Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education



Setiadi Cahyono Putro
Malang State University

The role of leadership in education policy to improve the future quality of vocational education
in Indonesia is essential. Because, the significance of quality vocational education as an
integral part of community residents will be determined to what extent they have behaviors that
are adaptive and anticipatory work of the characteristics of modern society in the era of
globalization. To deal with the quality of vocational education should be improved. Things that
must be performed by such educational leaders must play a role in: (1) to formulate the vision,
mission, and the right strategy, (2) understand the importance of leadership in school and
practice it in real soon, (3) understand the demands of the quality of institutions and future
graduates, so that school leaders need to mencangakan quality of their respective schools with
the standards believed, and (4) adopt policies and decisions by the firm, related to improving
the quality of schooling in order to exist in the era of globalization and future eras will of
course be dynamic and always changing.

Key words: leadership, quality, policy, and future

The trend that is still running on the new Indonesia is facing the challenge of globalization:
(1) leap of knowledge and technology, (2) the information explosion, globalization in various
aspects of life (Pratiknya, 1991). Thus the significance of vocational education as an integral part
of community residents will be determined to what extent they have behaviors that are adaptive and
anticipatory work of community characteristics (Putro, 2001). Key to the future in life is change.
Vocational education leaders must begin to think of new strategies to face the challenges of
vocational education in an increasingly global future. The future of vocational education should be
linked difikirkan at least two aspects.
First, learning in particular vocational technology is unique in comparison to the realm of
learning other sciences. For example: (1) in the field of technology, the results are very vareatif and
dynamic engineering, especially software engineering and electronics, (2) in the field of
technology, learning-oriented to form the emulation capabilities, (3) in the field of technology, in
the field of learning technologies more emphasis on efforts to establish a transfer of learning and
the transfer of general principle and the development of attitudes (Mukhadis, 2002). Estuary end of
the unique nature of learning technology is the development of superior quality and competitive
graduates in the era of globalization.
Second, the need for reorientation of the paradigm of learning that moves from learning that:
(1) tend to emphasize aspects of cognitive and technical skills (sometimes outdated) toward the
non-cognitive factors (social interaction skills, creativity, motivation, self-confidence, and
kemempuan teamwork), and (2) more use of EQ and SQ than IQ in measuring the success of
learning. From the research, psychologists have argued that the contribution to the success of a
person's IQ is only 20%, while 80% is determined by factors in the EQ (Coleman, 1998).
Awareness of vocational education leaders of the two above aspects have not been adequate.
To go into these aspects in order to improve future quality of vocational education, educational
leadership role becomes very important. Efektivitas research on schools and school improvement in
several countries show that the quality of leadership and management is one of the most important
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


vareabel to distinguish between schools that are successful (Sammon et al., 1994). A good
management will make a difference in the quality of schools and the education of their students
(Bush & Coleman, 2008).
Education is about learning communities. If the quality management aims to have relevance
in education, then he should give emphasis on the quality of students. That would not be realized if
quality management does not give a substantial contribution to quality in education. At most higher
education institutions are required to do even better, it was important to focus on the main-learning
activity (Sallis, 2007).
"Vocational education is part of the education system that prepares a person to be more able
to work on the job or one area of work than other areas of work" (Evans, cited Djojonegoro, 1998).
Benchmark efficient vocational education is to prepare students for the type of work is based on
manpower requirements and the students get a job in accordance with the trained skill (Calhoun &
Finch, 1982).
With growing exposure on one question: How does a leadership role in improving the
quality of education the future of vocational education in Indonesia? . To answer these questions is
the concept will be reviewed; (1) Vision, Mission. Schools and strategies, (2) Importance of
Educational Leadership, (3) The concept of quality of education, and (4) policies to improve

