Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education



Triyanna Widiyaningtyas & Puger Honggowiyono
State University of Malang

One of the problem in the implementation of education is still the lack of instructional media
used by the teacher. Basically, teachers have not been able to create interactive learning media,
which can attract students. These conditions resulted in students learning more quickly bored
with the monotony of the media. This paper explain the development of computer-assisted
learning applications based on interactive multimedia in the components of computer systems.
The method used in this application is the development method, with the step are analysis,
design, implementation, and testing. The results of show that the implementation and testing
of applications developed can be used to supplement learning for students, the media
feasibility values obtained by 88% of student responses.

Keywords: Computer Assisted Learning, feasibility, interactive learning

Computer as a form of advanced technology can be used as a tool in implementing the
learning activities. By computer, teachers can utilize a variety of information resources around
them as a learning resource. Teachers can use various computer programs to make learning richer
and yet more interesting information, which can result in their students' motivation to learn.
Teachers are expected to utilize a variety of learning resources that are easy to use either as a self-
learning materials as well as enrichment material.
In education, the computer can be a new learning media. Lessons learned at school
sometimes make students become bored. That is because the delivery is less attractive and tend to
be boring, so as to make students become easy to forget with what he learned, especially the
theoretical lessons. The computer can support the learning process because of by using the
computer, not the material shown only in writing, but also there is sound or animation, and in
addition students can interact interactively. For the purpose in this paper discussed the develop of
computer aided learning material intended for solar system.

Computer Aided Learning (CAL)
CAL is an abbreviation of Computer Aided Learning and is one of the most com-monly
used acronyms with in education. It is difficult to say exactly when the term “CAL” was first
employed, however since the mid 1980s CAL has been increasingly used to describe the use of
technology in teaching.
Computer-Aided Learning is a learning technique being employed in order to edu-cate
students via the use of computers. Computer-Aided Learning (CAL) is becoming a popular tool for
teaching, utilising computers in the explanation, tutoring and testing of subject matter.
Well there is, despite the ever increasing interest in the use of technology within education,
no clear definition of the term “CAL”. It does not refer to a given standar-dised set of rules, HCI
ideals or generic specification. So in the absence of a type de-scription perhaps we should concern
ourselves less with the meaning of “CAL” but ra-ther with the context in which the term is used.
There are two common contexts of usage: CAL as Computer Based Learning and CAL as
Integrative Technology
Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


In the absence of a classical definition “CAL” has often been used to describe the
development and application of educational technology for a variety of circumstances. From the
mid 1980s until the early 1990s the term CAL was often used to refer to the development of either
a single computer program or a series of programs which replaced the more traditional methods of
instruction, in particular the lecture. This was in fact a natural progression from an early misguided
strategy, propounded by Government literature (for example the pamphlet Higher Education: a
New Framework, 1991), which encouraged through ignorance the development of computer
programs with the explicit aim of replacing current methods as opposed to their incorporation
within the traditional setting together with support to or from existing methods. More attention was
being paid to solving the current staff to student ratio crisis rather than improving the quality of
student education through the re-evaluation of the current methods of instruction. This would have
resulted in a coherent instructional strategy within which CAL would form a part.
CAL is not a single computer program but art of an educational strategy devised to teach a
particular subject. The relative part each method of instruction plays within the strategy is
determined through the re-evaluation of the subject being taught. Re evaluation examines the
educational objectives of the subject and their associated learning outcomes and determines the
success with which the current methods of teaching and assessment are achieving them in terms of
knowledge gain. Thus re-evaluation helps to determine the areas or objectives of the subject in
which the traditional methods are fail-ing and where the computer program can help. Furthermore
re evaluation determines the level at which the program operates – the educational objectives which
the program alone cannot teach and thus the level of required support from the other methods. Thus
re evaluation results in a coherent educational strategy within which each instructional method
compliments and supports the other ensuring that no area of the subject is over-looked.

