141 views

Uploaded by bcferguson1

Modulus Lab

- Lab Report__Lab 1_ Thermistor Temperature Coefficient
- Mechanics of Materials - Column Buckling Test
- Lab Report 7
- MotorizedPendulumImpactTestingSystem_PodV5
- Longitudinal Dynamics - selecting gear ratios
- Mechanics of Materials - Modulus of Elasticity Flexure Test
- Lab Report Hgwy 2
- TSTRUC1 Elastic Buckling Columns
- Pendulum Impact Tester RKP450
- Compound Gear Train
- bending test
- Strain Gauge Lab Report
- Columns & Buckling
- Epicyclic Gearing
- Buckling of Columns
- Rotational Inertia
- Lab 1 Refrigeration Cycle
- stress strain apparatus lab
- Lab Report
- Examples Tmhl03

You are on page 1of 10

Experiment conducted:

Report Submitted:

Author:

Group: B

Group members:

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to measure the modulus of elasticity (Youngs

Modulus) of an aluminum beam by loading the beam in cantilever bending. This experiment was

conducted by gathering the necessary materials listed in the lab, assembling/calibrating them and

following the procedure described in chapter 6 of the lab booklet in order to get measurable

Page 2

results. The values obtained were close to standard values. The calculated max loading for the

aluminum beam was not exceeded, so the beam was not damaged. (Include sampling of final

values?)

Background

According to the information in the lab booklet, Youngs modulus is a material constant

indicative of the materials stiffness. It is stiffness. It is obtained from the stress versus strain plot

of a specimen subjected to a uniaxial stress state (tension, compression, or bending). Youngs

modulus, the modulus of elasticity, is important to know with regards to different materials. It

allows us to more accurately decide on different uses for materials because we can measure its

elasticity, or how it behaves under different forms of stress or strain. We can us Youngs

modulus to test for deflection under different loads. For aluminum, strain is an essentially linear

function of the stress up to the point at which the material yields. Due to the fact that the yielding

point was not approached in this experiment, the graph should be a relatively straight line. The

modulus of elasticity is given by:

Where is the stress measured in psi, and is the strain measured in in./in. It is obvious then,

that the elastic modulus is measured in psi. Stress is a measure of the force per unit cross

sectional area on a body and strain is a measure of the amount a body is deformed by the stress.

To use the above formula for Youngs modulus, we needed to find valued for and . The value

for was to be found using the apparatus. The value is given by:

Page 3

This equation is used to calculate the stress on an end-loaded cantilever beam with a rectangular

cross section. L

e

represents the length of the beam in inches, b represents the breadth of the beam

in inches, P represents the load in pounds, and t represents the thickness of the beam in inches. M

represents the M is the bending moment at the point of interest measured in in-lb, and I is the

centroidal moment of inertia measured in in.

4

. The equation used to calculate the maximum load

that could be handled by the beam was calculated using the following equation:

Where L

e

is the effective length (in.); from the gage centerline to applied load, is the stress

(psi), b is the breadth (in.), and t is the thickness (in.)

Procedure

1. The beam width (b), beam thickness (t), and effective length (L

e

) were measured and

recorded.

2. The gage factor, S

g

, indicated on the beam was recorded.

Page 4

3. Using equation (6.3-3), the load, P, was determined, to be applied for a stress, , of

15,000 psi to result at the strain gage. This was the maximum load that could be safely

applied to the beam without exceeding the yield stress, and was defined as P

max

(a few

pounds).

4. With the gaged end of the beam near the support, the beam was centered in the flexure

frame and firmly clamped in place.

5. Referring to Figure 3, the lead wires were connected from the strain gage to the posts on

the sides of the flexor frame. Referring to Figure 4, the appropriate gage leads were

connected from the Flexor cable to the S-, P+, and D-120 binding posts of the P-3500

strain indicator. It was noted that: The strain gage employed in the experiment was used

in a quarter-bridge arrangement by connecting the lead labeled as 2 to the D120 post on

the P-3500.

