Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

A. Mukhadis
Faculty of Engineering, Malang State University

Act of Indonesian Republic No. 14/2005 About Teachers and Lecturers stated that
teachers at all levels and formal line are professional. Including in them are
vocational teachers. As professional educator required to have minimum academic
qualification of bachelor (S1/D4), mastering competencies, educator certificate,
healthy in physic and spirit, and have abilities to embody the national education
goals. Educator certificate in Indonesia got through teacher certification. The
teacher certification implementation has been done since 2007 based on Regulation
of National Education Department (Permendiknas) No.18/ 2007, in 2009 changed
to Governmental Regulation (Peraturan pemerintah, PP) R.I. No.74/2008 about
Teacher. Up to 2012 for teacher certification implementation in service has
graduated about 871.000 teacher (30%), from 2.7 millions in total. Recall to the
teacher certification is a strategic national program and has been done more than
five years, then it is important to make reflection. The reflection results are
divided into four aspects, preparation, implementation, results and follow up.
Preparation stage: the under-standing of mechanism and equipments,
requirements, rule of game at the related institutions or the participant at some
region (the outer, underdeveloped, scattered) still not optimal yet.
Implementation stage: perception of local committee at related institutions
(LPMP, LPTK, Diknas, and P4TK), the assessors, the partici-pants toward standard
operational procedures in the implementation guidance in some regions (the outer,
underdeveloped, scattered, remote and scattered) still not optimal yet. Results
stage: qualitatively has suitable with the determined target, at least the quota of
each year increase and also the graduation percentage. But, qualitatively it can be
said not suitable with essence of the competence audit that direct to teacher
professional performance. Follow up stage: mechanism of archiving, proposing,
giving the profession support and the sustainable professionalism development for
teacher who graduated from the certification still not optimal yet.

The global life or that popularly called as knowledge era is marked by the
fulfillment of all needs as the representation of life existence, either at indi-vidual,
family, societal, nation and state level that based on knowledge. Every fulfillment effort
and development in various field (economic, educa-tion, social, and industry) based on
knowledge (Ditjen Dikti, 2004). Dialectic of fulfillment effort and development at all
field in the global era context if fulfilled by competition in the cooperation and
cooperation in competition (Satari 193; Djojonegoro, 1994; Ditjen Dikti, 2004). The
dialectic phenome-non direction is directed by the agreement of world wide market
alternative such as AFTA and AFLA that is prevailed (2003); APEC since (2010);
GATT and GATS (2020). At the world wide market era demand synergy in econo-mic,
wide market access, good information, and higher achievement stan-dard, that shift the
aphorism from survival for the fittest to survival for the person with the best quality
(Danim, 2003). In this context, a nation advan-tage over other nation determined by the
competitive advantages (human resources advantages) not the comparative advantage
(natural resources advantages). It is confirmed by World Bank (2000) in the book of
The Quality of Growth, where the most important assets today is human capital or
intellectual capital. With other words, the human resources quality of a nation become
determinant in the era of competition in the cooperation and cooperation in the
competition globally than the natural resources advant-ages.
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

Human resources advantages of a nation will have positive correlation with the
policy quality, planning, implementation, and development of state national education
system, either formal education or informal education. It is suitable with the role and
function of education in each state and nation for development of human resources, so
can be used as capital to enter end exist and advantage at the new life era in global era
(Oentoro, 2000). The national education system of a nation is designed and
implemented to facilitate individuals wholly to be wisdom individuals and still have
excellent compe-tence, godly character and spiritual discernment. With other word,
intellect-ual capital only can be developed and fulfilled in global era, if a nation placed
the development in the education field strategically. Indonesia has aware about this.
The indicators can be found at the goal formulation of the national education
implementation as present in the Act of Indonesian Republic, No. 20/2003, about
National Education System.
The main goals of vocational education (SMK) as subsystem of national education
system to give skills and knowledge and the supporting attitude-values, so the output
can become the quality or superior human resources in each field. The education
output characteristics are able to be productive thinkers and workers and have
competitive abilities. To reach the goals, it need orientation of learning implementation
at the SMK not only give emphasis to technical skills, but also give attention to other
supporting element that able to facilitate the student to develop and compete in
theglobal era. Why? Because learning is a subsystem of education implementation.
With learning implementation orientation at SMK, it is expected able to facilitate
graduation that able to fulfill the global demand, that is able to be human resources that
is job creator, or become competitive job seeker or become high degree pursuer that
become the capital in emulation ability development not only imitation ability. The
emulation ability development in this case is marked by the ability to make synergy
from various new products (information, technology, goods and services) that has added
value and competitive advantage than previous product (Mukhadis, 2009).
To reach the education goals in SMK above give strategic position to the teacher.
It is based on the consideration the teacher resources will have less meaning if not
followed by the qualified teachers, either quantitatively or qualitatively. And vice
versa. It is suitable with the Fuad Hasan the former education minister that stated
“…don’t make fuss to the curriculum and the system. But the performer (teachers) that
should be give more attention” (Dharma, 2009). With other words, teacher is the front
liner in effort to improve the service quality and education results. In various cases,
educa-tional system quality entirely related with the teacher quality (Beeby, 1969). For
the matter, the policies related with teacher in our country, at Article 28, Governmental
Rule No. 19/2005 required minimum requirement for teacher with academic
qualification of S1/D4 and should have competence as the learning agents. The
competence as learning agents including pedagogic, personality, professional, and
social competences. Refer to the requirements, it can be said that teachers who have
S1/D4 qualifications normatively can not be said as quality (professional) teacher if
not fulfilled the minimum competence requirements as the learning agent. The
fulfillment of education requirement , minimum formally proven by education
certificates and fulfillment of minimum competence requirement as learning agent
proven by the competence certificates or in the word of Act of Indonesian Republic No
20 / 2003 called as educator certificate. Educator certificate given to teacher that has
followed and graduated from the competence test through certifica-tion process (Ditjen
Dikti, 2011).
Teacher certification in Indonesia, including in it is the SMK teachers as
representation of teacher competence audit implementation that used as foundation to
give formal admission about the teacher professionalism that proven by educator
certificate giving has been begun since 2006/2007. Up to 202 the teacher certification
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

