2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Document #50-17838-01, Rev A May 2001

Notice Every effort was made to ensure that the information in this document was accurate at the time of printing. However, information is subject to change without notice, and Acterna reserves the right to provide an addendum to this document with information not available at the time that this document was created. Copy r igh t © Copyright 2001, Acterna, LLC., doing business as Acterna. All rights reserved. Acterna, The Keepers of Communications, and its logo are trademarks of Acterna, LLC. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted electronically or otherwise without written permission of the publisher. Tr ad e ma r ks Acterna and TestPad 2000 are trademarks or registered trademarks of Acterna in the United States and/or other countries. Specifications, terms, and conditions are subject to change without notice. All trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective companies. Or de r ing Infor ma tion This guide is a product of Acterna's Technical Information Development Department, issued as part of the 2416 SDH Field Services Module User’s Guide. The ordering number for a published guide is 80-17838-01, Rev A.

Global Headquarters
20400 Observation Drive Germantown, Maryland 20876-4023 USA Toll Free 1-800-638-2049 • Tel +1-301-353-1550 • Fax +1-301-353-0234

www.acterna.com

Fe de r al Co mmuni ca tion s Co mmis sio n (F CC) Notic e This product was tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This product generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this product in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference, in which case you will be required to correct the interference at your own expense. The authority to operate this product is conditioned by the requirements that no modifications be made to the equipment unless the changes or modifications are expressly approved by Acterna. Ind us try Ca na da Re quir e men ts This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003. Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada. EMC Dir ec tiv e Co mplia n ce This product was tested and conforms to the EMC Directive, 89/336/EEC as amended by 92/31/EEC and 93/68/EEC for electromagnetic compatibility. A copy of the Declaration of Conformity is provided in this manual.

CAUTION: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio interference, in which
case, the user may be required to take adequate measures. Lo w Vo ltag e Dire c tiv e Co mp lia nc e This product was tested and conforms to the Low Voltage Directive, 73/23/EEC as amended by 93/68/EEC. Conformity with this directive is based upon compliance with the harmonized safety standard, EN60950. A copy of the Declaration of Conformity is provided in this manual.

CAUTION: The 2416 SDH Field Service module is a Class 1 laser product.

Safety Information

Important Safety Instructions
The following table defines safety terms. Failure to observe these precautions while using the 2416 SDH Field Service Module, violates the intended use of this product. Safety definitions Term
DANGER WARNING CAUTION

Description
Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may also be used to alert against unsafe practices.

When using the product, basic safety precautions should always be followed to reduce the risk of fire, shock, and injury to persons, including the following: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Read and follow all warning notices and instructions marked on the product and included in the manual. Use only the AC Adapter/Charger supplied with the product. Do not use AC Adapter/Charger outdoors or in wet or damp locations. Connect the AC Adapter/Charger to the correct mains voltage, as indicated on the ratings label. Do not allow anything to rest on the power cord, and do not locate the product where persons can walk on the power cord. Avoid using this product during an electrical storm. There may be a remote risk of electric shock from lightning. Do not use this product in the vicinity of a gas leak or in any explosive environment.

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Safety Information

8

Do not attempt to service this product yourself, as opening or removing covers may expose you to dangerous, high voltage points and other hazards. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. CAUTION: Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced. Dispose of used batteries according to the manufacturer's instructions.

9

10 CAUTION: Never look into the optic transmitters when the unit is ON. 11 CAUTION: Use of controls or adjustments or performance of procedures other than those specified herein may result in hazardous radiation exposure. 12 Do not connect this product directly to the telecommunication network/outside plant leads.

Save these instructions

Symbols
The following safety symbol is used on the 2416 SDH Field Service Module. All safety precautions must be observed when operating, servicing, or repairing the 2416 SDH Field Service Module. Failure to comply with the following safety precautions or with hazard cautions and warnings used throughout this manual violates the intended use of this instrument.

GENERAL HAZARD
This icon represents a general warning or caution.

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE
This icon represents a caution, risk of electrical shock.

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Contents

About This Guide .................................................................... xix
Purpose and scope ......................................................................... xix Assumptions.................................................................................... xix Getting technical assistance ............................................................ xx Using this guide............................................................................... xxi Conventions..............................................................................xxii Safety terminology ...................................................................xxiii

Chapter 1—SDH Module Overview .................................... 1
About the SDH Field Service module................................................. 2 Features and capabilities ................................................................... 2 Physical description ........................................................................... 3

Chapter 2—Instrument Setup ............................................... 5
About instrument setup ...................................................................... 6 Assembling the module ...................................................................... 6 Powering the module ......................................................................... 6 Setting the language .......................................................................... 7 Installing options ................................................................................ 9 Connecting the printer ...................................................................... 10

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Maintaining the battery..................................................................... 11 Recharging the battery .............................................................. 11 Replacing the battery................................................................. 12

Chapter 3—Guided Tour....................................................... 15
About the guided tour....................................................................... 16 Exploring the unit ............................................................................. 16 Top panel................................................................................... 16 Bottom panel.............................................................................. 17 Front panel................................................................................. 17 Navigating the user interface ........................................................... 18 Application buttons .................................................................... 18 Test setup button ....................................................................... 19 Configuration summary bar ....................................................... 19 Results display........................................................................... 19 Action buttons ............................................................................ 19 Message display ........................................................................ 19 System icons ............................................................................. 20 Permanent keys......................................................................... 21 Viewing system information ............................................................. 22 Configuring system settings....................................................... 22 Configuring a test ............................................................................. 24 Performing a timed test.............................................................. 26 Selecting physical triggers ......................................................... 26 Configuring histograms.............................................................. 27 Saving test configurations ................................................................ 28 Loading test configurations........................................................ 29 Deleting, renaming, and copying files........................................ 30 Formatting the internal drive ...................................................... 31 Connecting the unit for testing ......................................................... 33 Laser safety ............................................................................... 34 Operating modes ....................................................................... 34 Terminate mode .................................................................. 34 Thru mode ........................................................................... 35
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Contents

MUX mode .......................................................................... 36 Viewing test results .......................................................................... 37 Printing test results........................................................................... 38 Activating timed print ................................................................. 39 Printing to file ............................................................................. 40 Selecting the print type .............................................................. 40 Creating headings...................................................................... 41 Printing standard categories ...................................................... 41 Printing histograms .................................................................... 42 Printing a selected range from the event log ............................. 44 Using the remote control feature ...................................................... 46

Chapter 4—PDH Testing ....................................................... 47
About PDH testing............................................................................48 Viewing 2M timeslots ....................................................................... 48 Conducting performance analysis .................................................... 49 Performing a round trip delay test .................................................... 52 Identifying anomalies and defects .................................................... 53 Generating errors....................................................................... 53 Simulating alarms ...................................................................... 55 Performing BER testing.................................................................... 56 Monitoring network traffic ................................................................. 57 Verifying APS switchover time ......................................................... 59 Scenario: Troubleshooting a 45M service ........................................ 62 Evaluating the situation.............................................................. 62 Conclusion ................................................................................. 66

Chapter 5—SDH Testing ....................................................... 67
About SDH testing............................................................................68 Conducting performance analysis .................................................... 68 Identifying anomalies and defects .................................................... 70 Generating errors....................................................................... 70

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Contents

Simulating alarms ...................................................................... 72 Performing BER testing.................................................................... 74 Analyzing pointer movements .......................................................... 75 Identifying trace messages .............................................................. 78 Scenario: Turning up an STM-16 service......................................... 80 Evaluating the situation.............................................................. 80 Conclusion ................................................................................. 83

Chapter 6—MUX Testing ...................................................... 85
About MUX testing ........................................................................... 86 Testing a multiplexer ........................................................................ 86 Scenario: Turning up a multiplexer .................................................. 88 Evaluating the situation.............................................................. 88 Conclusion ................................................................................. 90

Chapter 7—Interpreting Test Results ............................. 91
About interpreting test results .......................................................... 92 Interpreting summary results............................................................ 92 Interpreting signal results ................................................................. 94 Interpreting BERT results................................................................. 95 Interpreting PDH frame results......................................................... 97 Interpreting performance results .................................................... 100 Interpreting SOH results................................................................. 104 Interpreting HP results ................................................................... 106 Interpreting LP results .................................................................... 108 Interpreting LEDs ........................................................................... 111 Viewing the event log ..................................................................... 113

Chapter 8—Troubleshooting ............................................ 115
About troubleshooting .................................................................... 116 Solving problems............................................................................ 116 Installing and setup.................................................................. 116

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Contents

Question ............................................................................ 116 Answer .............................................................................. 116 Question ............................................................................ 117 Answer .............................................................................. 117 Operating the module .............................................................. 117 Question ............................................................................ 117 Answer .............................................................................. 117 Performing tests....................................................................... 118 Question ............................................................................ 118 Answer .............................................................................. 118 Question ............................................................................ 118 Answer .............................................................................. 118

Chapter 9—Customer Services ....................................... 119
About our services ......................................................................... 120 Customer service locations ............................................................ 120 Instrument services ........................................................................ 120 Consulting Services ....................................................................... 121 Test systems field engineering and installation.............................. 122 Technical training ........................................................................... 123 Warranty information ...................................................................... 124 Equipment return instructions ........................................................ 126

Appendix A—Specifications ............................................. 129
About the specifications ................................................................. 130 Physical specifications ...................................................................130 Environmental specifications.......................................................... 130 Electrical specifications .................................................................. 131 Network interface connectors......................................................... 131 PDH specifications ......................................................................... 132 Output signals..........................................................................132 Input signals............................................................................. 133 Measurement types ................................................................. 134

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SDH specifications ......................................................................... 136 Output signals.......................................................................... 136 Input signals............................................................................. 138 Measurement types ................................................................. 138 Results display specifications ........................................................ 141

Appendix B—Remote Control Commands ................. 143
About using the remote control ...................................................... 144 Command syntax ........................................................................... 144 Configuration commands......................................................... 145 Result commands .................................................................... 145 Configuration commands ............................................................... 145 System configuration commands............................................. 146 BERT configuration commands ............................................... 147 2M configuration commands.................................................... 148 8M configuration commands.................................................... 149 34M configuration commands.................................................. 150 45M configuration commands.................................................. 150 140M configuration commands................................................ 151 SDH configuration commands ................................................. 152 STM1_E configuration commands........................................... 156 Result commands .......................................................................... 156 Signal result commands .......................................................... 156 LED result commands ............................................................. 157 PDH frame result commands................................................... 159 BERT result commands........................................................... 161 Performance result commands................................................ 161 SOH result commands............................................................. 164 HP result commands ............................................................... 165 LP result commands ................................................................ 166 Misc. result commands ............................................................ 167

Appendix C—Field Descriptions ..................................... 169
SDH Module Field Descriptions ..................................................... 170
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Contents

Glossary ..................................................................................... 177 Index ............................................................................................ 183

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Tables

Table 1 — System tray icons ........................................................20 Table 2 — Permanent softkeys..................................................... 21 Table 3 — SDH module signal results .......................................... 94 Table 4 — BERT results ...............................................................96 Table 5 — PDH frame results ....................................................... 97 Table 6 — Performance results .................................................. 101 Table 7 — SOH results ............................................................... 104 Table 8 — HP results .................................................................. 106 Table 9 — LP results...................................................................108 Table 10 — LED panel.................................................................. 112 Table 11 — Physical specifications............................................... 130 Table 12 — Environmental specifications ..................................... 130 Table 13 — Electrical specifications ............................................. 131 Table 14 — PDH output signals.................................................... 132
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Tables

Table 15 — PDH input signals ......................................................133 Table 16 — PDH measurement types ..........................................134 Table 17 — SDH output signals.................................................... 136 Table 18 — SDH input signals ......................................................138 Table 19 — SDH measurement types ..........................................138 Table 20 — Results display specifications.................................... 141 Table 21 — System configuration commands .............................. 146 Table 22 — BERT configuration commands................................. 147 Table 23 — 2M configuration commands ..................................... 148 Table 24 — 8M configuration commands ..................................... 149 Table 25 — 34M configuration commands ...................................150 Table 26 — 45M configuration commands ...................................150 Table 27 — 140M configuration commands ................................. 151 Table 28 — SDH configuration commands...................................152 Table 29 — STM_1E configuration commands ............................ 156 Table 30 — Signal result commands ............................................ 156 Table 31 — LED result commands ............................................... 157 Table 32 — PDH frame result commands .................................... 159 Table 33 — BERT Result Commands ..........................................161 Table 34 — Performance results commands................................ 161 Table 35 — SOH result commands .............................................. 164

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Tables

Table 36 — HP result commands ................................................. 165 Table 37 — LP result commands.................................................. 166 Table 38 — Miscellaneous result commands ............................... 167

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Figures

Figure 1 — Top panel .................................................................. 16 Figure 2 — Bottom panel ............................................................. 17 Figure 3 — SDH module front panel ............................................17 Figure 4 — Main window.............................................................. 18 Figure 5 — Terminate Mode connection...................................... 35 Figure 6 — Thru Mode connection............................................... 36 Figure 7 — MUX Mode connection .............................................. 37 Figure 8 — Printer Management window .....................................39 Figure 9 — Histogram printout ..................................................... 44 Figure 10 — Selected range printout ............................................46 Figure 11 — APS Switchover......................................................... 61 Figure 12 — All Summary Results OK ........................................... 92 Figure 13 — Summary Results Error display ................................. 93 Figure 14 — Signal results for SDH and 140M .............................. 94
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Figures

Figure 15 — BERT results ............................................................. 95 Figure 16 — PDH frame results for 140M and 2M......................... 97 Figure 17 — Performance results ................................................ 100 Figure 18 — SOH results ............................................................. 104 Figure 19 — HP results................................................................ 106 Figure 20 — LP results ................................................................ 108 Figure 21 — LED results for SDH and 140M ............................... 111 Figure 22 — LED panel................................................................ 112 Figure 23 — Mapping structure.................................................... 137

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Preface

About This Guide

Purpose and scope
The purpose of this guide is to help you successfully use the SDH Field Service module features and capabilities. This guide includes task-based instructions that describe how to assemble, use, and troubleshoot the module. Additionally, this guide provides a complete description of Acterna’s warranty, services, and repair information, including terms and conditions of the licensing agreement.

Assumptions
This guide is intended for novice, intermediate, and experienced users who want to use the module effectively and efficiently. We are assuming that you have basic computer and mouse/track ball experience and are familiar with basic telecommunication concepts and terminology.

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About This Guide

Getting technical assistance
If you need assistance or have questions related to the use of this product, call or email Acterna’s Technical Assistance Center (TAC) for customer support.
Technical assistance centers Region
Americas Europe, Africa, and Mid-East

Phone Number
1-800-638-2049 00800 882 85822 (European Freephone) +800 882 85822 (Acterna UK) +49 (0) 7121 86 1262 (Acterna Germany) +33 (0) 1 39 30 24 24 (Acterna France)

Hours of Operation
M-F, 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., EST M-F, 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. GMT

Asia and the Pacific +852 2892 0990 (Hong Kong) +86 10 6833 7477 (China) +61 3 9690 6700 (Australia)

M-F, 9:00 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.

M-F, 9:00 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.

M-F, 8:30 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.

During off-hours you can request assistance by doing one of the following: leave a voice mail message at the Technical Assistance number in your region; email North American Technical Assistance Center, tac@acterna.com, or European Technical Assistance Center, eurotac@acterna.com; or submit your question using our online Technical Assistance Request form at www.acterna.com.

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2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Using this guide

Using this guide
The following table is a roadmap to using this guide efficiently; however, all chapters in this guide can be used for reference purposes:
Locating information To
Become familiar with module Set up the module for use Explore the unit, navigate the user interface, and perform basic functional tasks Learn to use and apply features in a field environment Interpret test results Troubleshoot the unit Learn about the warranty

Refer to
Chapter 1 “SDH Module Overview” Chapter 2 “Instrument Setup” Chapter 3 “Guided Tour”

Chapter 4 “PDH Testing” Chapter 5 “SDH Testing” Chapter 6 “MUX Testing” Chapter 7 “Interpreting Test Results” Chapter 8 “Troubleshooting” Chapter 9 “Customer Services”

The remainder of this guide provides supplementary information. The Appendices provide reference information. The Glossary defines terms, abbreviations, and acronyms. To locate specific information, refer to the Index.

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About This Guide

Conventions

This guide uses naming conventions and symbols, as described in the following tables:
Typographical conventions Description
Commands appear in this typeface. Switches that you press on a unit appear in this TYPEFACE. Code and output messages appear in this typeface. Text you must enter exactly as shown appears in this typeface. A vertical bar | means “or”: only one option can appear in a single command. Square brackets [ ] indicate an optional argument. Slanted brackets < > group required arguments.

Example
On the Status bar, click Start. Press the AUX switch.

All results okay Type: a:\set.exe in the dialog box platform [a|b|e]

login [platform name] <password>

Hazard and note icons Icon Description

This icon represents a general hazard.

This icon represents a risk of electrical shock.

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Using this guide

Hazard and note icons (continued) Icon Description

This icon represents a Note indicating related information or tip.

Safety terminology

The following table defines safety terms used throughout this manual. Failure to observe these precautions while using the module, violates the intended use of this product.
Safety definitions Term
DANGER WARNING CAUTION

Description
Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may also be used to alert against unsafe practices.

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About This Guide

xxiv

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Chapter

1

1

SDH Module Overview

This chapter provides a general description of the module. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
G G G

“About the SDH Field Service module” on page 2 “Features and capabilities” on page 2 “Physical description” on page 3

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Chapter 1 — SDH Module Overview

About the SDH Field Service module
The SDH Field Service module is part of the 2000 Test Platform. It offers high-speed testing from E1 to STM-16c in a battery-powered mobile unit. The module enables you to turnup, troubleshoot, and maintain networks. It combines graphical user interface technology and a touch-sensitive screen to simplify test setup. The innovative icon-driven interface is easy to learn, and the large display provides ample space for displaying test results.

Features and capabilities
The module provides the test capabilities you need to accurately install and commission services. Features include the following:
G G G G

Qualification of SDH rings Timing and synchronization verification Identification of anomalies and defects Bit error rate testing (BERT) on STM-16, STM-4, STM-1, E4, DS3, E3, E2, and E1 digital links Analysis at interface rate or any supported tributary rate Out-of-service testing of a multiplexer In-service monitoring of network traffic Verification of APS switch over time at PDH drop rates 2M and Nx64 analysis Round-trip delay measurements Time/date stamp of user-selected conditions (Event Log) Works in combination with the 2M and data, xDSL, copper loop qualification, and SONET field service modules

G G G G G G G G

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2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Physical description

Physical description
The SDH Field Service module is a hand-held test set that is designed around a powerful and flexible architecture, which includes the 2416 application module and the Acterna TestPad 2000. The modular design enables the Acterna TestPad 2000 to easily convert from one test technology to another by swapping the application modules. The module also comes with a hand strap and a kickstand.

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Chapter 1 — SDH Module Overview

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2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Chapter

2

2

Instrument Setup

This chapter provides step-by-step instructions to assemble and set up the module for use. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
G G G G G G G

“About instrument setup” on page 6 “Assembling the module” on page 6 “Powering the module” on page 6 “Setting the language” on page 7 “Installing options” on page 9 “Connecting the printer” on page 10 “Maintaining the battery” on page 11

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Chapter 2 — Instrument Setup

About instrument setup
When you receive the module, you can configure the module to run installed options, to operate in another language, to print test results, and to run on battery power. Before using battery power, make sure that you are familiar with battery maintenance procedures and maintenance.

Assembling the module
The modular design includes a 1/4-turn screw (counterclockwise to release; clockwise to secure) on the application module for simple release and swapping out of modules. NOTE:
The 2416 application module is compatible only with the A25000, TestPad 2000, Rev 3 and greater. For more information, refer to Chapter 8 “Troubleshooting” page 115.

To assemble the module
1 2

Attach the Acterna Test Pad 2000 to the 2416 application module. Turn the screw clockwise to secure the module. The module is ready to use.

Powering the module
The power is supplied by the battery or the AC power adapter. The power adapter plug is located on the bottom panel and provides 19 VDC connection. To power the module, push the power switch to the ON position. The Power LED, located on the front panel, illuminates green when the module is powered.

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2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Setting the language

Setting the language
The module supports languages for English, French, Italian, German, and Spanish. To change to the local language
1

Press the System button

and select Tools > Languages.

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Chapter 2 — Instrument Setup

The Languages window appears.

The Languages on Card box displays the languages that have not been added to the module. To add a language, select the language and press the right arrow to move it to the Languages on Unit box.
2 3 4

To select the language for the module, press the Current Language field and select the language. Press OK. Power cycle the module to accept the language change.

The module is ready to use in the selected language.

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Installing options

Installing options
To install options from the PCMCIA card
1

Verify that the label on the card is marked with the options identified for installation.

NOTE:
If you are installing a software upgrade and an option upgrade, you must perform the software upgrade installation first. 2 3 4

Turn the module power OFF. Insert the PCMCIA card in Slot 1 (closest to the front panel). Turn the module power ON. Press the System button and select Tools > Optioning.

5

6 7 8

In the Features on Card box, select the option to install. Press the right arrow to move the option into the Features Installed box. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for each option you want to install.

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Chapter 2 — Instrument Setup

9

Press OK when finished.

10 When the prompt appears, turn the module power OFF. 11 Remove the PCMCIA card and turn the module power ON.

The module is ready to use with the installed options.

Connecting the printer
The printer connector, located on the top panel, is an 8-pin connector used to connect the module to a serial printer, such as the PR-40B. The 8-pin connector presents a DTE interface, requiring the use of a null modem or reversing cable if you connect to a PC. You can use a standard communications program on your PC to capture the printout, and if you wish, save it.
N

NOTE:
Use the printer cable provided with the module. Operability of the printer port cannot be guaranteed if you use a cable longer than three meters.

To connect the printer to the module
1 2 3

Turn the module OFF. Connect the cable from the interface connector on the printer to the interface connector on the module. Turn the module ON. Press the System button
Settings.

4

and select Tools > Printer Mgmt >

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2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Maintaining the battery

The Settings tab appears.

5

Verify that the parameters in the Settings tab match the parameters for the printer.

NOTE:
Some PC communication programs may require the Terminator parameter to be set to CR/LF. 6

Turn the printer ON.

