Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education



Syaad Patmanthara,
Department of Electronic Engineering, State Univ. of Malang

Education is an important process that should we have to go through in life. We learn in
elementary school to middle school and then went on top. We have to attend any face to face in
the classroom. All classes in the school system is using a manual system, which means that
teaching and learning is done by using conservative methods. For example, a teacher will teach
their students using chalk and blackboard. While students will listen to the lesson the teacher.
As this is the state of the class since the beginning of operation. Traditional classroom has led
to some problems such as lack of interactivity, students will depend on their teachers and so on.
Currently, with the rapid technological development, the class system has changed. Teachers
and students may only need to attend classes via the computer through the internet. They do
not need to be present in a real classroom but at home again. Class will be supported with the
use of some types of teaching and learning methods such as email, chat, video conferencing
and many more. In this paper, we present our findings that an exchange of learning on the
internet through the Virtual Classroom.
Keyword: Learning, Virtual Classroom

The term virtual classroom is a combination of two words ie "virtual" and "class". Virtual
means false or unreal. Virtual reality (VR) which means that the situation is not real, but it made
such a reality. Thus, a virtual reality system is basically an interactive simulation can represent real
or abstract system (Hsu, S; Marques O; Hamza M; Alhalabi, B, 1999). Simulation is representative
of a computer-based model that provides the appropriate data for visualization. Therefore, by using
the VR system allows participants to: a. become totally immersed in a synthetic computer-
generated environment, b. achieve a sense of presence in the environment, c. achieve a sense of
non-real time, where the situation can be presented in a fast or slow, d. achieve a high degree of
interaction daam equal or exceed that achieved in the real world, e. interact naturally and
intuitively with a synthetic environment, f. repeat the task until proficiency or skill level desired, g.
perform in a safe environment (Calfolla, k & Knee R. 1999).
Therefore, the Virtual Reality allows students to explore and manipulate the environment
that is physically impossible to visit (Hsu, S; Marques O; Hamza M; Alhalabi, B: 1999). For
example, when students are navigating the Virtual Classroom / Virtual Classroom, they will
receive a lot of visual and auditory stimuli, but can not smell or touch the environment. "Class"
means a room where a lesson is taught. Teachers and students are the main entities in the class. All
teaching and learning process conducted in the classroom. So short is the virtual classroom virtual
environment that resembles a real classroom. In other words, it is considered a traditional learning
environment simulated by electronic means. Simulation can be used as an extension from the
board to help students to visualize three-dimensional concept. In addition, the simulation also
provides a virtual world where there is no limit to the range and number of interactive lectures,
projects and laboratory exercises that can be experienced (Winfield, W; Mealy, M & P. Schiebel
2000). With the ability to conduct collaborative sessions over the network, virtual classrooms may
be used for students who are spread across the city or the world.

Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


Virtual classroom
Based on surveys conducted in schools conducted in 2007, showed that the number of
virtual classroom of students who registered indicated a growing interest in this educational
option. Estimates that 1 million students who take classes via the Internet, while International Data
Corporation estimates that the number of students enrolled in online courses will reach 2.2 million
in 2002. While stated that in 2006, 80 percent of educational institutions will rely
on virtual learning. Thus, the figures and estimates show that virtual classes will gradually become
an important tool in the new generation of industrial education.
But in fact, currently only a few educational institutions have delivered fully online system.
Internet as a supplement to the satellite, video, microwave, audio, and print-based content. But as
computers are increasingly ubiquitous, user-friendly, and inexpensive, then the online system just
as the outlook for Simple changed.
In education, the traditional way to do a class usually uses the method of chalk and a
blackboard. A teacher is required to handle the class. The teachers will teach in the classroom to
write their notes on the blackboard with chalk, then explain to the students. In addition, teachers
will also teach students to refer to the textbook. All material is usually in the form of paper or
paperboard. While the students in the class will usually act as the recipient of information from
their teachers and their own lack of initiative to learn.
In the mid-1990s, conservative methods of teaching and learning has changed. Instead of
writing lecture notes on the blackboard, the teacher set up the transparency and then explain the
transparency of the students, teachers sometimes ask my students. This procedure has the
advantage of reducing the need for students to read the material before. For many students, the
current reading is considered optional. It has gotten to the point where the grade is often angry
when a professor tried to generate a class discussion without first telling students what the text
meant, while students prefer material that will appear in next exam. In addition, teachers will also
use a video or cassette in a class to make their lectures more understandable and interesting. By
using cassette / video related to the subject in the classroom, students can see or hear the
explanation of the presentation that will add to the understanding of the topic. This is what is
called a multimedia classroom, the class that uses the Overhead Projector (OHP), video, radio or
other media. (Barker, T. 2000)
Before the 2000s, learning and teaching environment is the "face to face" between teachers
and students. During the 2000s, the education system has evolved. The educational system
integrating computer technology into conventional classrooms. This means that students will
follow the process of learning to use computers. Yet students still need to follow the lessons in the
classroom, it's just that now the students can communicate with teachers using computers. In
addition, with this system as the teacher's role is as facilitator in the classroom.
Present and even future, teaching will most likely be done virtually, before the system will
be upgraded so as to connect students and teachers everywhere and not just limited to the internal
region. The students will not need to attend the class again, but can follow the lessons via the
internet at home.
Internet-based learning through the Virtual Classroom
The authors have designed and finds a new paradigm of virtual classes that will be
introduced to solve problems and provide solutions to their limitations. It aims to replace or
Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


