Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education



Haris Anwar Syafrudie
Lecturer of State University of Malang

The fields in vocational education becomes the social character of the orientation of
the public welfare. Role and its presence reflects the structure of the labor force,
and scope off employment. Orientation classes are growing in the social strata
because of the background and the accompanying leverage point.

Keywords: employment; vocational education

Work on Vocational Education
Many view that employment -oriented wage is the purpose of vocational
educa¬tion. The meaning of work is something that guarantees a person's life in serving
and supporting people's lives. The work is addressed to those who are trained and able to
interact. Employment is also a person's identity, is the achievement of specific skills, in
which are given the cultural and social context of work for someone so a ssociated with
Value and type of work is a special perspective on Greek Hellenic culture. At the
time of Aristotle (Moodie, 2002) proposed five categories of essential work such as:
1. Episteme (science students)
2. Techne (art and applied science)
3. Phronesis (prudence or wisdom)
4. Inous (intelligence or intuition), and
5. Sophia (wisdom)
The results provide training in the field of employment, labor supply, the expansion
of employment at that time initiated by the learned and among authorities (aristocracy,
plutocracy, theokrasi, technocracy, and bureaucrats), although some of them really
understand the true meaning of work. This practice still exists to present can be seen at
the daily life.
At mid-century in Mesopotamia, Greek, Chinese imperial era, and European skills
possessed by employees is very much appreciated. Skills really needed of the
community. The skills they have adresses a special place in society. At the community
as a coal miner for example, a coal miner or status has a more prominent position than
other workers in the field of community support. According Estola et al (2003) work is
viewed as an individual course, a phenomenon that gives energy and direct intention,
activities and interactions of a set up by external factors, such as field work for a
particular competency. From this point of view can be seen as a vocational education
focus. This view ensure the purpose of a focus along with their potential and aspirations
of the job. Vocational educat ion will be directed to the importance of understanding
individual capacities that help someone to identify and create the work. Opinion as Dror
(1993), Hansen (1994, h.266) that works with the social, employment includes the
elements, the goal of social and personal.
Besides focusing on the development of personal capacities and specific skills,
vocational education has other meanings. According to Thompson (1973) the purpose of
vocational education as a place employees completion can be found in the whole
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


education sector. In primary education, students learn about the tools of culture and the
implications for students who do practice. In general education, students are introduced
to issues related to the development problematic based skills into the workplace. In adult
education, students develop the ability to help themselves and their own capacity.

Brute Perspective
According to the Brute there are a number dimensions of the meaning of work
(Searle: 1995), one of them is the social dimension of employment. Brute facts
1. Many people get into trouble because by nature, environmental conditions, age, and
For example, compliance with the provision of food, clothing, security, travel,
housing and efforts to maintain the level of heal th.
2. Work that is limited by restrictions target, time, retirement age, which limit the
activity at a particular period.
For example, soldiers on the front lines, or a fire fighter restricted by the physical
strength needed to support their work. Old age and disability will limit the ability
to carry out their work

As The Job Calls
European society in the past interested in the job that has intellectuals orientation.
The value of the work is considered as an achievement for every worker. Jobs are
considered low or high views by the institutions in which they work. Quality jobs that are
considered sacred and is also regarded as the calls of God, fore man should show his
skills. In the Greek era such thinking orientation has been dominated by work and the
In addition to vocational education purposes, the works tend to have a social and
environmental objectives, which include personal and social purposes, personal needs
that related to understanding the world of work, development potential, and maintain
capa¬bilities. Being socially-oriented , including the potential goals to contribute to the
development of national economy, etc.These objectives can be categorized as follows
1. Cultural reproduction, renewal, and transformation of work, as the values preserved
in social change.
2. Capacity development of economic, social, and effectiveness, as work norms.
3. Efforts to maintain the continuity of social norms and social values, changing
community norms and practices, develop people skills, meet the needs of the
particular job preparation.
4. Individual preparation, identification of career and work experience.

