INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR

Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1797

CERTIFICATION TESTING COMPUTER NETWORK MODEL
STUDENT
THE VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Hary Suswanto
Lecturer in Engineering Faculty, Malang State University

Abstract
Long-term policy direction (2020) of Vocational High School (VHS) is the anticipation of
the global economic developments which are moving very quickly with a flexible
organizational characteristics, flat and have an intelligent human resources, skilled and
creative. In 2020, Indonesia will entered the Free Trade Era where the industry is required to
follow the various international regulations and market demands are pleased with the quality
and characteristics of products with the level of competition is very tight. The industrial are
required to perform alignment continously on various aspects of the organization by placing
human resources, mastery of technology and quality management as a key factor.Faced with
the possibility of organizing perspective of the future, certification test has two sides
interests, namely as a measure of achievement of graduates competencies, as well as to fulfill
the mandate of Article 61 Law on National Education System. Graduation standards which
applied to the school was a standard which created by the National Education Standards
Agency (BSNP) under the Ministry of National Education, while world of work has a
standard of competence of the National Work Competence Standards Indinesia (SKKNI)
developed by the Department of Labor, so that the two standards must be met to
avoid "mishmatch" between the world of education to the world of work. Faced that
condition, certification testing model which being implemented are need to be
developed. Developing model is focus on the certification test for computer networks by
integrating students in vocational competency tests of cognitive and psychomotor
competency test.Research method applied ten key steps of the R & D Borg and Gall. These
ten steps will be operationalized into a discussion of the study, namely: (1) research and
information gathering phase, (2) planning, (3) build a pre-planned product, (4) conduct
preliminary tests on the field, (5) to revise the product, (6) to test the product on the field, (7)
revision of operational products, (8) conduct operational tests in the field, (9) revision of the
final product, and (10) deployment and implementation.There are three design trials to study
the discussion of models and tools (instruments) computer network certification testing of
students in vocational studies in the field of information technology and communication
skills, study computer engineering and informatics expertise, the competence of computer
and network engineering expertise, namely: ( 1) preliminary test, (2) test the product, and (3)
the operational test. Discussion of research results obtained in the form of the effectiveness
and the efficiency of the certification test the model developed in the experimental group
with the certification test models in the control group.

Keywords: Model, certificate testing, and Computer Network.

Introduction
Long-term policy direction (2020) Vocational School (SMK) is to provide a stock of skills
and knowledge-knowledge of his supporters, so that students can become a productive worker and
able to compete in the workplace or in preparation for a higher career. One of the main ideas
contained in the development of vocational education by the year 2020, is the demands of the
vocational education system which driven by the business/industrial world (Du/Di). Consequence
of these demands is that the VHS should be able to prepare graduates who are competent in
accordance with the standards industry both nationally and internationally (Peraturan Pemerintah
No. 23 of 2004).
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1798