Vision, Mission, Strategy School
Vision for the school is very important, because it describes the organization's future vision
of the desired school. To face the challenges of globalization need to hold a repositioning
vocational education. Repositioning of course related to improving the quality of human resources
in the area where the school exists and refers to the tendency of the market related to the
development of technology.
One example of a vision that once defined the challenges of globalization vocational profile
is: "The realization that berstandart Vocational Training institutes of the National and
International". With its mission: (1) develop a system of Vocational Education are adaptive,
flexible, and global perspective, (2) integrating Vocational education is sound quality and
excellence, professional and future-oriented, (3) achieve service excellence in schools and
community empowerment, and (4) developing a learning climate that is rooted in cultural norms
and values of Indonesia (DISPENDIK, 2001).
By looking at the vision above, suggests that the principal to set a 'vision' and 'make' vision
in the leadership of the school, encouraging students, staff, teachers, and parents. This implies that
the school's vision should be specific and not merely a repetition of the values and national
priorities (Bush & Coleman, 2008). The vision must be inspiring and distinctive. From some
research, many school principals who claim to have Vis, but in reality the vision of the school are
less specific and tend to only mertefleksikan country's national education goals.
Furthermore Bush & Coleman (2008), stated that "communicate the vision yangn distinctive
in school is a process that requires caution and require a high priority if you want to succeed. Beare
et al. (1989) present ten things important for a quality leader in the school. Three of which related
to pembentuka vision: (1) prominent leaders who have a vision for the organization, (2) the vision
must be communicated to maintain commitment among members of the organization, and (3)
Communication of vision requires the communication of meaning. It is obvious that the school's
vision depends on the credibility of the principal as a leader to make the grade school.
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


The mission used to describe the whole purpose and mission and philosophy are also often
expressed in short sentences, catchy, and provide guidance for all members of the school
organization. The mission is more specific than the vision in expressing the values of the
institution; mission is also considered as a means to translate inspiration into reality.
West-Burnham (2002) states that the mission could include: (1) characterize the school
according to their community, (2) provide direction and purpose, (3) has a standard of decision
making, (4) formulate and direct the school culture, (5) produce consistency action, (6) identifying
the client; and (7) motivating and challenging.
Strategy is the third aspect of vision and mission are used to achieve the core purpose and
direction in the organization. The strategy sought to be directed values and associated with the
vision and mission. Caldwell and Spinks (1992) explains, the strategy is a major component of the
school principal, who embodied dengana: (1) harmonize with the trends and issues threats and
opportunities, (2) sort out the megatrend, (3) provide knowledge, (4 ) to create structures and
processes that are capable of setting priorities and strategy formulation, (5) focus attention on the
problems of the school community the importance of strategy, and (6) monitor the implementation
of such a strategy raises strategic issues; facilitate the process of continuous monitoring (Bush &
Coleman, , 2008).

Importance Of Education Leadership
Some definitions of leadership is useful, but not the most correct definition (Yukl, 2010).
There are three dimensions of leadership, better known as the basic working definition of
development, namely: (1) leadership as an influence, (2) Leadership and values, and (3) Leadership
and Vision (Bush, 2003).
The first dimension of "leadership as an influence"; central element in many definitions of
leadership is that there is a process of influence in it. Most definitions of leadership reflect the
assumption that it involves a social influence process in which the influence of the accidental is
given by one person [or group] over other people [or groups] to structure activities and
relationships within the group or organization. (Yukl, 2010), suggesting the use of 'person' or
'group' serves to emphasize that leadership can be done by teams and individuals. Definition of
Cuba (1988) showed that the effect is the purpose it was intended to lead to specific outcomes:
"Leadership, then refer to the person who memanfaatkkan motivations and actions of others to
achieve certain goals; it means taking the initiative and risk. Ogawa and Bossert (1995) saw this
influence as a quality organization that flows through different internal networks of organizations.
The second dimension "Leadership and values"; leadership can be understood as an
'influence' but this notion is neutral in that it does not explain or recommend what the purpose or
action must be sought through this process. Wasserberg (2000) states that 'The main role of any
leader is the union of people around the key values'. Greenfield and Ribbins (1993) adds that
leadership starts with the character of the leaders, expressed in personal values, self-awareness and
emotional and moral capabilities.
The third dimension "Leadership and vision"; Vision increasingly regarded as an important
component of an effective system. Beare, et al. (1989) interested in the work of Bennis and Nanus
(1985) to articulate the 'ten generalizations' about leadership, four of which are directly related to
vision (see the discussion of 'vision, mission, and strategy'). This generalization is essentially
normative view of the centrality's vision for effective leadership. However, there is also some
empirical support for this recipe. Southworth (2002) suggests that leaders are motivated to work
hard 'because their leadership is pursuing their vision of the individual indicators'.
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


Kouzes and Posner (2007) menjelaskankan leadership is a reciprocal process between those
who want to lead by those who choose to follow. Definition given by Kouzes and Posner seems to
differ with the opinion Yukl; Kouzes and Posner seem to favor those that leadership is a joint effort
to achieve organizational goals.
Coverage of the leadership, the leader will affect: (1) The interpretation of external events by
the members, (2) options and strategies that aim to be achieved, (3) Motivation member to achieve
goals, (4) Mutual trust and cooperation among members , (5) The organization is working aktifvtas,
(6) The development of confidence and skills of members, (7) learning and sharing new knowledge
between members, and (8) Making a list of support and cooperation from outsiders (Yukl, 2010).
A glimpse of school leadership-related purposes above indicated the importance of
vocational education leadership. Due to the leadership of the 'right' keys to success and improving
the quality of school leadership through three dimensions described above are held in check.