complement rather formal school requirements for students in need. While enhancing the
educational environment (Barker, T. 2000).
Purpose of the Virtual Classroom
a. To create and stimulate a classroom environment using the multimedia paradigm.
One aim of creating a virtual classroom is to generate simulated classrooms equipped with
multimedia facilities such as audio, video, graphics, text and animation. By integrating these
facilities into the learning system, a virtual classroom can be completely changed from the
conventional class of the truth. Virtual classroom will provide a better atmosphere, interesting and
even gives the solution of problems of a rigid class.
b. To provide new ways of learning and communication environment for students.
Virtual classroom is a new way of teaching and learning environment located within a
computer that has been mediated by the communication system. It is used to improve access to
further education, enhance the experience of people using personal computers at home or at work
and to improve the quality and effectiveness of education by using computers to support
collaborative learning process.
Collaborative learning is a learning process that emphasizes group efforts or cooperative
efforts among faculty and students, active participation and interaction on the part of both students
and instructors. And new knowledge that emerges from active dialogue among those who share
ideas and information. Therefore, students and instructors will experience the differences and
learning environment is new.
c. To allow people who are busy or do not have the opportunity to acquire education with ease.
Some people are busy working but would like to take courses related to their jobs so they
can improve their knowledge and skills to be up-to-date following the current trend. However,
they do not have time to attend classes. Therefore, they need some alternatives that allow them to
attend classes anywhere and anytime. Virtual classroom is one solution that is flexible and
provides a way for them to attend classes. They can attend classes without having to go to a
learning center / school / educational institution again. In addition, no time limit for them to attend
classes. They can attend classes whenever they are free.
d. To reduce the cost factor which is the main obstacle
With the development of virtual classrooms, the cost of building a physical classroom space
and classroom facilities such as chairs, desks, blackboards, etc. can be reduced or even eliminated.
The cost to set up virtual classrooms are cheaper than a physical classroom. Expenditure on
creating this system is the network cost, the cost of software development, and hardware.
Therefore, this system was created to reduce costs.
e. To allow communication from different places.
Because the system is asynchronous virtual classroom, students from different places or
even other countries can learn and interact in the same virtual classroom. They can even respond
to other discussions and work together as a team member on long distance and scheduled tasks. It
can help students to learn in an interactive graphical environment and, on their own schedule.
Therefore, students from several countries are linked by the system. The problems and gaps
antarmahasiswa because they come from different places can be solved.
f. To enable students to learn their own use of electronic devices.
By using a virtual classroom, students will be trained to become more independent as
teachers in this system only acts as a facilitator. Sometimes, there are no teachers in this system
Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


but the computer was going to be a teacher. Hence, the students will have the opportunity to
explore and learn on their own.

1. Virtual Classroom System Design
Virtual classes are designed to connect to students with a network that carries the audio or
video directly to a computer student. Each student has access to multimedia materials created for
the course (see Figure I).

Figure 1. Display applications via Internet-Based Learning Virtual Classroom
One important element of the virtual classroom is synchronous activity, where students and
instructors interact while working with a collaborative software (Swigger, K; Brazilt R: Byron S;
Livingston, A, Lopez V, Reyes, J. 2001). By attending a virtual classroom, students can follow the
lessons, take tests or quizzes, collect assignments and get his job back. In addition, students can
map their classmates or the instructor, use e-mail, using video-conferencing and follow antarsiswa
discussion group. Instructors do not need to be with students again in the classroom. Therefore,
communication and interaction between instructors and students through the network (see figure 2)
for the preparation of the system contained in the flow chart.

Figure 2. Early Structure Interface Design - Internet-Based Learning Virtual Classroom
Features Virtual Classroom
Internet-based Learning Exchange has two interfaces / interface (Winfield, W; Mealy, M &
P. Schiebel 2000). One is a teacher interface, while the other is the student interface. For the inter-
face teacher, the teacher can retrieve data on school attendance, learning and time to plan to teach
in the classroom, preparing and assessing students in the lessons, homework and tests, email and
send messages (Swigger, K; Brazilt R; Byron S ; Livingston, A, Lopez V, Reyes, J. 2001). For the
student interface, students also have the email and messaging services. In addition, students can
also take and submit their homework, tests for teachers and attend lectures via computer.

Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


2. Comparison Between the Existing System with Internet-based learning through the
Virtual Classroom
Existing systems
• In a traditional classroom, students and teachers together in the same place at the same time.
This is the most common scenarios and the basic ways to make learning in the classroom. This
is done in a room where the teacher will teach and students will occupy their tables and chairs
each. The teacher will stand in front of students and began teaching with the use of chalk and a
blackboard or distribute the notes to the students.
• The learning process begins with the arrival in the class teacher. First, the presence of the
students will be recorded. Then the teachers will start teaching the students. The students attend
classes on the basis of the schedule that has been determined. If students have problems they
can raise their hands to get attention and help from teachers. When the lesson has been
completed, the teacher will announce the school work has been scheduled for this day. Then the
students are grouped according to school work.