To answer the challenges the industry is constantly promoting the quality of skills, attitudes
and knowledge workers, Directorate of Vocational High School has long pioneered the effort to
fulfill a competent workforce for graduates of vocational skills by 2020 through a policy for the
global era. The implication is that the curriculum used refers to the competency-based curriculum
with the learning materials and testing associated with productive skills based on skill standards
that actively involve the industry. Students who have completed their studies following the
competency test conducted at a school by the Professional Certification Institute (LSP)
independent under the direct guidance of the National Professional Certification (BNSP).
Act No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System also stated that one of the main
objectives Vocational High School is to prepare students to enter employment. U ntuk acceptable
work in the world of work a person must be competent to be proved that such a se r ftifikat
competence through a competence test. as natural d of article 61 paragraph 3 of the National
Education Law, a certificate of competence is given in recognition of someone who is otherwise
competent to perform a specific job through a process of competency test conducted by the unit pe
ndidikan accredited certification bodies and professional associations.
Vocational education more closely to the needs of industry and lead to the provision of
solutions to employment problems in entering the era of free trade are demanding the ability to
compete in national and international level. Thus the organization of vocational education,
including vocational school is entering a crucial phase, the phase in which the graduates of
vocational education will be at stake in the arena du nia readiness to labor in the region, both in
the context of the Chine-Asean Free Trade Agreement (C-AFTA) and Asean Free Labour Agree-
ment (AFLA). Vocational education (vocational) can not be separated from the development of
the existing world of work. Development of marketable labor performed by the vocational
education based on the needs of the market (demand driven) through increased competency.
Computer networking certification test students in vocational education in the perspective
of having two sides of interests, namely as a means of measuring achievement of graduate
competence, as well as the fulfillment of the mandate of Article 61 of Law on National Education
System. To measure the competence of graduates of vocational schools, school competency test
conduct through test competence of both theory and practical skills. Competence theory
implemented at the national skills while the practice of vocational practice exams conducted
before the implementation of the National Examination (UN) and the technical implementation of
the provisions set forth in a separate (No. Kep. BSNP. 0024, 2009).
Government policy on the administration of computer network certification test students on
the new UN began the school year 2006/2007 for the level of SMK is a new policy
formulation. Updates are done in this framework is the inclusion of the value component of
productive through the end of the certification test in the UN, then in accordance with Regulation
No Minister of National Education. 45 of 2006 called skills competency test. Competency Test in
vocational skills that are part of the UN project approach work. Graduation standards imposed by
the school on the certification test is a standard created by BSNP (BSNP under the Ministry of
National Education), while Du/Di has SKKNI which developed by the Department of Labor, so
that the two standards should be met to avoid the "mismatch" between competence skills
produced by education with competency skills needed by the world of work.
Based on the above background, it can be concluded that the implementation of the
certification test model is now being implemented, still need to be developed. Certification test
model development are the focus of discussion is a review of the certification test models of
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1799

computer networks by integrating students' vocational competency tests of cognitive and
psychomotor competency test.

Problems
The problems are related to computer networking certification test for vocational students
in an effort to improve the competence of the graduates, can be identified as follows:
1. Recognition Du/Di On the results of certification tests for students of computer networks is
still low due to not meet industry standards. Therefore VHS as a producer of graduates should
be able to make each individual student has the ability, skills and expertise relevant to the
demands and needs of the workforce. Graduates of the vocational areas of study information
and communication technology skills, study computer engineering and informatics expertise,
the competence of computer and network engineering expertise needed by the industry
are: installation, operating systems, and personal computer applications; local area network
(LAN); echnologies t wireless, and security of computer networks, in addition to that in
the soft skills needed in the form of persistence, commitment, discipline, and ability to work
together (team work).
2. Law. 20 of 2003 on National Education System which states that the purpose of Vocational
High School is to prepare students, especially entering the field of work. While u ntuk
acceptable work in the world of work a person must be competent, legally, among others,
evidenced by formal se r tifikat its competence as "the ket e rampilan passport "that contains
the e rampilan ket-ket-based e rampilan owned by the holder's competence through
certification testing.
3. Sertifikat expertise of public and private vocational students obtained in three ways, namely
through: (1) Industrial Practice, (2) PTA, and (3) competency test conducted by the LSP under
BNSP.
4. Graduation standards imposed by the school on the certification test is a standard created by
BSNP (BSNP under the Ministry of National Education), while Du/Di The work has
competency standards developed by the Ministry SKKNI artemen K er ja Power.
5. Lack of institutions involved in this professional association outside the LSP as the body to
provide certification test, especially the student computer network certification test.
6. The high cost of implementing the certification test conducted by the LSP has not been
reached by the students, so the number of participants certification test conducted by the
agency is still small. The need to look for alternative organizations / other professional
associations to implement a computer network certification testing of students with low cost
does not eliminate the principles of competency-based assessment.
Framework
Competency test model at this time, in Figure 1 is explained that the graduates of
vocational competency standards largely determined by two independent bodies, namely BSNP
and BNSP. BSNP specify aspects concerning the academic curriculum, content, process and
outcome evaluation. While BNSP determine matters related to job competence that must be
possessed vocational students. BSNP determine the amount of vocational curriculum which
consists of a normative aspect, adaptive and productive, including the determination of long hours
of industry work practices of each area of expertise. However, for the substance of the productive
areas of the curriculum established by working with industry, professional associations, experts
and education practitioners. The substance is a formulation of job competence should be
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1800