Concept Of Quality Education
In the definition of an absolute, something that quality is part of a very high standard that can
not be surpassed. Quality products is something that is made perfectly and the cost is prohibitive.
These products can be assessed and make their owners happy and proud (Sallis, 2007; Goetch &
Davis, 2000). If related to the concept of education, the concept of quality is the elite, because only
a few institutions that can provide an educational experience with a 'high quality' to the learners.
Relative definition of quality rather than as attributes of a product or service, but something
that is considered to be derived from the product or service. Quality can be said to exist if a service
meets existing specifications. Quality is a way of determining whether the final product compliant
or not. Product or service that has quality, the concept of relative need not be expensive and
exclusive. Relative definition of quality has two aspects. First, it is conform to the specifications.
Second, is to meet customer needs (Sallis, 2007). The specification is the relevance of vocational
competencies to the world of work, and the customer is the user's expertise. Of this, growth relative
definiri standards ISO and so on.
Who really have to decide if a school failed to provide a service that has quality?. Whether
producers or consumers?. Organizations that adopt TQM view quality as defined by the customer-
subscriber mereka.Mutu can be defined as something that is satisfying and exceeding customer
needs and requirements. It is also called, according to the perception of quality (Sallis, 2007).
The next question is: what is the product of vocational education? And the latter who are the
customers?. This akansulit applied in practice in education. Then what if approached with the
quality of services. Sallis (2007) states differ from production services in terms of method. The first
difference, between the two is that the services typically include direct relationship between
providers and users; there is a close relationship between the customer and the person providing the
service. Quality of service is determined by both, by the people who give and receive services.
Time is an important element both in the quality of services. Personal interactions that are
familiar in the provision of services allows multiple opportunities for feedback and evaluation, and
it is a way to assess whether the customer is satisfied or not (Sallis, 2007). Third, services can not
be patched or repaired, then the most important thing is that the standard of services must be
'always good from the start'. Fourth, the service is more like a process rather than product.
The fifth difference is that the service will be provided directly to customers by a junior
employee. Most customers do not have access to senior managers. Therefore, staff training and
development needs to be designed by the leader. Sallis (2007) states the quality of customer
interactions that characterize the initial views of customers about the whole organization, and then
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


the organization must find ways to motivate front-line workers in order to always deliver the best to
customers. Keenan, customers judge quality by comparing their perceptions of what they receive
with what they expect.
So the principals of quality analysis is more appropriately used to view education as a
service industry rather than as the production process. This view is needed for vocational
education, which eventually will be able to define the standard of service and they will give. How
to do it should be jointly and simultaneously with all stake-holders, including direct discussions
between schools, parents, community, and the world of work.

Education Policy To Improve Quality
Good opinion quoted Imron (1996) meneyampaikan meaning of "education as a policy
judgment based on value systems and some assessment of the factors that are situational; judgment
is a general plan to serve as guidelines for making decisions, so that the goals are institutionalized
can be achieved.
Meanwhile, Cooper, et al. (2004) defines "policy as a political process where the needs,
intentions, and expectations translated into a series of goals, rules, policies, and programs, which in
turn affects the allocation of resources, actions, results, which became the basis of evaluation,
change, and The new policy ".
Understanding the above opinion, we conclude that educational policy can be defined as the
product of a general plan provisions (guidance) in the field of education, as well as the political
process of making laws in education, began the formulation, implementation to evaluation. In this
regard, to improve the quality of education needed ksekolah leadership capable of taking the
The definition of policy, United Nations Department for Development Support and
Management Services (1993) in Gasskov (2000) states that "government management
(management in government) should be distinguished from policy making (policy making) which
consists of analysis and policy development activities".
Further Gasskov (2000) explains that "the policy-making begins with the identification of the
need for a government service or the problems that arise in the services are running". Efforts to
identify the needs of the public can be very difficult. Formulation process will be influenced by the
values and goals of policy analysts and decision-making.
Anderson (1979) establish the public policy process, described as follows. "(1) Formulation
of the problem (problem formulation): What is the problem? What makes it a matter of policy?
How the problem can be included in the agenda of the government?; (2) policy formulation
(formulation): How to develop options or alternatives to solve the problem? Anyone who
participates in policy formulation?, (3) Determination of policy (adoption): How to set an
alternative? Requirements or criteria as to what should be met? Who will implement the policy?
How does the process or strategy to implement the policy? What are the contents of the policy
defined?; (4) Implementation (implementation): Who is involved in the implementation of the
policy? What are they doing? What is the impact of the policy content?; And (5) Evaluation
(evaluation): What level of success or policy impact measured? Who is evaluating the policy?
What are the consequences of the policy evaluation? Is there a demand for change or cancellation ".
Ripley (1985) explains that the stage of public policy starts from the preparation of the
policy agenda. In this stage there are three activities that need to be done, namely: (1) build a
perception among stakeholders that a phenomenon is really considered a problem. Because it could
be a symptom by a certain group of people considered to be a problem, but by some other public or
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


