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INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR

Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education INTEGRATING ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN

INTEGRATING ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN INDONESIA

Waras Kamdi

State University of Malang

Background Gaps of Education Service For several years, public senior high and vocational schools programs have grown up in different directions or paths. Even nowadays, the UU Sisdiknas no 20/2003 is still regulating these separate education programs as academic education institution, and vocational education institution. Teacher education for vocational education and academic education is also excuted in different paths. These two different paths of education can fullfill people’s education needs. For instance, people who want to immediately get jobs after graduation may select vocational education, whereas for those who yearn for keeping on studying in universities are given a choice through public/academic education. For that reason, each of regions should ideally cater for such two sorts of education. Yet, the Indonesian geographical condition, which is widespread and comprises ample of islands, seems to trigger gaps in education in several regions. In every region/municipality, both vocational schools and senior high schools have been established unevenly in terms of number. For example, some regions have senior high schools only, while some other regions have vocational schools only. In order to resolve such a gap of education service, there is a need of an alternative model of developing education service which focuses on the potential of existing resources and atmosphere. The development of an integrated school of either vocational schools or senior high schools in the regions is a potential alternative so as to provide education service in terms of vocation and academic integrated. This integration is called Sekolah Menengah Terpadu or SM Terpadu.

New Age Demands

Lately, in several countries, extremely segregated education, which is less important than a gap of education service, has been criticized for several reasons. One of the reasons which comes into view is that people become more aware of upcoming different types of jobs requiring new skills and having distinct characteristics. Job vacancy requires not only specific skills but also transfer skills and generic skills which will facilitate employees to attain supplementary education and training for their careers. In this new era, it is apparent that our schools face life demands and a

more complex future life. In this global age, everything is knowledge-based without of which anything will be left behind. For example, in economics, technology, work, etc., they are all knowledge-based. In other words, whatever a task or job is, it needs knowledge and thinking skills to accomplish. In particular, we cannot rely not only on specific skills, but also generic skills (Waras Kamdi & Djoko Saryono, 2003). The integration of academic and vocation in an institution can be seen as an attempt or response to the knowledge-based world. Obviously, this integrated high school or integrated SM/Sekolah Menengah Terpadu (SM Terpadu) model needs developing not only in the regions where a gap in education takes place, but also in other regions, in addition to the exiting education programs, as a new alternative of education.

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INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education Perspectives of Social Changes In social

Perspectives of Social Changes

In social perspectives, an institution prevails due to three elements, namely formation, structure, and construction. When an institution is a situation of instability or turmoil, buffeted by flow of changes, and begins to wobble position, deformation, restructuration, and deconstruction will appear as a process of being powerlessness. In this situation, attempts to reformation, reformulation, restructuration, and reconstruction are needed in this social institution. As a social institution, our schools are now in the state of deformation, de-restructuration, and deconstruction. In the era of change, our schools have been recognized as the most conservative and resistant institutions to change. As a result, the educational institutions are no longer able to be leaders of changes, but are deceived by changes. Vocational schools have a problem on relevancy, so do

senior high schools. They cannot optimally fulfill the needs of high-based education (Waras Kamdi & Djoko Saryono, 2003). Hence, it is time to need attempts of reformation, reformulation, restructuration, and reconstruction of new schools. An integrated SM is a response to the process of reformation, reformulation, restructuration, and reconstruction of our schools. As the changes in many aspects of life at present and future, the

development of integrated SM should be directed not only to “extinguish fire” (nation’s problems

which are temporarily, sporadically and local), such as discrepancy in education service, or a lot of dropouts, but also to respond to tendency of global change which demands students to have life skills, specific skills, and generic skills such as transfer skills, thinking skills, problem solving skills, and employability skills.

Knowledge Evolution Predisposition

Due to the fact that skills in new various jobs are required, there tends to be new

predisposition in more convergent knowledge evolution. Various types of jobs call for multidisciplinary skills, and very few jobs need sole specific skills. Science and technology predisposition advance in more convergent, in which various disciplines and fields of science interact and integrate to yield new convergences of new science and technology. It means that curriculum reconstruction and integrated teaching become an imperative requirement and undeniable.

