Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education



Mazarina Devi
Malang State University
Food is the needs of human life that serves as a source of energy, for growth and health. Food
now favorite customer not only have the composition of a good nutrition and sympathy and it 's
interesting, but also must have certain physiological function to human body . Based on it
developed the subject matter functional food curriculum in food service. Application of
functional food dish in the menu as a food service business was time developed on the catering
industry. The development of the subject of entrepreneurship as one effort increase in learning
capability students can be used for development functional food. Through curriculum of food
service is expected to the development of food functional as the healthy food can be known

Keywords: functional foods, food service, curriculum

Functional food began to be developed as currently processed in the menu dishes everyday.
People have realized that eating not only satisfy but also give of health. Craig ( 1999 ) said that
plants can be used as food as well as for yhe treatment.. A variety of plants having benefit human
health and improving the quality of human life. Goldberg ( 1994 ) said that the basic
considerations consumers in countries advanced in selecting a food not only resting on nutrition
deliciousness, as well as of the womb but also health impact on the body. These phenomena bore
the concept of functional food.
POM (2001), a functional food is food that naturally or have been through the process
contains one or more compounds based on scientific studies is considered to have specific
physiological functions that are beneficial to health. Groceries that now many favorite consumers
not only that have composition nutrition good as well as apparition and condolences it has
delicious, but should also having particular physiological functions for the body.
Traditional food is food and drink commonly consumed by the public, with typical flavours
that is accepted by the community. For the people of Indonesia generally was believed to be the
benefits of various traditional food, such as tempe, garlic, honey, saffron, ginger, kaempferia
galanga, appointment buffoonery, tamarind, sambiloto, leaf beluntas, bay leaf, grass jelly, and
various other herbs. Jamu as a mixture of various herbs efficacious are very popular in indonesia
especially in java .
Food and pharmaceutical science and technology progress of rapid has provided scientific
evidence that most of the types of food that are believed to be ancestors of our beneficial for
improving health and treatment. Most bioactive substances of these materials has also been able to
be identified and isolated. These advances encourage birth of functional food products with a
variety of benefits claims and benefits.
Food service was an attempt in food and drinks. Development traditional foods be food
funsional may be conducted through the development of a menu that using materials herbs that go
to various dishes . Herbs as basil leaves, coleus leaves, kelor leaves, various spices if processed into
dish interesting will produce a menu healthy arrangement of balanced. An attempt to
introduce the results of a foods that developed the food funsional need to be developed through
entrepreneurship curriculum. Entrepreneur is a person who do businesses or companies with the
possibility of profit and loss statement. The definition of Entrepreneurship by David (1996) is an
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


applied knowledge of management concepts and techniques that are accompanied by risks in
changing or processing resources into high value (value edded). This change was done through
creating differentiation, standardization, process and design tools in recreate markets and new
Entreprenuer is an attitude to any profession that is distinctive and is a combination of
knowledge with tips. To unite the elements such will make a strong base for bravery and ability
take one the right decision of an alternative that is available. In addition, the definition of
Entrepreneurship according to the instructions of President of Republic of Indonesia (INPRES) No.
4 of 1995 about the National Movement to cultivate and promote the spirit of entrepreneurship is
the behavior, attitude, and a person's ability in handling a business and/or activities that lead to find
creates, implements the workings, technology and new products by improving efficiency and
economize in order to provide better service or to obtain greater profits
Some experts suggested that the entrepreneur has a strong moral legitimacy to manifest
prosperity and create employment opportunities. Because the target entrepreneur is lower and
middle-class society, then the entrepreneur has an important role in the process of trickling down
effect. 2. An entrepreneur has a business vision, intuition resource management, adaptable to
changing environments and the ability to work together in the integral. 3. development of
entrepreneurship got full support from many parties, including pundit and decision maker in
development. The existence of the Inpres No. 4 of 1995 about the national movement to cultivate
entrepreneurship, promote and reflect great attention towards the development of entrepreneurship.

Food Service
Food services it develops from a long and will grow in line with the development of science and
technology. Food services themselves are services that produces product real offered to customers.
According to the decision of the Minister of health RI definition Number
715/Menkes/SK/V/2003 food service or catering is a company or individual that does food
management activities are presented outside the place of business on the basis of the order.
According to the Ministry of health of INDONESIA as stated in the decision of the Minister of
health No. 715/Menkes/SK/V/2003 industry catering can be classified into three (3) main group i.e.
Group A or also called with small-scale catering industry, Group B (large scale catering industry)
and Group C (catering industry on a large scale once or known by the catering industry that caters
to air transport (flight)
Small food service industry (Group A) is food service industry that serve the needs of the
public ( feast ) of marriage , birthdays and hajatan other with relatively small scale. Catering group
A distinguished group of A1, A2 and A3 are each differentiated over the size of the ability to
provide food (portions), own kitchen and the use of building a workforce from outside the family.
Industrial food service group B (large scale) is a food service serving special needs such as Hajj,
corporate food service, mining, oil drilling, hospitals and others. In Group B this could be called
also with corporate food service. Industrial food service group C is very large scale food service
that serves the needs of public transport international tool and aircraft.