The printer is now ready to print.

Maintaining the battery
Recharging the battery The Battery Low LED illuminates when the battery is at 25 percent or below full charge and indicates that the battery needs to be recharged. You can continue to use the module and recharge the battery at the same time.

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Chapter 2 — Instrument Setup

To charge the battery
1 2

Connect the AC adapter from the 19VDC connector to an AC power supply. Let the module charge for up to 1.5 hours. The Charge LED illuminates when the battery is charging. The charge duration is the same regardless of the module being on or off.

Replacing the battery

You can “hot swap” the battery, without losing test results, if you have access to an AC power source. NOTE:
It is recommended that you turn off the module to change the battery, but if you do not want to disturb current testing, leave the module turned on with the AC power adapter plugged in.

To hot swap the battery
1 2 3 4 5 6

Connect the AC power adapter to the module. Unlock the battery access door by turning the screw clockwise. Open the battery access panel and pull the strap to remove the battery. Align the new battery with the terminals facing up and pointing toward the battery compartment. Verify that you can read the terminal markings (-) V D C (+) at the top end of the battery. Slide the new battery into the battery compartment until the terminals click into place. The bottom of the battery should be approximately 0.25 inches inside the compartment.

7

Lock the battery door by turning the screw counter-clockwise. Continue testing

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2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Maintaining the battery

CAUTION:
Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended by the manufacturer. Dispose of used batteries according to the manufacturer's instructions.

ATTENTION:
Il y a danger d’explosion s’il y a remplacement incorrect de la batterie. Remplacer uniquement avec une batterie du même type ou d’un type équivalent recommandé par le constructeur. Mettre au rebut les batteries usagées conformément aux instructions du fabricant.

ATTENZIONE:
Pericolo di esplosione se la batteria non e sostituita correttamente. Sostituirla soltanto con lo stesso tipo o con un tipo equivalente raccomandato dal fabbricante. Eliminare le batterie usate secondo le istruzioni del fabbricante.

AVISO:
Peligro de explosión si la batería es sustituida incorrectamente. Recambiela solamente por el mismo tipo o por un tipo equivalente recomendado por el fabricante. Deposite las baterías usadas según las instrucciones del fabricante.

ACHTUNG:
Explosionsgefahr bei falschem Einbau der Ersatzbatterie. Bitte nur Ersatzbatterien des gleichen Typs verwenden oder equivalente. Typen nach Herstellerempfehlung. Bitte entsorgen Sie gebrauchte Batterien nach den Herstellerangaben.

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Chapter 2 — Instrument Setup

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Chapter

3

3

Guided Tour

This chapter introduces you to the module and provides step-by-step instructions for performing basic tasks. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
G G G G G G G G G G

“About the guided tour” on page 16 “Exploring the unit” on page 16 “Navigating the user interface” on page 18 “Viewing system information” on page 22 “Configuring a test” on page 24 “Saving test configurations” on page 28 “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 “Viewing test results” on page 37 “Printing test results” on page 38 “Using the remote control feature” on page 46

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Chapter 3 — Guided Tour

About the guided tour
This tour introduces you to the components of the module and provides instructions for performing basic functional tasks. After you are familiar with the module and the basic tasks, you are ready to begin testing.

Exploring the unit
Top panel The top panel (see Figure 1) provides the printer connector, dual PCMCIA card door, and the test connectors. The Dual PCMCIA card door enables the insertion of two Type I PCMCIA cards or one Type III PCMCIA card for software upgrades and file storage. Slot 1 is closest to the front panel. Slot 2 is closest to the back of the module.

Printer Connector

Test Connectors

PCMCIA card door

Figure 1 — Top panel

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2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Exploring the unit

Bottom panel

The bottom panel (see Figure 2) provides the Power switch, AC adapter plug, handset connection, and the battery access panel.
Battery access panel Handset connector

AC adapter plug

Power switch

Figure 2 — Bottom panel

Front panel

The front panel (Figure 3) provides the touch-sensitive LCD screen, speaker and microphone It also provides the Power, Charge, and Low Battery LEDs.
Power LEDs

Status LEDs

Touch sensitive LCD screen

Figure 3 — SDH module front panel

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Chapter 3 — Guided Tour

Navigating the user interface
The user interface provides the platform to configure tests and view results (see Figure 4). It is a touch screen that is divided into separate areas for test configuration and test results
Application buttons Test setup button

Configuration summary bar

Permanent keys Results display

Action buttons

Message display

System icons

Figure 4 — Main window

NOTE:
We recommend using the stylus supplied with the module to activate functions on the touch-sensitive screen.

Application buttons

The application buttons are located at the top of the window. They provide quick access to each test. When you press a button, the operating mode list appears.

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Navigating the user interface

Test setup button

The Test Setup button is located on the upper right corner of the main window. When you press this button, a Quick Configuration list appears. This list displays the current configuration for the selected test. Select any of these fields to go directly to that setup tab or select General if the field you want to modify is not listed. For descriptions of tabs and data fields, refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” page 169. NOTE:
There are tabs that are available for every interface, such as Structure, BERT, and Error Insert. Some tabs that appear may be dependent on values entered on another tab. When configuring a test, make sure to complete all of the tabs that are appropriate for the test being completed.

Configuration summary bar Results display

The configuration summary bar displays the current test being performed and the configuration settings. The Results Display windows are used to display the category results. The results can be shown in either text or graph format. See “Viewing test results” on page 37. The action buttons are located above the message display bar. The action buttons perform additional application specific functions. Each mode of operation presents different buttons that perform different actions. They may or may not be active and are application dependent. The message display bar displays the status and current events, such as APS test status. This bar is always displayed even while configuring the system.

Action buttons

Message display

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Chapter 3 — Guided Tour

System icons

The System icons provide access to system settings. Table 1 describes the function of each system tray icon.
Table 1 — System tray icons Icons Description
Laser Control — Turns the laser on and off. – When the icon is red and (|) is displayed, the laser is ON. – When the icon is gray and (O) is displayed (as shown), the laser is OFF. History Reset — Clears all history LEDs.

Speaker Volume — Activates the volume control window to set the speaker volume or to mute the volume.

Battery Status — Displays current battery strength by bar graph and percentage value.

System — Accesses basic functions, such as storing configurations, printing, installing options and languages, and automating tests. Also restarts a test, clears the event log, and marks a range end of the event log items. This icon changes to red to indicate errors (is useful when the summary result window is not open).

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Navigating the user interface

Permanent keys

Table 2 describes the function of each permanent keys.
Table 2 — Permanent softkeys Icon Description
Restart — Performs the test restart function, including resetting the current test results and clearing any errors and/or alarms.

File — Activates the System Settings window, which allows you to view the software revision level and installed options, and to set preferences such as time and date. Brightness — Adjusts the brightness on the color screen. There are two gradients of brightness: – Low brightness (maximizes battery life) – High brightness for enhanced viewing Battery Status — Not functional on the module. Battery status is indicated on the system tray icon on the bottom right corner of the main window.

Printer Setup — Activates the Printer Management tabs, which enables you to print result categories and histograms, and set printer interface parameters.

Help — Accesses Help.

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Viewing system information
System information, including the date, time, time elapsed, and the number of power failures is displayed in the Results Display window. To view system information
1

Press the Category Selection button The system information appears.

and select Misc. > System.

Configuring system settings

To configure system settings
1

Press the System button

and select Tools > System Settings.

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Viewing system information

The System Settings window appears.

2

Complete the information in the following tabs:
– – – –

On the Preferences tab, set the date and time. Also, enable sound and the screen saver. On the Set Date/Time tab, set the current date and time. On the Revisions tab, display the current version of the software. The first line is the current revision. On the Reset tab, reset all system settings to factory defaults.

NOTE:
The screen saver is only available when using AC power.

3

Click OK to complete system settings configuration.

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Chapter 3 — Guided Tour

Configuring a test
Before running a test, you need to define the circuit being tested and set up the test that you want to perform. To configure a test
1 2 3

On the Application Button bar, press the test button for the circuit you want to test or press MUX if you are testing a multiplexer. Select the operating mode. For MUX tests, select the receive and transmit rates. To configure the test, press the Setup button. A Quick Configuration list appears.

4

Select a specific field to go directly to that setup tab or select General if the field you want to define is not listed.

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Configuring a test

5

To define the transmit payload, select the Structure tab The Structure tab appears.

6 7

Complete the data fields to define the transmit payload. Complete the other tabs and data fields that are specific to your test Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” 169 for descriptions of tabs and data fields.

NOTE:
There are setup tabs that are available for every test, such as Structure, BERT, and Error Insert. Other setup tabs are dependent on the circuit being tested and/or configurations selected on other tabs. When configuring a test, make sure to complete all tabs and data fields that are appropriate for your test. 8

When you are finished configuring the test, press OK to accept the new values.

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Chapter 3 — Guided Tour

Performing a timed test

A timed test allows you to continually run a test for a specified amount of time. At the end of a timed test, all results are frozen except for LED status. To perform a timed test
1 2 3

After you have configured the test, press the Timed Test tab. Check the Enable Timed Test box. Enter the length of the test (1 min. to 49d, 23h, and 59 min.). Press OK to accept the test setup. This starts the timer. Press the Restart key to restart the timer.

When you start the test, it will run for the time specified. The configuration summary bar indicates that the test being performed is a timed test. Selecting physical triggers The module provides an event trigger feature for physical layer results. The Physical Trigger tab in the Setup Test window contains all events for the PDH and SDH interfaces and is organized into six categories: Signal, Framing, Performance, Alarm, BERT, and PDH APS (PDH analysis rates only). When configuring test setup, use the Physical Trigger tab to select the event categories you want to capture in the Event Log. The event type, date, and time stamp are logged in the Event Log. To set physical triggers
1

On the main window, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Press the Physical Triggers tab. Select the event categories you want to capture in the Event Log. Press OK to save the selection. After the test begins, the data collects in the Event Log (see “Viewing the event log” on page 113).

2 3 4

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Configuring a test

Configuring histograms

The histogram configuration allows you to choose which results the system will collect and the size of each sample of data to be collected. If you change the configuration, the buffer is cleared and the new histogram data is reset. All results are cleared as well. The histogram buffer size for an individual result is determined by the total number of samples for all histogram results. For example, if the histogram buffer size is 6,000 samples and you select 3 histogram results, the buffer collects up to 2,000 samples at a given time and stores these in the result bucket. If the number of samples collected exceeds the bucket size, the oldest sample is erased. To configure the histogram collection settings
1 2

Press Setup > Histograms. Press the Histogram Settings tab.

3

Check the box to enable histogram collections.

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4

Set the sample interval time.

NOTE:
The module calculates the approximate maximum duration (total buffer size) of the histogram for each result based on the sample size and the results you select. If you select a smaller sample interval or more results, the maximum duration will be shorter for each histogram. 5

Select a category tab and select the results you want to collect for the histogram. The category tabs that appear are based on the current test setup. When finished, press OK.

6

To print histograms, refer to “Printing histograms” on page 42.

Saving test configurations
The module allows you to save configuration settings to be loaded for future tests; thus enabling you to quickly set up tests. The module can store up to ten different test configurations on the internal drive and many more on the PCMCIA cards. To save the current test configuration
1 2

After you have completed the Setup Test tabs to configure your test, press OK. Press the System button and select File > Save.

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Saving test configurations

The Save Test Setup window appears.

3 4

From the Drive list, select the drive to store the configuration: Internal 1, Card 1, or Card 2. Press the Filename field and use the keypad that appears to enter the file name in standard DOS format (8 characters with no spaces). Press Save. The configuration file is now ready to load for future tests.

5

Loading test configurations

Loading a saved test configuration file can help you quickly set up a test. To load a saved file
1

Press the System button and select File > Load.

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The Load Test Setup window appears.

2 3

From the Drive list, select the drive to load the configuration: Internal 1, Card 1, or Card 2. Highlight a configuration file and press Load. The test is configured and you can begin testing.

Deleting, renaming, and copying files

The File Maintenance feature allows you to delete, rename, and copy test configuration files. To delete, rename, or copy a file
1

Press the System button and select File > Maintenance.

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Saving test configurations

The File Maintenance window appears.

2 3

Select the file type from the File Type list: Test Setup, Script File (future), Extended File (Special System Files), or Print File. Select the drive from the Drive list: Internal 1, Card 1, or Card 2.
– – –

To delete a file, select the file and press Delete. To copy a file, select the file and enter a new filename in the Filename text box. Press Copy. To rename a file, select the file and enter the new filename in the Filename text box. Press Rename.

4

Press Close.

Formatting the internal drive

To format the internal drive
1

Press the System button and select File > Maintenance. The File Maintenance window appears. Press the Drive tab.

2

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The Drive window appears.

3

Select Internal 1 from the Drive list. Information about the drive is displayed. Press Format to erase the contents of the drive. Press Close.

4 5

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Connecting the unit for testing

Connecting the unit for testing
After you have configured a test, you are ready to connect the test unit. After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate. The module is equipped with the following connectors:
G G G G G G G G

One E1 Receive (Balanced 120 Ω Twin-ax) One E1 Transmit (Balanced 120 Ω Twin-ax) One E1/E3/DS3 Receive (Unbalanced 75 Ω BNC) One E1/E3/DS3 Transmit (Unbalanced 75 Ω BNC) One E1 Reference Clock Input (Unbalanced, Square 75 Ω, BNC) One E4/STM-1 Electrical Receive (Unbalanced 75 Ω BNC) One E4/STM-1 Electrical Transmit (Unbalanced 75 Ω BNC) One STM-1/4/16 Optical Receive (FC/PC, SC or ST, with Safety cover) One 1550nm STM-1/4/16 Optical Transmit (FC/PC, SC or ST, with Safety cover) One 1310nm STM-1/4/16 Optical Transmit (FC/PC, SC or ST, with Safety cover)

G

G

The module displays yellow LEDs next to the physical connectors to indicate which connectors to use based on the test configuration. For example, if the current test configuration is receiving an E1 signal while transmitting an STM-1(E) signal, the LEDs next to the E1 receive BNC and the E4/STM-1 transmit BNC are illuminated. NOTE:
For optical testing, there are no separate LEDs for each transmitter. To verify which connector is active, refer to the Configuration Summary bar.

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NOTE:
When connecting to a 2M circuit, you should connect to either the 75 Ω or the 120 Ω balanced receive connector, but not both. Doing so may result in erroneous errors.

Laser safety

Next to each optical connector is a red LED to indicate whether the associated laser is active. The LED next to the transmit connector indicates that the laser is turned on. The LED next to the receive connector indicates that the fiber to the connector carries a live optical signal. CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps.

CAUTION: DAMAGE TO TEST UNIT
When looping the unit back to itself through a short length of optical fiber, it is necessary to insert an optical attenuator in the circuit to protect the receiver from overload. Similar caution should be observed when connecting the unit to a network element.

Operating modes

There are three operating modes for performing tests: Terminate, Through, and MUX. Each mode requires a different hookup. Each mode is described below with an example of a proper hookup. In Terminate mode, both the transmit and receive are set at the same rate. In SDH applications, both transmit and receive are electrical or optical, not mixed. The module generates data for transmission independent of received data. The same mapping, tributary, and BERT pattern selections apply both to the Transmit and Receive data.

Terminate mode

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Connecting the unit for testing

Figure 5 shows how to connect the module for terminate testing.

Figure 5 — Terminate Mode connection Thru mode

In Thru mode, both the transmit and receive are set at the same rate. In SDH applications, both transmit and receive are electrical or optical, not mixed. While operating in Thru mode, the module is intended to appear to the network as a section terminating equipment or repeater. In addition to signal regeneration, the module terminates and regenerates certain bytes in the section overhead. It therefore cleans up any errors that exist in the input signal for these bytes. These bytes include the A1 and A2 bytes (frame word), B1 byte, B2 bytes, and the J0 byte (contains the section trace). In Thru mode, you are able to insert frame, B1, and B2 errors, and the J0 byte.

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Chapter 3 — Guided Tour

Figure 6 shows how to connect the module for thru testing.

Figure 6 — Thru Mode connection MUX mode

In MUX mode, the module wraps a specific multiplexer using a BERT pattern.

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Viewing test results

Figure 7 shows how to connect the module for MUX testing.

Figure 7 — MUX Mode connection

Viewing test results
Category results are displayed in the Results Display windows. To view results for a category
1

Press the Category Selection button category list.

to display the result

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Chapter 3 — Guided Tour

2

From the category result list, select a result category. For some categories, select the sub-category.

The results appear on the Dual Test Results display. For descriptions of each category and the results, refer to Chapter 7 “Interpreting Test Results” page 91.

Printing test results
The module allows you to print test results, events, and histograms using the Printer Management window (see Figure 8 on page 39). The following sections describe how to configure the Printer Management window to select the print mode, print location, print type, create headings for printouts, and configure printer settings.

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Printing test results

Figure 8 — Printer Management window

Activating timed print

Only Standard (Std) Categories may be set to timed print. To activate timed print
1 2 3

On the Printer Management window, press the Mode tab. In the Print Mode box, press Timed. Press the Interval field. Use the keypad that appears to enter the print interval.

NOTE:
If timed print is activated, and another print job is processed during the set interval, the timed print scheduled is ignored. Timed print is resumed at the next scheduled interval.

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Printing to file

The printer management feature allows you to save printouts to the internal drive or to one of the PCMCIA cards so that you can print files at another time. To print to file
1 2 3 4 5

On the Printer Management window, press the Mode tab. Set the appropriate Print Mode and Print Type. In the Print Location box, press File. Select where to save the file from the Device list. Press the Filename box and use the keypad that appears to type in the name of the file (8 characters and no spaces). The system automatically saves the file as a .prt file. Press Print.

6

NOTE:
If an existing file is selected for print, the file is appended to the file you just selected to print.

Selecting the print type

The Print Type selection allows you to select the type of results you want to print.
To print
Standard categories. Displayed results, including collection buffer results, in the left or right window.

Select
Std Categories Print Left/Right Results Window

NOTE: The Event Log only appears on the left display window, and can only be printed when Left Result Window is selected as the print type.
Current test configurations. Print Configurations

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Printing test results

To print
Histogram results. When selected, the tabs associated with the histogram print feature appears (see “Printing histograms” on page 42). Specified data range within a collection buffer. (This prints the selected range) Selected range of event data within the event log. You can print the events and any associated data stored in the capture buffer. (The same as Print Selected Range, but applies only to Event Log data.)

Select
Print Histogram

Print Selected Range Print Selected Range Plus Data

Creating headings

The Headings tab allows you to enter headings that will print at the top of each printout. Each heading has a maximum of 40 characters. To create a heading
1 2

On the Printer Management window, press the Headings tab. Press a heading line and use the keypad that appears to enter the heading text.

Printing standard categories

The Std Categories tab appears when it is selected in the Mode tab. Standard categories include PDH Frame, SDH (includes SOH, HP, and LP), LED, Performance, Signal, Test Specific, and System. The Test Specific category prints the results based on the current test and prints only statistic-related results. To print standard categories
1 2 3 4

On the Printer Management window, press the Mode tab. Verify that Std Categories is checked as the print type. Press the Std Categories tab. Check the box next to each category you want to print.

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Printing histograms

The Histogram print function allows you to print specific results based on the current test and the histogram configuration (see “Configuring histograms” on page 27). You can select different results to be printed from the same histogram buffer. For example, you can collect a variety of results for your histogram; however, you may only want to print certain results. After you collect the results, you can change the print configuration to print the results in any combination on the histogram printout. To configure histogram print settings
1 2 3

On the Printer Management window, press the Mode tab. Verify that Histogram is selected as the print type. Press the Histogram tab. The Histogram tab appears.

4

Select First Sample to set the histogram to print from the first sample in the buffer. or Select Set Start Date/Time to manually enter the start date and time. Press the Date and Time fields and use the keypad to enter the date and time.

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Printing test results

5

Select Last Sample to set the histogram to print up to the last sample in the histogram buffer. or Press Set Duration to set the duration of the histogram print. Press the duration field and use the keypad to enter the days, hours, and minutes.

6

Press the Bar Interval field and set the number of hours and minutes represented by each bar in the histogram for the printout.

NOTE:
The module calculates the approximate maximum duration (total buffer size) of the histogram for each result based on the sample size and the results you select. If you select a smaller sample interval or more results, the duration for each histogram will be shorter. 7

Select the results to be printed from the other tabs. The tabs that appear are based on the histogram configuration.

NOTE:
Only histogram results that are valid to the current test configuration or that are set for collection are enabled for print selection. All other fields are disabled. See “Configuring histograms” on page 27 to define the histogram settings. 8

Press Print.

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Figure 9 displays a sample Histogram printout.

Figure 9 — Histogram printout

Printing a selected range from the event log

The Selected Range and Selected Range Plus Data print options allow you to print a selected range of collection or trace buffers. Prior to printing the range, you must mark the range of buffer data you want to print. NOTE:
Range selection only supports one marked range and the range is not saved through power down.

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Printing test results

To select a range of buffer data
1 2 3 4 5

Open the event log in the left results window. Press the Pause button in the results window to pause the displayed data. Select the first result item by pressing the result. Press the System button and select Mark Range End. Select the last result item by pressing the result. All of the result items between the two selected results are highlighted to confirm the selected range.

6 7 8 9

To print the range, press the System button and select Tools > Printer Mgmt. On the Printer Management window, select the Mode tab. Verify that Selected Range or Selected Range Plus Data is selected as the print type. Press Print.

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An example of a printout for a selected range is displayed in. Figure 10.

Figure 10 — Selected range printout

Using the remote control feature
See Appendix B “Remote Control Commands” page 143 for detailed remote control procedures, syntax, and commands.

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Chapter

4

4

PDH Testing

This chapter provides step-by-step instructions for performing PDH testing. Topics discussed in this chapter include:
G G G G G G G G G

“About PDH testing” on page 48 “Viewing 2M timeslots” on page 48 “Conducting performance analysis” on page 49 “Performing a round trip delay test” on page 52 “Identifying anomalies and defects” on page 53 “Performing BER testing” on page 56` “Monitoring network traffic” on page 57 “Verifying APS switchover time” on page 59 “Scenario: Troubleshooting a 45M service” on page 62

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Chapter 4 — PDH Testing

About PDH testing
The module provides the ability to perform tests for PDH rates, including 2M, 8M, 34M, 45M, and 140M (E1, E2, E3, DS3, and E4 respectively). PDH testing verifies the quality of the circuit, identifies problems on the network that cause degraded performance, and primarily, maintains that the network is in accordance with ITU-T recommendations. NOTE:
When connecting to a 2M circuit, you should connect to either the 75 Ω or the 120 Ω balanced receive connector, but not both. Doing so may result in erroneous errors.

