Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education



Hapsari Kusumawardani
Malang State University

The government efforts to improve the teacher certification process has already been done.
These aims to enhance teacher competency that meet the requirement to be certified and
make them to become a professional teacher. Previously, in teacher certification process,
they have to make a portofolio which have to meet the minimal passing standards. For
those who have not reached the standards have to attend the training of teaching and
practising for teacher (PLPG) - teacher profesional program with 9 days period and always
ended with a test. Then, there was a change in teacher certification process in 2012 which
is updated with a new system called UKA (Uji Kompetensi Awal /Pre -test Competency )
that is conducted in the beginning to select teacher who can follow certification test and
PLPG. It can be shown from the short period of teacher training that it cannot be used
measure a teacher competency especially for those who teach in vocational schools. In this
case, they have to have adequate skill competency. A teacher can pass the certification
process if they have adequate competency in the process of competency test based on
national standards. The indicator of its successful can have direct impacts to the students,
because a competent teacher in his field can transfer the knowledge to his student through
competency behaviour in his subjects. Therefore, a certification process based on
competency becomes one of alternitive methods in improving teacher certification

Keywords: teacher certificatio program, the Standard of competency

The teacher certification policy is an order and a willingness of Indonesian People which is
formed in the act (Undang-Undang) and government rules as an implementation of the policy.
This has been used in teacher certification program which observed from policy analysing
contents through National Acts (Undang-undang RI) no 20 year 2003 about National Educational
System, The National Act no 14 year 2005 about teachers and lecturers, Government Rules no 19
year 2005 about The National Standard of Educators and the rule of National Educational
Ministry no. 18 year 2007 about teacher certification program through portofolio process
(Samani, M.dkk. 2010).
In Act RI no 20 year 2003 about general rules, it states that National Educational System is
an overall educational components which link one another as an integrated component to reach
National educational goal. In addition, it is also stated in the act that educational staffs are a
member of community who devote themselves and pointed to support educational programs.
Based on these policies, a teacher should have an academic qualification, master the competency,
have educator’s certification, have healthy physical and moral, and also have ability to reach
national educational goal.
The government continuously tries to do many activities which the goal to improve
educational system through developing teachers’ quality. Those activities include giving grant and
scholarship for teacher to pursue higher formal education , attend seminars and trainings. One of
the appreciated efforts is the launching of ACT no 14 year 2005 about teachers and lectures that
mentions about several priorities in educational programs such as the improvement of
qualification and certification for teacher followed by giving professional benefits to them.
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


Vocational School (SMK) Teacher
Senior High Vocational School (SMK) is one of high schools that produces Indonesian
human resources who have knowledge, skill and professional behaviour so that they can work
independently and can develop their own potential professionally. Through direct practical lesson,
students can be trained so that in the future as graduates, they can meet the required competency
standard. Competency, according Mulyasa in Santoso,J desertation (2011) , is knowledge, skill
and ability within someone that become parts of himself so that he can do cognitive, affective, and
psychomotoric behaviour. In ACT RI No. 14, year 2005 , it is mentioned that competency is a
knowledge and behaviour component that have to be owned by teachers and lectures in
conducting their professional job. Based on those definition, a professional vocational school
teacher must understand the standard of contents which should be described in curriculum
development. Besides, a vocational school teacher must have professional independency in
running his role to carry out curriculum based on demand, without waiting for instructions to do
something and always creative in doing his job.