6. Using Section 12.9 for guidance, the Amp Zero button was depressed to balance the

amplifier. Then the Gage Factor button was depressed and set (as displayed in the LCD

readout) to the value given on the strain gage package data form. The XI MULT position

was selected and the RUN push button was depressed. With the beam unloaded (except

by its own weight and the weight of the loading hook), the balance controls of the P-3500

were used to achieve a bridge balance (as indicated by a zero in the LCD readout). The

balance was not adjusted again for the remainder of the experiment.

7. Ten distinct loads to be applied to the beam were determined, not exceeding P

max

determined in step 3. These were not necessarily equal increments but were determined

from the available weights and P

max

.

Page 5

8. The calibrated load was applied in 10 steps, or increments. At each increment, the

indicated strain and corresponding load was recorded on the worksheet. The beam was

unloaded in 10 decrements and again the load and strain at each decrement was recorded.

Schematic of test specimen:

Data and Calculation

Raw Data:

BEAM DIMENSIONS:

b = 1 inch (width)

Page 6

t = 0.123 inches (thickness)

L

e

= 10.47 inches (effective length; from gage centerline to applied load)

GAGE FACTOR (S

g

): 2.085

MAXIMUM LOAD (for 15,000 psi):

P

max

= 3.1612 lb

TABULATION OF LOADS, STRESSES AND STRAINS:

LOAD (lb) STRAIN ()

Increasing Load

STRESS (psi)

Increasing Load

STRAIN ()

Decreasing Load

STRESS (psi)

Decreasing Load

0 0 0 -2 0

0.22 88 86

Page 7

0.44 174 171

0.66 260 257

0.88 345 343

1.10 430 430

1.32 518 517

1.54 602 602

1.76 688 687

1.98 773 773

2.20 859 859

Calculations:

LOAD (lb) STRAIN ()

Increasing Load

STRESS (psi)

Increasing Load

STRAIN ()

Decreasing Load

STRESS (psi)

Decreasing Load

0 0 0 -2 0

Page 8

0.22 88 7426.86 86 7426.86

0.44 174 14853.72 171 14853.72

0.66 260 22280.58 257 22280.58

0.88 345 29707.44 343 29707.44

1.10 430 37134.30 430 37134.30

1.32 518 44561.16 517 44561.16

1.54 602 51988.02 602 51988.02

1.76 688 59414.89 687 59414.89

1.98 773 66841.75 773 66841.75

2.20 859 74268.61 859 74268.61

Youngs modulus (according to the graph) = 86.596 psi = 0.597 MPa

Percent Error = 99.999%

Sample Calculations:

y = 86.596x - 157.06

R = 1

-10000

0

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

-200 0 200 400 600 800 1000

S

T

R

E

S

S

(

p

s

i

)

strain (in/in)

Experiment Graph of Stress vs. Strain

Stress (psi)

Stress (psi)

Linear (Stress (psi))

Page 9

The equation:

,

was used to calculate the stress for each loading. Where L

e

represents the length of the beam in

inches, b represents the breadth of the beam in inches, P represents the load in pounds, and t

represents the thickness of the beam in inches. M represents the M is the bending moment at the

point of interest measured in in-lb, and I is the centroidal moment of inertia measured in in.

4

The first value for stress was obtained in the following way:

()()

( )( )

Youngs modulus was calculated from the average slope of the graph (Rise/Run), to be 86.596

psi.

% Error = (|10,587,754.90 86.596|/10,587,754.90)*100 = 99.999%

Results

The final value for youngs modulus in this experiment was calculated to be 86.596 psi (0.597

MPa). The documented value of Youngs modulus for 2024-T6 aluminium is 73 GPa

(10,587,754.90 psi) according to Wikipedia. The results obtained in this lab had a percent error

of 99.999%. I believe a faulty C P-3500 strain indicator and a defective beam strain sensor may

have contributed most to the error in this experiment. The values are drastically inaccurate and I

would account this to erroneous data provided by the electrical equipment.

Conclusions

Page 10

In my opinion, the results are NOT acceptable due to the fact that the value for Youngs modulus

obtained in this experiment is over 90% off from the standard figure.

These results show that the aluminum beam tested has a low modulus of elasticity and is

therefore relatively flexible.