Viewing 2M timeslots
The 2M view displays an overview of all 32 timeslots. It displays an activity indicator of received byte and ABCD bits in MFAS framing. An empty circle denotes no activity for the corresponding time slot. To view the 2M timeslots
1

Press the Category Selection button and select Misc. > 2M View.

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Conducting performance analysis

The 2M view appears on the main window.

Conducting performance analysis
Bit error measurements are used to measure the quality of a circuit. The ITU-T recommends various PRBS test patterns that simulate real traffic, after which different methods are used to analyze the bit errors and alarms to produce a measurement of the quality of a line. The measurements are used as the basis for Service Level Agreements. The module conducts PDH performance analysis for ITU-T specifications G.821, G.826, M.2100. The module allows you to perform a timed test that captures information for a user-defined length of time. The module calculates the performance results based on the fixed time interval. To conduct performance analysis
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press 2M, 34M, 45M, or 140M and select Terminate. Press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears.

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Chapter 4 — PDH Testing

3

Complete the Structure and corresponding tabs to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” on page 169 for descriptions of tabs and data fields. Select the BERT tab. The BERT Setup tab appears.

4

5

Select the test pattern from the Pattern list.

If you select 2ˆ15-1, 2ˆ20-1, or 2ˆ23-1, select the Pattern Type. Select Normal to use the selected pattern as it appears or select Invert to use the inverted pattern. If you select User Programmable, define the pattern.

– 6

Select the Timed Test tab.

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Conducting performance analysis

The Timed Test Setup tab appears.

7 8 9

Check the Enable Timed Test box. Enter the length of the test (1 min. to 49d, 23h, and 59 min.). Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. transmit connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about using the connectors. After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.

10 Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT

11 Press the Restart key to clear results and begin the test. 12 To view BERT results, press the Category Selection button and

select BERT.
13 To view performance results, press the Category Selection button

and select Performance > G.821 / G.826 OOS / G.826 ISM / M.2100 OOS / M.2100 ISM. See “Interpreting BERT results” on page 95 and “Interpreting performance results” on page 100 for information on interpreting results.

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Performing a round trip delay test
Round trip delay measurements are performed on looped back circuits (analysis rates 2M, 8M, 34M, and 45M) to troubleshoot and isolate excessive timing problems in networks. These measurements can also be used to confirm that the intended loopbacks in the network have occurred before proceeding with other network maintenance. To measure round trip delay
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press 2M, 34M, or 45M and select Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Complete the Structure and corresponding tabs to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” on page 169 for descriptions of tabs and data fields. Select the BERT tab. The BERT Setup tab appears.

3

4

5

Select Delay from the Pattern list.

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Identifying anomalies and defects

6 7 8

Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about using the connectors. After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.

9

Press the Restart key to clear results and begin the test.
BERT.

10 To view results, press the Category Selection button and select

See “Interpreting BERT results” on page 95 for information on interpreting results.

Identifying anomalies and defects
Within PDH networks, there are many conditions that can result in the occurrence of anomalies and defects. Anomalies can lead to faults such as parity errors, and defects that can result in the total interruption of a connection. You can use the module to generate errors and simulate alarms, and analyze the corresponding response signals to enable troubleshooting and maintenance of network links. Generating errors To generate errors
1

To analyze response signals, select the physical triggers for each signal. Then, view the events that are generated in the Event Log (see “Selecting physical triggers” on page 26). On the Application Button bar, press 2M, 34M, 45M or 140M and select Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears.

2 3

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Chapter 4 — PDH Testing

4

Complete the Structure and corresponding tabs to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” on page 169 for descriptions of tabs and data fields. Select the Error Insert tab. The Error Insert Setup tab appears.

5

6

Select the type of error to generate. If you select Bit Error/TSE, you must also select the rate. If you select an FAS error, you must select the Frame Error Count. Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about using the connectors. After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate

7 8 9

10 Press the Restart key to clear results and begin the test. 11 Press the Insert Error action button to insert errors. 12 View the Event Log for physical trigger events.

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Identifying anomalies and defects

13 View the alarm results on the LED panel. To view LED results on

the main window, press the Category Selection button and select
LED.

See “Interpreting LEDs” on page 111 and “Viewing the event log” on page 113 for information on interpreting results. Simulating alarms To simulate alarms
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press 2M, 34M, 45M or 140M and select Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Complete the Structure tab to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” on page 169 for descriptions of the tabs and data fields. Select the 2M, 8M, 34M, 45M, or the 140M tab. This will depend on the analysis rate you selected in the Structure tab. The Setup tab appears.

3

4

5 6

On the bottom of the tab are the alarms that may be simulated for the test. Select ON for each alarm you want to simulate. Press OK to accept the test setup.

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7 8

Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive point. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit point. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about using the connectors. After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate

9

Press the Restart ley to clear results and begin the test.

10 View the Event Log for physical trigger events. 11 View the alarm results on the LED panel. To view LED results on

the main window, press the Category Selection button and select LED. See “Interpreting LEDs” on page 111 for information on interpreting results.

Performing BER testing
The bit error rate (BER) test consists of determining the relationship between erroneous bits to the total received bits. The module generates a psuedorandom binary sequence (PRBS) which simulates the transmission of live traffic. This sequence is either received by another test set or looped back to the originating test set which then compares it bit by bit with the expected result. Any erroneous bits are reported as bit errors and a corresponding bit error rate is calculated based on the frequency of the errors. To perform BER testing
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press 2M, 34M, 45M or 140M. and select Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears.

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Monitoring network traffic

3

Complete the Structure and corresponding tabs to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” on page 169 for descriptions of the data fields. Select the BERT tab. Select the test pattern from the Pattern list.

4 5

If you select 2ˆ15-1, 2ˆ20-1, or 2ˆ23-1, select the Pattern Type. Select Normal to use the selected pattern as it appears or select Invert to use the inverted pattern. If you select User Programmable, define the pattern.

– 6 7 8

Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about the connectors on the module. After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.

9

Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test.
BERT.

10 To view results, press the Category Selection button and select

See “Interpreting BERT results” on page 95 for information on interpreting results.

Monitoring network traffic
Testing in the through mode allows you to unobtrusively monitor network traffic for troubleshooting or performing In-Service Monitoring (ISM) performance measurements in accordance with ITU-T recommendations.

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To monitor network traffic
1 2 3 4

On the Application Button bar, press 2M, 34M, 45M or 140M. and select Thru. To configure the test, press Setup > General. Select the Structure tab. Complete the Structure and corresponding tabs to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” on page 169 for descriptions of the data fields. Select the 2M, 8M, 34M, 45M, or the 140M tab. This will depend on the analysis rate you selected in the Structure tab. The Setup tab appears. This is an example of the 2M configuration tab.

5

6

Set the Rx Input to Monitor.
– –

If you are testing a 2M circuit, select Monitor or Bridge. If you select Monitor, set the Rx Mon Atten for accessing Protected Monitor Points (PMP).

7

Connect a cable from the active receive connector to DUT transmit connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about the connectors on the module.

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Verifying APS switchover time

After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.
8 9

Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test. To view results, press the Category Selection button and then the appropriate results category. See Chapter 7 “Interpreting Test Results” page 91 for information on interpreting results.

Verifying APS switchover time
When an APS mechanism is installed, its conformance to the prescribed switchover time from ‘working line’ to ‘protection line’ becomes critical. If the network switch-over does not take place within the stipulated time, it may set off a number of alarms, rendering certain route segments, or even the complete ring, unserviceable. The module measures the APS switchover time of an SDH network by measuring the effect to an end customer off a PDH drop. This ensures that the end effect to a customer is a loss of framing less than the ITU-T recommendation of 50 ms. To verify APS switch-over time
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

On the Application Button bar, press 2M, 34M, 45M or 140M. and select Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. Select the Structure tab. Select the Analysis Rate for the PDH drop. Select the Physical Triggers tab. Check PDH APS. Press OK to accept the test setup.

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8

Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about the connectors on the module. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit connector. action button to enable the test.

9

10 After the module has established Frame Sync, press the Start APS 11 Enable the APS switchover by forcing the network to switch to

the backup lines. This is accomplished in one of two ways:
Method
Interrupting the signal Inserting errors

Description
Physically interrupt the signal by pulling it from the ADM. Use another test set in Through mode to insert errors until the network switches.

Figure 11 on page 61 illustrates this methodology.

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Verifying APS switchover time

Figure 11 — APS Switchover

After the module detects a Loss of Frame Sync, it automatically begins to measure the time in milliseconds until Frame Sync is reestablished at the analysis rate. The event log appears on the left results window and the signal results appear on the right results window. See “Interpreting signal results” on page 94 for information on interpreting results.

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Scenario: Troubleshooting a 45M service
The following scenario describes how to configure a histogram collection and to analyze service performance. Evaluating the situation You have received a trouble ticket for a 45M service. The customer reports network congestion during the hours of midnight to two-oclock a.m. To locate the source of the problem, set up a histogram to collect data during the hours of congestion. To configure the histogram to collect data
1 2 3

On the Application Button bar, press 45M > Thru. To configure the test, press Setup > General. Select the Structure tab. The Structure Setup tab appears.

The Analysis Rate must be 45M when testing a 45M service.
4 5

Set the Framing and Tx Timing to match that of the service being tested. Select the 45M tab.

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The 45M Setup tab appears.

6 7 8 9

Set the Framing to match that of the service being tested. Press OK to accept the test configuration. To configure the histograms, press Setup > Histograms. Select the Histogram Settings tab. The Histogram Settings tab appears.

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10 Check the Enable Histogram Collection box. Specify the Sample

Interval time as the amount of time between the collection of samples of each result to be histogrammed. (1440 minutes = 1 day). NOTE:
The module calculates the approximate maximum duration (total buffer size) of the histogram for each result based on the sample size and the results you select. If you select a smaller sample interval or more results, the maximum duration will be shorter for each histogram. 11 Select each result tab and check off each result to collect in the

histogram. These should correspond with the problems that the customer reports.

12 Press OK to accept the histogram configuration. 13 Connect a cable from the 2M/34M/45M active transmit connector

to the DUT receive connector.
14 Connect a cable from the 2M/34M/45M active receive connector

to the DUT transmit connector. After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.

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15 Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test.

Report back to the customer premises the following day. To print the histogram data and analyze service performance
1

Connect the printer to the module and configure the printer settings (see “Connecting the printer” on page 10). Turn the printer ON. Press the System button and select Tools > Printer Mgmt Select the Mode tab. Verify that Histogram is selected for the print type. Select the Histogram tab. The Histogram tab appears.

2 3 4 5

6

Select Set Start Date/Time to manually enter the start date and time. Press the Date and Time fields and use the keypad to enter the date and time. Select Set Duration to set the duration of the histogram print. Press the duration field and use the keypad to enter the hours and minutes. Press the Bar Interval field and set the number of hours and minutes represented by each bar in the histogram for the printout.

7

8

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9

Select each result tab and check off each result to print. The tabs that appear are based on the histogram configured in the previous procedure.

10 Press Print. 11 After the printouts are complete, locate the events that occurred

between the hours of congestion. The information on the printout enables you to analyze and troubleshoot the service performance. Conclusion You have successfully configured a histogram and used this data to troubleshoot service problems. Histograms are an easy way to monitor service performance over a long period of time. Use this procedure when troubleshooting other network services.

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5

5

SDH Testing

This chapter provides step-by-step instructions for performing SDH testing. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
G G G G G G G

“About SDH testing” on page 68 “Conducting performance analysis” on page 68 “Identifying anomalies and defects” on page 70 “Performing BER testing” on page 74 “Analyzing pointer movements” on page 75 “Identifying trace messages” on page 78 “Scenario: Turning up an STM-16 service” on page 80

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About SDH testing
The module provides the ability to perform tests for STM rates, including STM-1 (E), STM-1 (O), STM-4, and STM-16. SDH testing verifies the quality of the circuit, identifies problems on the network that cause degraded performance, and primarily, maintains that the network is in accordance with ITU-T recommendations. CAUTION: DAMAGE TO TEST UNIT
When looping the unit back to itself through a short length of optical fiber, it is necessary to insert an optical attenuator in the circuit to protect the receiver from overload. Similar caution should be observed when connecting the unit to a network element.

Conducting performance analysis
Bit error measurements are used to measure the quality of a circuit. The ITU-T recommends various PRBS test patterns that simulate real traffic, after which different methods are used to analyze the bit errors and alarms to produce a measurement of the quality of the line. These measurements are used as the basis for Service Level Agreements. The module conducts SDH performance analysis for ITU-T specifications G.821, G.826, and M.2101. To conduct performance analysis
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press STM-1 (E), STM-1 (O), STM-4, or STM-16 and select Terminate. To configure the test, press the Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Complete the Structure and corresponding tabs to configure the transmit payload. For descriptions of data fields, refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” page 169.

3

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4

Select the BERT tab and select the test pattern from the Pattern list.

If you select 2ˆ15-1, 2ˆ20-1, or 2ˆ23-1, 2ˆ31-1select the Pattern Type. Select Normal to use the selected pattern as it appears or select Invert to use the inverted pattern. If you select User Programmable, define the pattern.

– 5 6 7 8

Select the Timed Test tab and check the Enable Timed Test box. Enter the length of the test (1 min. to 49d, 23h and 59 min.). Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about using the connectors. If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system button to turn the laser on.

9

CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps.

After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.
10 Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test. 11 To view BERT results, press the Category Selection button and

select BERT.
12 To view performance results, press the Category Selection button

and select Performance > G.821 / G.826 / M.2100 / M.2101. See “Interpreting BERT results” on page 95 for information on interpreting results. See “Interpreting performance results” on page 100 for information on interpreting performance results.

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Identifying anomalies and defects
Within SDH networks, there are many conditions that can result in the occurrence of anomalies and defects. Anomalies can lead to faults, such as parity errors, and defects that can result in the total interruption of a connection. You can use the module to generate errors and simulate alarms, and analyze the corresponding response signals to enable troubleshooting and maintenance of network links. Generating errors To generate errors
1 2 3

Before analyzing response signals, select the desired physical trigger categories (see “Selecting physical triggers” on page 26). On the Application Button bar, press STM-1 (E), STM-1 (O), STM-4, or STM-16 and select Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Complete the Structure and corresponding tabs to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” page 169 for descriptions of data fields. Select the Error Insert tab.

4

5

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The Error Insert Setup tab appears.

6

Select the type of error to generate.
– –

If you select Bit Error/TSE, you must also select the rate. If you select an FAS or Framing error, you must select the Frame Error Count.

7 8 9

Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about using the connectors. button to turn the laser on.

10 If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system

CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps.

After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.

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11 Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test. 12 Press the Insert Error action button to insert errors. 13 View the Event Log for physical triggers events. 14 View the alarm results on the LED panel. To view LED results on

the main window, press the Category Selection button and select LED. See “Interpreting LEDs” on page 111 and “Viewing the event log” on page 113 for information on interpreting results. Simulating alarms To simulate alarms
1 2 3

Before analyzing response signals, select the physical triggers for each signal (see “Selecting physical triggers” on page 26). On the Application Button bar, press STM-1 (E), STM-1 (O), STM-4, or STM-16 and select Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Complete the Structure tab to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” page 169 for descriptions of data fields. Select the SDH tab.

4

5

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Identifying anomalies and defects

The SDH tab appears. On the bottom of the tab are the alarms that may be simulated for the test.

6 7 8

In Alarm Type, select the type of alarm to simulate. In Alarm Insertion, select ON. Repeat step 6 and 7 for each alarm you want to simulate Alarms are mutually exclusive for SDH. Press OK to accept the test setup. receive connector.

9

10 Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT 11 Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT

transmit connector. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about using the connectors .
12 If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system

button to turn the laser on. CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps.

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After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate and alarms instantly begin transmitting.
13 Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test. 14 View the Event Log for physical triggers events. 15 View the alarm results on the LED panel. To view LED results on

the main window, press the Category Selection button and select LED. See “Interpreting LEDs” on page 111 and “Viewing the event log” on page 113 for information on interpreting results.

Performing BER testing
The bit error rate (BER) test consists of determining the ratio of erroneous bits to the total received bits. The module generates a psuedorandom binary sequence (PRBS) which simulates the transmission of live traffic. This sequence is either received by another test set or looped back to the originating test set which then compares it bit by bit with the expected result. Any erroneous bits are reported as bit errors and a corresponing bit error rate is calculated based on the frequency of the errors. To perform BER testing
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press STM-1 (E), STM-1 (O), STM-4, or STM-16 and select Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Complete the appropriate tabs and data fields to configure the transmit payload. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” page 169 for descriptions of the data fields. Select the BERT tab. Select the test pattern from the Pattern list.

3

4 5

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Analyzing pointer movements

If you select 2ˆ15-1, 2ˆ20-1, or 2ˆ23-1, select the Pattern Type. Select Normal to use the selected pattern as it appears or select Invert to use the inverted pattern. If you select User Programmable, define the pattern.

– 6 7 8

Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit point. Refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33 for information about the connectors on the module. If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system button to turn the laser on.

9

CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps.

After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.
10 Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test. 11 To view results, press the Category Selection button and select
BERT.

See “Interpreting BERT results” on page 95 for information on interpreting results.

Analyzing pointer movements
Each SDH Frame contains an Administrative Unit (AU-n) pointer indicating the offset of the frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start. Lower order constructs contain Tributary Unit (TU-n) pointers that indicate the offset of the payload frame start relative to the higher order Virtual Container frame start.

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The module allows you to analyze received pointer values and to adjust transmitted pointer values. Transmit pointers may be incremented or decremented by one, or assigned arbitrary values accompanied by the New Data Flag (NDF). To analyze pointer movements
1

On the Application Button bar, press STM-1 (E), STM-1 (O), STM-4, or STM-16 and select Terminate. When testing an SDH circuit, three action buttons appear at the bottom of the main window: Pointer +1, Pointer -1, and NDF.

2

To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Complete the appropriate tabs and data fields to configure the transmit payload. For descriptions of the data fields, refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” page 169. Select the SDH tab. The SDH tab appears.

3

4

5 6

Select the Pointer Type. The choices available are dependent on the structure for the transmit payload. Press OK to accept the test setup.

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7 8

Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit connector. For information about the connectors on the module, see “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33. If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system button to turn the laser on.

9

CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps. 10 During the test, use the action buttons to increment, decrement, or

assign an arbitrary value to the pointer.
– –

Pointer + / - increases or decreases the pointer. NDF (New Data Flag) allows you to specify a new pointer value by typing in the value.

11 To view results, press the Category Selection button and select HP

or LP. See “Interpreting HP results” on page 106 or “Interpreting LP results” on page 108 for information on interpreting results.

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Identifying trace messages
Trace identifiers are used by receivers to verify continued connection to the intended transmitter. Using the module, you can generate and analyze Regenerator Section and Path Trace messages transmitted in the J0, J1, and J2 overhead bytes. All formats indicated in G.707 are supported. To identify trace messages
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press STM-1 (E), STM-1 (O), STM-4, or STM-16 and select Terminate. To configure the test, press the Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Complete the appropriate tabs and data fields to configure the transmit payload. For descriptions of the data fields, refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” page 169. Select the VC-3 POH, VC-4 POH, VC-12 POH or the SOH tab (this depends on the Structure selection). The VC-n POH or SOH Setup tab appears.

3

4

5

Select the Path Trace Format.

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– 6

If you select 64-Byte, you must also select the Trace Terminator.

Press the Path Trace String field and use the keypad to enter a character message. The default is “2416 TEST SET.” Remaining bytes are filled with null characters. Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system button to turn the laser on.

7 8 9

CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps. 10 Verify that the message was sent correctly. View the Event Log to

verify that no events were generated. Also, verify that the LED display illuminates Green for the appropriate LEDs. See “Interpreting LEDs” on page 111 for information on interpreting results. See “Viewing the event log” on page 113 for information on viewing events.

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Scenario: Turning up an STM-16 service
The following scenario describes how to qualify and verify a new SDH service. Evaluating the situation You have installed a new STM-16 service at a customer premise. To turn up the new service, perform BER testing and analyze performance measurements. To verify an STM-16 service
1 2

Press STM-16 > Terminate. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Select the Structure tab. The Structure Setup tab appears.

3

4 5

Define the transmit payload to correspond with the service being tested. Select the BERT tab.

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The BERT Setup tab appears.

6

Select the test pattern from the Pattern list.

If you select 2ˆ15-1, 2ˆ20-1, or 2ˆ23-1, select the Pattern Type. Select Normal to use the selected pattern as it appears or select Invert to use the inverted pattern. If you select User Programmable, define the pattern.

– 7

Select the Timed Test tab.

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The Timed Test setup window appears.

8 9

Check the Enable Timed Test box and enter the duration of the test (1 min. to 49d, 23h, and 59 min.). Press OK to accept the test setup. receive connector.

10 Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT 11 Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT

transmit connector. For information about using the connectors, refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33.
12 If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system

button to turn the laser on. CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps.

After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.
13 Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test. 14 To view results, press the Category Selection button and

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– –

Select BERT to view BERT results. Select Performance to view performance results.

See “Interpreting BERT results” on page 95 and “Interpreting performance results” on page 100 for information on interpreting results. Conclusion You have successfully performed BERT and Performance Analysis to turn up a new SDH service. The BERT (bit error rate test) consists of determining the relationship between erroneous bits to the total received bits. Performance Analysis measurements are the basis for Service Level Agreements. Use these procedures when turning up other SDH services.

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Chapter

6

6

MUX Testing

This chapter provides step-by-step instructions for performing MUX testing. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
G G G

“About MUX testing” on page 86 “Testing a multiplexer” on page 86 “Scenario: Turning up a multiplexer” on page 88

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About MUX testing
Because the transmitter and receiver on the module can operate independently, the module can perform out-of-service testing of a multiplexer. The test is performed by sending a signal through a multiplexer high speed interface and analyzing its tributary from a low-speed drop side. NOTE:
Some add/drop muxes incorporate a laser safety feature that disables the transmit laser when the corresponding receiver is not receiving laser light. This feature may need to be disabled on the add/drop mux.