There is a variety of purposes for the preparation of the work, as single goal and
objectives, it is also describes the purpose of orientation or specific values. For example,
if the purpose should emphasize on the aspect of economic or social change. The purpose
of vocational education can be concluded that associated with 1) culture, 2) economic,
3) community, 4) employ¬ment needs, and 5) maintaining the state goal. Connected to
the vocational education Dewey (1916) suggests the existence of the dual purpose of
education to identify suitable work and helping someone develop their own potential.
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


Elias (1995) look at vocational education related to one's preparation to face the working
world. According to Elias the concept of vocational education interpreted dynamically
include career and technical education. Responding to this dissent, Greinert (1988) model
of vocational education divide into three models.
The first model is called as a school -model, state-directed model, and the market
model. School models, consists of initial vocational education is provided school system,
as adopted in France. State-directed model is the model form of cooperation between
state enterprises and training providers. Germany is seen as a country that successfully
run this model. While Market model is a model where most of the education was held
without the direct involvement of the state, where the company took on the role of
vocational education as a basic controller . UK is one of the countries that use the market
approach model.
Variations policies are applied in European countries according to the country
objectives. In France, and in some other countries in Europe, at the end of the
agriculture oriented vocational education period, school appeared in a major agricultural
region. In the development model of the French government felt this kind of education
suitable for the country educational objectives. Vocational education model that
originated from the agricultural orientation is then developed and applied in various
fields of work, such as
1. a blacksmith. plumbers, engineers, steel expert,
2. a metal expert,
3. a carpenter,
4. expert wheel
According to Thompson (Thompson, 1973), vocational education is related to
reproduction, which refers to the renewal of social goals. The vocational education focus
is to develop and maintain standards of practice skills in responding to the needs of
social progress. While quoting the views of Elias (1973) vocational education should
have a general purpose and special aims, because aspects of vocational education
should be viewed as part of public education to all students, including a wider exposure
of the importance of the work.

Vocational Education in Various Countries
Techical Vocational Education in Massachusetts originated f rom the Career and
Technical Education (CTE) was established in 1800 which in 1908 changed to Smith
Vocational and Agricultural High School as the first technical vocational school. At that
time the implementation of the learning process using a block system with a certified
instructor issued by the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary
Education (DESE). Vocational education was popularized by John D. Runkel president
of the Massa¬chusett Institute of Technology to educate African Americans. According
to Billet (2011) there are various forms of vocational education in different countries.
In Australia, the field consists of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), in New
Zealand, and Singapore, polytechnics; in the UK, Instit ute of Vocational Education in
Germany and known as Fachschule.
According Greinhart in Billett (2011), vocational education has evolved,
Fachshule Germany, has a relationship with Berufsfachschule vocational schools,
vocational secondary school full time and Berufsfachschule which is usually a part -time
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


school is done with a dual system. At that time the rapid changes to the ways of work
and life style. That change led to acceptance of the importance of skills seen as
vocational education as an effective tool to develop personal qualities and skills
needed in the workplace. They than connects school curriculum with the real world. At
the beginning vocational education given to young people, before entering the labor
market, but the orientation gradually changed to provide vocational t raining services
for employees affected by lay offs that are popular and known as the Community
College. In contrast to what has done in Australia, Britain, New Zealand and Finland.

Lessons from Finland
The education system in Finland is built on the principle of lifelong learning, by
providing the opportunities for further study of all people of all ages and levels of
education. The education system operated in order to obtain a certificate, or without a
certificate-oriented education and training for adults. Some of these include education
and training for adultbasis, while other forms of advanced training. Adult education in
Finland is generally divided into three parts:
• Conduct adult education and training relevant to the needs and level of education.
• Training of prospective workers, conducted by the Department of Labor
• Training the workforce, which is financed by employers, training done during working
hours, training of employees in accordance with the needs of companies with the aim to
increase productivity and profitability.