References

- Lab Report__Lab 1_ Thermistor Temperature CoefficientUploaded byBrian Hallee
- Mechanics of Materials - Column Buckling TestUploaded byDavid Clark
- Lab Report 7Uploaded byrjwilliams2
- MotorizedPendulumImpactTestingSystem_PodV5Uploaded byAlper Emrah Sakalsız
- Longitudinal Dynamics - selecting gear ratiosUploaded bySaurabh Suman
- Mechanics of Materials - Modulus of Elasticity Flexure TestUploaded byDavid Clark
- Lab Report Hgwy 2Uploaded byNur Falini Mohd Sukkri
- TSTRUC1 Elastic Buckling ColumnsUploaded byAndy Oreta
- Pendulum Impact Tester RKP450Uploaded byRodrigo Quispe Supo
- Compound Gear TrainUploaded byAlmaas Khan
- bending testUploaded byHazirah Achik
- Strain Gauge Lab ReportUploaded by666667
- Columns & BucklingUploaded bysatoni12
- Epicyclic GearingUploaded byjafarists
- Buckling of ColumnsUploaded byBahah Tyty
- Rotational InertiaUploaded byharpreet
- Lab 1 Refrigeration CycleUploaded bytengku30
- stress strain apparatus labUploaded byapi-253978194
- Lab ReportUploaded byDhashJoshi
- Examples Tmhl03Uploaded byShashank Mishra
- strain gage-whatUploaded byAshok Joshi
- Strain GaugeUploaded byEngr. Abdullah
- Test 1_Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity TestUploaded byzean
- 1 Epicyclic Gear Train ExperimentUploaded byshuyun88
- perfect gas expansionUploaded byCik Tiem Ngagiman
- Refrigeration Laboratory UnitUploaded bykhalijahjamal
- Column Buckling LabUploaded bycjc5184
- Impact Test ReportUploaded bygammoora
- Strain Gauge Lab and YoungUploaded byJeswin Mathew
- 31 3Uploaded byamanraj

- Chair of Aeroengine TU Berlin 2013Uploaded byitemboleh
- PMT and Dilatometer TestUploaded byAshreth
- A LITERATURE REVIEW ON EXHAUST MANIFOLD DESIGNUploaded byijsret
- Vulnerability AssessmentUploaded byZacharias Zikas
- PRESSURE COMPOUNDED TURBINE « Power Turbine (2)Uploaded byDivya Prakash Srivastava
- Tech ThermoacousticUploaded byLalitha Lalli
- Ophthalmic LensesUploaded byorzsu
- GESTRA Automatic Drainage of Steam and Condensate Systems During Start Up and Shut Down EnUploaded bySH1961
- The Atmosphere and Radio WavesUploaded byhgavellar
- Note Chp 5 material science 281 utim em110Uploaded bybino_rye
- Sky & Telescope 2012-08Uploaded byjasonv
- Stirling CycleUploaded bymarzinus
- Cooling Towers Design Feb12_CHENGUploaded byisosica
- SL Somos ProtoGen 18420 Material Specifications.pdfUploaded byTushar Prakash Chaudhari
- DMM 1 - 20 bitsUploaded byAnonymous YkDJkSq
- Chem 112.1 - Exer 9 Table and AnswersUploaded byGerry Mark
- FluidIzation 2Uploaded bytuansyafiq
- 5th the Magic of RainbowsUploaded byLinda Ann
- Accelerated Moisture ResistanceUploaded byMirna
- Determination of the Valency of MagnesiumUploaded byJiaxinOoi
- lec5(1)Uploaded bynaveen
- prestressingUploaded byNupur Bhadra
- ansysUploaded byharel_868
- Fiberspar Technical NotesUploaded byA_Valsamis
- 2Uploaded byAbel Kuhsut
- Influence of Tilting Pad Bearing Clearance on Rotor Response of Steam Turbine (3).pdfUploaded byAhtsham Ahmad
- Steam-Email.pdfUploaded bykelburn
- 4 Neap Solutions 12Uploaded byiloveapple3346
- Catalogo Bomba Gabbioneta Modelo VbnUploaded bycristobal_tl2277
- D156-color saybolt.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Syarif Hidayatullah