in Indonesia has enter the sixth year. During the five year certification implementation
has audited the competence with some implementation pattern (portfolio, education line,
education and teacher profession training, PLPG), and the direct education certificate
giving, PSPL), and teacher stated as proper formally about 871.000 teacher (30%), from
total 2.607.311 teacher. The Policies and implementation of teacher certification in
Indonesia different in concept and implementation in other countries (Malaysia,
America, England, etc). The differences such as (1) teacher certification done as effort
to encourage the quality increase and followed by welfare improvement, (2)
certification in Indonesia aimed at auditing competence and acknowledge the license as
teacher (3) certification implementation in Indonesia can be considered as new, either
in policy side, equipment and the implementation model, (4) teacher certification in
Indonesia is applied either at pre service or in service teachers (5) the teacher
certification implementation in Indonesia is improved in the mechanism and the
equipment (6) teacher certification quota in Indonesia each year more than 200
thousands teachers, that never done in other countries, and (7) teacher certification in
Indonesia is done in diverse geographies, cultural and progress of the participants.
Teacher certification program in Indonesia in general aimed at determining the
professionalism properness through teacher competence audit in role as learning agent
become the base to give educator certificate. Educator certificate is the formal proof
and admission as the profesional educator. While the benefit of competence
certification test to (1) protect the teacher profession from incompetent practices so
damage the educator profession image (2) protect society from non profesional
education practices, (3) protect the education implementer institution from internal will
and external pressure that deviate from the prevailing stipulations and (4) become
quality assurance vehicle for implementer of educational manpower preparation
program (LPTK) in college, and services, and early, primary, and secondary education
Recall to the strategic role, if viewed from the goals, benefit, uniqueness of the
system and the implementation pattern, the target size, time span that enter the sixth
year, then it is considered as important to “contemplate” to reflect the certification
implementation. The reflection give more emphasis to the aspects that related with
implementation, process and follow up. Implementation aspect become the focus of
this investigation that include preparation, implementation, results, and follow up in the
teacher professi-onalism development.
Professionalism Demand for Vocational Teacher
Quantitatively the secondary education in Indonesia divided into general
secondary education and vocational secondary education (Depdiknas, 2003). The
vocational secondary education in various fields, the biggest in Indone-sia is
business/economic study field.While vocational education for engineer-ing (automotive,
construction, machinery, and electric) is the second biggest, and followed by other
vocation groups. Nationally, vocational secondary education in Indonesia more than
3726 SMK, that consist of 726 SMK with state status and more than 3000 SMK with
private status. Implication of the phenomenon, the students from private SMK more
than state SMK. The condition become the learning quality improvement effort in
vocational school in Indonesia become less optimal (Mukhadis, 2004). The final
estuaries of the phenomenon is the low output quality. It is shown by pure Ebtanas
grades or national final examination grades average that still low; and many graduation
that do not have skill that is suitable with the curriculum demand (Simmons, 1980, and
Ohmae, 1995). With other words, the our vocational education output unable to fulfill
the standard minimum competence in the mastering of knowledge, skill, attitude-value,
and for professional work. Further implications, the SMK education implementation
unable to produce graduation that able to think critically, globally, and have high work
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

culture, and high emulation suitable with their fields, competence minimum standard,
and support the improvement in global economic system today (Slamet, 1993).
Effort to facilitate the human resources building with above characteristics,
through vocational education in Indonesian become strategic. Especially if connected
with the related education field to prepare skilled worker at the technician level suitable
with industrial, local, non formal, national, and global demands. It is strengthened by
the statistical data of worker in Indonesia, that is 80% still have education below Senior
High School, less than 17% with Senior High School education (Gatot, 2000; Munawar,
et al 2000). Beside that, globally the survey results done by The Political and Economic
Risk Consultant (PERC) that is Hong Kong based showed that the Indonesian education
quality in general in Asia Pacific at 12
position under Vietnam, Thailand, and
Philippines (Wibowo, 2002). The weaknesses able to influence to the effort to develop
empirically the human resources (skilled worker of technician level) at the life quality
improvement aspect through economic meaning, field and man power development,
human development aspect and knowledge mastery aspects, technological usage and
development. The signals are supported by data from International Labor Organization
(ILO), where in 2011 in Indonesia has open unemployment population of (12-29 years
old) of 19.29% and the highest between Asia Pacific countries (Kompas, April 12,
In the context, the technological education institution (in this case SMK) has
significant role in facilitating the effort to improve human resources (skilled worker at
technician level) that has high emulation abilities through learning process quality
improvement. In the quality learning process contained effort to create condition that
able to stimulate and facilitate the learning occurren-ce. The concrete form of the
learning action is the interaction between learn-ers and learning sources (either that is
designed or used) that produce learn-ing experiences. The learning experiences here
can be in the form of know-ledge, skill, attitude-value to certain field, and profesional
performance (Ditjen Dikti, 2004). For that, effort to create conductive learning needs
improvement to various learning sources, especially in this context the educators
(teachers). Effort drum to improve teacher quality has been struck since the prevailing
of Act of Indonesian Republic No.20/2003 about National Education System, Act No.
14/2005 about Teachers and Lecturers, and PP RI No. 19/2005 about National Standard
for Education as the juridi-cal foundation stated that all teachers in various types and
stages of education (including SMK) are profesional educators. So they are demanded
to have academic quality at leas S1/D4 that is relevant and mastering the competence as
the learning agent. The minimum qualification requirement fulfillment is proven by
education certificate and minimum competence requirement fulfillment as learning
agent that proven by educator certificate.
At the vocational education (SMK) the demand of teacher requirement as the
profesional educators with requirement to have academic qualification at least (S1/D4),
and have competence certificate are important as effort to improve the learning
quality that have potential to improve the education output. Because the learning in
SMK has specialty if compared with non vocational education. Specifically the learning
events at vocational education run in context: (1) scientific development and the
discoveries are dynamic, such as in the electronic engineering (2) learning orientation
refer to facilita-ting the emulative performance abilities than imitative abilities, and (3)
the learning gives emphasis to transfer of training and transfer general principles and
the attitude development (Mukhadis, 2009). The final estuaries of the specific natures
of the learning in vocation is facilitating the development optimally the student
potentials that is superior in the global era. Indicator of the competitive superiorities in
the global era such as: the main foundation is technological engineering; active,
interactive and creative life environments; and measuring rod and determination of
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