Perspective Development of Vocational
According to Greinhart (2005), Hanf (2002), Gonon (2009) vocational education
was established by the state. Objectives of the establishment to address issues related to
the supply of skilled labor. To solve problem of youth, unemployment (Dewey, 1916)
put education as preparation of change for society. This is in line with the view of
Prosser (1913) which places education as preparation for society as it is, vocational
education is positioned as the preparation of youth for work. Develop skills for adults, as
well as address the needs of labor within the framework of economy.
Vocational education was held to: provide opportunities for all citizens to get
training for one to two weeks each year, in order to improve the competence of every 10
to 15 years; provide opportunities for adults to get an education at all levels, according to
the level of maturity and condition of potential trainees; promote equalization levels in
workers with low educational background; strengthen the teaching methods, counseling,
developing new learning environments, teaching practices for vocational trainers and
teachers; develop a retention rate and benefits as a person's social capital.
Prosser in line with the views of students in vocational education designed to have
particular expertise in entering employment, the material is taken from the world of work
through job analysis, teaching is organized from the simple to the complex and emphasis
on preparatory work, or increasing the skills of workers.

Program Noste
Noste program in Finland (2003-07) is an education and training for adults aged
30-59 with primary education background. This program gives participants the
opportunity to obtain any form of training in the form of qualification, advanced,
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


specialists, who provided free of charge. In particular the objectives of the program is to
enhance Noste career development for people who have not completed education and
basic vocational training. Program targeted to reduce labor shortages due to retirement or
the increasing number of job opportunities. Noste is a name in Finland defined as an
increase in skills for adults.

Table 1. Participation Levels of Education and Training
Participant Female (%)
Continued without vocational
79.935 55
Further vocational internship 2.961 73
Labor market training 51.955 52
Program order by the employer 298.839 43
Polytechnic 13.560 66
Open university 57.986 80
Other educational 91.568 55
Total 2.246.496 60
(*) Sources : Statistic Finland, Educational Institutions, 2005

Vocational Certification
Finland organized vocational education and training continued to serve adults. This
training is designed to increase adult vocational competencies, provide independent
training, developed and promoting the work of work orientation as the implementation
of the concept of lifelong learning. Training activities are intended to give someone the
opportunity to earn advanced vocational qualification or a specialist. Training activities
is carried out in school or in an internship. In Finland the state set aside the certification
of skills.

Finnish Universities providing education for adults who are not oriented toward a
degree. Provide tiered higher education courses, in the form of modules, which are part
of the implementation of polytechnic. Univer sities in the country also provide
professional specialization studies for those who have earned. Implementation includes
training in colleges of education activities with a weight of 20-60 study credits to be
taken one to two years. They conducted an education for undergraduate and masters for
young and old, all ages. Program conducted a separate master, master program intended
for those who already have college degrees. This program provides the possibility of new
titles that will be taken in a short ti me. Finnish universities also provide specialization
for vocational studies. The program is intended to promote professional development as
other forms of continuing education, which is usually carried out by the centers of further
education (fortbildningscentralen) . In 2005, Finland is the fourth country that has a
participation rate in life long learning best along with Denmark, Sweden and the UK

Stock Training in Finland
Stock work force training is part of labor policy. Stock is divided into two main
sections, vocational training and career guidance and job preparation. The vocational
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


training serve in the form of skills training in the form of formal education. Career
guidance is intended to provide insight into the work in accordance with one's education.
Each trainee is given a certificate, according to the standard of education in universities,
with the award which is equivalent to the need for the working world with equal skills
and colleges to cognitive level. Made possible the implementation of the training market
is prepared by an appropriate licensed organization under the state. All providers of
education and vocational training subsidized by the state. Providing educa¬tion and
training by private institutions strictly controlled. Private institutions that are believed to
provide certificate-oriented training to get sebsidi same state as public institu¬tions. The
State Labor Law. 55/2001 arranged for participating employers to provide training to
workers competenc always align with the demands of work adapted to the increasing
demand on the industrialized world. These activities participated by com¬panies in an
effort to prevent lay offs.

Vocational Education Sector
Billet (2011) seen vocational education is intended for a broad education.
Vocational fields were covering various sectors of life, as part of one's education after
completing their education. Education position is parallel to the other educational
institutions, vocational education institutions that have governed the country.
Orientation of vocational education become wider, more than one type and level of
work. The field of vocational education fall into the field on the orientation of the
social character of public welfare. The role and existence of the orientation come into the
discussion in the media, which reflects the structure of the labor force, and scope of
employment in a country. Orientation classes are growing in the social strata because of
the background and the leverage points that accompany it.