The idea of integration is also relevant with life skill education concepts. If life skill is conceptualized as a unity, combination, and fusion of academic skills, vocational skills, and generic skills, the curriculum and its teaching should be integrated. Therefore, integrated SM is a realization of the school as the most actual and ideal life skill educational institution. In short,

integrated SM can be expressed as shown in the following words: “The ultimate goal of its

education is to produce smart and skillful employees /workers, its curriculum is life skill-based, its

teaching model is integrated and contextual, and its educational institution is integrated SM”.

Integrated SM is an ideal and realistic institution in responding to knowledge evolution predisposition.

Theoretical Framework

If integrated SM is conceptualized as an integration of academic and vocational education to develop students’ potentials, the modern theories such as constructivism, experience learning, generative learning, and activity learning duly provide a strong foundation to it. According to a lot of literatures, contructivism is a learning theory which emphasizes on the idea that students construct their own knowledge in the context of their own experience (Murphy,

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Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education 1997; Brook & Brook, 1993, 1999;

1997; Brook & Brook, 1993, 1999; Driver & Leach, 1993; Fraser, 1995). Constructivism learning focuses more on students’ active involvement in acquiring experience (doing) rather than passive receivers of knowledge. Besides, this theory views that learning is not a set of stimuli-response as believed by behaviorists, but a process that needs self regulation and building of concept structure through reflection and abstraction (von Glaserfeld, as cited in Murphy, 1997). The real activity performed in the vocational project provides learning experience to help reflect and verge on relation between real world and underlying knowledge which is expected to be more advanced and in-depth (Barron, Schwartz, Vye, Moore, Petrosino, Zech, Bransford, & The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1998). This respect shows that integrated academic and vocational teaching concentrating on real world activities, has potential to expand and deepen conceptual and procedural knowledge (Gagne, 1985), or it is also known as knowing that and knowing how (Wilson, 1995). Knowing ‘that’ and ‘how’ is not sufficient without the disposition to ‘do’ (Kerka, 1997). Expanding and deepening understanding of knowledge is observable by gauging the improvement of the academic skills. Integrated teaching is also an approach to creating realistic learning atmosphere and problem-solving in the real world. According to William James, the best learning is through self activities, sensory experience is basic of learning, and effective learning is holistic and interdisciplinary (cited in Moore, 1999). Furthermore, John Dewey states that experience is the core element in the classroom instruction (Moore, 1999; Knoll, 2002). Dewey views that learning is as “process of making determinate the indeterminate experience”. The sense of various experiences is a connection which mutually depends on what students bring in the learning situation and what happens in the learning situation. Based on their schemata, people build new knowledge in new experience (Billet, 1996). The curricular tasks in the form of project integrating aspects of academic and vocational skills can be viewed as a process of learning to consolidate experience, widen knowledge, and refine knowledge. It is in line with what Marzano (1992) states that learning through experiencing real life (for example, investigation and solving real life problems) can widen and refine knowledge. Thus, as an attempt to reformation, restructuration, and reconstruction, the presence of alternative or new schools have a clear position, that is to provide various education services to society. Integrated SM is apparently a new institution. Its paradigm and perspective can obviously widen conception, function, and role of education from reproducing science to be a life skill education institution. Its purposes are to increase the meaningfulness and usefulness of education for people, work, and daily life and to respond and anticipate demands, challenges, and needs of people, work, and future life. Therefore, the development of integrated SM should utterly be realized. It needs commitment and devotion from all stakeholders such as teachers, educational staff, bureaucrat, and educators to think of and cooperate precisely and appropriately.

Concepts Of Integration And Integrated Sm

The core concept of “integration” is integrating curriculum and learning activities of

academic and vocational education into one program. This integration concept can be organized from the simplest to the most perfect integration, from plug-in to full integration as illustrated in Figure 1.

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INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education Continuum Plug-In Complementing Integrating SMK +
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education Continuum Plug-In Complementing Integrating SMK +

Continuum

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education Continuum Plug-In Complementing Integrating SMK +
Plug-In Complementing Integrating SMK + Academic package SMA + Vocational package SMK + Academic package SMA
Plug-In
Complementing
Integrating
SMK + Academic package
SMA + Vocational package
SMK + Academic package
SMA + Vocational package
Integrated SM

Figure 1. Concept of “integration” in Integrated SM

Curriculum of SMK or SMA Package
Curriculum of
SMK or SMA
Package
Curriculum SMK/SMA
Curriculum
SMK/SMA
Integrated Curriculum
Integrated
Curriculum