political elites is not considered a problem, (2) a boundary, and (3) mobilize support for these
issues can be included in the agenda of government. This can be done to mobilize support by
organizing kelopok groups in society, and political forces, publicity through mass media and so on.
The next stage of policy formulation and legitimacy. At this stage the analyst should collect and
analyze information relating to the matter in question, and then seek to develop policy alternatives,
build support and to negotiate, so that up to a chosen policy. After that, the implementation of the
policy. At this stage the necessary resource support, and preparation of the implementing
organization policies. In the implementation process is often a mechanism of incentives and
sanctions for the implementation of a policy goes well. Finally, policy measures will be generated
from the performance and impact of policies, and the next process is the evaluation of the
implementation, performance, and policy implications. Evaluation results are useful for
determining the new policy in the foreseeable future, so that the policy will come better and more
Another expert, Dunn (1994) describes the public policy process as a series of intellectual
activities undertaken in the political process. Political activity was appeared in a series of activities
that includes: (1) preparation of the agenda, (2) policy formulation, (3) adoption of policies, (4)
implementation of the policy, and (5) assessment of the policy. While intellectual activity consists
of: (a) formulation of the problem, (b) forecasting (forecasting), (c) of policy recommendations; (d)
monitoring and (e) evaluation of policies. The setiaptahap in both types of activity coexisted during
the policy process takes place. While Howlet and Ramesh (1995) states that: "the public policy
process consists of five stages: (1) Preparation of the agenda (agenda setting), which is a process
that could be a problem to the attention of government, (2) Formulation of policies
(policyformulation ), the prose sperumusan policy choices by governments, (3) Preparation of
policy (policymaking), which is the process when the government chose to do an act or not to do
any act, (4) Implementation of policies (policyimplementation), which is a process for imple-
sanakan policies to achieve results, and (5) Evaluation of policies (policyevaluation), which is a
process to monitor and assess the results or performance of the policy "
Furthermore Imron (2002) states that: "Education policy proceeds through several stages, as
follows: (1) the formulation of educational policy, (2) the legitimacy of educational policy, (3)
communication and dissemination of educational policy, (4) implementation of education policy; (
5) seek community participation in education policy, and (6) evaluation of educational policy.
Here's one by one stage of education policy is explained to ".
Although a policy has been formulated and adopted formally, it is not something that is final.
Even then, the policy still allows for revisions, fixes, and enhancements. With the legitimacy of the
process, people will express support in accordance with the aspirations and hopes. Activities
legitimacy is essentially an effort to find support as well as refine the policy. The end result is a
formulation of the legitimacy of policies that are valid and final.
According to Imron (2002) there are some problems in the implementation of education
policy legitimacy, namely: First, the presence of the resistance of the former actor who is now the
policy is not to be an actor anymore. There is such a tendency, that the former policy actors, still
have the notion that what he used to be formulated, can be maintained even been implemented until
now. Second, the presence of resistance from conservative groups over the newly formulated
policy. This occurs when a policy is formulated is different from previous policies that have been
mentradisi. Something had changed mentradisi generally is difficult, and if it intends to change it,
in a conservative society, it takes a long time. Third, as a result of the resistance of conservative
and former actor who is no longer a policy actor, driven and his followers. The followers of this,
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


