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Modulus of Elasticity Flexure Test

Experiment conducted:
Report Submitted:

Author:
Group: B
Group members:







Abstract
The purpose of this experiment was to measure the modulus of elasticity (Youngs
Modulus) of an aluminum beam by loading the beam in cantilever bending. This experiment was
conducted by gathering the necessary materials listed in the lab, assembling/calibrating them and
following the procedure described in chapter 6 of the lab booklet in order to get measurable
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results. The values obtained were close to standard values. The calculated max loading for the
aluminum beam was not exceeded, so the beam was not damaged. (Include sampling of final
values?)
Background
According to the information in the lab booklet, Youngs modulus is a material constant
indicative of the materials stiffness. It is stiffness. It is obtained from the stress versus strain plot
of a specimen subjected to a uniaxial stress state (tension, compression, or bending). Youngs
modulus, the modulus of elasticity, is important to know with regards to different materials. It
allows us to more accurately decide on different uses for materials because we can measure its
elasticity, or how it behaves under different forms of stress or strain. We can us Youngs
modulus to test for deflection under different loads. For aluminum, strain is an essentially linear
function of the stress up to the point at which the material yields. Due to the fact that the yielding
point was not approached in this experiment, the graph should be a relatively straight line. The
modulus of elasticity is given by:


Where is the stress measured in psi, and is the strain measured in in./in. It is obvious then,
that the elastic modulus is measured in psi. Stress is a measure of the force per unit cross
sectional area on a body and strain is a measure of the amount a body is deformed by the stress.
To use the above formula for Youngs modulus, we needed to find valued for and . The value
for was to be found using the apparatus. The value is given by:

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This equation is used to calculate the stress on an end-loaded cantilever beam with a rectangular
cross section. L
e
represents the length of the beam in inches, b represents the breadth of the beam
in inches, P represents the load in pounds, and t represents the thickness of the beam in inches. M
represents the M is the bending moment at the point of interest measured in in-lb, and I is the
centroidal moment of inertia measured in in.
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. The equation used to calculate the maximum load
that could be handled by the beam was calculated using the following equation:


Where L
e
is the effective length (in.); from the gage centerline to applied load, is the stress
(psi), b is the breadth (in.), and t is the thickness (in.)



Procedure
1. The beam width (b), beam thickness (t), and effective length (L
e
) were measured and
recorded.
2. The gage factor, S
g
, indicated on the beam was recorded.
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3. Using equation (6.3-3), the load, P, was determined, to be applied for a stress, , of
15,000 psi to result at the strain gage. This was the maximum load that could be safely
applied to the beam without exceeding the yield stress, and was defined as P
max
(a few
pounds).
4. With the gaged end of the beam near the support, the beam was centered in the flexure
frame and firmly clamped in place.
5. Referring to Figure 3, the lead wires were connected from the strain gage to the posts on
the sides of the flexor frame. Referring to Figure 4, the appropriate gage leads were
connected from the Flexor cable to the S-, P+, and D-120 binding posts of the P-3500
strain indicator. It was noted that: The strain gage employed in the experiment was used
in a quarter-bridge arrangement by connecting the lead labeled as 2 to the D120 post on
the P-3500.
6. Using Section 12.9 for guidance, the Amp Zero button was depressed to balance the
amplifier. Then the Gage Factor button was depressed and set (as displayed in the LCD
readout) to the value given on the strain gage package data form. The XI MULT position
was selected and the RUN push button was depressed. With the beam unloaded (except
by its own weight and the weight of the loading hook), the balance controls of the P-3500
were used to achieve a bridge balance (as indicated by a zero in the LCD readout). The
balance was not adjusted again for the remainder of the experiment.
7. Ten distinct loads to be applied to the beam were determined, not exceeding P
max

determined in step 3. These were not necessarily equal increments but were determined
from the available weights and P
max
.
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8. The calibrated load was applied in 10 steps, or increments. At each increment, the
indicated strain and corresponding load was recorded on the worksheet. The beam was
unloaded in 10 decrements and again the load and strain at each decrement was recorded.
Schematic of test specimen:




Data and Calculation
Raw Data:
BEAM DIMENSIONS:
b = 1 inch (width)
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t = 0.123 inches (thickness)
L
e
= 10.47 inches (effective length; from gage centerline to applied load)
GAGE FACTOR (S
g
): 2.085

MAXIMUM LOAD (for 15,000 psi):
P
max
= 3.1612 lb







TABULATION OF LOADS, STRESSES AND STRAINS:
LOAD (lb) STRAIN ()
Increasing Load
STRESS (psi)
Increasing Load
STRAIN ()
Decreasing Load
STRESS (psi)
Decreasing Load
0 0 0 -2 0
0.22 88 86
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0.44 174 171
0.66 260 257
0.88 345 343
1.10 430 430
1.32 518 517
1.54 602 602
1.76 688 687
1.98 773 773
2.20 859 859







Calculations:
LOAD (lb) STRAIN ()
Increasing Load
STRESS (psi)
Increasing Load
STRAIN ()
Decreasing Load
STRESS (psi)
Decreasing Load
0 0 0 -2 0
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0.22 88 7426.86 86 7426.86
0.44 174 14853.72 171 14853.72
0.66 260 22280.58 257 22280.58
0.88 345 29707.44 343 29707.44
1.10 430 37134.30 430 37134.30
1.32 518 44561.16 517 44561.16
1.54 602 51988.02 602 51988.02
1.76 688 59414.89 687 59414.89
1.98 773 66841.75 773 66841.75
2.20 859 74268.61 859 74268.61


Youngs modulus (according to the graph) = 86.596 psi = 0.597 MPa
Percent Error = 99.999%
Sample Calculations:
y = 86.596x - 157.06
R = 1
-10000
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
-200 0 200 400 600 800 1000
S
T
R
E
S
S

(
p
s
i
)

strain (in/in)
Experiment Graph of Stress vs. Strain
Stress (psi)
Stress (psi)
Linear (Stress (psi))
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The equation:

,
was used to calculate the stress for each loading. Where L
e
represents the length of the beam in
inches, b represents the breadth of the beam in inches, P represents the load in pounds, and t
represents the thickness of the beam in inches. M represents the M is the bending moment at the
point of interest measured in in-lb, and I is the centroidal moment of inertia measured in in.
4
The first value for stress was obtained in the following way:

()()
( )( )


Youngs modulus was calculated from the average slope of the graph (Rise/Run), to be 86.596
psi.
% Error = (|10,587,754.90 86.596|/10,587,754.90)*100 = 99.999%

Results
The final value for youngs modulus in this experiment was calculated to be 86.596 psi (0.597
MPa). The documented value of Youngs modulus for 2024-T6 aluminium is 73 GPa
(10,587,754.90 psi) according to Wikipedia. The results obtained in this lab had a percent error
of 99.999%. I believe a faulty C P-3500 strain indicator and a defective beam strain sensor may
have contributed most to the error in this experiment. The values are drastically inaccurate and I
would account this to erroneous data provided by the electrical equipment.
Conclusions
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In my opinion, the results are NOT acceptable due to the fact that the value for Youngs modulus
obtained in this experiment is over 90% off from the standard figure.
These results show that the aluminum beam tested has a low modulus of elasticity and is
therefore relatively flexible.



References