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VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS TO
IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SCHOOL

Tri Atmadji Sutikno
Malang State University

Abstract
Vocational education, Vocational High School in particular, is an investment to improve the
quality of human resources, which is the main condition for increasing the rate of economic
growth, equal opportunity andsocial change. Community involvement in vocational education,
useful: (1) provide an understanding ofthe purpose and problems of school, (2) the submission
of idea sinschools, and (3) an on going evaluation of school programs. Being the process of
vocational education and public relations include: program planning, organizing,
implementation, and evaluation. And vocational education and public relations princip
lesinclude: the authority, simplicity, sensitivity, honesty, andaccuracy. Vocational education
and industry cooperation emphasis on: the evaluation and improvement of curriculum, meeting
facilities /equipment support, as well as the absorption of graduates in theindustry.

Keywords: vocational education, public relations.

Environment in which the school is located, is a complex society, consisting of various
levels of society that are complementary, and is unique, as a result of the cultural background of
diverse nature. How important the need for school programs always appreciate the cooperative
relationship between schools and communities. Complex society and have a collective
characteristics of its specific expectations haved different school policy, for example: goals,
objectives, curriculum, programs and so forth. Environment in which the school is located, is a
complex society, consisting of various levels of society that are complementary, and is unique, as a
result of the cultural background of diverse nature. How important the need for school programs
always appreciate the cooperative relationship between schools and communities. Complex society
and have a collective characteristics of its specific expectations mempuanyai different school
policy, for example: goals, objectives, curriculum, programs and so forth.
Society can be interpreted in this parent/guardian of students, community leaders,
educational leaders, business/industry, professional organizations of education personnel,
representatives of alumni, and student representatives. Community participation in the
implementation of education in the school committee container (MONE, 2002). In this case the
school committee is the body that is independent, does not have a hierarchical relationship with
schools and other government agencies. School with the school committee has the independence of
each, but as partners working together in line with the concept of school-based management.
Problems of education in the intellectual life of the nation's efforts are very complex, ranging
from limited funds, the unpreparedness of human resources, weak infrastructure, geographical
conditions, until the barriers caused by natural disasters and political conflicts and ideological. The
important thing to know right now how far the role of the community, which in this role: parents,
community leaders, education observers, the industry/business, local governments, and others, in
part to develop and support the development of vocational education so that will produce graduates
who are qualified and fill the needs of the business / industry or independent. These examined the
role/community relations in part to improve and support the vocational school education policy.


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Study
Primary school and community relations is the process of communication between the
school community to improve public understanding of the needs, educational activities, and
encourage interest and cooperation for the improvement and development of community schools.
Bagin and Gallager (1986) defines a public school relations as cooperative efforts to maintain and
develop channels of an efficient two-way information and mutual understanding between the
school, school and community personnel.
Gorton (1987: 348) stated that community involvement in schools, it is useful: (1) provide an
understanding of school matters, such as student learning conditions, and improvement of
educational programs, (2) the submission of ideas in the school, and attainment of human resources
adequate, and (3) an ongoing evaluation of school programs. Furthermore, Hymes (1996: 9)
explains that the purpose of public relations with the school are: (1) provide an understanding of
the purpose of education, and (2) to provide an understanding of education issues.
In order to place the role of the community more effectively, the need for open dialogue about the
strengths, weaknesses, and school problems, and allowing the public to provide input in the form of
information, advice and assistance to schools. Specific objectives of the program as identified by
Kindred as follows: (1) develop public understanding of all aspects of school operations, (2) to
explore the views of society and what is desired, (3) ensure the delivery of financial support for
school programs, (4) convey the role of the community to take responsibility for the development
of quality education, (5) facilitate community involvement in school programs, (6) community
involvement in addressing school problems, and (7) promoting a spirit of cooperation between
schools and communities in shared interests for progress community life (Gorton, 1987: 379).
The implementation process of Vocational Education and Public Relations
The process of vocational education and public relations include: program planning, organizing,
implementation, and evaluation (Sutjipto, 1992: 124). Respectively described as follows.

Planning Program
Planning school and community relations programs need to pay attention: the available
funds, the community features, local coverage, medium / media and techniques to be used. Then
the steps that need to be considered are:
a. First, policy development, which includes the rational, objective to be achieved, the responsible,
the technique chosen, the mechanism of management, financing, and program evaluation
b. Second, understandingthe state ofpublic/stakeholder. Informationabout the state ofsociety, such
as: expectations ofthe school, effectiveways ofapproachingpeople, whoare influential insociety,
the problemsfacing society, avoidanceofconflict withthe community, identify whosupportornot
support, the typeandnumber oforganizationsandcommunicationchannelsthat existin society.
c. Third, determine the target and the type of activities and processes that will be taken to
communicate with the public schools.
d. Fourth, determine the criteria, methods and the evaluation of school programs and community
relations. Evaluation includes the evaluation process and product evaluation.

Organizing
Organizing includes all the components that exist in schools, such as: the physical
appearance of the school, the planned program, students' attitudes and behaviors, and
psychological climate of the school, it is a vehicle for relations with the public schools.
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Relationship with a well planned and executed program will improve efficiency.
Coordinated public relations school principals, who may appoint a teacher to carry out the
technical relationship.

Implementation
Implementation of the school community needs to pay attention to the relationship
coordination of various parts, activities, and sinkronikasi use of time, and specific ways to deal
with different groups in society.

Evaluation
Community school relationships can be evaluated on two criteria: keefektivitasnya and
keefisiensinya. Evektif means how far the objectives have been achieved, such as community
involvement, attention to the progress of students, the inputs are delivered to the school. Efficient
means how far the source of the existing or potential has been used either for school activities.
Evaluation can be done at the time the activity takes place or at the end of the program to see how
far his success.