Implementation in Schools
Reviewing the school, it seems when these ideas forward to forming a strong man
power and the availability of a skilled workforce is well -scripted. Educational goals,
curriculum, performance criteria, assessment and orientation unit is oriented to education
and support for the creation of a strong work force and advanced. Further education is
associated with the current approach, the dominant paradigm constructivism visible. It is
seen here some one described as an active individual building, the individual interprets
his future, some one is actively construct meaning, in order to build the structure and
extensive social systems.
The role of a person search for li fe, earn a living by work towards the fulfillment of
consumer needs. Drafter of the blueprint of education in this country as a whole view of
human needs, which is driven by the interests, talents a chance to try to engage actively
in life, trying to understand what is happening around them.

Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


Chart 1. Course Curriculum Development synergy

Indonesian Style
The main reference in the preparation of curriculum development and vocational
programs that ideal is referring to the agreement and the rules that have been standard,
which is in the law system of National Education No. 20 of 2003, and Law 19 of 2005
that the national education standards serve to organize, control and development in order
to realize the quality of national education. This reference i s so rigid, only limited formal
education, held by the state. Schools that run by private parties replicate what already
exists, because they are exposed to the same pattern of quality assurance, namely
National education standards consist of content standards, process standards and
competency standards, standards of educational personnel, facilities and infrastructure
standards, management standards, financial standards and standards of educational
assessment. These standards should be used as a reference in the administration of
vocational education and training in Indonesia, there was no education for all ages, from
all educational backgrounds to all areas of work such as the model adopted in France, or
Germany is also the model of Finland.
Here is one of the vocational education sub-system within the national education
system. A number of problems facing vocational educati on today include: (1) the
competence of graduates who have not been optimal, (2) absorption of the low-vocational
graduates, (3) problem relevance of graduates with the needs of society and industry, (4)
program in vocational education compared with vocational areas are limited, (5)
understanding of the vision and goals of education have not been aligned with the
practitioners, (6) industry awareness of vocational education in Indonesia is low, (7)
facilities and infrastructure to support learning in vocational education in adequate, and
(8) academic climate in the education environment is not conducive.
In the fourth chapter, government regulations governing the content and process
standards in education (Depdiknas, 2004-a) states that each unit of education shall use
the standard content that includes coverage of the depth of material and mastery level of
competence each subject and or study materials for every level of education. In the fifth
chapter further explained that each educational unit on the lines, levels and types of
education must implement the educational process that makes empowering way and
empowering, democratic and equitable, non discriminatory and uphold human rights, and
religious values.
Field of Study
matter expert
Technology & MESSA

Field Expert
Indonesian by
constitution 45
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


Hadi (2007) stated that schools today are too busy to build buildings and create a
program of new majors. Students are now rather preoccupied with finding information
but filter the information, due to too much incoming information. School today is no
longer a major source or repository of knowledge. Students will be able to obtain
information from various sources. The future teachers will face the students who come to
the logic of thinking is different, because they are already included in the video games,
virtual reality, and the increasingly blurred geographical boundaries. Problems arise
because the working group is not considered as a product, but as a process. While skills
on how to find information is still lacking among students. Most students are still waiting
to be fed.
Purpose of learning to explore science has turned into getting good grades so she
can get a good job anyway. Therefore students are only based on records and information
of teachers, does not seek its own information outside the book to remember all the exam
questions were excluded from the book.Having read, and ill -informed desire to ask the
class to be very limited. Though the process of educati on in each educational unit
orginized to provide exemplary demand, will build and develop the creativity of students
in accordance with the development of intelligence, and sufficiency in the achievement
of vocational competency standards.

Clark, Linda., & Christopher Winc.(2009). Vocational Education International
Approaches Developments and Systems.
De Vries,Marc J.(2005). Teaching about Technology. Eindhoven University The
Netherlands: Springer
Miller, Melvin D. (1960). Principle and Philosophy for Vocational Education. The Ohio
State University
Pavlova, Margarita.(2009). Technology and Vocational Education for Sustainable
Development. New York: Springer
Billet, Sthephen.(2011). Vocational Education Purpose, Tradition and Prospects. Griffith
University Australia

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