Teacher Certification Program And The Identification Of Its Process
Teacher certification program is a process to give an educator certificate to a
teacher who have already meet the teacher competency standard. The program aims to:
(1) decide teachers’ feasibility in carrying out their job as an educator agent and bring into
reality the national educational goal, (2) improve the result of educational process and
quality, (3) improve teachers’ status, (4) improve teachers’ professionalism, and (5)
increase their welfare.
The purpose of teacher certification program is to motivate teachers so that they
will always develop their ability in performing their profession as a teacher which can be
granted by additional professional benefit that is the same as their main income. To
decide and assess the feasibility of teacher in accepting the certificate, previously the
government set up the assesment through portofolio process, that is assessing a physical
document contains teachers’ activities and academic experiences or awards during their
time in performing their profession as a teacher. For the teachers who pass the test, the
government will grant them an educator, but for those who have not passed should
complete their portofolio according to assessor notes followed by joining education and
training in appointed time. If after attending this process, they still do not pass then they
will be given opportunity to sit in the test only twice.
In the year 2012, the government determines the competency pre-test (Uji
Kompetensi Awal /UKA) in teacher certification program. It was followed by about 300
thousands participants (exactly 281.016) consists of teachers who graduates from S3, S2,
S1, D3, D2, D1, High School (SMA and SMP), from elementary level to high school
(Herman, 2012). This new government program is carried out to determine the feasibility
of teachers who can join the PLPG program. The government can also use the results as
their data about the real condition of teachers in Indonesia.
From the requirement that has to be fulfilled by the teachers, it can motivate the
teachers to get the certificate so that they can be acknowledged as a professional teacher.
In the way to hold certification program, the government always tries to improve it in
order to minimize various problems. By the establishment of teacher certification started
from 2006 until now, there are some identified problems , namely ;
a. The implementation of ACT about Teacher and Lectures (UUGD), it has been found that there
is unmatched between teachers’ qualification and the subjects that they teach in class. There
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


are many teachers who have not had minimu qualification which is graduates from S1/D4
b. There are many activities that have been followed by teachers listed in their portofolio.
However, they do not keep the proof well so that they cannot present them as important
physical proofs.
c. The organising of portofolio document do not match with the accompanied letter , portofolio
documents from the school principal which have been legalized by educational department. It
is very suspicious.
d. The recruitment process of assessor and teacher certification participants.
e. The assessor training that is not adequate enough; it seems that the training just conducted for
the purpose of equality between the assessor, and even their qualification sometimes is not
suitable with the assesed subjects in the training.
f. The national data organisation is still poor, so that the requirement and the decision to select
teacher participants are not adequate.
g. There are so many cases such as fake documents or certifications, fake signature of appointed
officers, fake teaching license, the conducted research in just very short periods, fake
documents in term of learning modul which are originally created by other people.
h. The education and training of teacher profession (PLPG)
i. The training is not adequate enough with the contents and sometimes the modul has not used
properly by participants during PLPG.
j. Only short time to understand all components during the training.
k. A large number of people who should attend PLPG so that the place seems is not suitable with
the existing situation and condition during the learning process and profession development.
l. There are no eligible training institutions involve in teacher certification training.
m. The competency test process only seems as training evaluation process. What was needed in
the process are attendance , submitted task, sit in test and achieve the standard score after
joining PLPG.
n. The certification process for vocational teachers.
o. The characteristics of subjects that taught in vocational schools always modify according to
the change in science world. It creates problems to the teachers certification programs.
p. The study programs in appointed Educational training institution (Lembaga Pendidik Tenaga
Kependidikan /LPTK) have not been able to accommodate all subjects taught in vocational
school. Therefore, they cannot hold any practical training because of the limited availability of
q. Post-certification program, the certified teachers do not improve the performance. Based on
Santoso, desertation (2011), he mentions that there is direct significant relation between
teacher certification impacts and the performance of vocational teacher in SMK Negeri
Malang Raya. This result shows that the level of teacher motivation in SMK Negeri Malang is
not affected by teacher certification program and it has not develop their motivation to have
better performance.
The argument that has been said by Prof. Dr. Baedhowi, M.Si. at his inaguration as
professor of human resource management at Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret Solo on 12

November 2009, that “ the competency of a teacher who has already pass the certification
program through portofolio process is not automatically improved and it does not even improve
his/her performance”.
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


From several identified problems, it is possible that there are many others related to the
certification program realization. It is necessary to do further evaluation so that it can be repaired
in order to improve teacher competency as expected. Teachers as professional educators are
expected to improve their competency and also can give better and enjoyable service that can
bring advantage for their students in the future.
It is important to realize the ACT no 20 year 2003 about National Educational System and
the government rules No. 19 year 2005 about National educational standard, and to identify
problems in conducting teacher certification program so that they can be solved in order to obtain
a right measurement of teacher competency based on the determined expected standards.

