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WIND POWER PROTOTYPE USING SAVONIUS VERTICAL TURBINE

Dwi Prihanto & Mohamad Rodhi Faiz
State University of Malang

Abstract:
Wind is one of renewable energy. In order students know the working principle of wind
power, need to take learning media of variety prototype wind turbines that is horizontal turbine
and vertical turbine also. The research objective is to design and manufacture of vertical
turbine wind power prototype with battery charging system. Methods of research include the
design and manufacture of tools, test equipment, measurement data output voltages and electric
currents, and analasis. Testing is done twice with no load and under load. Data testing results
show that the wheel will rotate with a minimum wind speed of 2.5 m / s, with a voltage
generator produces 12.3 volts, 45 mA. With the addition of the wind speed of 1 m / s can
increase generator capacity nearly doubled, but the wind power generation prototype is only
capable of working safely in wind speeds of less than 6 m / s.

Preliminary
Electrical energy is energy that is very easy ditranmisikan anddiscount-versikan into other
energy. Dependence on electricalenergy supply is making people think and work hard to build
powerstations for producing electricity to supply the needs of the powersupply. At the generating
station each energy source is processedand intended to be converted into the form of
electrical energy.Sources of energy to be converted into electrical energy in power-
generating Indonesia mostly using non-renewable fossilenergy and the longer ketersediaanya
diminishing and will soon run out. Not only is it in the process of conversion of fossil
energy isgenerated a lot of waste that is polluting the environment. (Sucipto,2008:1). For
example in coal burning fossil fuels causes smokecontains a lot of SO2, CO2 and NOx.
With the increasing awareness of the effort to preserve the environment and
maintain human life from the negative effects offossil fuels causes people to think to find an
alternative supply ofelectrical energy that is characterized by including: (1) to reduce reliance
on fossil energy consumption, (2 ) can provide electrical energy in a local scale, including
can reach remote areas that lackelectricity supply, (3) able to exploit the potential of local
energyresources, and (4) love the environment, in terms of the production process as well as
the conversion of their products are not damaging the environment around it (Sucipto, 2008:2)
As an alternative attempt to provide electrical energy and as a learning media the principles
of the generation of electricalenergy using the kinetic energy of the wind on this article discusses
the design and manufacture of prototype wind power using aSavonius type vertical windmill.
Design and Manufacturing
To minimize errors and to achieve results in line with expectations in the manufacturing of
a prototype is necessary to design andcalculation. The design includes:
1. Wind Turbine Design
Wind turbine used the type savonius. This type has a relatively lowefficiency, but easy in the
making. The design of this mill are:

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education
881


Figure 1 Wind Turbine Design Top View



Figure 2 Wind turbine Design Front View
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education
882


Figure 3 Frame Buffer Design Front View


Figure 4 Frame Buffer Design Side View
Calculation of wind energy that can be captured by the wind turbin that is: " Power ≈
dynamics of the wind pressure x wide turbin rotor x wind speed, P ≈ qAV where P = power in
watts, q = dynamic pressure of wind, A = area of the frontal rotor, V = wind speed in m/ s.
panjan
g 20
cm
tinggi
tiang 150
cm
tiang
miring
100 cm
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Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education
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Then for wind dynamic pressure itself q = ½ ρV
2
, where ρ = air density (kg/m3). Price is the
power coefficient Cp or wind power that can be absorbed by the rotor divided by the power of
wind that hit the rotor. Cp is determining the price pres-tation blade. For the Savonius rotor
type Cp price range 0.08 to 1.50. Cp prices are not directly affected by the Tip Speed Ratio
(TSR), ie the ratio between blade tip speedto wind speed. For
the Savonius type rotor TSR rates between 0.5 to1.2.
A V
P
Cp
3
2
1

 ” (Atmadi, et al 2008).
In http://www.gaisma.com/en/ location / malang. Html mentioned poorlocal wind speed
data on average ranges between 3 to 6.5 m / s. Soin the design manufacture of windmills used wind
speed is 3 m / s, isthe minimum speed that can rotate the wheel.
This mill is 0.5 cp.,TSR 0.6., And 1.2 kg/m3 air density above the sea level. Then the rotor of
the wind turbine that is:
A = wide 4 turbine wing = 4 (½ wide side of the tube) = 4 (½ base x height)
A = 4 (½ π x diameter x height) = 4 (½π x 24 x 50) = 4 x 0.1884 =0.7536 m
2
. Diameter wind
turbine wing 24 cm not 26 cm, because of the 2 cm of the length of the curve of the wing is
covered by the pole shaft.
q = ½ ρV
2
= ½ x 1,2 x 3
2
= 5,4 N
P ≈ qAV = 5,4 x 0,7536 x 3 = 12,2 watt
A V
P
Cp
3
2
1


2 , 12
5 , 0
P

P = 6.1 watts, if TSR = 0.6 then P rotor = 6.1 x 0.6 = 3.66 watts. So, for the design of the
above by letting the wind speed 3 m / s can be expected to be transferred power from the windmill
into a generator that is equal to 3.66 watts.
After the design process followed the manufacturing process. Materials used wind turbine
from a plastic sheet because easily formed and easily obtained. The product as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 Wind Turbine Front View
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2. Generator Desaign
For an axial generator rotor with the comparison between themagnet coils are: M / 2 x 3. When the
magnetic coil 6 is 6/2 x 3 = 9.When the magnet 8, the coil: 8/2 x 3 = 12. So when using thetwo-
rotor magnet live for the number to multiply two. Number ofmagnet must be even (because there
should be 2 pieces of poles).Generator that will be made this planned to issue a no-load voltageof
18 volts at 300 rpm rotation speed after going through a rectifier.Generator is planned to use 16
or 8 pairs of magnetic polemagnetic pole, the coil 12 and flows out the three phases. Email used
wire diameter 0.3 mm with a total weight of about 8 ounces.The number of winding turns of
each coil as much as 900. Because of the difficulty of getting the bar magnet permanent magnet it
is used or secondhand computer hard drive called Neodymiummagnets are
neodymium penyusunya materials, iron and boron(NdFeB). Magnetic disk used is deemed to have
sufficientmagnetic field strength but not its shape according to the preliminary design. Another
problem of this magnet is kutupnyanumber four, so it should be cut into two parts in order to meet
thefull to be used as the generator rotor.