generally also tend to follow the movement and its leader steps. Therefore, the legitimacy of the
process becomes blocked, or at least take a long time. Fourth, the presence of resistance from
groups who have a vision, perception, and different interests with policy makers and legitimator.
Such resistant groups, is generally difficult to compromise, if not successfully approached.
Therefore, legitimator should try to approach this group effort, so that together they can provide
support for the policy has been formulated.
Support for the policy formulated relies heavily on communications policy conducted.
Communications policy on education is sosialialisasi education policy formulations that have been
legitimized (Imron, 2002). As komunikatornya is the formulation of education policy actors, while
komunikannya the device and its policy implementers and the public at large.
Further, Imron explained that the communication process of educational policy there are
three kinds of communication commonly used, namely: (1) one-way communication model (top-
down or bottom-up), (2) two-way communication model (interaction, consultative) , and (3)
multidirectional communication models (transactional, involving the audience) (Imron, 2002). The
communication problems of education policy can be distinguished by the source into three, namely:
(1) problems arising from its own policy message, (2) are sourced from komunikatornya; and (3)
are sourced from komunikannya (Imron, 2002).
Communicant and communicators in the policy actors involved in the process of
formulation, legitimacy, and communication, but also in policy implementation. Actors in the
implementation of this policy, can be classified into two, namely the formal actors and informal
actors. The role of the actors are different, but overall the actors are taking part in this
implementation process. Formal actors consists of formulating and implementing policy actors,
including actors, while the informal mediator policies, political parties, mass organizations, interest
groups (interest groups), individual leaders and mass media.
According to Dye (2000) terimplementasikan whether or not a policy, the success of policy
implementation, is determined by many factors. These factors were as follows: "First, the
complexity of the policies that have been made. The more complex a policy is made, the more
complicated and longer implementation. Even the complexity of policy formulation also resulted in
the number of translation rules, technical instructions are to be made. Second, if the formulation of
policy problems and alternative solutions to problems posed in the formulation is not clear. Third,
sources of potential factors that could support the implementation of policies . Fourth, the expertise
of implementing the policy. Fifth, the support of the target audience for the policy is implemented.
Sixth, the factors of effectiveness and efficiency of the bureaucracy ".
The diversity of interpretation of complex policies often lead to the length of time needed to
debate and discuss implementation, rather than carry out the implementation. The unclear
formulation of policy problems, can make the cause of the implementing authorities to be in doubt.
Available whether or not the source of potential, both human and non human, certainly affect the
implementation of the policy. Because after all the logical consequence of policy implementation
for the supply of potential sources of policy.
Increasingly implementing policy experts, both skills are technical, professional and
managerial skills, the better the implementation of policies. Support for the policy is very important
because the policy was implemented with the involvement of the audience or masyarakatFaktor is
very important, because not infrequently, the audience would like to lend support to the policy may
find it difficult simply because it is not good as bureaucracy to his supporters (Imron, 2002).
According Ekowati (2005) there are two strategies for the implementation of public policies
that can be chosen by the implementor, namely: "First, the Pilot Project or carry out the policy in
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


miniature before it is applied to the real scale of the policy. Second, the Partnership is a partnership
that is cooperation between the government bureaucracy with agencies non-governmental
organizations, especially those who are willing to commit to shared concerns and shared
Implementation of the strategy pilot project aims to determine the strengths and weaknesses
of policies to be implemented, before the negative impact that appears widened without being able
to be controlled anymore. Under what circumstances can this strategy be used?: (A) Content Policy
is strategic or fundamental to the common life; (b) have an impact and long-term goals, (c) the
quality of the implementor doubt, and (d) the probability of a negative impact as great as
probability of its positive impact. Meanwhile, implementation of the partnership strategy aims to
improve efficiency in the government, as well as sharpen the vision of service that can be given.
Situations where the partnership can be selected are: (a) there is a purpose of community
participation, (b) the allocation of government funds are minimal, (c) instrument of the government
party supporters doubted (Ekowati, 2005).

From the above description can be summed up some of the basic and fundamental things
related to the role of 'educational leadership in improving the future quality of vocational education
in Indonesia' as follows.
First, the trend is still running on the new Indonesia is facing the challenge of globalization:
(1) leap of knowledge and technology, (2) the information explosion, globalization in various
aspects of life. So the significance of quality of vocational education as an integral part of
community residents will be determined to what extent they have behaviors that are adaptive and
anticipatory work of community characteristics.
Second, to achieve the quality of graduates in the state, required leaders and policy makers
to formulate a school leader's vision, mission and strategy.
Third, policy makers and school leaders need to understand the importance of leadership in
schools, there is no dictionary leader 'puppet'.
Fourth, school leaders must understand the demands of the institution and the quality of
future graduates, so that school leaders need to mencangakan quality of their respective schools
with the standards believed.
Fifth, and school leaders must be able to take a clear policy and take decisions related to
school quality improvement in order to exist in the era of globalization and future eras of course be
dynamic and always changing.

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