Education
Norm
VHS Graduates
Competency
Standard
Learning
Activity
Fasilitas
Praktik
VHS
Curriculum
Knowledge,
Attitude, Skills
Activity
NQS
BSNP BNSP
confirm
L
S
P
TUK
VHS graduates
certified
SISTEM STANDARDISASI
DAN SERTIFIKASI KOMPETENSI
developed in vocational education. Another thing to consider is the educational norms of the rule
in the vocational learning process. The third aspect of the curriculum developed at SMK each has
its own purpose, but as a whole becomes a part of a comprehensive process of vocational
learning.
































Figure 1
Currently Certification Test Model
Learners who had completed his studies will automatically receive an academic diploma in
recognition that students have completed vocational education. With this diploma students can
work and continue to pursue higher education. In addition, it is highly recommended, encouraged
and even facilitated so that learners follow the competency test conducted by the Institute
Sertfikasi Professional (LSP) which is accredited BNSP.Designated schools can be places
Competency Test (TUK) for efficiency and easier for students to follow the certification of
competence.
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1801

Students who pass the competency exam, he was given the right to get a certificate of
competence in accordance with the fields that follow. Thus, the vocational school graduates in
addition to obtaining the relevant diploma from vocational school where he also obtained a
certificate of competency under the supervision BNSP LSP. Not all vocational school graduates
have a diploma as well as a certificate of competency. For students who for some reason or are
not willing to take the test of competence, the question does not need to follow a competency
exam, so to him, just get vocational diploma. Competency test is not mandatory, however, is
expected to follow the students' competency test in order to be recognized competence in the
workplace and used as a passport in entering the workforce.
Certification of vocational competencies as in Figure 1 can also be explained that the
certification is a system with the following process: (1) standard specifies BSNP vocational
education (curriculum, process, content, evaluation and other), (2) BNSP determine student
competency standards productive SMK. Both institutions are producing graduates of vocational
profile is competent to work in business and industry, to work independently (self-employed) and
continued his studies, (3) graduates of vocational profiles described in a comprehensive
curriculum of SMK (4) the process of learning in the vocational school is a translation of the
curriculum , the higher class in the world more and more the practice of industrial / employment,
(5) after studying for three-year study period, students attend school exams and national exams for
specific subjects, (6) students who pass the exam get a diploma and that did not pass the
examination given the opportunity to re-take the exam, while schools that do not pass the exam
the students back to repeat the third grade, (7) students who have graduated can sign up for a
competency test conducted by the LSP; (8) students who pass get a certificate of competency,
while the failed to follow the remedial competence to take the test again, and (9) stakeholders (the
world of work or community) is the temporary end of the estuary to make a suki world of work,
because after working students can also improve the competence to proceed back to the vocational
college.


















Figure 2
Conceptual Model
MODEL KONSEPTUAL
Kegiatan
Belajar
Mengajar
Fasilitas
Praktik
SMK
BNSP
L
S
P
TUK
(Jaringan Komputer/CISCO)
Uji Kompetensi Psikomotorik
LULUSAN SMK
BERSERTIFIKAT
Asosiasi Profesi
(Jaringan Komputer/CISCO)
Uji Kompetensi Kognitif
KULIAH
BEKERJA
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1802