superiority in the life welfare is the effort results and hard work. The three indicators
become the determinant of competitive superiority in the global era.
But, if connected with the minimum academic qualification, and educator
certificate as the indicator of profesional educator above, the phenomenon in field today
still showed gap. The gap based on data from Education Worker Directorate of Primary
and Secondary Education of National Education Department, in 2009 in Baedhowi
2009) showed that the teachers without minimum qualification of (S1/D4) of 1.497.018
persons (57.416%) from total teacher nationally at various education types and level of
2.607.311 persons. So quantitatively the teacher amount that has fulfill the minimum
education qualification at various education types and level just 1.110.293 persons
(42.584%). The detail qualitatively of teacher at various types and level in Indonesia
have not fulfill the minimum education qualification: 535.601 persons (20.542%) with
Junior High School education; 49.763 persons (1.908%) with D1 education; 790.327
persons (30.311%) with D2 education; 121.327 persons (4.653%) with D3 education.
While the detail qualitatively that has fulfilled minimum education qualifications:
1.092.912 persons (41.917%) with S1 education; 17.619 persons (0.675%) with S2
education, and 59 persons (0.002%) with S3 education. From the teacher total amount at
various types and level nationally 2.607.311 persons, teacher with Civil Servant Status
1.972.735 persons (75.661%), and 634.576 persons (24.338%) with Private Status.
More specifically to the vocational education (SMK), nationally the teacher that
have not fulfill yet the minimum qualification (S1/D4) still 20.609 persons (14.228%)
from total teachers of 144.846 persons. So quantitatively, the teachers that has fulfilled
the minimum qualification of 124.237 persons (85.772%). The detail qualitatively of
SMK teachers in Indonesia that have not fulfilled the minimum qualification: 5.871
persons (4.053%) with Junior High School education, 808 persons (0.557%) with D1
education; 1007 persons (6.772%) with D2 education; 12.923 persons (8.918%) with D3
education. While detail quantitatively for SMK teachers that fulfilled the minimum
education qualification: 121.397 persons (83.811%) with S1 education; 2.828 persons
(19.048%) with S2 education, and 12 persons (0.008%) with S3 educations. From total
SMK teacher nationally 144.846 teachers; teachers with civil servant status 67.789
persons (46.800%), and 77.075 persons (53.200%) with private status. The teacher
pictures that have not fulfilled the minimum qualification become greater if refer to
minimum education qualification requirement at PP RI No 19 of 2005 about National
Standard of Education (SNP).
Article 28, PP RI No 19 of 2005, beside required the minimum academic
qualification for teacher or educator (including SMK educators), also should have
competence as the learning agent at education type and level in the place to do their
jobs. The learning agent competence including pedagogic, personality, profesional, and
social competences. It can be said that person who fulfilled minimum education
qualification (S1/D4) non eligible to be called as professional teacher if have not fulfill
the minimum competence requirement as the learning agent that is proven by educator
certificate. Because of that, teacher at various education types and levels, including in
it the SMK teachers are demanded to fulfill the minimum education qualifica-tion and
minimum competence as the learning agent. The fulfillment of minimum education
(S1/D4) that is proven by education certificate and minimum competence as learning
agent at SMK given to teacher after attended and graduated from the competence test
through teacher certifica-tion process (Ditjen Dikti, 2011).
The teacher certification program in Indonesia as representation of teacher
professionalism improvement effort through teacher quality improvement that is
followed by teacher welfare improvement, is the mandate from the Act. The program is
expected impacts the learning quality improvement and education quality that direct to
the service quality improvement and the student learning results in Indonesia in
sustainable way. In this case, the teacher welfare improvement by giving the
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

profesional allowance of one base salary for whom that have educator certificate. The
allowance is prevailed, either for civil servant status or private status. The teacher
certification as the vehicle for teacher professionalism quality improvement, education
quality, and service quality and the student learning results also done strictly by several
countries, such as in United States, England and Australia (Wang, et al, 2003).
Comprehensively the teacher professionalism demand at vocational education is
demand for SMK teacher, either normatively or empirically to facilitate the teacher in
learning about the abilities development of learning how to think, learning how to learn,
and learning how to create. The abilities development in the SMK education become the
requirement for emulation abilities development that have potentials to facilitate the
graduates that able to take roles as job creator, or job seeker, and have superior high
decree pursuer in societal life. The student learning ability can be facilitated well if
teacher in managing the learning showed performance that represented the profesional
performance in (1) conducting educative learning, so facilitate the student potential
development to actualize various potentials in the vocation (2) use information and
communication technologies for vocational learning (3) communicate effectively,
empathically, and gentlemanly with learners (4) conducting assessment and evaluation
to the learning results (5) use the assessment and evaluation results for the learning
interest; (6) doing reflect-ive action to improve the learning quality (7) develop learning
materials that is taught effectively (8) develop professionalism continuously by doing
reflective action and (9) mastering materials, structure, concept, and mindset that
support the taught subject. (Ditjen Dikti, PPG Guidance, 2009)