Figure 2a. Plug-In Figure 2b. Complementation Figure 2c. Integration

Plug-In. The package of academic curriculum and teaching is added into the vocational curriculum of SMK, or the package of vocational curriculum and teaching is added into the academic curriculum of SMA, These packages are managed as supplementary teaching and learning. The Plug-in concept is illustrated in Figure 2a. Complementation. Applied academic curriculum and teaching are integrated into vocational subjects of the SMK curriculum, or vocational curriculum and teaching are integrated into vocational subjects of the SMA curriculum. For example, the use of reading materials containing

messages about individuals at work, or about work in the academic subjects; the use of examples related to lumber work, machinery, electronic, and other work into mathematics or physics; study on implication of biology for health workers, implication of electricity on electronic and computer; implication of physics on machinery design, and so on. This concept is illustrated in Figure 2b. Integration. Academic curriculum and vocational curriculum are blended into one curriculum. For example, one team of teachers consisting of mathematics teachers, science teachers, language teachers, and particular vocational teachers (for instance, automotive, computer, and agriculture) generate a combination of curriculum and its teaching. There are four themes that characterize integrated SM as stated below.

(1)

A richer and more organized curriculum enlarging academic, vocational, and generic skills

(2)

needed by all students who are willing to work or continue their study to higher education; A more facilitative teaching and learning (not didactic) which motivates students to learn and

(3)

supplies them with practical and understanding of application; Collaboration and coordination between vocational teachers and academic teachers in creating

(4)

a more unified learning experience; and More attention on knowledge and skills needed by students to make transition from schools to work or higher education.

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INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education Objectives And Focus Of Integrated Sm

Objectives And Focus Of Integrated Sm Objectives

(1) In a short term, a gap of education service in several regions as the effect of educational

unequity of SMA and SMK is resolved. (2) In a long term, the system and model of integrated SM are already generated to increase academic and technology literacy for high school graduates. In this century, students either from vocational education or academic education are required to extensively join a program which integrates vocational and academic study. In order to meet these needs, integrated SM is expected to be an alternative model of education, in addition to the existing education programs. (3) Potential and skills of human resources in regions can be actualized and transformed to be life skills which are relevant and appropriate with work, changes of employment structure and social and economy, and labor needs in social and economy sectors.

Focus

The focus of integrated SM is developing the SMA or SMA graduates’ quality and competence in the regions which face gaps in education services. The graduates are expected to be able to have access and opportunities to get jobs or continue their study. It is oriented to life skills education designed with an integrated approach, including the curriculum, teaching, structure of organization, so that the integrated SM graduates are able to compete and play roles in real lives- social life, culture, religion, work or economy. With good life skill education and training, they are expected to have quality, relevant and functional life skills for their survival, properness, and valuable life in the state of social changes-economy, politics, culture which occur and will occur nationally, regionally, and locally.

Models Of Integration

In accordance with three concepts of integration which are proposed in this development program, the models of integration in this regard are also categorized into three types. They are plug-in, complementation, and perfect/full integration. These models are adapted from various models suggested by Grubb, Davis, Lum, Phihal, and Morgaine (1991).

Model Plug-In

Plug-In 1: Adding academic learning packages into the vocational curriculum (at SMK), or reversely, adding vocational learning packages into the academic curriculum (at SMA). For SMK students, the academic teachers might teach them individually in the vocational classes or become in-house tutor (informally) for those who need supplementary academic lessons. Meanwhile, for SMA students, the vocational teachers might teach them individually in the academic classes or become in-house tutor (informally) for those who need supplementary vocational lessons. The packages developed are supplementary, reinforcement, and enrichment.

Plug-In 2: Vocational and academic teachers work in one team to develop academic classes at SMK, and or to develop vocational classes at SMA. New classes “transplanted” at SMK or SMA resemble the so called a model of “a school inside a school”.