N

NOTE:
The Receive and Transmit selections in the following procedures refer to the Receive and Transmit on the module, not the device under test.

Testing a multiplexer
To test a multiplexer, a payload is generated and is tested to verify that it is correctly mapped in the Virtual Container (MUX) and that is correctly received (DeMUX). To test a multiplexer
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press the MUX button and select the receive interface and transmit interface. To configure the test, press the Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Refer to Appendix C “Field Descriptions” for descriptions about the tabs and data fields.

3 4

Select the Rx Structure tab and select the Analysis Rate and Framing. Select the Tx Structure tab and select the Virtual Container on which to send the payload.

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5 6 7 8 9

Complete the Tributary Selection for the path being tested. Set the Tx Timing (external is from Rx). Press OK to accept the test setup. Connect a cable from the active transmit connector to the DUT receive connector. Connect a cable from the active receive connector to the DUT transmit connector. button to turn the laser on.

10 If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system

CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps.

After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.
11 Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test. 12 Press the Category Selection button and select Signal. Select the

rate at which the payload was transmitted.
13 Verify the payload was mapped correctly in the Virtual Container. 14 Press the Category Selection button and select Signal. Select the

rate at which the payload was received.
15 Verify that the payload was received correctly.

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Scenario: Turning up a multiplexer
The following scenario describes the process to verify and qualify a new multiplexer. Evaluating the situation You have just installed a new multiplexer. To turn up the new multiplexer, verify that the transmit payload is mapped correctly on the Virtual Container and that the receive payload is received correctly. In this scenario, 140M is the receive interface and STM-4 is the transmit interface. To turn up the new multiplexer
1 2

On the Application Button bar, press the MUX button. Select 140M as the receive interface and STM-4 as the transmit interface. To configure the test, press Setup > General. The Setup Test window appears. Select the Rx Structure tab. The Rx Structure tab appears.

3

4 5

From the Analysis Rate list, select 140M. Specify the Framing.

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6

Select the Tx Structure tab. The Tx Structure tab appears.

7 8 9

The VC Mapping is set to VC-4. Enter 1 for the STM-N tributary. Specify the Tx Timing. connector to the DUT receive connector.

10 Connect a cable from the STM-1/4/16 Optical Transmit 11 Connect a cable from the E4/STM-1 Electrical Receive connector

to the DUT transmit connector.
12 If you are performing an optical test, press the Laser system

button to turn the laser on. CAUTION: HAZARDOUS LIGHT EXPOSURE
Do not look into laser when enabled! The unused optical transmitters should always be covered with the attached screw caps.

After the module is connected, results automatically begin to accumulate.
13 Press the Restart softkey to clear results and begin the test. 14 Press the Category Selection button and select Signal > At SDH.

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15 Verify that the payload was mapped correctly in the Virtual

Container.
16 Press the Category Selection button and select Signal > At 140M. 17 Verify that the payload was received correctly. 18 Repeat Steps 8 - 16 for each STM-N tributary (2, 3, and 4).

Conclusion

You have successfully turned-up the new multiplexer by verifying that the payload is mapped and received correctly for each STM-1 tributary at the STM-4 rate. Correct mapping verifies that the multiplexer can successfully transmit and receive at different rates.

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7

7

Interpreting Test Results

This chapter describes the test results for each result category in the module. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
G G G G G G G G G G G

“About interpreting test results” on page 92 “Interpreting summary results” on page 92 “Interpreting signal results” on page 94 “Interpreting BERT results” on page 95 “Interpreting PDH frame results” on page 97 “Interpreting performance results” on page 100 “Interpreting SOH results” on page 104 “Interpreting HP results” on page 106 “Interpreting LP results” on page 108 “Interpreting LEDs” on page 111 “Viewing the event log” on page 113

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About interpreting test results
After you have connected the module, results for the configured test automatically accumulate. Select a category in each display window to analyze the results for your test.

NOTE:
Results are blank if gating criteria has not been met. Criteria examples include Signal Present, Frame Sync Present, Pointer Present, and BERT Pattern Sync Present.

Interpreting summary results
The Summary category provides a summary of the most important test results. The All Summary Results OK message is displayed when all of the summary results are within the recommended specifications and no alarms are present (see Figure 12).

Figure 12 — All Summary Results OK

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Interpreting summary results

When errors are detected, the Summary Result display window lists each error that occurred (see Figure 13).

Figure 13 — Summary Results Error display

The System button also changes to red to indicate that there is a summary error if the Summary Result display window is not currently displayed. To display the list of errors that occurred, press the System button and select Summary Results.

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Interpreting signal results
Figure 14 displays an example of signal results for SDH and 140M.

Figure 14 — Signal results for SDH and 140M

Table 3 describes the test results for the Signal category.
Table 3 — SDH module signal results Result
1310 nm Rx Lvl (dBm) 1550 nm Rx Lvl (dBm) APS Time (ms) Code Err Cnt Code Err Rate

Description
The optical power of the incoming 1310nm optical signal if it is 1310 nm wavelength. The optical power of the incoming 1550nm optical signal if it is 1550 nm wavelength. The amount of time it takes to regain frame sync while running an APS test. The number of code violations detected. The number of code errors detected divided by the number of bits received. This result is calculated after initial signal presence is established.

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Table 3 — SDH module signal results (continued) Result
Ref Freq (Hz) Rx Delta (ppm) Rx Freq (Hz) Rx Lvl (dBnom or dBdsx) Rx Max Dev (ppm) Signal Loss/ LOS Tx Freq (Hz)

Description
The frequency of the received 2M external reference signal. The deviation in ppm from the standard ITU frequency. The frequency of the received data. The level of the incoming electrical signal. The maximum deviation of the receive frequency since the last test restart. The number of signal losses since initial signal detection The frequency of the data generating frequency.

Interpreting BERT results
Figure 15 displays an example of BERT results.

Figure 15 — BERT results

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Table 4 describes the results for the BERT category.
Table 4 — BERT results Result
Bit Errors / TSE Bit Error Rate

Description
The number of Bit Errors detected in the test pattern since pattern synchronization was achieved. The total number of bit errors detected divided by the number of pattern bits received after initial pattern synchronization excluding patter loss periods. The number of pattern slips detected in the received pseudorandom test pattern. Pattern Slips occur when one or more bits of the test pattern are deleted or repeated. The number of synchronization losses since the initial pattern synchronization.

Pattern Slip

Pattern Sync Loss

Pattern Slip Sec The total number of test seconds in which pattern slips were detected since initial pattern synchronization. Pattern Loss Sec Trip Delay (ms) The total number of seconds in which pattern synchronization losses were detected since the initial pattern synchronization. The measurement is made on the delay test patterns in the selected channel.

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Interpreting PDH frame results

Interpreting PDH frame results
Figure 16 displays and example of PDH frame results for 140M and 2M.

Figure 16 — PDH frame results for 140M and 2M

Table 5 describes the test results for the PDH category.
Table 5 — PDH frame results Result
C-Bit Errors

Description
The number of times an M-frame contains a mismatch between the majority rule of the C-Bit path parity bits (CP-bits) and the parity calculated from the information bits in the previous M-frame, and the passage of 1 or more M-frames without a DS3 frame sync loss. The number of C-Bit parity errors detected divided by the total number of multiframes received. The number of test seconds in which at least one parity error was counted.

C-Bit Err Rate C-Bit Err Sec

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Table 5 — PDH frame results (continued) Result
CRC Errors

Description
The number of Cyclic Redundancy Code Errors (CRC-4) errors received while in FAS-CRC or MFAS-CRC synchronization. The number of CRC errors detected divided by the total number of CRC bits received.

CRC Err Rate

CRC Sync Loss The number of CRC Sync losses detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established, and stops during frame loss. FEBE FEAC The number of Far End Blocks Errors received since last test restart. The FEAC message is displayed if 2 consecutive repetitions of one of the following messages are received in the C-Bit FEAC channel. – Comm Equip Fail NSA – DS3 Idle – DS3 Out of Frame – DS3 LOS/HBER – DS3 Equip Fail SA – DS3 Equip Fail NSA – Mult DS1 LOS/HBER – Single DS1 LOS/HBER – DS1 Equip Fail SA – DS1 Equip Fail NSA Far OOF Sec FAS BER The number of seconds in which the DS3 yellow alarm was present for at least some part of the test second. The number of bit errors received divided by the number of FAS bits received. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established. The number of FAS bit errors detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established, and stops during frame loss. The number of FAS Words received that contain an error.

FAS Bit Errors

FAS Errors

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Table 5 — PDH frame results (continued) Result
FAS Err Rate

Description
The number of FAS Words received divided by the number of frames received. This result is calculated after initial frame sync is established. The number of Frame Alignment Signal (FAS) sync losses detected since the last test restart. The number of F-Bit errors detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established, and stops during frame loss. The number of F-Bit errors received divided by the number of F-Bits received. This result is calculated after initial frame sync is established. The number of seconds in which at least one frame error was received. This result is calculated after initial frame sync is established. The number of Frame Sync losses detected since the last test restart. The number of Multiframe Alignment Signal (MFAS) errors received since MFAS or MFAS-CRC synchronization. The number of MFAS errors received divided by the number of multiframes received. This result is calculated after initial multiframe sync is established. The number of MFAS sync losses since initial MFAS sync. The number of seconds in which DS3 frame sync was not present or AIS was present for at least some part of the test second. The N-FAS word contains the Si and Sa bits. The number of times M-Frame contains a mismatch between either parity bit (p-bits) and the parity calculated from the information bits in the previous M-frame and the passage of one or more M-frames without DS3 frame sync loss.

FAS Sync Loss Frame Errs

Frame Err Rate

Frame Err Sec

Frame Sync Loss MFAS Errors

MFAS Err Rate

MFAS Sync Loss Near OOF Sec

NFAS Word Parity Errors

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Table 5 — PDH frame results (continued) Result
Parity Err Rate Parity Err Sec REBE Rx Xbits

Description
The number of parity errors divided by the number of bits received. The number of test seconds in which at least one parity error was counted. The number of Remote End Block Errors (REBE) detected while in CRC-4 multiframe alignment. The current state of Rx X-Bits. It will be ‘00’, ‘11’, ‘01’, or ‘10’.

Interpreting performance results
Figure 17 displays an example of performance results for G.821 and M.2100 ISM.

Figure 17 — Performance results

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Table 6 describes the test results for the Performance category.
Table 6 — Performance results Result
% Avail Sec % Degraded Min % Errored Sec % Err Free Sec % Sev Err Sec Available Sec

Description
The percentage of test seconds that are available seconds. The percentage of test minutes that are degraded. The percentage of test seconds that are errored. The percentage of test seconds that are error free. The percentage of test seconds that are severely errored. The available time starts with the first second of a ten consecutive second period in which none of those ten seconds are severely errored. The ratio of BERT background block errors to the total number of BERT blocks received. The ratio of background block errors to the total number of blocks received. The number of blocks with bit errors based on the ITU G.826 specification.

BERT Bkgnd BER BERT Bkgnd Blocks BERT Errored Blocks

BIP Bkgnd BER The ratio of BIP background block errors to the total number of BIP blocks received. BIP Bkgnd Blocks BIP Errored Blocks The number of blocks with BIP errors that were not part of a severely errored second based on the ITU G.826 specification. The number of blocks with BIP errors based on the ITU G.826 specification for SDH.

Bkgnd Block Err The number of blocks with errors that were not part of a severely errored second based on the ITU G.826 specification. The errors will be FAS errors for 2M nonCRC, 8M, 34M, and 140M. The errors will be CRC errors for 2M CRC. The errors will be parity errors for 45M.

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Table 6 — Performance results (continued) Result
Bkgnd BER

Description
The ratio of errored blocks to total blocks during a fixed measurement interval, excluding all blocks during Severely Errored Seconds and unavailable time. The number of times 3 or more consecutive severely errored seconds occurred. The ratio of CRC background block errors to the total number of CRC blocks received. The number of blocks with CRC errors that were not part of a severely errored seconds based on the ITU G.826 specification. The number of blocks with CRC errors based on the ITU G.826 specification for PDH. The degraded test minutes are counted by grouping test seconds (from available time) into blocks of 60 excluding seconds labeled as severely errored seconds. If such a block contains a bit error ratio greater than 1 x 10(-6), the minute is Degraded. The number of blocks with errors based on the ITU G.826 specification. The errors will be FAS errors for 2M nonCRC, 8M, 34M, and 140M. The errors will be CRC errors for 2M CRC. The errors will be parity errors for 45M. The number of seconds in error as specified by ITU G.821, G.826, M.2100, or M.2101.1 for errored seconds. For out-of-service operation, this indicates a count of test seconds that do not contain any bit errors. For in-service operation, this indicates a count of test seconds that do not contain any anomalies or defects. The ratio of errored seconds to total seconds in available time during a fixed measurement. The ratio of FAS background block errors to the total number of FAS blocks received.

Consec SEC CRC Bkgnd BER CRC Bkgnd Blocks CRC Errored Blocks Degraded Min

Errored Blocks

Errored Sec Error Free Sec

Err Sec Ratio FAS Bkgnd BER

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Table 6 — Performance results (continued) Result
FAS Bkgnd Blocks FAS Errored Blocks Parity Bkgnd BER Parity Bkgnd Blocks Parity Errored Blocks Sev Err Sec

Description
The number of blocks with FAS errors that were not part of a severely errored seconds based on the ITU G.826 specification. The number of blocks with FAS errors based on the ITU G.826 specification for PDH. The ratio of parity background block errors to the total number of parity blocks received. The number of errors with parity errors that were not part of a severely errored second based on the ITU G.826 specification. The number of blocks with parity errors based on the ITU G.826 specification for PDH. The number of seconds that are severely errored as specified by ITU G.821, G.826, M.2100, or M.2101.1 for severely errored seconds. The ratio of severely errored seconds to total seconds in available time during a fixed measurement. The unavailable time starts with the first second of a ten consecutive second period in which each of those ten seconds are severely errored.

Severely ESR Unavail Sec

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Interpreting SOH results
Figure 18 displays an example of SOH results.

Figure 18 — SOH results

Table 7 describes the test results for the SOH category.
Table 7 — SOH results Result
B1 Errors B1 Error Rate

Description
The number of B1 errors detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established. The equivalent line error rate calculated from the number of B1 errors detected and the total number of bits received. The number of B2 errors detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established. The equivalent line error rate calculated from the number of B2 errors detected and the total number of received bits included in the B2 calculation.

B2 Errors B2 Error Rate

Bridge Req Code

The interpreted value of the K1 Byte Bridge request code as described in ITU Rec G.841.

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Table 7 — SOH results (continued) Result
Dest Node ID

Description The value of the K1 Byte Destination node ID field as described in ITU Rec. G.841. The number of errored FAS words received. The number of FAS errors divided by the number of frames received. Loss of Frame count since test restart. The interpreted value of the K1 Byte Channel number field as described in ITU Rec. G.783. The interpreted value of the K2 Byte Channel number field as described in ITU Rec. G.783. The interpreted value of the K2 Byte Architecture field as described in ITU Rec. G.783.
The sum of the REI counts decoded from the M1 byte of the section overhead. The equivalent line error rate calculated from the MS-REI count. The number of Out of Frame events detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established.

FAS Errors FAS Err Rate

LOF K1 Chan

K2 Chan

MSP Arch

MS-REI MS-REI Rate OOF Path Code

The interpreted value of the K2 Byte path code field as described in ITU Rec. G.841.
The interpreted value of the K1 Byte Request code as described in ITU Rec. G.783.

Req Code

Source Node ID The value of the K2 Byte Source node ID field as

described in ITU Rec. G.841.
Section Trace Status The received section trace string decoded from J0 Byte.

The interpreted value of the K2 Byte Status field as described in ITU Rec. G.841 (Ring) or G.783 (Linear).

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Interpreting HP results
Figure 19 displays an example of HP results.

Figure 19 — HP results

Table 8 describes the test results for the HP category.
Table 8 — HP results Result
AU-4 LOP AU-4 Ptr Decrement AU-4 Ptr Increment AU-4 Ptr Justification AU-4 Ptr NDF

Description
The number of AU-4 Loss of Pointer events since the last test restart. The number of AU-4 pointer decrements since the last test restart. The number of AU-4 pointer increments since the last test restart. The sum of all AU-4 pointer increment and decrement counts since the last test restart. The number of AU-4 new data flags received since the last test restart. Three consistent new pointers received are also counted as one NDF.

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Table 8 — HP results (continued) Result
AU-4 Ptr Received

Description
The value of the AU-4 pointer received in the H1 and H2 bytes of the Section Overhead. If the received value is outside the valid range, the result will display ‘Invalid.’ The result will be blank if the pointer is not available. The value of the transmitted AU-4 pointer. The number of VC-4 B3 errors detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established and stops during frame loss. The equivalent line error rate calculated using the VC-4 B3 Error Count. The binary display of the received VC-4 G1 byte. The message identifying the source of the VC-4 path data. The total counts contained in the first four bits in the G1 byte of the foreground VC-4 Path Overhead. The equivalent line error rate calculated using the VC-4 REI Error Count. The composition of the received VC-4 container, decoded from the VC-4 Path Overhead C2 Byte.

AU-4 Ptr Transmitted VC-4 B3 Err Count VC-4 B3 Error Rate VC-4 Path Status VC-4 Path Trace VC-4 REI VC-4 REI Rate VC-4 Signal Label

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Interpreting LP results
Figure 20 displays an example of LP results.

Figure 20 — LP results

Table 9 describes the test results for the LP category.
Table 9 — LP results Result
TU-12 Ptr Decrement TU-12 Ptr Increment TU-12 Ptr Justification TU-12 LOP Count TU-12 Ptr NDF

Description
The number of TU-12 pointer decrements detected since the last test restart. The number of TU-12 pointer increments detected since the last restart. The sum of all TU-12 pointer increment and decrement counts since the last test restart. The number of TU-12 Loss of Pointer events since the last test restart. The number of TU-12 new data flags received since the last test restart. Three consistent new pointers received are also counted as one NDF.

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Table 9 — LP results (continued) Result
TU-12 Ptr Received

Description
The value of the TU-12 pointer received in the V1 and V2 bytes of the TU-12 Path Overhead. If the received value is outside of the valid range, the result displays ‘Invalid.’. The result will be blank if the pointer is not available. The value of the transmitted TU-12 pointer. The number of TU-3 pointer decrements detected since the last test restart. The number of TU-3 pointer increments detected since the last restart. The sum of all the TU-3 pointer increment and decrement counts since the last test restart.

TU-12 Ptr Transmitted TU-3 Ptr Decrement TU-3 Ptr Increment TU-3 Ptr Justification

TU-3 LOP Coun The number of TU-3 Loss of Pointer events since the last test restart. TU-3 Ptr NDF The number of TU-3 new data flags received since the last test restart. Three consistent new pointers received are also counted as one NDF. The value of the TU-3 pointer received in the H1 and H2 bytes of the TU-3 Path Overhead. If the received value is outside the valid range, the result displays ‘Invalid.’. The result will be blank if the pointer is not available. The value of the transmitted TU-3 pointer. The number of BIP2 errors detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established and stops during frame loss. The equivalent line error rate calculated using the VC-12 BIP2 Error Count. The total of set REI bits. The REI bit is contained in the V5 byte, bit 3.

TU-3 Ptr Received

TU-3 Ptr Transmitted VC-12 BIP2 Error VC-12 BIP2 Error Rate VC-12 REI Count

VC-12 REI Rate The equivalent line error rate calculated using the VC-12 REI Count.

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Table 9 — LP results (continued) Result
VC-12 V5 Byte VC-12 Signal Label VC-3 B3 Err Count VC-3 B3 Error Rate VC-3 Path Trace

Description
The binary display of the received VC-12 Path Overhead V5 byte. The decoded message of bit 5 - 7 of the VC-12 Path Overhead V5 byte. This indicates how the 2M data is mapped into the container. The number of VC-3 B3 errors detected. This result accumulates after initial frame sync is established and stops during frame loss. The equivalent line error rate calculated using the VC-3 B3 Error Count. The message identifying the source of the VC-3 path data.

VC-3 REI Count The sum of the counts contained in the first four bits in the G1 byte of the foreground VC-3 Path Overhead. VC-3 REI Rate VC-3 Signal Label The equivalent line error rate calculated using the VC-3 REI Count. The composition of the received VC-3 container. It is decoded from the received C2 byte in the VC-3 Path Overhead.

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Interpreting LEDs

Interpreting LEDs
There are two locations to view LED status results. You can view the LED results on the Dual Test Results Display (see Figure 21).

Figure 21 — LED results for SDH and 140M

You can also view selected LED status results on the LED panel (see Figure 22).

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Figure 22 — LED panel

The description of the status of key signals and conditions are described in Table 10.
Table 10 — LED panel LED
Signal Pattern Sync Fr Sync (SDH) Concat MS AIS MS RDI

Condition
Signal status and history Pattern Sync status and history STM-N frame synchronization status and history AU-4 Concatenation status MS-AIS status and history MS-RDI status and history

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Viewing the event log

Table 10 — LED panel (continued) LED
AU LOP AU AIS HP RDI TU LOP TU AIS LP RDI Fr Sync (PDH) 140 Alarm 45M Alarm 34M Alarm 8M Alarm 2M Alarm User

Condition
AU-4 LOP status and history AU-4 AIS status and history VC-4 RDI status and history TU-N LOP status and history TU-N AIS status and history VC-3 or VC-12 RDI status and history as applicable Frame sync status and history at the PDH rate E4 AIS or RDI status and history DS3 AIS or RDI status and history E3 AIS or RDI status and history E2 AIS or RDI status and history E1 AIS, R-AIS, MFAS AIS, TS-16 RDI status and history Reserved for future use

Viewing the event log
The Event Log results collects events from any number of applications in the system from predefined triggers (see “Selecting physical triggers” on page 26), and can store up to 500 events. As the results are placed into the event log, time stamps are added and event specific data is stored. After the event log is full, the next request to store information in the buffer wraps and overwrites enough entries to store the new request. To view the event log
1

Press Category Selection button and select Misc. > Event Log.