Certification as vocational teacher professionalism
Teacher certification program in Indonesia is the mandate representation of
Article 42 (1) Act of Indonesian Republic. No 20/2003, about National Education
System. The article mandated that education at various types and level should have
minimum qualification and educator certificate suitable with type and level of teaching
authority, healthy in physic and spirit, and have ability to embody the national
education goals. Article 8 of Act of Indonesian Republi No. 14/2005 about Teacher and
Lecturers stated that teacher must have academic qualification, competence, educator
certificate, healthy in physic and spirit, and have abilities to embody the national
education goals. The formulation of the second article at the Act, either the written or
the meaning is similar. The difference only at the use of “academic qualification” term
at UUGD, while at UUSPN use “minimum qualification”. Beside that, article 1 of sub
section 1 of Act of Indonesian Republic No. 14 /2005 about Teachers and Lecturers
stated that teachers are profesional educators with main jobs to educate, teach,
supervise, direct, train, assess, valuate, and evaluate the learners at early education at
formal line, primary education, secondary education. So it can be said that teacher in
various types and level of formal education in Indonesia, including in it teachers in
SMK are profesional educators. As the profesional educators, the teacher should have
three determined requirements, that is have minimum education qualification, have
competence as learning agent and proven by educator certificate.
The fulfillment of minimum education qualification (S1/D4) should be proven by
education certificate ant the minimum competence requirement as the learning agent
should be proven by educator certificate. It is based on Article 1 of sub section 12 of
UUGD that mandated the educator certificate is the formal proof for the competence
fulfillment and admission for teacher and lecturer as profesional worker. While at
Article 11 (1) stated that the educator certificate given to teacher that have fulfilled the
requirement. So teacher able to get educator certificate as the admission form formally
that the teacher is profesional teacher, if the teacher has fulfilled the two main
requirements, minimum education (S1/D4) and mastering the competence. Refer to the
requirements, actually the main requirement to be teacher in Indonesia at various
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

education types and levels only two that is minimum academic qualification and teacher
competence mastering. While the educator certificate only the formal proof for the
fulfillment of the both requirements.
The formal proof acquisition as profesional teacher in the form of educator
certificate should through teacher certification process and graduate from the process.
Teacher certification according to article 1 of sub section 11 UUGD stated that
certification is process to give certificate to teachers and lecturers. The certificate
giving based on the competence mastery that is proven through comprehensive
competence audit that is called competence test that done objectively and transparently,
and accountably (Article 11 (3) of UUGD). The term that is equivalent with
certification is accreditation that is related with credentialization. Literally, credential
come from Latin word – credere, that mean trust. The credentialization is wider and
older understand-ing from accreditation. The emergence is older, even since ancient
Athens (Gilley et al 1987). In 13
t h
century, Frederic II emperor from Rome kingdom,
first time developed medical, law, and educational profession. At the initial stage, the
admission for profesional authority done by special institution or program implementer
institution (Academic Document Draft Sergur, 2003). The credentialization at the
education field in United State has been pioneered after World War. Because of that,
The National Education Asso-ciation (NEA) established a institution that develop and
guarantee the profession standard. So, the education certification program become more
uniform and established since 19790s. According to The American society of
Association Executive report, at that time the certification program of medical, law,
and education field is a license giving mechanism that is regulated at certain field
locally. The licensing is special permit for abilities and skills of someone to do certain
jobs, where the requirements are regulated and implemented by governmental agencies
or certain association. Special for teacher, National Commission on Educational
Services (NCES) in United States defined certification in general. “Certification is a
procedure whereby the state evaluate and reviews a teacher candidate’s credentials and
prove him or her a license to teach”. At state level in United State there is independen
institution that is called The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education
(AACTE) that valuate the owned education certificate by the educator candidates to
determine him or her eligible for the license.
In England, certification is defined as “Certification is designed for candi-dates
who have gained the competencies, skills, and knowledge..” (Brown (603) 271-3874).
While according to Webster Dictionary: a certification is a designation earned by a
person, product or process. Certification my be a synonym for licensure but more often
licensure applies only to person and is required by law (whereas certification is
generally voluntary). Certification of person indicates that the individuals has a specific
knowledge, skills or abilities in the view of the certifying body.
In Indonesia, accreditation is regulated in article 60 of Act of Indonesian Republic
2003, stated that accreditation done to determine the program appropriateness and unit
at formal and non formal education line at each level and types of educations. The
accreditation is done by governmental agencies or independent institution that have
authority as public accountability. Article 61 of Act of Indonesian Republic No.
20/2003 stated that certificate in the form of education certificate and competence
certificate. Education certifi-cate given to the learners after test graduation that
conducted by accredited educational institutions. Competence certificate is given to the
educational institution and training institution to the learner as admission to do certain
job after graduated from the competence test that done by accredited educa-tional unit
or certifying institution. Beside that, at Article 10 (1) UUGD, it is stated that the
teacher competences including pedagogic, personality, social and profesional
competences that are earned through professional education.
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