Principles Of School And Community Relations
These principles provide guidelines for public school relations and direction to teachers and
principals, so the school and community relations activities can locate targets have been set. These
principles are: authority, simplicity, sensitivity, honesty, and accuracy (Sutjipto: 1992: 123).
Principle is understood that the Authority is responsible of planning, implementation, and
evaluation program is the principal. Function of the teacher helps the school principal, who shall
carry out the teaching-learning process and provide services to students. The principle of simplicity
gives the direction that the school program should be simple and clear. Principles provide direction
sensitivity in dealing with school issues should be sensitive to the needs and expectations of
society. The principle of fairness that the school must deliver the right information to build public
trust. Accuracy principle explains that what the school should be just fine in terms of content, time,
media used and the objectives to be achieved (Sutjipto, 1992: 123).
In working with the school community must find methods of effective communication and
interaction. Jones and Stout (in Otto: 1994: 281) a portrait of four of conception (of thought) that
are characteristic of different relations, namely (1) indifference (indifference), where this concept
assumes that the public schools and separate and unrelated, the consequences occurs: the
differences in perception, disputes, open conflict, (2) publicity; where this approach occurs in the
"sale" to a community school, by publishing in the public school purposes, (3) interpretation of
education, in which case the school provide information to the public about school activities and
needs, and (4) joint venture; where a business or two-way communication, ie a process of
interaction with the public schools.
Maybe some of the publications in the public about the programs and needs is required, but
the communication relations effective public schools should be maintained based on two-way
communication, and implemented in the immediate situation, actively involving members of the
school and members of the society.
The most important aspect of communication is the message. There are several types of
messages: (1) the message you want communicated by the school to the community, (2) the
message that people want to receive from the school, (3) the actual message received by the
community, (4) the message you want communicated to the school community; (5) messages to be
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received by the school community, and (6) the actual message received by the school (Gorton,
1986: 368).

Cooperative Vocational Education And Industry
The relationship of vocational education to the industry / business (stakeholders) can be
adopted from the studies presented by experts at the top. Relations or cooperation especially in
terms of: improving the curriculum, sara fulfillment infrastructure, as well as the absorption of
graduates to work in the industry, and other programs in order to improve the quality of education.
The emergence of several new educational approaches in vocational education on the
importance of the implications of closer collaboration between the vocational school with the world
of work and industry. Constraints faced in general due to differences in the orientation of each.
World of work and industry is more concerned with the motivation to seek profit maximization
(capitalistic principle). While education has a vision of a non-profit, but still very dependent on
government funding and other assistance, so that the burden of cooperation is widely regarded by
the industry (Pardjono, 2010). Therefore, vocational and industrial cooperation to be built on the
willingness and need each other. World of work and industry parties should realize that the industry
will not get ready-made workforce they need, with the desired requirements, without building a
joint educational program.
According to Charles Prosser cited by Pardjono (2010), there are 16 principles of vocational
education and related them to the role of the industry there are three principles, namely: (1)
exercise tasks done in a way, tools, and the same machine as defined in workplace, (2) to train
someone in the habit of thinking, and work as required in the work itself, and (3) vocational
education will be efficient if the environment in which students are trained, is a replica of the
environment where he would work. Efficiency is obtained because the industry does not need to
organize more training centers. To meet these three principles, vocational schools require a very
large cost, especially if you want to meet the overall principle of Prosser.
The implications of vocational education and industry collaboration is the formulation of
clearer prakerin and proportionate. For example, the vocational education has complete equipment
and supplies memadahi competence in giving their students the prakerin should be formulated in
the form of apprenticeship system. Through internships students can deepen skills, learning things
that are complicated and specific. But for the vocational education is very minimal equipment, the
world of work and industry play a role as a place to practice (outsourcing) to provide appropriate
competency standards. The problem is how the business / industry to voluntarily accept the role
and function
Curriculum planning and practice can be arranged with the industry, so there is a match with
the industry. The curriculum has been designed as a guide in teaching and learning, should be
evaluated on an ongoing basis to adjust to developments in science, technology advances and
market needs. Expectations of the curriculum evaluation is to enable the link and match the
competencies needed between industry and schools. This will increase the competence of students
in entering the workforce, and industry helped by new labor in accordance with the expected
competencies. Attempts evaluation and revision of curriculum in vocational education can be done
by: (1) examine the progress of science and technology in industry, and (2) evaluate the
achievement of whole school objectives.
Therefore, the government always expected to assist in improving the quality of vocational
school graduates. It seems necessary concrete measures how to manage the business and industry
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in order to assist SMK in implementing joint programs in an effort to prepare a workforce ready to
use. Preparation of rules or laws necessary to realize the cooperation between the vocational and
industry.

Conclusion
Based on the above study it can be concluded:The purpose of vocational education programs
and community cooperation, namely:
1. Develop a community understanding of school programs, (2) to explore the views of society and
what is desired, (3) ensure the financial support, (4) expectations about the role of the
community, (5) community involvement in facilitating school programs, (6) community
involvement in addressing school.
2. These principles provide guidelines for public school relations and direction to teachers and
principals. These principles include: the authority, simplicity, sensitivity, honesty, and accuracy.
3. Vocational education and community cooperation, especially the business / industry, should
continue to be implemented, the pressure in the employment generated by the school.
Cooperation is also done in the field of evaluation and curriculum development, and fulfillment
infrastructure that supports the competencies expected by the industry.

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