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The Event Log appears on the left window.

2 3

Press the Pause button collects data.

to stop the display while the module

For details on an event, press the specific event on the list. Additional details for the event appear in the event window located above the event log heading.

NOTE:
An event marked by an asterisk (*) indicates that there is associated capture data for the event. If the event is not marked with (*), the Data button does not appear. 4

Press the Data button to list all associated capture data on each event that caused the trigger event. Press the Play button to return to normal state and allow the module to display new events. To clear the event log, press the System button and select Clear Event Log.

5 6

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Chapter

8

8

Troubleshooting

This chapter describes how to identify and correct problems related to the module. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
G G

“About troubleshooting” on page 116 “Solving problems” on page 116

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About troubleshooting
If you experience problems using the module, you may be able to solve these problems on your own after referring to this section. If you experience significant problems with the module, call the Technical Assistance Center (see “Getting technical assistance” on page xx).

Solving problems
The following section describes common problems that you may encounter while using the module. Before getting technical assistance, verify that you have exhausted all possibilities. Installing and setup The following questions may be asked about installing and setting up the module. The unit will not power up. Why? There are several reasons why the unit may not be powering.
G

Question Answer

Check the power source and restart the unit.
– –

If the unit is running on the AC power adapter, verify that the power source is adequate. If the unit is running on the battery, verify that there is enough battery charge.

G

The unit must have 25 percent or more battery power to charge up the unit for the first time with a new test pad. Check to see that the unit is locked between the test pad and the application module. The unit will not power up if the module is not properly assembled. The module is operable only with Rev 3 test pads manufactured as of March 2001 (serial number A25000 and greater). No

G

G

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Solving problems

damage will occur in the event that you plug the 2416 application module into an older test pad (Rev 1 or 2). A warning window appears upon power up.
“This Application Module is only compatible with the TestPad 2000 Rev 3 and above or Serial Number A25000 and above.”

NOTE:
The label on the back of the test pad identifies the version of the TestPad. All test pads that are returned for service and do not have a revision sticker, will have a revision sticker added to the back of the UIM to indicate the following: Rev 2 — Test pads manufactured and sold prior to March 2001 Rev 3 — Test pads manufactured after March 2001

Question Answer

How do I configure the module for another language? See “Setting the language” on page 7 to configure the module for another language. Before you can configure the module for another language, you must install the desired language from a PCMCIA card if it is not already installed.

Operating the module
Question Answer

The following questions may be asked about operating and performing basic functions on the module. I cannot print test results. Why?
G

Verify that the printer cable is properly connected to the module. For instructions to connect the printer to the module, refer to “Connecting the printer” on page 10.

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G

Verify that the parameters in the Printer Management > Settings window are properly set for the printer or PC. Verify that the printer is turned on and that it is loaded with paper.

G

Performing tests

The following questions may be asked about completing tests on the module. I am getting inconsistent test results. Why?
G

Question Answer

Verify that your test connectors are set up properly according to the test being run. For information about using the connectors, refer to “Connecting the unit for testing” on page 33. This is the primary reason for inconsistent test results. Verify that the correct timing source is selected in the Structure setup tab. Verify that the correct line interface is selected. Verify that the correct mapping, tributaries, and analysis rates are selected.

G

G G

Question Answer

Why are the result values blank? Results are blank if gating criteria has not been met. Criteria examples include Signal Present, Frame Sync Present, Pointer Present, and BERT Pattern Sync Present.

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Chapter

9

9

Customer Services

This chapter describes the customer services available through Acterna. Topics discussed in this chapter include the following:
G G G G G G G G

“About our services” on page 120 “Customer service locations” on page 120 “Instrument services” on page 120 “Consulting Services” on page 121 “Test systems field engineering and installation” on page 122 “Technical training” on page 123 “Warranty information” on page 124 “Equipment return instructions” on page 126

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About our services
Acterna offers unmatched services to support purchased equipment, including a wide range of customer care, technical support (see “Getting technical assistance” on page xx), instrument maintenance, and training services. Acterna customer service specialists are fully trained to help customers find the answers they are looking for. Call Customer Services for the following:
G

Information on products and services, including upgrades, calibration, training, software enhancement agreements (SEAs), and product maintenance agreements. Our representatives can also provide assistance with product returns and repairs. Expert technical support, including help with product configuration, circuit qualification, and complete network trouble sectionalization. Acterna is also available on a contractual basis to provide customized application development, network consulting and management services, software customization, and test procedure development.

G

Warranty periods and other specific conditions are according to the sales conditions for this product.

Customer service locations
For questions regarding Acterna products and services, including return authorizations and repairs, technical support (see “Getting technical assistance” on page xx), training, and all other available services, contact your local distributor or Acterna Customer Service.

Instrument services
To maintain your organization’s long-term investment, Acterna will structure a service plan to fit your network performance goals and budget. Acterna understands the impact of equipment down time on

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Consulting Services

operations and is staffed to ensure a quick turnaround. Available services include the following: Product Repair — All equipment returned for service is tested to the same rigorous standards as newly manufactured equipment. This ensures products meet all published specifications, including any applicable product updates.
Calibration — Acterna’s calibration methods are ISO 9001 approved and based on NIST standards. Each calibration comes with a dated certificate, instrument stickers, and a data sheet. Factory Upgrades — Any unit returned for a hardware feature enhancement will also receive applicable product updates and will be thoroughly tested, ensuring peak performance of the complete feature set. Software Enhancement Agreements — These agreements assist in keeping equipment up to date with the latest software features, by providing automatic notification of any new software enhancements and changes for Acterna products. Product Maintenance Agreements — Yearly service and

calibration maintenance agreements simplify billing and help ensure the equipment is always operating at optimum levels. Product maintenance agreements can be used to extend a current warranty or provide protection for out-of-warranty units.
Other Pricing Options — For out-of-warranty repairs, Acterna offers two additional pricing options: time and material pricing and flat rate pricing. Under time and material pricing, customers are billed for the actual cost of the repair, making this a costeffective method for minor repairs. Under flat rate pricing, customers pay a fixed service charge to repair unit failures (excluding damage or abuse), resulting in simplified paperwork and easier budgeting.

Consulting Services
The Product Enhancement Group offers one of the broadest and most experienced resource portfolios in the communications testing

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industry. This team of professionals offers expertise in software development, test procedure development, and network consulting, as well as years of expert test knowledge. Support is available for all core Acterna product lines: Network Consulting and Management — Provides services such as productivity analysis, test strategy assessment, on-site applications assistance, and specialized training.
Software Customization — Develops scripts for remote and

automated testing, statistics, and emulation.
Test Procedure Development — Creates procedures for

automated testing, network testing, and compliance testing.

Test systems field engineering and installation
Acterna offers a range of support services for our centralized test systems, designed around the needs of the customer’s network. These services help preserve the investment over the life of the equipment. Available services include the following: Critical Services Program — Provides technical support at any time, 7 days a week, 24 hours a day. Replacement parts are guaranteed to arrive within 48 hours of contacting Acterna.
Maintenance Contracts — Cost-effective management for

networks with multiple test systems.
Out-of-Warranty Service Agreement — Covers the test system for failures after the warranty expires, including all time and material costs and return shipping costs to the customer site. Field Engineering and Installation Service — Provides a

variety of options for implementing the test system into the network, including installation, configuration, upgrades, and onsite technical support.

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Technical training

Technical training
By providing both experienced instructors and a hands-on atmosphere, Acterna training is designed to optimize test strategies and employee development requirements. Available services include the following: Customized Technical Training — Designed to incorporate real-life challenges technicians face daily, while addressing the customer’s training requirements, Acterna provides training at the customer’s designated site, so the whole staff is trained at one time. Step-by-step reviews of current technologies and products enable new or experienced technicians to translate theory into practical, hands-on expertise.
Public Courses — Regularly scheduled, in-depth, hands-on product and technology courses are offered worldwide. Public courses provide a learning environment that allows individuals from different companies to share their knowledge and experience with their peers. Computer-Based Training (CBT) — Acterna’s CBT

complements our hands-on technical training. With CBT, customers can learn about emerging communications technologies at their own convenience — at work, at home, or while traveling. Acterna’s CBT courses cover technology topics such as ATM, frame relay, ISDN, LAN basics, and more.
Customized Multimedia Course Development — Multimedia

courseware can be created to customer specifications, making it easier to learn new test instruments or applications. These custom packages provide consistent educational content and training for the entire staff. Students learn at their own pace on their own PC.
Consulting and Needs Analysis Services — Acterna can help identify training needs and develop customized training curricula to maximize learning opportunities, all while providing a measurable return on investment.

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Warranty information
The warranties described herein shall apply to all commercially available Acterna products. Any additional or different warranties shall apply only if agreed to by Acterna in writing. These warranties are not transferable without the express written consent of Acterna. Hardware Warranty — Acterna warrants that Hardware Product sold to customer shall, under normal use and service, be free from defects in materials and workmanship. The warranty period and other specific conditions will be according to the sales conditions for this product. If installation services have been ordered, the warranty period shall begin on the earlier of (1) completion of installation, or (2) thirty (30) days after shipment to Customer. If Installation Services have not been ordered, the warranty period shall begin upon shipment to Customer. Hereafter these periods of time shall be collectively referred to as the “Initial Warranty Period.” Acterna’s obligation and customer’s sole remedy under this Hardware Warranty is limited to the repair or replacement, at Acterna’s option, of the defective product. Acterna shall have no obligation to remedy any such defect if it can be shown: (a) that the Product was altered, repaired, or reworked by any party other than Acterna without Acterna’s written consent; (b) that such defects were the result of customer’s improper storage, mishandling, abuse, or misuse of Product; (c) that such defects were the result of customer’s use of Product in conjunction with equipment electronically or mechanically incompatible or of an inferior quality; or (d) that the defect was the result of damage by fire, explosion, power failure, or any act of nature. Acterna warrants that Products returned to Acterna for repair shall be warranted from defective materials and workmanship for one (1) year for the same repair issue, and ninety (90) days for a different repair issue from date of shipment from Acterna to customer, or until the end of the Initial Warranty Period, whichever is longer. Risk of loss or damage to Product returned to Acterna for repair or replacement shall be borne by customer until delivery to Acterna. Upon delivery of such product, Acterna

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shall assume the risk of loss or damage until that time that the product being repaired or replaced is returned and delivered to customer. Customer shall pay all transportation costs for equipment or software shipped to Acterna for repair or replacement. Acterna shall pay all transportation costs associated with returning repaired or replaced product to customer.
Software Warranty — Acterna warrants that Software Products

licensed to Customer shall, under normal use and service, and for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of shipment of the Software to Licensee (the “Warranty Period”), perform in all material respects in accordance with the published specifications for such Software as established by Acterna. However, Acterna does not warrant that the Software will operate uninterrupted or error free, operate in the combination with other software, meet Customer’s requirements, or that its use will be uninterrupted. Acterna’s obligation and Customer’s sole and exclusive remedy under this Software Warranty is limited to, at Acterna’s option, either (i) correcting the material errors reported to Acterna in writing by Customer during the Warranty Period and which Acterna is able to reproduce, (ii) replacing such defective Software, provided that Acterna received written notice of such defect within the Warranty Period, or (iii) provided that Acterna received written notice of such defect within the Warranty Period, terminating the License and, upon return to Acterna of the Software, Documentation and all other materials provided by Acterna under the applicable License, providing Customer with a refund of all charges paid with respect thereto. Acterna shall have no warranty obligations hereunder if (a) the Software is altered or modified or is merged with other software by Customer or any third party or (b) all or any part of the Software is installed on any computer equipment other than the Designated Server or used with any operating system for which the Software is not designed.
Services Warranty — Acterna warrants that the Services

provided by Acterna, if any, shall be performed promptly, diligently and in a professional manner in accordance with the commercial standards of the industry. Acterna shall not, however, be responsible for any delays that are not due to Acterna’s fault or

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negligence or that could not have reasonably been foreseen or provided against.
WARRANTY DISCLAIMER — FOR HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, AND/
OR SERVICES FURNISHED BY ACTERNA, THE FOREGOING WARRANTEES ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTEES AND CONDITIONS, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. ACTERNA SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ON ANY HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTATION OR SERVICES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES RELATING TO QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AS WELL AS THOSE ARISING FROM ANY COURSE OF DEALING, USAGE OR TRADE PRACTICE. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES WILL ACTERNA BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES RELATED TO BREACH OF THIS WARRANTY.

Equipment return instructions
For each piece of equipment returned for repair, attach a tag that includes the following information:
G G G

Owner’s name, address, and telephone number. The serial number, product type, and model. Warranty status. (If you are unsure of the warranty status of your instrument, contact Acterna Customer Service.) A detailed description of the problem or service requested. The name and telephone number of the person to contact regarding questions about the repair. The return authorization (RA) number (US customers), or reference number (European Customers).

G G

G

If possible, return the equipment using the original shipping container and material. If the original container is not available, the unit should be carefully packed so that it will not be damaged in transit; when needed, appropriate packing materials can be obtained by contacting Acterna Customer Services. Acterna is not liable for any damage that may occur during shipping. The customer should clearly mark the

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Equipment return instructions

Acterna-issued RA or reference number on the outside of the package and ship it prepaid and insured to Acterna.

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Appendix

A

A

Specifications

The purpose of this appendix is to describe the environment and operating specifications for the module. The topics discussed in this appendix include the following:
G G G G G G G G

“About the specifications” on page 130 “Physical specifications” on page 130 “Environmental specifications” on page 130 “Electrical specifications” on page 131 “Network interface connectors” on page 131 “PDH specifications” on page 132 “SDH specifications” on page 136 “Results display specifications” on page 141

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About the specifications
The following sections describe the physical, environmental, and electrical specifications, as well as PDH and SDH specifications.

Physical specifications
Table 11 lists the physical specifications of the module.
Table 11 — Physical specifications Parameter
Height Width Depth Weight Display PCMCIA

Specification
7.5 inches / 19 cm 11.5 inches / 29.2 cm 2.25 inches / 5.7 cm 5 lbs / 2.5 Kg Color TFTscreen: 6.4 inches Resolution: 640 x 480 pixels (VGA standard) Types I & II

Environmental specifications
Table 12 lists the environmental specifications of the module.
Table 12 — Environmental specifications Parameter
Operating Temperature Storage Temperature

Specification
32 to 104F 0 to 40 C -4 to 158 F -20 to 70 C

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Electrical specifications

Table 12 — Environmental specifications (continued) Parameter
Relative Humidity

Specification
10 to 90% RH, non-condensing

Electrical specifications
Table 13 lists the electrical specifications of the module.
Table 13 — Electrical specifications Parameter
Battery Type Operating Time Recharging Time AC adapter

Specification
10.8 V Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) 25 minutes nominal battery life at room temperature 2 hour maximum while unit is off. 4 hour maximum while unit is on 50 to 60 Hz 100 to 120 / 200 to 240 VAC

Network interface connectors
The network interface connectors are as follows:
G G G G G G G G

Reference Clock BNC 2.048 Mbp/s E1 or 2.048 MHz square E1 balanced Transmit Twin-Ax E1 balanced Receive Twin-Ax E1, E3, DS3 Unbalanced Receive BNC E1, E3, DS3 Unbalanced Transmit BNC E4, STM-1e Unbalanced Receive BNC E4, STM-1e Unbalanced Transmit BNC STM-1, STM-4, STM-16 Receive Optical

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G G

STM-1, STM-4, STM-16 Transmit High Power Optical 1310nm STM-1, STM-4, STM-16 Transmit High Power Optical 1550nm

The module comes equipped with two Lemosa Twin-ax cables.

PDH specifications
Output signals Table 14 lists the PDH output signal specifications.
Table 14 — PDH output signals Parameter
Rates

Specification
75 Ω unbalanced output, BNC: 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M 120 Ω balance output, Twin-Ax: 2M

Line codes

2M & 34M: HDB3, AMI 45M: B3ZS 140M: CMI 4.6 ppm over 3 years Reference Clock at 2.048 MHz, 2.048 Mbit/s, or from the Rx signal PDH: Code, BIT, Frame (FAS, MFAS), CRC, Pattern Slip 45M: Code, BIT, Frame, Parity, C-Bit Parity, Pattern Slip PDH: AIS, MFAS-AIS (2M), RDI, MFAS-RDI, LOF 45M: AIS, RDI, LOF, Far End Alarm, Idle, FEBE PRBS: 211-1, 215-1, 220-1, 223-1, 215-1 (inv), 220-1 (inv), 223-1 (inv), All Ones, All Zeros, 1:1, 1:3, 1:4, 1:7, Auto Programmable: User Programmable (up to 32 bits)

Internal clock generation (at all rates) Clock sync to external signals (via 75 Ω unbalanced input, BNC) Error Injection

Alarm Generation

Test patterns (2M, 8M, 34M, 45M)

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PDH specifications

Table 14 — PDH output signals (continued) Parameter
Test Patterns (140M) Framing

Specification
223-1, 223-1 (inv), 231-1, 231-1 (inv), Auto FAS, FAS CRC, MFAS, MFAS CRC, Unframed, C-Bit, M-13

Input signals

Table 15 describes the PDH input signal specifications.
Table 15 — PDH input signals Parameter
Rates

Specification
75 Ω unbalanced input, BNC: 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M 120 Ω balance input, Twin-Ax: 2M

Line codes

2M & 34M: HDB3, AMI 45M: B3ZS 140M: CMI ±100 ppm

Clock recovery pulling range

Selectable Protected 20, 23, 26, 30 dB resistive Monitor Point (PMP) gain Bridge mode Cable loss range (Term) Provides >10x the line impedance (for E1 interface only) 2M: 0dB to -30dB 34M, 45M, 140M: 0dB to -12dB 45M:0 to 900 feet from a high source, or 0 to 450 feet from a DSX source 2M, 34M, 140M: 20, 23, 26, or 30 dB resistive loss plus 0dB to 6dB cable loss for 2M, and 0 to 12dB cable loss for 34M and 140M. 45M: 22dB resistive loss plus 0 to 450 feet of cable loss. 2M:0dB to -30dB, with the line terminated elsewhere.

Cable loss range (Monitor)

Cable loss range (Bridge)

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Measurement types

Table 16 describes the specification for PDH measurement types.
Table 16 — PDH measurement types Parameter
Error Measurement

Specification
PDH: Code, Bit Error/TSE Count and Rate, CRC Error Count and Rate, REBE Count, FAS Bit Error Count and Rate, FAS Word Error Count and Rate, MFAS Word Error Count and Rate, FAS Sync Loss Count, MFAS Sync Loss Count, Pattern Slip Count and Seconds 45M: Code, Bit Error/TSE Count and Rate, Frame Error Count, Rate and Seconds, Frame Sync Loss Count, Near End OOF Seconds, Far End OOF Seconds, Parity Error Count, Rate and Seconds, C-Bit Parity Error Count, Rate and Seconds, FEBE Count For signals meeting G.703 criteria.

Input Signal Measurement

Frequency Measurement + / - 100 ppm Range Alarm Detection PDH: LOS, LOF, AIS, TS-16 AIS, TS-16 RDI, RDI, Loss of Pattern Sync 45M: LOS, LOF, C-Bit Parity Error, RDI, AIS, Far End Alarm, Idle, Loss of Pattern Sync Continuous or Timed 2M, 8M, 34M, 45M: 1µ to 10 seconds. ES, EFS, SES, DM, UAS The SES and DM thresholds are user-defined

Measurement interval Round Trip Delay Evaluation to ITU-T Recommendation G.821

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PDH specifications

Table 16 — PDH measurement types (continued) Parameter
Evaluation to ITU-T Recommendation G.826

Specification
EB, BBE, ES, EFS, SES, and UAS The SES Error Block threshold is user-defined. Simultaneous in-service measurement of near end of a selected path: FAS at 140/34/8 or 2 Mbits/s, CRC-4, 45M Parity, 45M Frame Bit Errors Anomalies evaluated include 2M FAS, 8M FAS, 34M FAS, 140M FAS, CRC-4, 45M Parity Errors, 45M Frame Errors. Defects evaluated include LOS, AIS, and Frame Sync Loss Out of service measurement adds the use of bit errors in the test pattern for PDH.

Evaluation of PDH to ITU-T Recommendation M.2100

ES, EFS, SES, and UAS Simultaneous in-service measurement of near end of a selected path: Anomalies evaluated include 2MFAS, 8M FAS, 34MFAS, 140MFAS, CRC-4, 45M Parity Errors, 45M Frame Errors. Defects evaluated include LOS, AIS, and Frame Sync Loss Out of service measurement adds the use of bit errors in the test pattern for PDH.

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SDH specifications
Output signals Table 17 lists the specifications for the SDH output signals. See Figure 23 on page 137 for a diagram of the SDH Mapping structure.
Table 17 — SDH output signals Parameter
Rates

Specification
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 The generation of STM-4 or STM-16 TX signals consist of one internally generated STM-1 tributary signal with the remaining tributaries filled with Unequipped.

Line Codes Wavelength Output Level Mappings Synchronization Error Injection

STM-1e: CMI STM-1/4/16: NRZ 1310 nm, 1310 & 1550 nm (switchable) 1310 nm or 1550 nm: High Pwr: +2.0 to -4.3 dBm VC-4-16c, VC-4-4c, VC-4, VC-3 (E3), VC-3 (DS3), VC-12 Internal, Recovered, 2M Reference Clock VC-4: B1, B2 parity errors, FAS, MS-REI, VC-4 B3, VC-4 REI, BIT errors/TSE, code errors VC-12 additionally: VC-12 BIP2, VC-12 REI VC-3 additionally: VC-3 B3, VC-3 REI VC-4: LOS, LOF, MS-AIS, MS-RDI, AU-LOP, AU-AIS, VC-4 RDI VC-12: TU-12 LOP, TU-12 AIS, VC-12 RDI, VC-12 RFI VC-3: TU-3 LOP, TU-3 AIS, VC-3 RDI J0, J1, J2: programmable 16 byte ASCII sequence with CRC J1, J2 additionally: programmable 64 byte ASCII sequence J0, J2 additionally: single Byte Hexidecimal

Alarm Generation

Trace Identifier

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SDH specifications

Table 17 — SDH output signals (continued) Parameter
Test Patterns APS Switchover Time Pointer Control

Specification
223-1, 231-1, 223-1(inv), 231-1 (inv), Auto Measured on a PDH drop for linear and ringmode, 1 ms accuracy. Increment, Decrement, NDF

Figure 23 illustrates the SDH mapping structure,

Figure 23 — Mapping structure

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Input signals

Table 18 list the SDH input signal specifications.
Table 18 — SDH input signals Parameter
Rates Line Codes Clock recovery pulling range Input Sensitivity Input overload protection Selectable Protected Monitor Point (PMP) gain (STM-1e) Cable loss range (Term) Cable loss range (Monitor)

Specification
Optical: STM-1o, STM-4, STM-16 75 Ω unbalanced input, BNC: STM-1e STM-1e: CMI STM-1/4/16: NRZ ± 100 ppm -8.0 to -28.0 dBm > -6 dBm 20, 23, 26, 30 dB resistive

STM-1e: 0dB to -12dB STM-1e: 20, 23, 26, or 30 dB resistive loss plus 0dB to 12dB cable loss.