Models of Combination

Combination 1: Developing academic curriculum (or some part of academic curriculum) to be more vocationally relevant by combining a vocational application within academic subjects (at SMA); and by designing applied academic classroom instruction which is more relevant with

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Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education vocational classroom instruction (at SMK), for

vocational classroom instruction (at SMK), for example, inclusion of writing practices such as making resumes and business letters in English classes; or inclusion of activities such as investigating types and compositions of jobs in various work or industry in social science classes. Combination 2: Combining vocational and academic curricula to be more reciprocally compatible. The curriculum modification can be completed by parallelizing or juxtaposing academic curriculum and vocational curriculum either horizontally or vertically. Horizontal juxtaposition is accomplished by parallelizing academic and vocational subjects in such a way that can make students learn identical topics in two subjects at the same time. For instance, a vocation teacher and a mathematics teacher juxtapose their classroom instructions. In this point, the topics of mathematics needed in relation to various types of calculation-width, volume, algebra related to heat removal and simple trigonometry-are taught at the same time. In terms of vertical juxtaposition, it is executed by constructing sequence of academic and vocational classroom instructions which are reciprocally strengthening. This coordination goes on in periods of time. As an illustration, for the last two years, students have set aside some of their time to learn in the vocational hub, and some other time they learn applied academic subjects.

Models of Integration

Integration 1: Integration of academic and vocational teaching is embodied in the form of project showing the mastery of some competences. The project is designed by involving physical activities which need vocational skills, writing reports, and presentation. The project is usually completed in the last year, and it is considered as the peak achievement. In doing the project,

students learn several academic skills, experience real work in various activities, conduct research, solve the problems, and present findings or products of the project. Integration 2: integration is done in the form of “a school inside a school”. Schools are endorsed to focus on certain vocations such as automotive, computer, agriculture, heath care, electronic, business, culinary, fashion, etc. In particular, the teacher team of mathematics, English, science, and certain vocations combine their teaching, and they guide groups of students for several years. Small classes are typically suggested. Integration 3: Developing academic and vocational curricula and teaching in a parallel way within a learning period. The curriculum and teaching are modified and coordinated across subjects. Vocational and academic teachers (starting from at least two people to all) work together.

Transformational Strategies Toward Integrated SM There are three stages of development to be completed within 5 6 years to transform conventional high schools to be integrated SM.

Pioneering Stage

This stage is carried out within the first year of integration. The integration is realized

through “sticking” the vocational education program to SMA or academic education program to SMK and vocational classroom instruction at SMA and classroom instruction at SMK.

Complementation Stage

This stage is executed for three years focusing on complementation. In this respect, academic teachers are motivated to work together with vocational teachers to design and advance curriculum and classroom instruction by combining learning materials, or to design curriculum and classroom instruction both in academic and vocational education by juxtaposing academic and vocational teaching so that both subjects are present and learned at the same time. This juxtaposition occurs either horizontally or vertically.

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Full Integration Stage

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education Full Integration Stage This stage is

This stage is carried out for the next two (2) or three (3) years. The academic and vocational

curricula are modified and managed across subjects during the learning period. The organization of subjects should be coherent. Teachers play more roles to help students behind occupation groups and work collaboratively than in academic and vocational groups that are separated departmentally. Institutionally, the integration of academic and vocational teaching and learning is also supported

by the expansion of guidance and counseling on career and other groups’ activities.

The stages of transformation are presented in Figure 3 below.

Year I Year II Year III Year IV Year V Year VI III II I PIONEERING
Year I
Year II
Year III
Year IV
Year V
Year VI
III
II
I
PIONEERING
INTEGRATED
SMPlug-In
PLANNING & DEVELOPING
INTEGRATED SM
PREPARATION
& PLANNING
Complementation
  • Origin

  • Integrated (fully integrated)

Plug/complement

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education Full Integration Stage This stage is

FFiigguurree

33..

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Strengths Of Integrated SM

  • 1. Boosting motivation. An integrated education is an ideal way to support schools in maintaining students with low learning motivation as they are not interested in strengths of academic education, but know the strengths of having vocational skills to get a job.

  • 2. Connecting with jobs. The programs’ component giving students opportunities to work, obtain

job experience of a preferable field, and build a link with entrepreneurs or employers, assists

them to determine their career after they graduate.

  • 3. Providing equal services. An integrated education also neutralizes an impression of stratification and discrimination in service and treatment that occur in their schools and work places. This technique provides students with opportunities to identify their academic competence and thinking so that they can decide a right program for their future.

  • 4. Providing rich learning atmosphere. Learning integration of academic and vocation supply students with opportunities of real problem-based learning. Following a cognitive apprenticeship model, integration is an effective learning strategy and a curricular activity strategy as well to foster students to develop their cognitive skills through the application of

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academic learning and practical situations.