Article 15 of UUSPN stated that the profesional educations is higher education
after bachelor program that prepared the learners to have jobs with special skill
requirements. Based on both mandates it can be said that the presence of teacher
profession analog with physician, notary, psychologist, and accountant professions that
required profesional education, after pre service education of bachelor S1. Analog with
Bachelor of Medic (S.Ked) that should attend physician professional education to get
license for practice, bachelor of psychology (S.Psi) should attend profesional education
to be psychologist. And also for bachelor of education (S.Pd) should attend
professional education to be profesional teacher (Samani et al 2006). Medical
profession education considered as the oldest professional education in Indonesia and
also the most established, then the physician education can be used as lesson learned.
On of physician professional education that can be taken as example, the presence of
hospitals that is paired with the medical faculty. According information, Colleges able
to open medical faculty if has type B hospital. It means has hospital for students to
practice. Students of physician profesional education should study more in hospital,
called as young physician. Analog with the matter, LPTK that open education program
for teacher profession should have schools for student practice. The schools should
have good quality and students study more (in practice) at the schools if compared with
study in campus. At the end of profesional education, the teacher candidate take
certification program, in the form of competence test. If they are considered as
graduate, means they have mastered competence as teacher and eligible to get educator
certificate. If refer to physician professional education, where the certification test
done by professional association and Medical Science Consortium. Because of that, the
teacher professional education should be conducted by a consortium (LPTK, teacher
professional association and representative of schools/ educational organiza-tion).
Professional education implementation for S1 of education or S1 non educati-on
not become a matter, because they are still in pre service education. There will be a
shift for teacher candidate preparation patter in Indonesia before and after UUGD
implementation. The teacher candidate preparation in Indonesia presented in figure 1.
But, how the teachers when the UUGD is legitimated has been a teacher? Should they
follow new profesional education then attend certification? Related with the matter,
Article 83 of UUGD only explained that for teachers who do not have academic
qualifications and educator certificate should fulfilled at least 10 years, since the
UUGD implement-ation. It means it can be interpreted that teachers who have taught in
school in 10 years from the UUGD implementation required to fulfill the minimum
academic qualification and educator certificate. Based on the stipulation, the teacher
certification implementation in Indonesia divided into two, certifica-tion for in service
teacher and the pre service teacher certification (Ditjen Dikti, 2006). The pre service
teacher certification firmly required after attended and graduated from profesional
education, as pictured in the figure 1. Input for professional education program
according to UUGD, can be from S1/D4 graduation from LPTK, or S1/D4 from Non
LPTK that fulfill the requirements. The certification pattern for pre service, that is input
from S1 graduate up to now not implemented yet, but the pattern has been implement-ed
for teacher in service.
In general the in service teacher certification , since 2007 (first year) up to 2012
(the sixth year) has through some improvements as “perfection” efforts. The pattern
perfection is done each year based on the implementation experience, the identified
weaknesses, and input from various parties. The general pattern of teacher certification
implementation up to 2012 if identi-fied including patters (1) the assessment of teacher
portfolio document (2) education path (3) education and teacher profession training,
PLPG, and the direct education certificate giving, PSPL.

Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

D-2/ S-1







Figure 1. Shifting of Teacher Preparation Model in Indonesia Based on UUGD
(Ditjen Dikti, 2005)

In the first year, (2007) in service teacher certification used portfolio assess-ment
pattern and for them who did not graduated continued by PLPG. In the second year
(2008) still used similar pattern of firs year and added with education path. The
certification through education path during two semester (one year) only just two year
forces. Third year (2009) still used similar pattern with second year added by direct
educator certificate giving to certain teacher who fulfilled certain criteria. The PSPL
program given for teachers who have S2 or S3 qualifications with minimum IVb rank.
The fourth year, (2010) used similar pattern as the third year, and also at the
implementation of the fifth year (2011). At the sixth year (2012) the general pattern of
in service teacher certification is perfected again, especially in the recruitment system
of the participant through initial abilities test (UKA), for participants who fulfilled the
administrative requirement for the teacher certification participant determination
(Guideline Draft, 2012). UKA become the main doors that should be passed for
participant who attend teacher profesional education and training (PLG). Entirely the in
service teacher certification that will be done in the sixth year (2012) according to
Institution of Education Human Resources Development Education Quality Guarantee
(BPSDMP-PMP) presented in figure 2.

Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

Figure 2. Pattern of in Service Teacher Certification of 2012, Source:BPSDMP-PMP,

Reflection of vocational teachers certification implementation
Teacher certification implementation in Indonesia is an audit process for teacher
competence (personality, pedagogic, profesional, and social) as the foundation to give
educator certificate. Educator certificate is the formal proof for the teacher
professionalism admission as the professional teacher. Profesional teacher become the
absolute requirement to create system, practice, service and quality education results in
various types and levels, including vocational education. As the teacher certification
goal that given in the book 1, 2, and 4 the Teacher Certification Guideline (2011) to (1)
deter-mine the teacher appropriateness in conducting the jobs as the learning agent
suitable with the background and the task field (2) improving service process and
education results (3) improving the teacher status (4) improving the teacher
professionalism and (5) speed up the goal embodiment of national education. Refer to
the goals, the certification implementation has strategic role in effort to improve service
quality and the education results in Indonesia. With consideration of the strategic role,
that is involving many related institutions at the level and diverse geographies, need
huge fund nationally, and the time span has entered the sixth year (2007-2012), then it
need reflection to the certification implementation.
The reflection implementation aimed at giving many related things, especial-ly
that is considered as need improvement in the sustainable program implementation. The
reflection is important recall to since initially the program is monumental program, the
scope and impact is national, as new national things, and the need for improvement
each year. The reflection scope for the certification in the writing can be divided into
four aspects. The four aspect (1) preparation (2) implementation (3) results and (4)
follow up. The used framework in the reflection implementation at the four aspects are
the writer experience, results from some researches, literature study, and various input
from practitioners in related fields with the program. The reflection results given below.

Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

Reflection to the certification preparation
The preparation stage in the certification implementation including prepa-ration
of: policies, certification equipments, participants determination, and participant
mindsets. Reflection of preparation stage given as follows: first, the teacher
certification implementation policies in Indonesia based on juruidical foundation in the
form of Act, Governmental Regulations, and Regulation of National Education
Department. The policies foundation in the Act including: Act of Indonesian Republic
No.20/2003 about National Education System, Article 42, Sub Section (2); Act of
Indonesian Republic No 14/2005 about Teachers and Lecturers, Article 8, and article 9
subsection (1). The policy foundation from Governmental Regulation including: PP No
19/2005, about National Standard of Education, Article 28 of Sub section (1), (2), (3)
and sub section (4). Article 28, subsection (5): requirement of subsec-tion (1-3); and PP
No. 74/2008, about Teacher. The policy foundation in the form of Permendiknas, No.
18/2007, Permendiknas No. 10/2009, Permendik-nas No.11/2011, about Certification
for In Service Teacher; Permendiknas No. 16/2007, about Qualification and Competence
Standard for Teacher. The three foundations as the certification implementation bases is
legal, relevant and strong juridically. Suitable with the nature and roles, the policy
foundation that in the form of National Education Ministerial always be renewed in each
two years. It is related with the LPTK assignment as the institution that conduct the
certification that is evaluated each two years. The evaluation goals are to evaluate are
the LPTKs still appropriate and can be assigned again as the conductor or should be
Second, the teacher certification equipment in this case in the form of various
guideline books that related with participant determination (Book 1), technic-al
guidance of implementation (Book 2), portfolio compilation (Book 3), and
implementation signs of PLPG (Book 4), and implementation guideline of initial
competence test (UKA), special for teacher certification implement-ation of 2012.
Beside that, it is equipped by supporting equipment that is information technology. The
presence of the equipment aimed to facilitate various parties related with the teacher
certification implementation (related parties, LPTK, and participants) so the
understanding and implementation of the certification suitable with the standard
operational procedure that is determined. Quantitatively, the presence of the equipment
for the related parties (Provincial, Regency, City Education Agency, LPMP, and LPTK)
are sufficient. But, for the certification participants, up to the fifth year implementation
insufficient for the access opportunities. It means, for guideline books for the
participants are insufficient, for example, Book 2, Book 3 and Book 4 still can not be
accessed well. Even, for the participant that come from remote, scattered, remote and
scattered area and the outer area of Indonesia. The related problem with the sufficiency
of the equipment access become important for the participant, if related with the
improvement effort for quality, services, implementation, and the results of the
program. Even more, if viewed from the equipment presence itself that open for
perfection each year based on the evaluation results. The related weaknesses with the
equipment access quantitatively, also impact to the qualitative aspect, that is the
message content related with policy, goals, and implementation and the expected results
that still can not be captured by the participant group optimally.
Third, the participant determination based on two things, that is priority based,
and normative stipulation. The participants that are determined based priority for them
who including as teacher (1) with achievement (provincial, national, and international),
and (2) work at border area, front line, outer area that fulfill the requirement. While the
participants group that determined based on normative requirement based on age, work
tenure, rank and group. The participant determination has fulfilled the essence of the
certification program implementation, that is as effort to improve the quality, and
follow-ed by teacher welfare improvement proportionally. The quality improvement
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

nuance reflected at the first alternative that is based teacher with achievement and also
accommodated for them who serviced at special area (remote, scattered, remote and
scattered areas and outer area). Beside that, the participant determination also refer to
decentralization principle by give emphasis to objective, transparent, credible, and
accountable principles that are supported by information technology support.
Fourth, the socialization activities for certification implementation done each
year and shown to LPTK as the in service teacher certification conductor, provincial
education agency, LPMP, local education agency, assessor, participant, and related
parties. The role of the socialization become important, if recall to the perfection
occurrence each year for the technical implementation. Socialization to the related
institutions (LPTK, provincial education agency, LPMP, local education agency), is
sufficient. But, for the participant, the socialization is felt non optimal. Even more for
the partici-pant whose domicile at remote, scattered, remote and scattered area and the
outer area. It has potentials from the goal essence and the certification implementation,
either qualitatively or quantitatively not captured well by some participants. The impact
of the phenomenon is the preparation, imple-menttation, results, and follow up qualities
can not be done optimally.