Measurement types

Table 19 lists the SDH measurement type specifications.
Table 19 — SDH measurement types Parameter
APS Time

Specification
Criteria for measurement: Loss of frame sync at analysis rate. Max. measurable switch-over time: 127 ms Resolution: 1 ms

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SDH specifications

Table 19 — SDH measurement types (continued) Parameter
Error Measurement

Specification
B1 Error Count and Rate, B2 Error Count and Rate, Bit Error/TSE Count and Rate, FAS Word Error Count and Rate, OOF Count, LOF Count, MS REI Count and Rate, AU-LOP Count, VC4REI Count and Rate, TU-12LOP Count, VC12REI Count and Rate, CMI Code Error Count and Rate, Slip Count, VC-3 REI Count and Rate TU-3 LOP Count, VC-4 B3 Error Count and Rate, VC-12 BIP2 Error Count and Rate

Frequency Measurement + / - 100 ppm Range Input Signal Measurement Alarm Detection Optical: for signals meeting G.957 criteria Electrical: for signals meeting G.703 criteria. LOS, OOF, LOF, MS-AIS, MS-RDI, AU-AIS, AULOP, VC-4 RDI, TU-3 AIS, TU-3 LOP, VC-3 RDI, TU-12 AIS, TU-12 LOP, TU-12 LOM, VC-12 RDI, VC-12 RFI, All alarms are evaluated and displayed in parallel Measurement Interval Pointer Continuous and Timed Analysis of AU and TU pointer action: Increment, Decrement, Pointer Value, NDF, and PJE Display of key SOH and POH bytes, including interpretation of APS information in K1 and K2, Sync Status in S1, and Signal Label in C2/V5. J0: display of 16 byte ASCII sequence J1, J2: display of 16 or 64 byte ASCII sequence ES, EFS, SES, DM, UAS The SES and DM thresholds are user-defined

SOH and POH

Trace Identifier Evaluation to ITU-T Recommendation G.821

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Table 19 — SDH measurement types (continued) Parameter
Evaluation to ITU-T Recommendation G.826

Specification
EB, BBE, ES, EFS, SES, and UAS The SES Error Block threshold is user-defined. Anomalies evaluated include: B3, BIP2 Defects evaluated include: TU-12 LOP, TU-12 LOM, TU-12 AIS, TU-3 LOP, TU-3 AIS, VC3 UNEQUIPPED, AUN LOP, AUN AIS, VC4 UNEQUIPPED. Out-of-service measurement adds the use of bit errors in the test pattern for SDH.

Evaluation to ITU-T Recommendation M.2101

ES, EFS, SES, and UAS Simultaneous in-service measurement of near end of a selected path. Anomalies evaluated include: B1, BIP2 Defects evaluated include: TU-12 LOP, TU-12 LOM, TU-12 AIS, TU-3 LOP, TU-3 AIS, VC3 UNEQUIPPED, AUN LOP, AUN AIS, VC4 UNEQUIPPED. Out of service measurement adds the use of bit errors in the test pattern for SDH.

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Results display specifications

Results display specifications
Table 20 lists the specification for results display.
Table 20 — Results display specifications Parameter
Event Log

Specification
Display of all alarm and error events with time stamp. Resolution of error events and pointers: 50 ms Memory capacity: 500 lines

Numerical Display

Display of count (absolute) and rate (relative) values for all error types. Display update rate: 1 second

Histogram Print

Print errors, pointer operations / values and alarms as bar graphs vs. time Units, time axis: 1 to 1440 minutes

Result printout

Manual triggered or timed print Serial: V.24 / RS 232

Result Export

Results can be stored on a PCMCIA card in ASCII format

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Appendix

B

B

Remote Control Commands

This appendix describes command lines for your application. The topics discussed in this appendix include the following:
G G G G

“About using the remote control” on page 144 “Command syntax” on page 144 “Configuration commands” on page 145 “Result commands” on page 156

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Appendix B — Remote Control Commands

About using the remote control
Using a serial port to serial port cable, you can set up and control the module through an RS-232-compatible device. To use the remote control
1

Connect from the serial port on the RS-232-compatible device, such as a PC, to the printer port on the module using a standard reversing cable. The module defaults to remote control operation. The unit knows when a printer is connected.

2

Set the communications on the PC to the following: Baud Rate = 9600 Data bits = 8 Parity = none Stop bits = 1 These settings should match the settings on the module.

NOTE:
If you change the communications settings for the remote control feature, you also change the printer settings because they share the same port.

NOTE:
When remote control operation is anticipated, the local user must exit all setup tabs or the remote user will be unable to change system settings.

Command syntax
The following information describes the syntax and commands used to configure the module for remote control operation (system configurations and results). The tables are organized by application or result category.
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Configuration commands

The syntax for using the configuration commands is as follows:
CONFIG:APPLICATION:RC-NAME(space)VALUE

APPLICATION can be one of the following: SYSTEM, 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M, STM_E, STM_O, HS_BERT, PERF For example, the set the BERT pattern type to INVERT, the commands would be:
CONFIG:BERT:PATTERN_TYPE INVERT

Result commands

Scripts use the following syntax for results:
RESULT:APPLICATION:PATH:RC_NAME?

APPLICATION can be any one of the following: 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M, STM_E, STM_O, BERT, HS_BERT, PDH, SDH or PERF INTFC can be any one of the following: 2M, 8M, 34M, 45M, 140M, LP, HP, or MS. SERVICE can be ISM or OOS. BLOCKTYPE can be any of the following: FAS, CRC, PARITY, BERT Sample command:
RESULT:2M:RX1:ABSOLUTE_SLIP_COUNT?

Configuration commands
Configuration commands are used to configure the test being performed.

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System configuration commands

Table 21 lists the system configuration commands.

Table 21 — System configuration commands Command
Analysis Rate

Syntax
CONFIG:SYSTEM:ANALYSIS_RATE [selection] NX64, 2M, 8M, 34M, 45M, 140M, BULK.

APS Switchover Time Enable CONFIG:SYSTEM:APS_SWITCH_TIME_ENABLE [ON, OFF] Error Rate Error Type CONFIG:SYSTEM:ERROR_RATE [SINGLE, 1_00E_X (x=2..10)] CONFIG:SYSTEM:ERROR_TYPE [selection] 2M_CODE_ERROR, 2M_CRC_ERROR, 2M_FAS_ERROR, 2M_MFAS_ERROR, 8M_FAS_ERROR, 34M_CODE_ERROR, 34M_FAS_ERROR, BIT_ERROR,PATTERN_SLIP, 140M_CODE_ERROR, 140M_FAS_ERROR, 45M_CODE_ERROR, 45M_FRAMING_ERROR, 45M_PARITY_ERROR, 45M_CBIT_PARITY_ERROR, SDH_CODE_ERROR, SDH_FRAMING_ERROR, B1_ERROR, B2_ERROR, VC12_BIP2_ERROR, SDH_MS_REI, VC4_REI, VC3_REI, VC12_REI, VC3_B3_ERROR, VC4_B3_ERROR Framing Frame Error Insertion Count CONFIG:SYSTEM:FRAMING [FRAMED, UNFRAMED] CONFIG:SYSTEM:FRAME_ERROR_INSERTION_COUNT [selection] SINGLE, TWO, THREE, FOUR, CONSECUTIVE, CONTINUOUS, OOF, LOF G.821 SES Threshold G.821 DM Threshold G.821 ES MUX Factor G.826 SES Errored Block Threshold Consecutive Frame Error Count Insert Error CONFIG:SYSTEM:G821SES_THRESHOLD [1E_2, 1E_3, 1E_4, 1E_5] CONFIG:SYSTEM:G821DM_THRESHOLD [1E-4, 1E-5, 1E-6, 1E-7] CONFIG:SYSTEM:G821MUX_FACTOR [ON, OFF] CONFIG:SYSTEM:G826SES_ERR_BLOCK_THRESHOLD [selection] Range is 1 to 100% CONFIG:SYSTEM:CONSECUTIVE_FRAME_ERROR_COUNT [selection] Range is 2 to 31 CONFIG:SYSTEM:INSERT_ERROR [ON, OFF]

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Table 21 — System configuration commands (continued) Command
Interface

Syntax
CONFIG:SYSTEM:INTERFACE [selection] 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M, STM1_E, STM1_O, STM4, STM16, MUX

Laser Control Laser Select MUX Receive Interface

CONFIG:SYSTEM:LASER_CONTROL [ON, OFF] CONFIG:SYSTEM:LASER_SELECT [1310_NM, 1550_NM] CONFIG:SYSTEM:MUX_RX_INTERFACE [selection] 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M, STM1_E, STM1_O, STM4, STM16

MUX Transmit Interface

CONFIG:SYSTEM:MUX_TX_INTERFACE [selection] 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M, STM1_E, STM1_O, STM4, STM16

Protection Reset Timed Test Timed Test Length

CONFIG:SYSTEM:RX_PROTECT_RESET [ON] CONFIG:SYSTEM:TIMED_TEST [ON, OFF] CONFIG:SYSTEM:TIMED_TEST_LENGTH [selection] Range is 1 to 71999 minutes

Transmit Mode Transmit Timing

CONFIG:SYSTEM:MODE [TERMINATE, THRU] CONFIG:SYSTEM:TX_TIMING [INTERNAL, RECOVERED, EXT_DATA, EXT_CLOCK]

BERT configuration commands

Table 22 lists the BERT configuration commands.

Table 22 — BERT configuration commands Command
Pattern

Syntax
CONFIG:BERT:PATTERN [selection] ALL_ONES, ALL_ZEROS, 1_1,1_3, 1_4, 1_7, 2_11, 2_15, 2_20, 2_23, 2_31, PROG, DELAY, AUTO

Pattern Type

CONFIG:BERT:PATTERN [NORMAL, INVERT]

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Table 22 — BERT configuration commands (continued) Command
Programmable Pattern

Syntax
CONFIG:BERT:PROG_PATTERN Range is 3 to 32 “0” or “1” characters

2M configuration commands

Table 23 lists the 2M configuration commands.

Table 23 — 2M configuration commands Command
ABCD bits for Idle CAS Channels AIS Insertion APS Switch Measurement Framing

Syntax
CONFIG:2M:MFAS_IDLE [selection] Range is 0001 to 1111 binary value CONFIG:2M:AIS [ON, OFF] CONFIG:2M:APS_SWITCH_TIME [ON, OFF] CONFIG:2M:FRAMING [selection] UNFRAMED, FAS, FAS_CRC, MFAS, MFAS_CRC, AUTO

Idle Byte

CONFIG:2M:IDLE_BYTE Range is o to 255

Input Termination Line Coding MFAS AIS Insertion Monitor Attenuation

CONFIG:2M:RX_INPUT [TERM, BRIDGE, MONITOR] CONFIG:2M:LINE_CODING [AMI, HDB3]

CONFIG:2M:TS16_AIS [ON, OFF] CONFIG:2M:RX_MON_ATTEN [selection] 20_DB, 23_DB, 26_DB, 30_DB

Nx64 RX Data Channel Map

CONFIG:2M:RX_CHANNEL_MAP [selection] Range is 31 “0” or “1” characters

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Table 23 — 2M configuration commands (continued) Command
Nx64 Tx Data Channel Map

Syntax
CONFIG:2M:TX_CHANNEL_MAP [selection] Range is 31 “0” or “1” characters

RDI REBE Insertion Sa(n) Bit

CONFIG:2M:FAS_DISTANT [ON, OFF] CONFIG:2M:REBE {ON, OFF] CONFIG:2M:[selection] [ON, OFF] SA4_BIT, SA5_BIT, SA6_BIT, SA7_BIT, SA8_BIT

Si Bit Transmit Line Build Out TS-16 RDI

CONFIG:2M:SI_BIT [0, 1] CONFIG:2M:TX_LBO [0_DB, 6_DB, 12_DB] CONFIG:2M:MFAS_DISTANT [ON, OFF]

8M configuration commands

Table 24 lists the 8M configuration commands.

Table 24 — 8M configuration commands Command
AIS Insertion Frame National Bit Frame Rx Tributary Frame Tx Tributary RDI Insertion

Syntax
CONFIG:8M:AIS [ON, OFF] CONFIG:8M:NATIONAL_BIT [0, 1] CONFIG:8M:RX_TRIB [1, 2, 3, 4] CONFIG:8M:TX_TRIB [1, 2, 3, 4] CONFIG:8M:REMOTE_ALARM [ON, OFF]

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34M configuration commands

Table 25 lists the 34M configuration commands.

Table 25 — 34M configuration commands Command
AIS Insertion APS Switch Measurement Input Termination Line Coding Frame National Bit Frame Rx Tributary Monitor Attenuation

Syntax
CONFIG:34M:AIS [ON, OFF] CONFIG:34M:APS_SWITCH_TIME [ON, OFF] CONFIG:34M:RX_INPUT [TERM, MONITOR] CONFIG:34M:LINE_CODING [AMI, HDB3] CONFIG:34M:NATIONAL_BIT [0, 1] CONFIG:34M:RX_TRIB [1, 2, 3, 4] CONFIG:34M:RX_MON_ATTEN [selection] 20_DB, 23_DB, 26_DB, 30_DB

RDI Insertion Transmit Line Build Out Frame Tx Tributary

CONFIG:34M:REMOTE_ALARM [ON, OFF] CONFIG:34M:TX_LBO [0_DB, 6_DB, 12_DB] CONFIG:34M:TX_TRIB [1, 2, 3, 4]

45M configuration commands

Table 26 lists the 45M configuration commands

Table 26 — 45M configuration commands Command
AIS Insertion APS Switch Measurement Far-End Alarm Insertion

Syntax
CONFIG:45M:AIS [ON, OFF] CONFIG:45M:APS_SWITCH_TIME [ON, OFF] CONFIG:45M:FAR_END_ALARM [selection] OFF, DS3_EQUIP_FAILURE_SA, DS3_LOS, DS3_OOF, DS3_AIS, DS3_IDLE, DS3_EQUIP_FAILURE_NSA, COMMON_EQUIP_FAILURE_NSA

FEBE Insertion

CONFIG:45M:FEBE [ON, OFF]

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Table 26 — 45M configuration commands (continued) Command
Framing Idle Channel Input Termination RDI Insertion Transmit Line Build Out

Syntax
CONFIG:45M:FRAMING [UNFRAMED, M13, CBIT] CONFIG:45M:IDLE_CHANNEL [ON, OFF] CONFIG:45M:RX_INPUT [TERM, MONITOR] CONFIG:45M:RAIS [ON, OFF] CONFIG:45M:TX_LBO [HIGH, DSX, LOW]

140M configuration commands

Table 27 lists the 140M configuration commands.

Table 27 — 140M configuration commands Command
AIS Insertion APS Switch Measurement Frame Rx Tributary Frame Tx Tributary Input Termination Monitor Attenuation

Syntax
CONFIG:140M:AIS [ON, OFF] CONFIG:140M:APS_SWITCH_TIME [ON, OFF] CONFIG:140M:RX_TRIB [1, 2, 3, 4] CONFIG:140M:TX_TRIB [1, 2, 3, 4] CONFIG:140M:RX_INPUT [TERM, MONITOR] CONFIG:140M:RX_MON_ATTEN [selection] 20_DB, 23_DB, 26_DB, 30_DB

National Bit

CONFIG:140M:NATIONAL_BIT [selection] Range is 000 to 111 binary value

RDI Insertion

CONFIG:140M:REMOTE_ALARM [ON, OFF]

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SDH configuration commands

Table 28 lists the SDH configuration commands.

Table 28 — SDH configuration commands Command
Alarm Insertion Alarm Type

Syntax
CONFIG:SDH:ALARM_INSERTION [ON, OFF] CONFIG:SDH:ALARM_TYPE [selection] MS_AIS, MS_RDI, AU_AIS, AU_LOP, VC4_RDI, TU3_AIS, TU3_LOP, VC3_RDI, TU12_AIS, TU12_LOP, VC12_RDI, VC12_RFI

AU4 Pointer Value

CONFIG:SDH:AU4_POINTER_VALUE [selection] Range is 0 to 782

Change Pointer

CONFIG:SDH:CHANGE_POINTER ON

MS APS K1 Channel Number CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_LIN_K1_CHANNEL_NUMBER [selection] NULL_CHANNEL, WORKING_CHANNEL_1, WORKING_CHANNEL_2, WORKING_CHANNEL_3, WORKING_CHANNEL_4, WORKING_CHANNEL_5, WORKING_CHANNEL_6, WORKING_CHANNEL_7, WORKING_CHANNEL_8, WORKING_CHANNEL_9, WORKING_CHANNEL_10, WORKING_CHANNEL_11, WORKING_CHANNEL_12, WORKING_CHANNEL_13, WORKING_CHANNEL_14, EXTRA_TRAFFIC_CHANNEL MS APS K2 Channel Number CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_LIN_K2_CHANNEL_NUMBER [selection] NULL_CHANNEL, WORKING_CHANNEL_1, WORKING_CHANNEL_2, WORKING_CHANNEL_3, WORKING_CHANNEL_4, WORKING_CHANNEL_5, WORKING_CHANNEL_6, WORKING_CHANNEL_7, WORKING_CHANNEL_8, WORKING_CHANNEL_9, WORKING_CHANNEL_10, WORKING_CHANNEL_11, WORKING_CHANNEL_12, WORKING_CHANNEL_13, WORKING_CHANNEL_14, EXTRA_TRAFFIC_CHANNEL MS APS MSP Architecture MS APS MSP Line Status CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_LIN_MSP_ARCH [ONE_PLUS_ONE, ONE_TO_N] CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_LIN_STATUS [selection] RESERVED_000, RESERVED_001, RESERVED_010, RESERVED_011, RESERVED_100, RESERVED_101, MS_RDI, MS_AIS

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Table 28 — SDH configuration commands (continued) Command
MS APS Request Code

Syntax
CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_LIN_REQUEST_CODE [selection] LOCKOUT_OF_PROTECTION_LP, FORCED_SWITCH_FS, SIGNAL_FAIL_HIGH_PRIORITY_SF_H, SIGNAL_FAIL_LOW_PRIORITY_SF_L, SIGNAL_DEGRADE_HIGH_PRIORITY_SD_H, SIGNAL_DEGRADE_SD_L, UNUSED_1001, MANUAL_SWITCH_MS, UNUSED_0111, WAIT_TO_RESTORE_WTR, UNUSED_0101, EXERCISE_EXER, UNUSED_0011, REVERSE_REQUEST_RR, DO_NOT_REVERT_DNR, NO_REQUEST_NR

MS APS Bridge Request Code

CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_RING_BRIDGE_REQUEST_CODE [selection] LOCKOUT_LP_S, FORCED_SWITCH_SPAN_FS_S, FORCED_SWITCH_RING_FS_R, SIGNAL_FAIL_SPAN_SF_S, SIGNAL_FAIL_RING_SF_R, SIGNAL_DEGRADE_PROTECTION_SD_P, SIGNAL_DEGRADE_SPAN_SD_S, SIGNAL_DEGRADE_RING_SD_R, MANUAL_SWITCH_SPAN_MS_S, MANUAL_SWITCH_RING_MS_R, WAIT_TO_RESTORE_WT_R, EXERCISER_SPAN_EXER_S, EXERCISER_RING_EXER_R, REVERSE_REQUEST_SPAN_RR_S, REVERSE_REQUEST_RING_RR_R, NO_REQUEST_NR

MS APS Destination Node ID CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_RING_DESTINATION_NODE_ID [selection] Range is 0 to 15 MS APS Path Code MS APS Source Node ID CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_RING_PATH_CODE [LONG, SHORT] CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_RING_SOURCE_NODE_ID [selection] Range is 0 to 15 MS APS Ring Status CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_RING_STATUS [selection] IDLE, BRIDGED_BR, BRIDGED_AND_SWITCHED_BR_SW, RESERVED_011, RESERVED_100, RESERVED_101, MS_RDI, MS_AIS MS APS Topology Pointer Movement Type Pointer Type CONFIG:SDH:MS_APS_TOPOLOGY [LINEAR, RING] CONFIG:SDH:POINTER_MOVEMENT_TYPE [INCREMENT, DECREMENT, NDF] CONFIG:SDH:POINTER_TYPE [AU4, TU3, TU12]

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Table 28 — SDH configuration commands (continued) Command
Rx Channel

Syntax
CONFIG:SDH:RX_TRIB_STM_N [selection] STM-4: Range is 1 to 4 STM-16: Range is 1 to 16

Rx Structure TUG-2 Rx Channel TUG-3 Rx Channel TU-12 Rx Channel Section Trace Format Section Trace String

CONFIG:SDH:RX_MAPPING [VC4, VC3, VC12, VC_4_4C, VC_4_16C] CONFIG:SDH:RX_TRIB_TUG2 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] CONFIG:SDH:RX_TRIB_TUG3 [1, 2, 3] CONFIG:SDH:RX_TRIB_TU12 [1, 2, 3] CONFIG:SDH:SECTION_TRACE_FORMAT [16_CRC, C1] CONFIG:SDH:SECTION_TRACE_STRING [selection] Range is 0 to 15 characters