The Alternative Solution To The Vocational Teacher Certification Programs
The current problems which always happen in PLPG program can be noted to find
the best solution and be advantages in improving teacher competency. There are also a
need to involve many stackholders to better education in the future. The solution which
can be offered are as follow :
1. The improvement in mechanism and procedure of certification program
The improvement in selecting certification participants, socializing a guide about procedure
and portofolio filling in some ways can be expected to improve the mechanism and monitoring
portofolio documents. There is a need to upgrade rules about the involvement of quality
quarantee institution and training institution for vocational teacher so that the training can be
held together with the institution that has facilities for carrying out skill competency test.
2. The improvement in teacher database
The teacher database has to be owned by appointed directorate, as well as the one that has been
used to assess portofolio documents. The database has to be built nationally through
educational units and educational department in regional level, so that a teacher can use it to
control his feasibility to obtain educational certification.
3. The improvement in teacher certification training program
The time to conduct trainings has to matched with the competency demand of training modul,
and the modul has to be made based on the required competency such as pedagogic, social,
behaviour and professional competency.
The pointed Instructor has to have the same qualification as the subject that he has to present in
the training. Besides, the place should be repaired and managed based on good standard.
4. The teacher certification based on competency.
In holding teacher certification based on competency, for a teacher is to get education
certificate if he is determined to be competent in competency test process. Competency test is
carried out to give quarantee to the society in giving belief and can be directly affected to the
improvement of students’ quality. This is because a teacher who competent in his field will
have ability to transfer and give examples to students through competent behavior in the
subjects that he taught, so that certificate based on competence as one of alternative solution in
conducting certification.

The implementation of teacher competency should be revised with the one that based on
competency in order to improve the teacher ability in their field. It is necessary to link the
measurement test of vocational teacher competency with the skill competency and should be done
by assessor team who have the same competency for each components such as pedagogic
competency (ability to manage the learning process of students), behaviour (as a person that
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


should be obeyed and have good manner that can be followed), social (teacher’s ability to
communicate and interact with students, peer teacher, parents and local community), and also
professional (ability to master subjects widerly and deeperly).
The teachers who improve their competency through competency training is not adequate
enough to be a competent teacher. They should sit in competency test in all required elements
based on his profession at pointed test place either in capital city or their local region. Those place
should be accredited and have the same testing system. They should arrange competency test
instrument as a competency test standard for each component (pedagogic, social, behaviour and
skill competency based on the subjects that they teach in classes). For this activity, it is necessary
to prepare policies for vocational competency test place, because to hold practice test should be
done in proper place. Then, the result obtained from this place will be eligible to use in obtaining
an educator certificate.
In order to prepare a teacher to be the one that is competent, have knowledge, have
professional attitude, and have skill , the pointed institution that hold teacher training must
arrange training programs based on standard teacher competency and also have to form
competency test unit as a center place to conduct the test as a quality quarantee training.

H.Baedhowi, Prof. Dr. M.Si. 2009. Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar Tema Tantangan
Profesionalisme Guru pada Era Sertifikasi.
.php?id= 168, accessed on 13
April 2012
Hasil Uji Kompetensi Awal (UKA) Guru Tahun 2012. Accessed on 3

April 2012
Herman, 2012. Hasil Uji Kompetensi Mengecewakan. www.suarakarya- , accessed on 6
April 2013
Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor. 19 Tahun 2005. Standar Nasional Pendidik.
Rubiati, SPd. 2012. Menggapai Guru Profesional (1) Jambi Ekspres Online. accessed on 2
April 2012
Samani, Muchlas,dkk. 2010. Sertifikasi Guru Dalam Jabatan, Buku 4,Rambu-rambu Pelaksanaan
Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru (PLPG). Jakarta: DIKTI
Santoso Joko, 2011. Hubungan Manajemen Sarana dan Prasarana Sekolah, Dampak Sertifikasi
Guru, Iklim Sekolah, dan Motivasi Berprestasi Guru dengan Kinerja Guru pada SMK
Negeri Di Malang Raya, Desertation. Post GraduateProgram. Universitas Negeri Malang.
The Act RI No 14 Year 2005 about Teachers and Lectures
The Act RI No 20 Year 2003 about National Educational System.

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