions for soldiers and sailors who had fought for us, and for the widows and orphans of the brave men who died for our country, he thought the money should not be raised by loans, which put the country still more deeply into debt, but by taxes, whereby each man could take his share of the expense of the Government which protected his home. He then spoke about the Tariff, and said that the tariff laws which he hoped to see made would bring in enough money to supply all needs, without directly taxing the people—which was a thing he did not approve of, except in time of war. The tariff is a tax put on all foreign products brought into this country. He then touched upon Trusts, and very severely, too. He approved entirely of the efforts that had been made by Mr. Cleveland's Government to suppress trusts, and he said that his Government would follow steadfastly in its footsteps—enforcing the laws that already existed, and making such new ones as were necessary. He spoke about Immigration. President Cleveland vetoed the immigration bill, about which we were speaking; but President McKinley approves of restricting immigration, and will probably sign the bill if it is brought before him. One very interesting point that he touched on was the subject of American Merchant Marine. At the present time we have so few of our own ships sailing the seas, that we can be said to have no merchant marine at all. The ships that crowd our ports are from foreign countries. President McKinley said he would like Congress to take the matter in hand, and assist in restoring our merchant navy to its former greatness. THE INAUGURATION. 25

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Great Round World, March 18, 1897, by Julia Truitt Bishop. Then he spoke on Foreign Policy. This is also a very interesting subject, because it shows us the attitude President McKinley will take toward poor little Cuba. He said he believed in peace and friendship with other countries, and that war should never be entered upon until every effort for peace had failed. He believed in a policy of non-interference, and of leaving to foreign countries the business of settling their own quarrels with their colonies. He believed, however, in being just and impartial, ever watchful of our national honor, and always insisting on the lawful rights of our citizens every where. About Arbitration, President McKinley said that he considered it the only true method of settling international quarrels, and that he was in favor of ratifying the treaty with Great Britain, and hoped the Senate would do so at a very early date. He then said he should call an extra session of Congress for March 15th, to attend to various important affairs that needed immediate attention. His closing words were: "Let me again repeat the words of the oath administered by the Chief Justice: 'I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.' This is the obligation I have reverently taken before the Lord Most High. To keep it will be my single purpose, my constant prayer, and I shall confidently rely upon the forbearance and assistance of all the people in the discharge of my solemn responsibilities." When the speech was made, the main work of the day was over. After this came the great parade; the new and old Presidents were escorted back to the White House, in front of which a stand had been erected. From this stand the new President reviewed the parade. This took two hours and a half to pass, and consisted of National Guardsmen from every State in the Union, a division of the regular army and navy, clubs and organizations, and a division of Indian cadets from the Government School at Carlisle.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 19, March 18, 1897, by Various *** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND *** ***** This file should be named 15404-h.htm or 15404-h.zip ***** This and all associated files of various formats will be found in: http://www.gutenberg.net/1/5/4/0/15404/ Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Emmy and the Online Distributed THE INAUGURATION. 26

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