Synchronization Status

CONFIG:SDH:SOH_SYNC_STATUS [selection] QUALITY_UNKNOWN, RESERVED_1, REC_G811, RESERVED_2, REC_G812_TRANSIT, RESERVED_3, RESERVED_4, RESERVED_5, REC_G812_LOCAL, RESERVED_6, RESERVED_7, SYNCHRONOUS_EQUIPMENT_TIMING_SOURCE_SETS, RESERVED_8, RESERVED_9, RESERVED_10, DO_NOT_USE_FOR_SYNCHRONIZATION

TU-3 Pointer Value

CONFIG:SDH:TU3_POINTER_VALUE [selection] Range is 0 to 764

TU-12 Pointer Value

CONFIG:SDH:TU12:POINTER_VALUE [selection] Range is 0 to 139

TUG-2 Tx Channel TUG-3 Tx Channel TU-12 Tx Channel Tx Channel

CONFIG:SDH:TX_TRIB_TUG2 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] CONFIG:SDH:TX_TRIB_TUG3 [1, 2, 3] CONFIG:SDH:TX_TRIB_TU12 [1, 2, 3] CONFIG:SDH:TX:TRIB_STM_N [selection] STM-4: Range is 1 to 4 STM-16: Range is 1 to 16

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Table 28 — SDH configuration commands (continued) Command
Tx Structure VC-3 Path Trace Format VC-3 Path Trace String (16)

Syntax
CONFIG:SDH:TX_MAPPING [VC4, VC3, VC12, VC_4_4C, VC_4_16C] CONFIG:SDH:VC3_PATH_TRACE_FORMAT [16_CRC, 64_BYTE] CONFIG:SDH:VC3_PATH_TRACE_STRING_16 [selection] Range is 0 to 15 (characters)

VC-3 Path Trace String (64)

CONFIG:SDH:VC3_PATH_TRACE_STRING_64 [selection] Range is 0 to 63 (characters)

VC-3 Path Trace Terminator VC-3 Signal Label

CONFIG:SDH:VC3_PATH_TRACE_TERMINATOR [CR, LF, CR_LF] CONFIG:SDH:VC3_SIGNAL_LABEL [selection] UNEQUIPPED, EQUIPPED_NON_SPECIFIC, ASYNC_E3_DS3

VC-4 Path Trace Format VC-4 Path Trace String (16)

CONFIG:SDH:VC4_PATH_TRACE_FORMAT [16_CRC, 64_BYTE] CONFIG:SDH:VC4_PATH_TRACE_STRING_16 [selection] Range is 0 to 15 (characters)

VC-4 Path Trace String (64)

CONFIG:SDH:VC4_PATH_TRACE_STRING_64 [selection] Range is 0 to 63 (characters)

VC-4 Path Trace Terminator VC-4 Signal Label

CONFIG:SDH:VC3_PATH_TRACE_TERMINATOR [CR, LF, CR_LF] CONFIG:SDH:VC4_SIGNAL_LABEL [selection] UNEQUIPPED, EQUIPPED_NON_SPECIFIC, TUG_STRUCTURE, ASYNC_E3_DS3, ASYNC_E4

VC-12 J2 Clear Channel Value VC-12 Path Trace Format VC-12 Path Trace String

CONFIG:SDH:VC12_J2_CLEAR_CHANNEL_VALUE [selection] Range is 0 - 255 CONFIG:SDH:VC12_PATH_TRACE_FORMAT [16_CRC, CLEAR_CHANNEL] CONFIG:SDH:VC12_PATH_TRACE_STRING [selection] Range is 0 to 15 (characters)

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Table 28 — SDH configuration commands (continued) Command
VC-12 Signal Label

Syntax
xCONFIG:SDH:VC12_SIGNAL_LABEL [selection] ASYNC, BYTE_SYNC, UNEQUIP, EQUIP_NON_SPECIFIC

STM1_E configuration commands

Table 29 lists the STM_1E configuration commands.

Table 29 — STM_1E configuration commands Command
Input Termination Monitor Attenuation

Syntax
CONFIG:STM1_E:RX_INPUT [TERM, MONITOR] CONFIG:STM1_E:RX_MON_ATTEN [selection] 20_DB, 23_DB, 26_DB, 30_DB

Result commands
Result commands are used to query the remote test unit for a specific result. Signal result commands Table 30 lists the Signal result commands.

Table 30 — Signal result commands Command
APS Switchover Time Electrical Input Level External Reference Frequency

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:APS_SWITCHOVER_TIME? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:RECEIVE_LEVEL? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:EXT_REF_FREQUENCY?

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Table 30 — Signal result commands (continued) Command
Code Error Count Code Error Rate Receive Frequency

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:CODE_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:CODE_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:RECEIVE_FREQUENCY?

Receive Frequency Deviation RESULT:[APPLICATION]RX1:RECEIVE_FREQUENCY_PPM? Receive Frequency Maximum RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MAX_RECEIVE_FREQUENCY_DEV_PPM? Deviation Receive Level 1310nm Receive Level 1550nm Signal Loss Count Transmit Frequency RESULT:STM_O:RX1:RECEIVE_LEVEL_1310NM_O? RESULT:STM_O:RX1:RECEIVE_LEVEL_1550NM_O? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:SIGNAL_PRESENT.LOSS_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TRANSMIT_FREQUENCY?

LED result commands

Table 31 lists the LED result commands.

Table 31 — LED result commands Command
2M AIS LED 2M CRC Sync 2M FAS Distant Alarm 2M FAS Sync 2M MFAS Distant Alarm 2M MFAS Sync 45M Far End Alarm 45M Idle Signal AIS

Syntax
RESULT:2M:RX1:AIS_PRESENT? RESULT:2M:RX1:CRC_SYNC? RESULT:2M:RX1:FAS_DISTANT_ALARM? RESULT:2M:RX1:FAS_SYNC? RESULT:2M:RX1:MFAS_DISTANT_ALARM? RESULT:2M:RX1:MFAS_SYNC? RESULT:45M:RX1:FAR_END_ALARM? RESULT:45M:RX1:IDLE_SIGNAL? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AIS? 8M, 34M, 45M, and 140M

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Table 31 — LED result commands (continued) Command
Alarm AU4 Concatenation AU4 LOP AU AIS LED Frame Sync

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:ALARM? RESULT:STM_0:RX1:AU4_CONCAT_INDICATION? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_LOP? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_AIS? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:FRAME_SYNC? 8M, 34M, 45M, 140M

MS AIS MS RDI Pattern Synchronization

RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_AIS? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_RDI? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:PATTERN_SYNC? BERT, HS_BERT

Remote Alarm

RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:REMOTE_ALARM? 8M, 34M, 45M, 140M

Rx Protection Trip Signal Present STM-N LOF STM-N LP RDI STM-N OOF Time Slot 16 AIS TU-12 AIS TU-12 LOM TU-12 LOP TU-3 AIS TU-3 LOP TU AIS

RESULT:STM_O:RX1:RX_PROTECT_TRIP? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:SIGNAL_PRESENT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:LOF? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:LP_RDI? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:OOF? RESULT:2M:RX1:MFAS_AIS? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_AIS? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_LOM? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_LOP? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_AIS? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_LOP? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU_AIS?

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Table 31 — LED result commands (continued) Command
TU LOP VC-12 RDI VC-12 RFI VC-3 RDI VC-4 RDI

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU_LOP? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_RDI? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_RFI? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC3_RDI? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC4_RDI?

PDH frame result commands

Table 32 lists the PDH Frame result commands.

Table 32 — PDH frame result commands Command
2M CRC Error Count 2M CRC Error Rate 2M CRC Sync Loss Count 2M FAS Sync Loss Count 2M MFAS Word Error Count 2M MFAS Word Error Rate 2M MFAS Sync Loss Count 2M Non-Frame Alignment Word 2M Remote End Block Error (REBE)

Syntax
RESULT:2M:RX1:CRC_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:2M:RX1:CRC_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:2M:RX1:CRC_SYNC.LOSS_COUNT? RESULT:2M:RX1:FAS_SYNC.LOSS_COUNT? RESULT:2M:RX1:MFAS_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:2M:RX1:MFAS_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:2M:RX1:MFAS_SYNC.LOSS_COUNT? RESULT:2M:RX1:NFAS_WORD?

RESULT:2M:RX1:REBE_COUNT?

45M C-Bit Parity Error Count RESULT:45M:RX1:C_BIT_ERROR_COUNT? 45M C-Bit Parity Error Rate 45M C-Bit Error Seconds 45M C-Bit Format RESULT:45M:RX1:C_BIT_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:45M:RX1:C_BIT_ERROR_SECS? RESULT:45M:RX1:C_BIT_FORMAT?

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Table 32 — PDH frame result commands (continued) Command
45M Far End Out of Frame Seconds 45M FEAC Word 45M FEBE Count 45M Frame Error Count 45M Frame Error Rate 45M Frame Error Seconds

Syntax
RESULT:45M:RX1:FAR_END_OOF_SECS?

RESULT:45M:RX1:FEAC_WORD? RESULT:45M:RX1:FEBE_COUNT? RESULT:45M:RX1:FRAME_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:45M:RX1:FRAME_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:45M:RX1:FRAME_ERROR_SECS?

45M Near End Out of Frame RESULT:45M:RX1:NEAR_END_OOF_SECS? Seconds 45M Parity Error Count 45M Parity Error Rate 45M Parity Error Seconds 45M Rx X-Bits FAS Bit Error Count RESULT:45M:RX1:PARITY_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:45M:RX1:PARITY_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:45M:RX1:PARITY_ERROR_SECS? RESULT:45M:RX1:X_BITS? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:FAS_BIT_ERROR_COUNT? 2M, 8M, 34M, 140M FAS Bit Error Rate RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:FAS_BIT_ERROR_RATE? 2M, 8M, 34M, 140M FAS Word Error Count RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:FAS_WORD_ERROR_COUNT? 2M, 8M, 34M, 140M FAS Word Error Rate RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:FAS_WORD_ERROR_RATE? 2M, 8M, 34M, 140M Frame Sync Loss Count RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:FRAME_SYNC.LOSS_COUNT? 8M, 34M, 45M, 140M

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BERT result commands

Table 33 lists the BERT result commands.

Table 33 — BERT Result Commands Command
Auto Pattern Sync Status Bit Error Count Bit Error Rate Pattern Slips Pattern Slip Seconds Pattern Sync Loss Count Pattern Sync Loss Seconds Round Trip Delay

Syntax
RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:AUTO_PATTERN? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:BIT_ERRORS? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:BIT_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:PATTERN_SLIP? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:PATTERN_SLIP_SECONDS? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:PATTERN_SYNC.LOSS_COUNT? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:PATTERN_LOSS_SECS? RESULT:BERT:RX1:ROUND_TRIP_DELAY?

Performance result commands

Table 34 lists the Performance result commands.

Table 34 — Performance results commands Command
G.821 Available Time

Syntax
RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_AVAILABLE_SECS?

G.821 Consecutive Severely RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_CONSEC_SEVERELY_ERRORED_SECS? Errored Seconds G.821 Degraded Minutes G.821 Errored Seconds G.821 Error Free Seconds RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_DEGRADED_MINS? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_ERRORED_SECS? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_ERROR_FREE_SECS?

G.821 Percent Available Time RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_PERCENT_AVAILABILITY? G.821 Percent Degraded Minutes RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_PERCENT_DEGRADED_MINS?

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Table 34 — Performance results commands (continued) Command
G.821 Percent Errored Seconds G.821 Percent Severely Errored Seconds G.821 Severely Errored Seconds G.821 Unavailable Time G.826 Available Seconds G.826 Background Block Errors G.826 Background Block Errors Rate G.826 Blocks G.826 Errored Blocks G.826 Errored Seconds

Syntax
RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_PERCENT_ERRORED_SECS?

RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_PERCENT_SEVERELY_ERRORED_SECS ? RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_SEVERELY_ERRORED_SECS?

RESULT:[BERT_APP]:RX1:G821_UNAVAILABLE_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_G826_AVAILABLE_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_[BLOCKTYPE]_G826_BACKG ROUND_BLOCK_ERRORS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_[BLOCKTYPE]_G826_BACKG ROUND_BLOCK_ERRORS_RATE? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_[BLOCKTYPE]_G826_BLOCK S? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_[BLOCKTYPE]_G826_ERROR ED_BLOCKS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_G826_ERRORED_SECS?

G.826 Errored Seconds Rate RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_G826_ERRORED_SECS_RATE ? G.826 Severely Errored Seconds G.826 Severely Errored Seconds Rate G.826 Unavailable Seconds M.2100 Available Seconds M.2100 Available Seconds Rate M.2100 Errored Seconds M.2100 Errored Seconds Rate RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_G826_SEVERELY_ERRORED_ SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_G826_SEVERELY_ERRORED_ SECS_RATE? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_G826_UNAVAILABLE_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_AVAILABLE_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_AVAILABLE_SECS_R ATE? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_ERRORED_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_ERRORED_SECS_RAT E?

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Table 34 — Performance results commands (continued) Command
M.2100 Error Free Seconds M.2100 Error Free Seconds Rate M.2100 Severely Errored Seconds

Syntax
RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_ERROR_FREE_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_ERROR_FREE_SECS_ RATE? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_SEVERELY_ERRORED _SECS? For PDH rates, when [SERVICE] is ISM, [INTFC] can only be 2M, 8M, 34M, 45M, or 140M. When [SERVICE] is OOS, [INTFC] can only be PDH.

M.2100 Severely Errored Seconds Rate

RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_SEVERELY_ERRORED _SECS_RATE?

M.2100 Unavailable Seconds RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_UNAVAILABLE_SECS ? M.2100 Total Seconds RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2100_TOTAL_SECS?

M.2101.1 Available Seconds RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_AVAILABLE_SECS ? M.2101.1 Percent Available Seconds M.2101.1 Errored Seconds RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_PERCENT_AVAILA BLE_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_ERRORED_SECS?

M.2101.1 Error Free Seconds RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_ERROR_FREE_SEC S? M.2101.1 Percent Errored Seconds RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_PERCENT_ERRORE D_SECS?

M.2101.1 Percent Error Free RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_PERCENT_ERROR_ Seconds FREE_SECS? M.2101.1 Percent Severely Errored Seconds M.2101.1 Severely Errors Seconds M.2101.1 Unavailable Seconds RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_PERCENT_SEVERE LY_ERRORED_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_SEVERELY_ERROR ED_SECS? RESULT:PERF:RX1:[INTFC]_[SERVICE]_M2101_1_UNAVAILABLE_SE CS?

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SOH result commands

Table 35 lists the SOH result commands.

Table 35 — SOH result commands Command
B1 Error Count B1 Error Rate B2 Error Count B2 Error Rate FAS Word Error Count FAS Word Error Rate LOF Count MS APS Bridge Request Code (Ring) MS APS Detination Node ID (Ring)

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:B1_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:B1_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:B2_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:B2_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:FAS_WORD_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:FAS_WORD_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:LOF.COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_RING_BRIDGE_REQUEST_CODE ? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_RING_DESTINATION_NODE_ID ?

MS APS K1 Channel Number RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_LIN_K1_CHANNEL_NUMBER? (Linear) MS APS K2 Channel Number RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_LIN_K2_CHANNEL_NUMBER? (Linear) MS APS MSP Architecture (Linear) MS APS Path Code (Ring) MS APS Request Code (Linear) MS APS Source Node ID (Ring) MS APS Status (Linear) MS APS Status (Ring) MS REI Count MS REI Rate RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_LIN_MSP_ARCH?

RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_RING_PATH_CODE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_LIN_REQUEST_CODE?

RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_RING_SOURCE_NODE_ID?

RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_LIN_STATUS? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_APS_RING_STATUS? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_REI_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:MS_REI_RATE?

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Table 35 — SOH result commands (continued) Command
Section Trace OOF Count Sync Status

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:SECTION_TRACE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:OOF.COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:SYNC_STATUS?

HP result commands

Table 36 lists the HP result commands.

Table 36 — HP result commands Command
AU4 LOP Count AU4 NDF Count AU4 Pointer Decrement Count

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_LOP.COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_NDF_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_PTR_DECREMENT_COUNT?

AU4 Pointer Increment Count RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_PTR_INCREMENT_COUNT? AU4 Pointer Justification Events AU4 Pointer Received AU4 Pointer Transmitted VC-4 Path Status VC-4 Path Trace Message VC-4 REI Count VC-4 REI Rate VC-4 Signal Label RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_PTR_JUSTIFICATION_EVENT_COU NT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_PTR_RX? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:AU4_PTR_TX? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC4_G1? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC4_PATH_TRACE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC4_REI_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC4_REI_RATE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC4_SIGNAL_LABEL?

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LP result commands

Table 37 lists the LP result commands.

Table 37 — LP result commands Command
TU-12 LOP Count TU-12 NDF Count TU-12 Pointer Decrement Count TU-12 Pointer Increment Count TU-12 Pointer Justification Event Count TU-12 Pointer Received TU-12 Pointer Transmitted TU-3 LOP Count TU-3 NDF Count TU-3 Pointer Decrement Count

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_LOP.COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_NDF_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_PTR_DECREMENT_COUNT?

RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_PTR_INCREMENT_COUNT?

RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_PTR_JUSTIFICATION_EVENT_CO UNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_PTR_RX? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU12_PTR_TX? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_LOP.COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_NDF_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_PTR_DECREMENT_COUNT?

TU-3 Pointer Increment Count RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_PTR_INCREMENT_COUNT? TU-3 Pointer Justification Event Count TU-3 Pointer Received TU-3 Pointer Transmitted VC-12 BIP2 Error Count VC-12 BIP2 Error Rate VC-12 Path Trace VC-12 POH (V5) VC-12 REI Count VC-12 REI Rate RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_PTR_JUSTIFICATION_EVENT_COU NT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_PTR_RX? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:TU3_PTR_TX? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_BIP2_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_BIP2_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_PATH_TRACE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_POH_V5? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_REI_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_REI_RATE?

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2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Table 37 — LP result commands (continued) Command
VC-12 Signal Label VC-3 B3 Error Count VC-3 B3 Error Rate VC-3 Path Status VC-3 Path Trace Message VC-3 REI Count VC-3 REI Rate VC-3 Signal Label

Syntax
RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC12_SIGNAL_LABEL? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC3_B3_ERROR_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC3_B3_ERROR_RATE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC3_G1? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC3_PATH_TRACE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC3_REI_COUNT? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC3_REI_RATE? RESULT:[APPLICATION]:RX1:VC3_SIGNAL_LABEL?

Misc. result commands

Table 38 lists the Miscellaneous result commands.

Table 38 — Miscellaneous result commands Command
Date Elapsed Time Power Loss Count Time Time Slot ABCD Bits Time Slot Rx Byte Timed Test Remaining Timed Test Time

Syntax
RESULT:SYSAPP::DATE? RESULT:SYSAPP::ELAPSED_TIME? RESULT:SYSAPP::PWR_FAIL_CNT? RESULT:SYSAPP::TIME? RESULT:2M:RX1:LINK_OVERVIEW:0.[0-31].CAS_BITS? RESULT:2M:RX1:LINK_OVERVIEW:0.[0-31].RX_BYTE? RESULT:SYSAPP::TEST_TIME_REMAINING? RESULT:SYSAPP::TOTAL_TEST_TIME?

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Appendix B — Remote Control Commands

168

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Appendix

C

C

Field Descriptions

This appendix provides descriptions of the setup tabs and data field for test configuration.

169

Appendix C — Field Descriptions

SDH Module Field Descriptions
140M Tab Define the receiver input signal compensation mode as Term or Monitor. Specify the National Bits and activate alarms for simulation. 2M Channels Tab (available for Nx64 only) Select the timeslots (1 to 31) to be analyzed. The receiver framer extracts the selected time slots and enables you to view the data in the 2M View window. 2M ABCD/Sa Tab Only available for framed payloads. Specify the MFAS idle bits, and the NFAS/FAS Word, Si bit, and Sa bits. 2M Tab Specify the framing, line code and the receiver input signal compensation mode. Also specify the line build out and idle bytes and activate alarms for simulation. 34M Tab Specify the receiver input signal compensation mode, line coding, national bit, and line build out. Activate alarms for simulation. 45M Tab Specify the framing, the receiver input signal compensation mode, and activate alarms for simulation. 8M Tab Specify the National Bit and activate alarms for simulation. Alarm (PDH) The FAS and MFAS framing format provides several built-in alarms. This allows detection

and sectionalization of transmission line or equipment problems in a circuit. Specify ON or OFF for each.
G G G G G G G G

AIS Far End Alarm RDI FEBE Idle Channel TS-16 RDI REBE TS-16 AIS

2M, 8M, 34M, 45M, and 140M tabs Alarm Insertion Specify the Alarm Type as ON or OFF. SDH tab Alarm Type Specify the type of alarm to simulate.
G

MS-AIS — Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal. MS-RDI — Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication AU-AIS —Administrative Unit Alarm Indication Signal. AU-LOP — Administrative Unit Loss of Pointer. VC-4 RDI — Virtual Container Remote Defect Indication VC-3 RDI — Virtual Container Remote Defect Indication VC-12 RDI — Virtual Container Remote Defect Indication VC-12 RFI — Virtual Container Remote Failure Indication TU-3 AIS — Tributary Unit Alarm Indication Signal.