Functional Food
Philosophy about eating at this time had undergone a change. Eating is not just to satisfied,
but more is to achieve optimal health and wellness. Groceries that are now starting to much
demanded not only the consumer who has a composition which nutrition is good as well as an
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


apparition and full-flavored it is interesting that but should also having particular physiological
functions for the body .
The definition of functional food according to badan POM food is naturally or been through
process, containing one or lebihsenyawa based on scientific kajian-kajian fungsifisiologis thought
to have a beneficial to health. And consumed, as befits food or drink having the characteristics of
an apparition , sensoriberupa color, texture and full-flavored that can be accepted by the consumer.
Besides not give contraindication and not give to the number of the side effects of metabolism that
advised there are other nutrients group compound which is considered has value is functional fiber
food, oligosakarida, sugar alcohol, myeloma, not saturated fatty acid peptida and proteintertentu,
glikosida and isoprenoid, and catakin isoflavon, kolin and lesitin, kolindan lesitin, phytosterol,
vitamins and minerals
Functional food is used widely to identify and to define the food that have the power to
affect the physiological process, raising the potential health of food or drinks (Head, 1995 ). Food
expressed have the nature of functional if containing components (nutrient substance or non the
nutrients ) that affects one or several limited function in the body but that is positive , so as to meet
the criteria functional or healthful ( Muchtadi , 1996 ). Functional food is food or drink taken as
part of a daily food and have certain functions, at the time or digest certain provide a particular
role in the body during the metabolism process because they contain components bioaktif (
Muchtadi , 2002 ) .
Functional food distinguished from food supplements or medicines based on appearance and
its effects on health. When the function is curative medicine to disease, then a functional food is
more of prevention against the disease. Many kinds of food functional circulation in the market
ranging from dairy products traditional like probiotic yogurt , kefir and coumiss until dairy
products low fat ready consumed containing fibers late . Also products containing extracts fibers
that is soluble that serves lower cholesterol and prevent obesity .
The need for plants spices and medicine continue to increase in line with the appearance of a
tendency to go back to nature and the idea that side effects that they inflict synthetic obat not quite
as big . Biofarmaka production plants in indonesia in the last five years increase rapidly with the
2003 by 12,93 % .
According to Craig ( 1999 ); diet that uses allspice spices in large amount as flavoring food
may provide various active component phytochemical useful maintaining health and protects the
body from chronic disease . The materials can be presented in various forms , among others drinks
to the health , drink instant juice , syrup , candy , pickle , candied , dodol , marmalade , and jellies .
Sampoerno and Fardiaz ( 2001 ) declaring that herbalist presented in the form of a beverage
can be categorized as a beverage functional origin characteristic sensorinya arranged in such a way
so it can be accepted by the people at large . A drink like rice , galingale cider ginger , cider , acid
turmeric , acid cider , gathering buffoonery pletok beer , honey and milk telor ginger examples asal
herbalist drink that may be developed as a functional beverage industry .
Sheehy and Morrissey ( 1998 ) conclude that the success of the development of food
functional depends on many factors , among other security, of efficacy , think , ease and value
(value ) of the products . The most important is that that product to be secure and claims facility
real. While Sheehy and Morrissey ( 1998 ) reported that although food functional potential to
provide health benefits for customers, some barriers in the spread and acceptance of this kind of
food to be observed . The development of food functional and research base a claim to document
the marketing is expensive enough so that the price of jualnya be very high

Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


The business of food service having a major role in developing food in order to be
functional known to the public . The role that can be done by an undertaking food services in
introducing food was to create a functional cuisines of food as using functional foods herbs who
was instrumental in health
Diversifies food products of functional food will enrich cuisines that serves as a food
functional . During this is a functional already known public at large is drink herbalist such as rice
galingale, kunir acid, STMJ. Functional food having the benefit of large in industry development
food service . At the moment it 's not a lot of food service that provides a menu made from raw
herbs of plants which have as food functional .
An effort that can be done is to include the development of food material functional at the
curriculum culinary field of study . The development of functional food can be developed in the
curriculum for the introduction of food entrepreneurship an establishment of functional foods that
are beneficial to health.
Entrepreneurship is one effort introduce food products to make known by public . Business
foods can develop functional food by providing processed a dish of herbal . A menu penyususnan
healthy balance processed foods by inserting a variety of functional one attempt to introduce
functional food .
Provision menu of plants herbs beneficial to health at a venture food service , advisable to
create diversifiksi menu herbs. Processed dish ranging from an appetizer until dish dessert may be
made from herbs. Salad with additional basil leaves is dish for health. Soup of coleus leaves is a
menu other that can be classified functional food. Entrée of fungi and cover in form of ice cream
kelor leaves a menu that is good for health.
Development of functional food in entrepreneurial curriculum can develop menu
alternatives is expected for human health in addition to be able to meet the needs of the body for
the event, it is also beneficial for health. It also aims to introduce functional foods in a food service

Arcaro, Jerome S. 2007, Pendidikan Berbasi Mutu, Jogyakarta; Pustaka Pelajar
Craig. W.J. 1999. Health-promotingp Properties of Commmom Herbs. American Journal
Clinical Nutrition. 70:4915S-9S.
Depdiknas. 2003, Pedoman Khusus Pengembangan Silabus dan Penilaian
Goldberg, I. 1994. Functional Food: Designer Foods, Pharmafoods, Nutraceuticals.
Chapman and Hall. London, pp. 3-16.
Muchtadi T.R. dan Sufiana. 2002. Formulasi Minuman Kaya Beta Karoten dari Minyak Sawit
Sheehy and Morrissey. 1998. Functional Foods: Prospects and Perspectives. Department of
Nutrition, University College, Cork, Ireland.
Suryadi, Ace. 2002, Pendidikan, Investasi SDM, dan Pembangunan. Jakarta; Balai Pustaka.