Reflection of certification implementation stage
The teacher certification implementation stage since the first year to the sixth year
experienced perfection for the implementation pattern. The mention implementation
pattern can be grouped into: portfolio and PLPG assessment, one year education path
(two semesters), direct educator certificate giving (PSPL), and PLPG. The pattern
change based on quality improvement effort, justice principle based on achievement
aspect and dedication aspects and geographical diversity. Refer to the principles, then at
the sixth year of implementation (2012) are passed through by PSPL, Portfolio, and
First, PSPL given to teacher group with S-2/S-3 education certificate, and have
minimum rank IV/b or teacher has minimum IV/c. The teacher who through the path
should bring documents of (1) photo copies of education certificate (2) task letter or
study permit letter (3) decree of last rank/group (4) decree to teach (5) recommendation
as the certification participants of PSPL pattern from education agency for assessor
diversification of LPTK Rayon. If the document verification results fulfill the
requirement (MP), then the participant able to get the education certificate. But, in the
contrary, if does not fulfill (TMP), then the teacher should attend the initial competence
test, and if considered as graduate then will become certification participant with PLPG
Second. The portfolio assessment pattern, give opportunities to teacher whose the
portfolio assessment by LPTK reach passing grade. If do not reach the passing grade,
the teacher should follow the initial competence test (if graduate) will become the
certification pattern of PLPG. Teacher with S-1/D4 qualification; or not yet S-1/D4 but
reach 50 years old and 20 years dedications, and reach IV/a, given opportunities to
choose certification pattern that will be followed (Portfolio or PLPG) suitable with the
Third. PLPG pattern, the participants who choose the PLPG pattern should follow
the initial competence test. The PLPG implementation is determined by LPTK rayon
suitable with the stipulation in the Signs of Education and Training Implementation of
Teacher-Profession (Book 4). PLPG is ended with competence test. The graduated
participants in the competence test eligible to get educator certificate and for them who
do not graduate given opportunities to one repeat test. If, in the repeat test still do not
graduate, then given back to home base to follow development.
From various pattern in the certification implementation (PSPL, portfolio,
educational path and PLPG), for teacher who serve in types and level of general
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

education (Kindergarten to Senior High School) have no problems about substantial
aspect, relevance and assessor requirement, and the LPTK. But for vocational teachers,
various alternative pattern given, if viewed from substance aspect, relevance, and
assessor requirement still have problems. First, from substance viewpoint, especially at
productive field suitable with the spectrum spread (2008), up to know still required to
have competence certificate that issued by association. It means, the vocational teachers
beside required to have education certificate that formally as the professional teacher
and as learning agent, still non inclusive for the competence admission (especially
productive field teacher) suitable that is stated in the expertise spectrum. Why like this?
The admission for expertise competence formally should be proven by competence
certificate issued by professional certification institution (LSP), that is different
institution that is done by Dikti through assigned LPTK.
Second, relevant assessor that done competence audit for expertise or expertise
group that is not included and developed at LPTK, if refer to Decree of General Director
of Vocational Secondary Education. For example, voca-tional teacher with ship field,
tourism, agricultural, fisheries expertise etc, either with portfolio, PSPL, or PLPG still
get difficulties to fulfill the assessor relevance at the conducting LPTK. At other side,
the group teacher, if has become the certification participant should do competence
audit. Beside that, other difficulties during the PLPG implementation in the learning
group for teacher as given in some conducting LPTK still facing obstacles from field
relevance side. For that, it should be thought the future improvement by make
cooperation with Colleges and other institutions that have relevant human resources for
the competence audit.
Third, the assessor requirement for vocational teacher still has tolerance for
assessor with qualification of S1, as long as completed with Applied Approach (AA).
Even clearly for field outside the vocational teacher, the requirement to be assessor in
the competence audit should has qualification of S2, and experienced. It means, in this
side, it can be said that the assessor quality (educational minimum qualification) in the
certification implement-ation still not similar, if compared with the assessor that work
at the certification for non vocational teachers. If connected with the certification
implementation improvement, the condition should be solve in the future. For example,
by cooperate with college or other relevant institutions.

Reflection of certification results stage
The certification implementation including the implementation results from
several pattern (PSPL, Portfolio, educator path, and PLPG) during five year time span
(2007-2011). The reflection scope including quantitative and qualitative results. First,
the quantitative results for five year has produced about 871.000 teachers (30%), from
total 2.607.311 teachers. If viewed from the allocation time for 10 years since the
prevail of UUGD (2005), exactly in 2015 all teacher should has been certified look
unreachable. With certifi-cation quota each year from 2012 increased become 300
thousands teachers, then up to 2015 will produced 2.071.000 (79.430%) teachers, with
assumpti-on all quota graduated. If the alternative is taken still unable to fulfill the
target that mandated by legislation, even if forced will bring negative influence to the
qualitative results. Beside that, quantitatively there are still teachers that unable to
attend certification because have not S-1/D4 qualifi-cation as required by UUGD. Based
on data at Ditjen PMPTK there are still 1.564.311 (60%) teachers who do not fulfill the
minim academic qualification from 2.607.311 teacher in all types and level of
educations in Indonesia (Baedhowi, 2009).
Second, the qualitative results showed that teachers who have educator certificate
and got professional allowance, based on the results from some results showed that the
teacher professional performance in the learning management in class not different
significantly from the non certified teacher. The main cause the teacher still has mindset
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

that the teacher certification still felt as welfare improvement. It is supported by some
investigation by Ditjen PMTK (2008); Hartoyo (2009), and Baedhowi (2009) that
motivation for teacher to attend certification is financial motivation. Beside that, it
shown also by Bedhowi (2009) that the teacher competence improvement (pedagogic,
personality, professional, and social) that graduate by attending PLPG have better
improvement than teacher with portfolio assessment. It is can be said there is still great
jobs to change the mindset of the teacher in field that certification actually to improve
the teacher quality and followed by welfare improvement that finally will produce
service quality improvement and the student learning results improvement.