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

170 SDH Module Field Descriptions

Appendix C — Field Descriptions

G

TU-3 LOP — Tributary Unit Loss of Pointer. TU-12 AIS — Tributary Unit Alarm Indication Signal TU-12 LOP — Tributary Unit Loss of Pointer

G

Destination Node ID (Ring) Part of K1 byte MS APS tab Error Insert Tab Specify the type of error to generate and how it will be generated (rate, frame error count, and consecutive errors). Error Insert Rate Select the error rate:
G

G

SDH tab Analysis Rate Specify the analysis rate of the receiving payload. Structure tab for PDH and SDH. BERT Tab Specify the pattern and the pattern type as normal or inverted. Or, program a user defined pattern. Bridge Request Code (Ring) Part of K1 byte. MS APS tab Channel Number (Linear) The first channel number is part of the K1 byte. The second channel number is part of the K2 byte. MS APS tab Clear Channel Select Clear Channel as the path trace format. Enter the J2 Clear Channel value from 0 to 255. VC-12 POH tab Consecutive Frame Errors (SDH Framing Error only) Specify the number of consecutive SDH Frame errors to generate. Error Insert tab

Single 1.00E-2 1.00E-3 1.00E-4 1.00E-5 1.00E-6 1.00E-7 1.00E-8 1.00E-9

G G G G G G G G

Error Insert tab Error Insert Type Select the type of error to generate.
G G G G G G G G G G G G

B1 Error B2 Error Bit Error / TSE C-Bit Parity Code Error CRC Error FAS Error Frame Error MFAS Error Parity Error Pattern Slip SDH Code Error

SDH Module Field Descriptions

171

Appendix C — Field Descriptions

G G G G G G G G

SDH Framing Error SDH MS-REI VC-3 B3 VC-3 REI VC-12 BIP2 VC-12 REI VC-4 B3 Error VC-4 REI

45M tab G.821 DM Bit Error Threshold Specify the degraded minutes bit error threshold. Performance tab G.821 ES MUX Factor Specify the errored second MUX factor as ON or OFF. Performance tab G.821 SES Bit Error Threshold Specify the severely errored second bit error threshold. Performance tab G.826 SES Errored Block Threshold Specify the severely errored second errored blocks threshold. Range is 1 to 100%. Performance tab Idle Byte The idle byte is inserted on all unselected channels. Press the field and use the keypad to modify the idle byte based on equipment requirements. 2M tab Laser Select Specify the transmitting laser as 1310 nm 1550 nm. SDH tab Line Coding Specify the line coding as follows: G HDB3 — High Density Bipolar 3.
G

Error Insert tab Frame Error Count (Frame errors only) Specify how to generate the frame error. If “Consecutive” is selected, specify how many consecutive errors to generate. Error Insert tab Framing Select the data to be framed or unframed. Structure tab for PDH and SDH Framing (2M) Select one of the following framing options
G G G G

FAS — Frame without CRC FAS-CRC — Frame with CRC MFAS — Multiframe without CRC MFAS-CRC — Multiframe with CRC

2M tab Framing (45M)
G

M13 — Every 4 DS1are grouped together into an intermediate DS2 channel, and the C-bits are used to indicate the presence or absence of stuffing. C-Bit — The first C-bit in Msubframe 1 is always set to 1.

G

AMI — Alternate Mark Inversion

2M and 34M tabs

172 SDH Module Field Descriptions

Appendix C — Field Descriptions

MFAS Idle Bits Specify ABCD Bits for IDLE MFAS subframes 2M ABCD/SA tab MS APS Tab Specify ring or linear network, and K1 and K2 contents. MSP Architecture (Linear) Part of the K2 byte. MS APS tab National Bits Bits reserved for national use. 8M, 34M, and 140M tabs Network Topology Specify whether the network is linear or a ring. MS APS tab NFAS/FAS Word Set the value of each Sa bit. The value is transmitted repeatedly until new values are selected. 2M ABCD/Sa tab Path Code (Ring) Part of the K2 byte. MS APS tab Path Trace Format Specify the format of the message being transmitted.
G

VC-4, VC-3, and VC-12 POH tabs Path Trace String Press on the field and use the keyboard to enter a message according to the format selected. VC-4, VC-3, and VC-12 POH tabs Pattern Specify the pattern to transmit. All descriptions are for “normal” patterns where applicable.
G

All Ones — Selects a fixed ones pattern. All Zeros — Selects a fixed zero pattern. 1:1— Alternating ones and zeroes (10101010) pattern. 1:3 — A one followed by three zeroes (10001000) pattern. 1:4 — A one followed by four zeroes (100001) pattern. 1:7 — A one followed by seven zeroes (100000001) pattern. 2^11-1—A maximum of 10 sequential zeroes and 11 sequential ones. 2^15-1—A maximum of 14 sequential ones and 15 sequential zeroes. 2^20-1— A maximum of 19 sequential zeroes and 20 sequential ones. 2^23-1—A maximum of 22 sequential zeroes and 23 sequential ones. 2^31-1—A maximum of 30 sequential ones and 31 sequential zeroes.

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

16-CRC — up to 15 characters. The module calculates the proper CRC value. 64-Byte — up to 63 bytes and 1 terminator. Clear Channel

G

G

G

G

Any remaining bytes are filled with null characters.

SDH Module Field Descriptions

173

Appendix C — Field Descriptions

G

User Programmable — User selects a pattern from 3 to 32 bits long. The default is 01010101. Auto — The test instrument attempts (at the start of each new test) to detect and synchronize to the received test pattern. Delay — Test pattern used to perform round trip delay calculation.

G

Prog. Pattern (User Programmable only) Enter a pattern from 3 to 32 bits long. Default is 01010101. BERT tab Request Code (Linear) Part of the K1 byte MS APS tab Rx Input Specify the receiver input signal compensation modes:
G

G

BERT tab Pattern Type Specify the pattern as normal or inverted. BERT tab Performance Tab Specify the thresholds for G.821 SES bit error, G.821 DM bit error, and G.826 SES errored block. Also switch the G.821 ES MUX factor ON or OFF. Physical Triggers Tab Select the categories for which to log trigger events.
G G G G G G

Monitor — In monitor mode, the receiver will terminate the signal, compensate the resistive attenuation suffered by the incoming signal, and also equalize cable loss. Bridge — (2M only) Bridge mode is used to connect the module to E1 circuits during in-service tests whenever a resistor isolated access point is not available. Term — In terminate mode, the connection is made to the end of the line. The received signal will be terminated and compensated for cable loss.

G

G

Signal Framing Performance Alarm BERT PDH APS (used to enable APS switchover measurement)

2M, 34M, 45M, 140M, and SDH tabs Rx Mon Atten (Monitor only) Receive Monitor Attenuation. Compensates for 20dB, 23dB, 26dB, 30dB Protective Monitor Points (PMP) which vary from country to country. 2M, 34M, 140M, and SDH tabs Rx Structure Tab Define the analysis rate, tributary selection, and framing when in MUX mode.

Pointer Type Select the pointer for manipulation (Increment, Decrement, NDF): AU-4 or TU-3. SDH tab

174 SDH Module Field Descriptions

Appendix C — Field Descriptions

SDH Tab Specify the input signal compensation mode (in STM-1 E only), laser wavelength (optical only), and pointer type. Also activate alarms for simulation. Section Trace Format Specify the format of the message being transmitted.
G

analysis rate, Tx timing, and tributaries. Sync Status Specify the value transmitted in the S1 byte of the Section Overhead. SOH tab Timed Test Tab Check to box to enable a timed test and specify the test length (1 min. to 49d, 23h and 59 min.). Trace Terminator Specify the terminator for a 64-Byte trace message:
G G G

16-CRC - up to 15 characters. The module calculates the proper CRC value. C1 - a value of 1 is transmitted in the J0 Byte.

G

SOH tab Section Trace String (J0) Press on the field and use the keypad to enter a 15 byte trace string. SOH tab Signal Label Specify the signal label value transmitted in the C2 byte (VC-3 and VC-4) or the V5 Byte (VC-12) VC-4, VC-3, and VC-12 POH tab SOH Tab Specify contents of Section Overhead bytes S1 and J0. Source Node ID (Ring) Part of the K2 byte. MS APS tab Status (RIng and Linear) Part of the K2 byte. MS APS tab Structure Tab (Term and Thru modes) Define the transmitting payload, such as mapping, framing,

CR CR-LF LF

VC-4 and VC-3 POH tabs Tributary Selection The specified tributary is used to carry the data generated by the module.
G G G G

2M — Select a tributary 1-4 8M — Select a tributary 1-4 34M — Select a tributary 1-4 STM -n — 1-16 (STM-16), 1-4 (STM-4) TUG-3 — Select a tributary 1-3 TUG-2 — Select a tributary 1-7 TU-12 — Select a tributary 1-3 VC-12 — Select a tributary 1-63

G G G G

A VC-12 tributary may be selected by either timeslot number (VC-12 163) or a three figure address (TUG3, TUG-2, TU-12). The module automatically updates all fields to

SDH Module Field Descriptions

175

Appendix C — Field Descriptions

maintain consistency between the two numbering schemes. Structure tab Tx LBO (2M and 34M) Specify the level of cable loss:
G G G

G G G G

VC-4-4C VC-4 VC-3 VC-12

Structure tab

0 dB 6 dB 12 dB

2M and 34M tab Tx LBO 45M Specify the level of cable loss:
G G G

High DSX Low

45M tab Tx Structure Tab Define the mapping and Tx timing when in MUX mode. Tx Timing Specify the timing:
G G G G

Internal From Rx Ext Data 1048 kbits/s Ext Clock 2048kHz

Structure tab VC-4, VC-3, VC-12 POH Tab Specify the format of the trace message and enter the message string. Specify the signal label. VC Mapping Specify the Virtual Container on which to transmit the optical payload.
G

VC-4-16C

176 SDH Module Field Descriptions

Glossary

2M — A data stream of nominally 2,048,000 bits per second, the E1 rate. 34M — A data stream of nominally 34,368,000 bits per second, the E3 rate. 45M — A data stream of nominally 44,736,000 bits per second, the DS3 rate. 140M — A data stream of nominally 139,264,000 bits per second, the E4 rate.. 8M — A data stream of nominally 8,448,000 bits per second, the E2 rate.

The line-coding format whereby successive ones (marks) are alternately inverted (sent with polarity opposite that of the preceding mark). Analysis Rate — The bit rate of the data stream being analyzed by the BERT engine. The analyzed data stream can be the full payload or a demultiplexed tributary from the line interface signal. Anomaly — The smallest discrepancy between the actual and desired characteristic of an item. The occurrence of an anomaly does not interrupt a function. APS — Automatic Protection System. A means of achieving network resiliency through switching devices which automatically switch from a primary circuit to a secondary circuit. This switching process would take place when the primary circuit fails or when the error rate on the primary exceeds a set threshold.

A
AIS — Alarm Indication Signal. An AIS is a signal transmitted downstream indicating that an upstream failure has been detected. AMI — Alternate Mark Inversion.

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177

Glossary

AU — Administrative Unit.

B
B3ZS — Bipolar with 3-Zero Substitution. BER — Bit Error Rate. The ratio of error bits to the total number of bits transmitted. Bit Error Rate is a measurement of transmission quality. BERT — Bit Error Rate Test. A known pattern of bits is transmitted, and errors received are counted to figure the BER. The Bit Error Rate test is used to measure transmission quality. BIP — Bit Interleave Parity. BPV — Bipolar Violation. The presence of two consecutive ‘one’ bits of the same polarity on the E carrier and T carrier line. BNC — Bayonet Nut Connector. A round, push and twist to lock connector. Bridge Mode — A high impedance tap into an E-1 or T-1 circuit (at a bridge point where no monitor point access is provided) that does not disrupt the existing communication line. See also Monitor Point.

CRC — Cyclic Redundancy Check. A process used to check the integrity of a block of data. A CRC character is generated at the transmission end. Its value depends on the hexadecimal value of the number of ones in the data block. And it is added to the data block. The receiving end makes a similar calculation and compares the results with the added character.

D
dBdsx — 0 dBdsx is the level of a 44 736 kbit/s High level signal passing through 137.2 meters (450 feet) of 75 ohm coaxial cable terminated in a 75 ohm load. Defects — The occurrence when the density of anomalies has reached a level where the ability to perform a function has been interrupted. Demultiplex — DEMUX. To separate two or more signals previously combined by compatible multiplexing equipment. Demultiplexer — A device that pulls several streams of data out of a bigger stream of data. DEMUX — See Demultiplex. Destination Node — Those system nodes which receive messages over the control packet network from the source or transmitting node. DM — Degraded Minutes.

C
Clear Channel — A circuit that requires no framing or control bits, thus the entire bandwidth is available for communications.

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Glossary

DUT — Device Under Test.

E
E1 — See 2M. E2 — See 8M E3 — See 34M E4 — See 140M ERR — Error ES — Errored Second. ESR — Errored Second Ratio.

primary rate and forming part of an integrated services digital network. G.826 — Error performance parameters and objectives for international, constant bit rate digital paths at or above the primary rate.

H
HDB3 — High Density Bipolar 3. A bipolar coding method that does not allow more than three consecutive zeros. Histogram — A graph of contiguous vertical bars representing a frequency distribution in which groups or classes of items are marked at equal intervals in ascending order on the x axis and the number of items in each class in indicated by a horizontal line segment drawn above the x axis at a height equal to the number of items in the class. HP — High Order Path.

F
FAS — Frame Alignment Signal. The distinctive signal inserted in every frame or once in a number of frames that always occupies the same relative position within the frame and is used to establish and maintain frame alignment. FEAC — Far End Alarm and Control. FC/PC — Face Contact and Point Contact. Designations for fiber optic connectors. FEBE — Far End Block Error. Freq — Frequency.

I
ISM — In-Service Monitoring. ISO — International Organization for Standardization. ITU — International Telecommunications Union based on Geneva, Switzerland.

G
G.821 — Error performance of an international digital connection operating at a bit rate below the 2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

179

Glossary

L
LCD — Liquid Crystal Display. LED — Light Emitting Diode. LBO — Electrical Line Build Out. Line Coding — A line code is the waveform of voltage or current used to represent the 1s and 0s of a digital signal on a transmission link.Several different types of line coding can be used in PDH systems to represent the same information in slightly different way. Line Interface Rate — The bit rate of the signal being recovered by a line interface from a twisted pair, coaxial cable, or a fiber optic cable. A data stream can be extracted from the line interface signal and routed to a BERT engine for analysis. The analyzed data stream can be the full payload or a demulitplexed tributary from the line interface signal. LOF — Loss of Frame. LOP — Loss of Pointer. LP — Low Order Path. Lvl — Level.

bringing-into-service and maintenance of international SDH paths and multiplex sections. M13 — The multiplexer equivalent of T-1. In the U.S. digital hierarchy, multiplexers are called by the digital signal levels they interface with. For example, a multiplexer, which joins DS-1 channels to DS3 is called a M1-3. A M1-3 takes 28 DS-1 inputs and combines them into a single 45 megabit per second stream. Max — Maximum. MFAS — Multiframe Alignment Signal. Min — Minimum. MON — Monitor. MS — Multiplexer Section. Multiplex — MUX. To transmit two or more signals over a single channel. Multiplexer — Electronic equipment that allows two or more signals to pass over one communication circuit. MUX — See Multiplex.

M
M.2100 — Performance limits for bringing-into-service of international PDH paths, sections and transmission systems M.2101.1 — Performance limits for

N
Network Topology — The geometric arrangement of links and nodes of a network. The geography of a network. NDF — New Data Flag.

180

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Glossary

NFAS — Not- Frame Alignment Signal. NIST — National Institute of Standards and Technology

O
OOF — Out of Frame. An error in framing bits. OOS — Out of Service Monitoring. The SDH module performs out of service monitoring at the currently selected analysis rate.

POH — Path Overhead. SDH overhead assigned to and transported with the payload until the payload is demultiplexed. It is used for functions that are necessary to transport the payload. These functions include parity check and trace capability. PRBS — Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence/pattern. A test pattern having the properties of random data, but generated in such a manner that another circuit, operating independently, can synchronize on the pattern and detect individual transmission bit errors. Ptr — Pointer.

P
Payload Pointer — SDH provides payload pointers to permit differences in the phase and frequency of the Virtual Containers (VC-N) with respect to the STM-N frame. Low order pointers are also provided to permit phase differences between VC-1/VC-2 and the higher order VC-3/VC-4. PCMCIA — Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. The PCMCIA standardizes credit-card size packages for memory and input/output for computers, laptops, palmtops, and more. PDH — Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy. Developed to carry digitized voice over twisted pair cabling more efficiently. PJE — Pointer Justification Event. PMP — Protective Monitor Point.

R
RDI — Remote Defect Indication. An indication that a failure has occurred at the far end of a network. REBE — Remote End Block Error (2M only) Ref — Reference. REI — Remote Error Indication. Rx — Receive.

S
SDH — Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SES — Severely Errored Second. A second in which a severe number of errors are detected over a digital circuit.Each error comprises a code violation.

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181

Glossary

SOH — Section Overhead STM — Synchronous Transport Module. The information structure used to support section layer connections in the SDH. STM1 — A data stream of nominally 155,520,000 bits per second (155M). STM-4 — A data stream of nominally 622,080,000 bits per second, (622M). STM-16 — A data stream of nominally 2,488,320,000 bits per second (2.5G). Sync — Synchronization.

U
UIM — User Interface Module. Unavail — Unavailable.

V
VC — Virtual Container.

T
Thru — Through Mode. Tributary — The lower rate signal input to a multiplexer for combination (multiplexing) with other low rate signals to form an aggregate higher rate signal. TS-16 — Time Slot 16. TSE — Test Sequence Error (bit error). TU — Tributary Unit. The SDH equivalent of a Virtual Channel in SONET terminology. TUG — Tributary Unit Group. Tx — Transmit.

182

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Index

Numerics
2M timeslots viewing, 46 Buttons action, 19 application, 18 setup, 19

A
Action buttons, 19 Alarms simulating PDH, 54 simulating SDH, 73 Application buttons, 18 APS switchover time verifying, 59 Assembling the unit, 6

C
Calibration instrument service, 125 Commands, remote control configuration, 147 result, 158 syntax, 146 Computer-Based Training (CBT) technical training, 127 Configuration commands, remote control 140M, 153 2M, 150 34M, 152 45M, 152 8M, 151 BERT, 149 SDH, 153 STM1_E, 158 system, 148

B
Battery maintaining, 12 recharging, 12 replacing, 12 BERT testing PDH, 55 SDH, 75 Bottom panel, 17

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

183

Index

Connecting the printer, 10 the unit for testing, 31 Consulting and Needs Analysis Services technical training, 127 Copying files, 30 Critical Services Program test systems field engineering and installation, 126 Customer Service Locations, 124 Customized Multimedia Course Development technical training, 127 Customized Technical Training customer services, 127

Field Engineering and Installation Service test systems field engineering and installation, 126 Files, configuration copying, 30 deleting, 30 renaming, 30 Front panel, 17

H
Histograms configuring, 26 printing, 39

I
Icons system, 19 Information warranty, 128 Installation test systems field engineering and, 126 Installing options, 9 Instructions equipment return, 130 Instrument Service customer services, 124

D
Deleting files, 30

E
Electrical Specifications, 135 Environmental specifications, 135 Equipment Return Instructions service and repair information, 130 Errors generating PDH, 52 generating SDH, 72 Event log printing a selected range, 42 viewing, 116

L
Language setting, 7 Laser safety, 32 Loading test configurations, 29 Locations customer service, 124

F
Factory Upgrades instrument service, 125 Features and capabilities, 2

184

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Index

M
Maintenance Contracts test systems field engineering and installation, 126 Message display, 19 Modes operating, 33 MUX mode, 34 testing a multiplexer, 88

PDH tests BERT, 55 generating errors, 52 identifying anomalies and defects, 52 monitoring network traffic, 57 performance analysis, 47 round trip delay, 50 simulating alarms, 54 verifying APS switchover time, 59 Performance analysis PDH, 47 SDH, 70 Permanent softkeys, 21 Physical triggers selecting, 26 Pointer movements analyzing, 77 Powering the unit, 6 Printer connecting, 10 Printing a selected range from the event log, 42 headings, 39 histograms, 39 selecting print type, 38 standard categories, 39 test results, 36 to file, 37 Problems resolving, 120 Product Enhancement Group customer services, 126 Product Maintenance Agreements instrument service, 125 Product Repair instrument service, 125 Public Courses technical training, 127

N
Navigating the user interface, 18 Network Consulting and Management product enhancement group, 126

O
Operating modes, 33 MUX, 34 terminate, 33 thru, 34 Options installing, 9 Other Pricing Options instrument service, 125 Out-of-Warranty Service Agreement test systems field engineering and installation, 126

P
PDH input signals, 137 measurement types, 138 output signals, 136 specifications, 136

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

185

Index

R
Recharging the battery, 12 Remote control command syntax, 146 configuration commands, 147 result commands, 158 using, 44 Renaming files, 30 Replacing the battery, 12 Result commands, remote control BERT, 162 HP, 167 LED, 159 LP, 168 Misc., 169 PDH frame, 161 performance, 163 signal, 158 SOH, 166 Results, interpreting BERT, 98 HP, 109 LED, 114 LP, 111 PDH frame, 100 performance, 103 signal, 96 SOH, 107 summary, 94 Return Instructions equipment, 130 Round trip delay test, 50

SDH input signals, 142 measurement types, 142 output signals, 140 specifications, 140 SDH tests analyzing pointer movements, 77 BERT testing, 75 generating errors, 72 identifying anomalies and defects, 71 identifying trace messages, 79 performance analysis, 70 simulating alarms, 73 Service instrument, 124 Service Locations customer, 124 Setup assembling the unit, 6 installing options, 9 setting the language, 7 Setup button, 19 Softkeys permanent, 21 Software Customization product enhancement group, 126 Software Enhancement Agreements instrument service, 125 Specifications, 133 electrical, 135 environmental, 135 PDH, 136 physical, 134 results display, 144 SDH, 140 Summary bar, 19

S
Safety laser, 32 Saving test configurations, 28

186

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

Index

System configuring settings, 22 icons, 19 viewing information, 22

Test configurations deleting, 30 loading, 29 saving, 28 Test Procedure Development product enhancement group, 126 Test results interpreting, 93 printing, 36 viewing, 35

T
Technical Training customer services, 127 Terminate mode, 33

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

187

Index

Test Systems Field Engineering and Installation customer services, 126 Tests analyzing pointer movements, 77 configuring, 23 connecting the unit for, 31 generating PDH errors, 52 generating SDH errors, 72 identifying PDH anomalies and defects, 52 identifying SDH anomalies and defects, 71 identifying trace messages, 79 monitoring network traffic, 57 PDH BERT, 55 PDH performance analysis, 47 round trip delay, 50 SDH BERT, 75 SDH performance analysis, 70 selecting physical triggers for, 26 simulating PDH alarms, 54 simulating SDH alarms, 73 testing a multiplexer, 88 timed, 25 verifying APS switchover time, 59 Thru mode, 34

Timed print activating, 37 Timed test, 25 Timeslots viewing 2M, 46 Top panel, 16 Tour guided, 15 Trace messages identifying, 79 Training technical, 127 Triggers physical, 26 Troubleshooting, 119

U
User interface, navigating, 18

W
Warranty Information customer services, 128

188

2416 SDH Field Service Module User’s Guide

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