Characteristic of CAL
Computer-aided learning (CAL) has characteristics in the learning process and is described
as follows: first, student sit at the computer, the student uses the keyboard to provide opinions and
information into the computer. Then the students can listen and communicate appropriate teaching
and learning in the classroom through a conventional computer monitor.
Information or subject matter presented to the students and the students are free to absorb the
material as widely as possible. And students are also free to react to the material provided on CPB
after students finish reading the whole matter. Once the material is read by the students finished the
screen will be displayed in the form of multiple choice questions. If the student answers correctly,
it will display a new question. However, if students answer incorrectly, then the program will ask
students to repeat the subject matter. After that students are given questions and this time the
student must correctly answer.

The use of CAL
The fundamental aim of Computer-Aided Learning is to communicate with the student. The
student should be learning about the subject matter in question not the workings of a computer. A
basic understanding of mouse and keyboard should be enough to allow the student to proceed
through any CAL software [Beevers et al (1991)].
Lee, S. D, quotes that there are three rules of using technology for teaching, these can be
summarized as follows:
Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


• Technology should not be used to replace teachers or teaching. It should be used as a
supplement to teaching, or as a replacement for the absence of teaching, i.e. by making material
available if a course is not currently being run, or to remote/life-long learners who do not enjoy
the privileges of being linked to an educational institution. Technology should only be used
where a noticeable gain to the teaching quality is evident. Bearing in mind the considerable
costs (both in terms of finances and time) it is not enough to simply employ IT on the basis that
it will not do any harm.
• Technology should be applied in appropriate stages. It is not essential to use every bit of new
technology available. Sometimes the most noticeable effects can be derived from very easy-to-
use methods, most noticeably in the area of computer-mediated communication.

Computer aided learning which developed using many steps. The steps include four phases,
are requirement analysis, design, implementation, and testing. The phase of requirement analysis is
done by survey at school to know the characteristic of student. The design phase is done by design
user interface and chose the menu which will be made. The implementation phase is done by
making interface with Macromedia Flash, until the application ready to use by students. And the
testing phase is done by test the application to student. The students try the application for
individual studying. After they study, they must try the quiz that is given there and must be filled
the questionnaire about the application.

The Research Instrument
Instruments used in this research is there are two kinds of instrument hardware and software.
a. Hardware
The need for hardware that is used in a process adapted to the speed, the minimum
recommended specifications:
1. Laptop / PC desktop
2. LCD projector
3. Printer + Scanner
4. Earphone
5. Speaker
6. Digital camera

b. Software
The software which used is the software that supports the processing of text and graphical
interface, the software is Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Flash (Ma-cromedia Flash)

Product perspective
Products developed an application that contains learning content,interactive content for
learning to know the components of computer systems. Development of interactive multimedia
learning content utilizing built using Adobe Flash.
Applications developed some of the features offered, of which there are:
• Using a combination of multimedia (text, images, audio, animation, and video) that interactive
and interesting.
Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


• Applications developed based interactive multimedia, which can be widely accessible.
• The material is quite complete, consisting of basic materials, evaluation and video of computer
Here are a few examples of the implementation of instructional media computer system

Figure. 1. The main menu of learning application

The main menu consists of introduction menu, material menu, evaluation menu, and about).
Introduction menu contains about the global information about the learning media. Material menu
contains the terms of the general terms relating to the component of computer system, such as
hardware, software and brain ware. Menu quiz contains practice on the material that has been
studied. The application program of this sub menu is shown in figure 2 to figure 4

Figure 2. Implementation of material process hardware

Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


Figure 3. Implementation of output hardware
To evaluate the ability of the child, provided that the direct exercisemenu can be used
interactively. Examples of evaluation are shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Evaluation Menu

System Testing
Testing is done by internal testing and external testing. Internal testing is done by checking
the functionality of system. After internal testing, the test is done by trying this application to user.
After try the application, users must fill the questionnaire form. The result of the questionnaire
form reach 88%, so this system is valid.

From the results of this development, it can be concluded as follows:
1. With the application of Computer Aided Learning of computer system component can help
students to do independent learning and to support the learning process at school.
2. The display interface is very powerful for an interesting view of learning which can make
students more interested in learning the material.
3. The quizzes facility can help students to test the level of understanding after studying the
4. Media such alternative is also more practical and attractive to serve as a supplement to learning
so that children do not get bored

Reformulating The Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


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