New System
• In a virtual classroom, comments are not restricted as in the traditional classroom sessions.
Asynchronous communication and group discussions enable students to reflect discussions with
each other. Students who need more time to prepare a response or they are hesitant to respond
face to face in the classroom, the students found the virtual classroom asynchronous
environment more comfortable and freer to share their thoughts with their classmates. In
addition, students gain greater flexibility to synthesize materials from an online course before
they compile a thorough commentary.
• In this virtual classroom, students can demonstrate a high level of interaction between students
and students with teachers and students. Often students read and write responses to other
students as virtual classes take place.
• Because the system is asyn-chronous, students from various places or even other countries can
learn and interact in the same virtual classroom. They can even respond to a discussion of each
other and work together as a team member is also being established to work on scheduled tasks.
• E-education helps students learn in a graphical and interactive environment.
• Students can learn because teachers tailor a broad national curriculum and consider the different
needs, learning styles and abilities that all students, and make it relevant to students' experience.
• Students will be encouraged to practice self-paced, access and self-directed learning with the
teacher acting as guide.

3. The advantages of Internet-based learning through the Virtual Classroom
• Improve student learning.
By using this system, students will be trained to find the resources or the information
independently. They will not depend on their teachers again.
• Improve teaching and learning environment.
The teacher or students will not teach or learn in a real classroom again. They can even
remain in their own homes to attend classes and lessons.
• Increase interactivity between teachers and students. Teachers and students can use several
methods to interact such as through email, chat, form discussion groups and other methods.
Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


Figure 3. Pieces of the display of Internet Virtual Classroom Learning Exchange
4. Interface through Internet-Based Learning Virtual Classroom (Internet Learning
Exchange Virtual Classroom Interface)
Initial structure of the system interface to the virtual classroom system will begin with a
logon page, then go to the page where a classroom environment is created. All objects in the
classroom can be clicked. For example, teachers and students can utilize the 'filing cabinet' that
contains a record of every lesson and assessment. Whiteboard is used to start the lesson. In the
virtual classroom also has a class schedule, news boards and school calendar. Meanwhile, computer
icon is a link to the collection of the best conferences related to the conference from the internet or
even from the school library system. Mailboxes in this system offers a personalized e-mail to
students who subscribe. There are also schools on-line conference with a specific area. Rubric that
has all the latest information about the Virtual Classroom and Space Stuff is a special area for staff
and students to discuss issues related to education or obtain teaching resources and personal
problems. Thus, by using the keyboard, mouse, speakers and microphone, the participants /
students can experience real-time interaction with their teachers.
5. Features
• Profile Management Student / Teacher
This feature allows students and teachers manage individual nominally profile. Profiles of
students and teachers will be stored in a database for future reference.
• Planning Class
This feature will manage the planning of the classroom such as time and attendance of students.
• Online Lectures
This feature allows student teachers to provide links to web pages where they can find
information to study subjects of the course. Teachers can also make personal notes and save
them into the system. Therefore, students will attend lectures by studying the records prepared
by the teacher.
• Assessment Online
Features provide the test session for all students in the class. Then, this feature will conduct an
analysis of students' responses and produce a summary of student performance.
• Email
This feature can be used to convey information, questions and tasks and receive answers, the
results of the exercises and read the comments from the students.
• Mailing list
This feature is to automate the process of message exchange between teachers and students in
virtual classes. It is possible that any message sent by some participants of the course are
automatically distributed to other members of the group. This feature has the same concept as an
Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


online bulletin board. Thus, teachers need only send one announcement to the group and each
person will receive a copy. When someone gets in return, everyone gets a reply.
• Instant Messaging
This feature is to exchange messages in real-time with students to discuss topics in a virtual
classroom. Students or teachers can chat with each other. This allows teachers to choose the
mode of virtual communication that he or she wants. Regardless of the application, either chat
or voice chat, it will allow all teachers convey the message in real time. This feature can also be
used in multiple user mode, so groups can conduct conferences or just 'hanging out' on-line. For
voice chat lets chat via microphone and speakers.
• Internet
This feature allows the link to the web.
• Send a File
This feature allows to send files to people in question.
• Run the application / Run Application
This feature will run applications that are not included in the system such as Microsoft Office,
Notepad and others.

6. Conclusion
As a designer online course materials we have to consider the purpose of e-course, e-content, e-
policies and e-procedures, e-evaluation of courses and instructors in a virtual classroom. Beyond
the basics listed above when teachers design an on-line program should also consider how teachers
can relate to emotional, psychological, and learning styles of students in this online feature. Vitual
class begins with the user to take a passive approach, and is now a growing awareness of the users
who are interested in contributing to the content. The same applies to learning. Virtual class
Brazilians is a constructivist learning environment, using e-learning technologies and harness the
knowledge repository, is very promising because it is more effective to develop innovative
education and talent to the management of the learning organization.

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