Figure 6 Generator Doble Rotor Design

Using a magnet rotor each with a length of 1 cm, width 1 cm and 1 cm thick. The magnets are
arranged round a distance that is equal another is
0
0 0
45
8
360 360
  
b jumlahkutu

. To coil distance that is equal to one another is
0
0 0
30
12
360 360
  
aran jumlahkump
 .
The rotor diameter is 21 cm and 20 cm along the stator . In themiddle of each rotor bearing is
given to facilitate rotor rotates on its axis. The next will be the stator wedge by two rotors. The
two rotor sare on the edge of the circle put together using the bolts to the top place equations with
lower turnover.
Based the original plan, the desired generator capable of generating voltage 18 Volts at
300 RPM or 5 rounds per second after a three-phase rectifier. Means for each of the phase must
have an output 18:√3 = 10,39 volts. By using a coil 900 and fourth set of coils perphase is
required magnet strength criteria:
RPM
t
BA
N V  


  4
300 4 


 
t
BA
N V
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1200
1
900 10   
BA

1200 900 10     BA
1080000
10
  BA
00000926 , 0   BA
The negative sign indicates conformity with Lenz's law which states"The direction of the induced
current in a conductor such that the magnetic field generated against changes in the lines of
magnetic force that caused him". When the magnet is a magnet that is used secondhand
computerhard drive with a size of 1 x 1 cm square, then the required magneticflux strength:
0001 , 0 01 , 0 01 , 0    A m
2

00000926 , 0   BA
0001 , 0
000001852 , 0
  B
0926 , 0   B weber/m
2
,
so who has the necessary magnetic flux strength of 0.0926 weber/m2on each pair of poles.
Generator Based on the design drawings can be seen below.

Figure 7 Rotor



Figure 8 Stator


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Figure 9 Generator

3. Rectifier Design
Rectifier to be made using full-wave rectifier bridge system with individual phase requires
four diodes as penyearahnya. Diodes arecommonly used is a diode with a maximum current
that can bepassed that is equal to two amps. In the rectifier filter is used toflatten the output
current signal using a capacitor with a capacity of2200 micro-farad.


Figure 10 Rectifier Design



Figure 11 Rectifier Circuit


4. Battery
To save electric power output of the generator is used battery chargebattery. Battery to be used is a
dry battery Model No. Panasonic.LC-R127R2NA with a nominal voltage of 12 volts and the power
capacity of 7.2 Ah/20HR. As apparent in the figure below.
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Figure 12 Dry Battery


Figure 13 Installation of Generator With Turbine

Testing Equipment
After each part of the tool is finished, the parts are put together andperformed tests to
determine the final outcome of the proficiency level tools. This is done to determine if managed in
accordance withthe design tool or not.
1. Testing Wind Turbine
Performance testing conducted in the field of wind turbines, State University of Malang beach at
around 13:00 to 14:00 on the 30th ofnovember 2011. In performance testing tool takes the form
of windanemometer and tachometer. Of the test based on wind speed data
obtained fickle wheel rotations per minute as follows:
The test is performed without connecting the generator turbines. To find out how wind
speed anemometer used when testing theretrieval of data every five seconds. Based on the
results of this testing will begin to spin turbines when the wind speed is about it1.67 m / s.


INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education
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Tabel 1 RPM Test Data Wind Turbine Without Load
Kecepatan angin m/s RPM
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
6
0
0
0
107
182
260
338
421
497
567
638
710

2. Testing of Wind Power Prototype Overall
The test is performed by connecting the generator windmill. To find out how wind
speed anemometer used when testing the retrieval of data every five seconds. To find out
the generator and windmill RPMtachometer is used. Output voltage of the circuit by connecting
theknown to hand over the output of the circuit in parallel with avometer.While to know the size
of the current generated by connecting in series with a 50 ohm resistor and ammeter. From the test
results areobtained the following data.

Tabel Test Data Wind Power PrototypeOverall
Kecepatan
angin(m/s)
RPM
kincir
RPM
Generator
Tegangan (v) Arus(mA)
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
6
0
0
0
0
102
156
202
254
312
361
402
443
0
0
0
0
209
310
412
502
620
719
802
882
0
0
0
0
12,3
18,1
23
29,2
36,1
41,7
47
52
0
0
0
0
45
67
83
105
132
151
178
203

Conclusion
Of the design, manufacture and testing can be concluded as follows:
This prototype can be used as a medium of learning for students who follow courses power
generation.
1. Wheel will rotate with a minimum wind speed of 2.5 m / s, with a
voltage generator generating a 12.3 volt, 45 mA. With the addition ofthe wind speed of
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education
889

1 m / s can increase generator capacity nearly doubled, but the Wind
Power prototype is only capable of working safely at the speed of wind is less than 6 m / s.

References
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1:LAPAN.
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