Reflection of certification follow up stage
Follow up stage of post certification is viewed from the giving of rights and
obligation implementation for the graduated participants. First, from the right
fulfillment for certified teacher in the form of requirement document process to get
decree latter of professional allowance, the liquidation of the allowance. From the side,
the requirement document processing to get decree letter since 2007-2009, there is
2.302% who did not get, and 97.698% who got the decree letter (Baedhowi, 2009). The
allowance liquidation realization to the teacher still not optimal yet, either in time or the
amount. The main cause of the problems: the database in each region still not sufficient,
the geographical diversity and difficulty of certain subject teachers at various areas in
fulfilling the teaching of 24 hours per week (Ditjen PMPTK, 2009). Beside that, also
caused by the budget system application to get the allowance should begun with the new
budget year (next budget year from the graduated year), and no sufficient payment
media (bank) that is assigned in some regions, especially for remote, scattered, remote
and scattered, and outer areas of Indonesian republic.
Second, from the obligation side for certified teacher and who got the allowance
are demanded to show the professional teaching performance, and always develop
themselves continuously (Joubert, 2008). From certified teacher professional
performance still showed non significant improvement (Ditjen PMPTK, 2009). The
phenomenon can be explain the causing factors: the obstacles in teacher distribution,
mismatch with the task, and mindset of teacher that the certification as effort to improve
welfare not the profession-alism quality. It showed the important of self development
facilitation role after certification to change mindset, and develop the good culture of
how to learn (learning, unlearning, and relearning). Essentially the ability of learning
how to learn as the capital for the growth of learning culture. The learning culture in
teacher will become the driving machine in re-skilling or up-skilling in effort to
improve the professionalism development (Egan and Simmonds, 2002).

Vocational teacher (SMK) as part of various types and level education in
Indonesia, suitable with Act of Indonesian Republic No.14/2005 about Teacher and
Lecturers required to have minimum academic qualification S-1/ D4, mastering
competence (pedagogic, professional, social, and personality), have educator
certificate, healthy in physic and spirit, and have abilities to embody the national
education goals. The educator certificate in Indonesian got through teacher
certification. The implementation of teacher certification in Indonesia based on Act of
Indonesian Republic No. 20/2003 about National Education System, Article 42 sub
section (1), Act of Indonesian Republic No. 14/2005 about Teacher and Lecturer, article
8 and article 9 sub section (1). The policy foundation that from Governmental
Regulation including: PP. No. 19/2005, about National Standard of Education , article
24 sub section (1), (2), (3) and (4). Article 28, subsection (5) subsection requirement
(1-3), and PP No. 74/2008, about Teacher, and Permendiknas. No. 18/2007 about
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

Certification of in Service Teacher, and in 2009 changed to be Governmental Regulation
of No. 74 of 2008 about Teacher.
Up to 2012 (sixth year) of implementation has graduated 871.000 teachers (30%),
from total 2067.311 teachers, including the vocational teachers. Recall the certification
is a strategic national program and run for five years it needs reflection or evaluation.
The reflection effort is important because, since the implementation of the program, it is
realized that the program is monumental, national scope and impact, as new program,
and there is awareness about the need of perfection at least each year. The reflection
results of the teacher certification program can be divided into fourth stages, that is
preparation, implementation, results and follow up.
Preparation stage. Understanding the mechanism and equipment, require-ment
and the rule of game for the certification at the related institution and participant in
some (outer, underdeveloped, scattered) areas still not optimal. It is shown by (1)
mechanism, equipment, requirement and rule of game for the certification not optimally
understood yet, (2) socialization of the certification at certain area, especially for the
participant still not optimal yet, and (3) the preparation of related institutions and
teachers in the implement-ation still insufficient.
The implementation stage: the local committee perception at the related
institution (LPMP, LPTK, National Education Agency, and P4TK), assessors, and
participant to the standard operational procedure in the guideline implementation at the
(outer, underdeveloped, scattered, remote and remote and scattered) areas still not
optimal. It is shown by (1) the committee performance in preparation, implementation,
and reporting still not suitable with the guideline book, either in substance or in time
(2) assessor performance in the implementation (document and PLPG assessment) not
suitable with the field appropriateness, academic qualification, and the task load,
especially at the certain field (agriculture, ship, tourism and etc) for participant from
vocational school (3) participant performance in the certification implementation more
oriented to just graduate with any methods.
The results stage: quantitatively suitable with the determined target, at least the
quota of each hear increase and also the graduation. But qualitatively, still not suitable
with the competence audit goals that direct to professional-ism performance
improvement. It is shown by (1) most performance investi-gation for professional
teacher do not show significant performance improve-ment for certified teacher
compared with non certified teacher (2) the certifi-cation implementation still produced
professional teacher normatively, not professional empirically in implementing the
school task as learning agent, and (3) there is no performance evaluation for certified
teacher as foundation to professionalism development foundation and evaluation toward
the influence of professional allowance comprehensively.
The Follow up stage: mechanism of archiving, proposing, giving the profession
support and the sustainable professionalism development for teacher who graduated
from the certification still not optimal. It is shown by (1) there is still archiving,
proposing, liquidating goals that not run as determined, (2) there is no professionalism
development effort in sustainable way for teacher that graduated from certification in
periodically and program-ed yet, (3) there is no performance evaluation for certified
teacher as foundation for professionalism development and evaluation for the impact of
the professional allowance giving integrally.
The above weaknesses from preparation to follow up stages caused by (1) the
professionalism scope not specific yet if compared with the physician, lawyer, notary
professions, and exacerbated by the geographical diversity that should be included
(remote, scattered, remote and scattered, and the outer area), (2) effort to fulfill the
requirement of minimum qualification S-1/D4 qualitatively still varied in quality, (3)
the mindset of most teacher that certification is interpreted as welfare improvement, (4)
there is teacher addition program massively at previous year, so difficult to control the
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

quality, and (5) no established learning culture for teacher and the teacher welfare is
perceived as salary, not the easiness for career development.

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