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education academic learning and practical situations. 5.http://www.ascd.org/readyroom/edlead/9911/brooks.html Gagne, E.D. 1985. The Cognitve Psychology of School Learning . Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. Grubb, W.N., Davis, G., Lum, J., Plihal, J., & Morgaine, C. 1991. The Cunning Hand, The Cultured Mind: Model for Integrating Vocational and Academic Education . Berkeley, CA: National Center for Research in Vocational Education. Kerka S. 1997. Constructivism, Workplace Learning, and Vocational Education . ERIC Digest No. 181 . ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus Ohio. Lankard, B.A 1992. Integrating Academic and Vocational Education: Strategies for Implementation . ERIC Digest No. 120, ED346317. Marzano, R.J. 1992. A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching with Dimensions of Learning . Verginia: ASCD. Murphy, E. 1997. Constructivism: From Theory to Practice. http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/~elmurphi/cle.html . Waras Kamdi & Djoko Saryono. 2003. Naskah Akademik Pendidikan Kecakapan Hidup di SMA . Jakarta: Ditdikmenum, Ditjendikdasmen. Wilson, B.G. 1995. Metaphors for Instruction: Why We Talk About Learning Environments . Educational Technology, September-Oktober , 25 — 30. 223 " id="pdf-obj-7-8" src="pdf-obj-7-8.jpg">
  • 5. Improving the quality of laborers. Labors need not only those who are competent in dealing with discreet tasks as usually educated by traditional vocational schools, but also those who have skills to solve problems so that they become more flexible when doing their work. Students graduating from integrated SM will be readier to meet the work demands at present and future.

Elements Of Success

A proper model for a school, area, or region should be established on the basis of the

programs, local human resources, local asset potential, and students’ needs. However, several elements are required in order to endorse the success of a program as presented below.

Vision and commitment from those who are involved in developing the programs

Sustainable supports from institutions and regency government

New financial sources for funding

Teacher training

On-going evaluation

Sufficient time for implementation

References

Barron, B.J., Schwartz, D.L., Vey, N.J., Moore, A., Petrosino, A., Zech, L., Bransford, J. D., & The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. 1998. Doing with Understanding: Lessons from Research on Problem- and Project-Based Learning. The Journal of the Learning Science, 7, 271311. Berryman, S.E., Flaxman E, & Inger, M. 1992. Integrating Academic and Vocational Education:

An Equitable Way to Prepare Middle Level Students for the Future. ERIC Digest, No. 83,

EDO-92-6.

Billett, S. 1996. Towards a Model of Workplace Learning: The Learning Curriculum. Studies in Continuing Education, 18(1), 4358. Bodilly, S., Ramsey, K., Staz, C. , & Eden, R. 1993. Integrating Academic and Vocational Education: Lesson from Eight Early Innovators. R-4265-NCRVE/UCB. Brook, J.G., & Brook, M.G. 1993. The Case for Constructivist Classrooms. Verginia: ASCD. Brook, J.G., & Brook, M.G. 1999. The Contructivist Classroom. The Courage to Be Constructivist. Readyroom, 57(3) November 1999. http://www.ascd.org/readyroom/edlead/9911/brooks.html Gagne, E.D. 1985. The Cognitve Psychology of School Learning. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. Grubb, W.N., Davis, G., Lum, J., Plihal, J., & Morgaine, C. 1991. The Cunning Hand, The Cultured Mind: Model for Integrating Vocational and Academic Education. Berkeley, CA:

National Center for Research in Vocational Education. Kerka S. 1997. Constructivism, Workplace Learning, and Vocational Education. ERIC Digest No. 181. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus Ohio. Lankard, B.A 1992. Integrating Academic and Vocational Education: Strategies for Implementation. ERIC Digest No. 120, ED346317. Marzano, R.J. 1992. A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching with Dimensions of Learning. Verginia: ASCD. Murphy, E. 1997. Constructivism: From Theory to Practice. http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/~elmurphi/cle.html. Waras Kamdi & Djoko Saryono. 2003. Naskah Akademik Pendidikan Kecakapan Hidup di SMA. Jakarta: Ditdikmenum, Ditjendikdasmen. Wilson, B.G. 1995. Metaphors for Instruction: Why We Talk About Learning Environments. Educational Technology, September-Oktober, 2530.

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