Competency test a conceptual model to be developed is a modification in the process of
standardization and certification of competence, ie by integrating the competency test kognitif and
psykomotoric in the process of standardization and certification of competence, especially
computer networking certification test student, as shown in figure 2 .
The success of the certification test network co m puter vocational students Skills Program
Computer and Networking determined by the quality of learning by implementing competency-
based training approach, the industry practice of applying quality work-based learning and the
quality of the implementation of Production and Services Unit, which is owned by the
competence of productive skills students who can be recognized by Du / In and can be
accomplished at reasonable cost in accordance with the objectives of the vocational school. The
expectation model of computer networking certification test, will be developed leading to the
development of productive skills competency framework of thinking.
A Framework for Analisys
Some of the analytical framework will be undertaken in the review discussion sertifika test
model of the computer networks vocational students, are:
1. There are p erangkat vocational students computer networking skills developed in the
computer engineering program and the network, by integrating cognitive competency test
and psychomotor competency test;
2. There are barriers on vocational courses keahli an engineering and computer networks in the
implementation of the current certification test;
3. There are experts on the draft results of the validation test of an engineering certification
program keahli computers and networks, by integrating cognitive competency tests and
psychomotor tests in vocational competence;
4. There are teachers and learners respond to the application of computer networking
certification test model student, an engineering program keahli computers and networks, and
5. There are differences in the results of certification testing of students between the pretest and
posttest by integrating cognitive competency test and psychomotor competency test.

Discussion
1. Model Development
Model development is a sequential set of procedures to implement the learning design is
realized with a graphic or diagram or a narrative by showing the main elements and
structure. This study is a research & development (developmental research) with reference to
some theoretical studies about the development procedure is standard and the identification and
analysis needs.
Development model that will be used as a basis for developing a model of computer networking
certification tests vocational students an effective and efficient is to use conceptual and procedural
models. Conceptual model in question is both analytical models that provide product components
that will be developed as well as the linkages between components. While the procedural models
are descriptive models, which outlines the steps to be followed to produce the product (MPKI-
UM, 2000).
2. Development Procedures
Procedures applied in the assessment of this discussion using the ten key steps of the R & D
Borg and Gall. K esepuluh steps that will be operated are as follows:
Phase 1. Stages of research and information gathering
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1803

In this step, researchers have reviewed the literature, which examines the literature on the
theory presented by a certified expert certification, both personally and institutionally. Conduct
observations and interviews with principals, teachers and students in ICT 2 Bojonegoro SMK,
SMK Negeri 1 Cerme Gresik, SMK Negeri 1 Pasuruan, SMK Negeri 1 Purwosari, SMK Negeri 1
Singosari, Vocational School 4 Malang, Malang 6 SMK, SMK Interior 8 Malang, Malang 9 SMK,
SMK PGRI 3 Tlogomas Malang, Malang Sawojajar SMK Telkom, and Islam SMK 1 Durenan
Psychology. Besides, researchers also saw a direct implementation of the certification test
students' computer networks.
Phase 2. The planning stage
Important aspect of the stages here are setting specific goals about what you want to test the
model generated by a computer network certification students. Specific objectives of the
certification test model student computer network is the resulting draft of the components of a
computer network certification testing in the group of students in the vocational field of study
information and communication technology skills, study computer engineering and informatics
expertise, the competence of computer and network engineering expertise.
Phase 3. Pre-planning stages of building products
After the planning phase is completed, the next major step in R & D is making a
preliminary form of product development that can be tested in the field. In this step, is expected to
draft a model student computer network certification test that has been studied by experts
through focus group discussion (FGD) with product users (teachers and learners), and the expert /
expert computer networking certification test students have done.The end result of this third phase
is the development of prototype products that are ready to do a preliminary test.
Stage 4. Stage of preliminary field test
In the fourth step, intended to obtain preliminary information from the qualitative
evaluation of the product development of the student computer network certification test. At this
preliminary stage of the trial, set at one school, namely SMK Negeri Malang 4 in the field of
study information and communication technology skills, study computer engineering and
informatics, with computer and engineering competence network using 31 subjects try. The
subjects chosen to try a preliminary trial was 1 X-class ICT teachers and 30 students a class X.
Stage 5. Stages of revising the product
In the fifth step is said to be a revision of the main product, in which the prototype product
development certification test improved students' computer networks based on input from the
preliminary trials. Revised in this step is used as a material for the second trial, the main field trial
on the sixth step.
Stage 6. Phase to test the product on the field
The second test phase applied to 62 subjects try. At this stage, prototype product
development is expected to be better prepared and tested on a scale of two schools, namely SMK
Negeri Malang 4 and SMK Negeri 1 Purwosari. In the second test phase, applied to 62 subjects to
try, each consisting of an X-class ICT teachers and 30 students in class X 4 SMK SMK Negeri 1
Malang and Purwosari expertise in the field of study information and communication technology,
the program study computer engineering and informatics, computer engineering with competence
and networks.

INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1804

Stage 7. Stage of the operational product revision
In the seventh step is said to be a revision of the second product, where the prototype
product development certification test improved students' computer networks based on input from
the second trial. Revised in this step is used as an ingredient for a third trial, the trial operation on
the eighth step.
Stage 8. Operational test phase in the field
Phase three trials are applied to 93 subjects try. At this stage of development of product
prototypes are expected to be better than the second trial and ready to be tested on a scale of 3
schools, namely SMK Negeri Malang 4, SMK Negeri 1 Purwosari, and SMK Negeri 1 Cerme. In
the third phase of this trial, applied to 93 subjects to try, each consisting of an X-class ICT
teachers and 30 students in class X 4 SMK Negeri Malang, SMK Negeri 1 Purwosari, and SMK
Negeri 1 Cerme in the field of study information and communication technology skills, study
computer engineering and informatics expertise, the competence of computer and network
engineering expertise.
In the eighth stage, also aims to determine the effectiveness of the developed model. There
are 93 subjects simultaneously trying to control, each consisting of an X-class ICT teachers and
30 students in class X 2 Bojonegoro SMK, SMK Negeri 1 Pasuruan, and SMK Negeri 1
Singosari.
Stage 9. Stage of the final product revision
In the ninth step is said to be a revision of the final product, where product development
prototype computer network certification test students improved by input from the third trial. The
revised at this step are used as materials for dissemination and implementation of the model,
namely the development of socialization and dissemination of computer networking certification
test model student in the tenth step.
Stage 10. Stages of deployment and implementation
On this tenth stage or stages of deployment and implementation, results product
development can be Diso sialisasikan and disseminating it through scientific forums or through
the mass media.
3. Product Trial
a. Trial design: There are three tests on the development of design models and tools
(instruments) computer network certification testing of students in vocational studies in the
field of information technology and communication skills, study skills and informatics
computer engineering, computer engineering with competence and expertise in network this
study, namely: (1) preliminary test, intended to obtain preliminary information from the
qualitative evaluation of product development, (2) testing the product, intended to obtain
information from the prototype product development, and (3) the operational test, intended to
obtain information from the prototype the final product development.
b. Trial subjects
(1) Phase One: The subjects in the preliminary trials or the first stage performed at a school
with 31 subjects and error, that is 1 X-class ICT teachers and 30 students in class X 4 SMK
Negeri Malang.
(2) Phase Two: At this second stage, the subject of product trials conducted at two schools
tried to use the 62 subjects, each consisting of an X-class ICT teachers and 30 students in
class X 4 SMK SMK Negeri 1 Malang and Purwosari.
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1805

(3) The third stage of the Test Implementation: In the test phase or implementation phase of
this operation, aims to determine the effectiveness of the model is developed using the 93
trial subjects, each consisting of an X-class ICT teachers and 30 students in class X 4 SMK
Negeri Malang , SMK Negeri 1 Pu rwosari, and SMK Negeri 1 Cerme.
At this stage, there are 93 subjects simultaneously trying to control, each consisting of an X-
class ICT teachers and 30 students in class X 2 Bojonegoro SMK, SMK Negeri 1 Pasuruan,
and SMK Negeri 1 Singosari.
c. Data Types
Type of the data obtained are of value effectiveness and efficiency of the models were not
developed with certified test results of the model development.
d. Data Collection Instruments
Instruments used in preliminary testing, product testing, and test the operational /
implementation of the product using performance assessments before and after the test
done. Forms of competency assessment instruments in the form of test Job Sheet with
reference to the material substance of the student computer network certification test,
namely: (1) Module 1: Personal Computers and Applications, (2) Module
2: OperatingSystems, (3) Module 3: Connecting to the Network, (4) Module 4: Connecting to
the Internet Through an ISP, (5) Module 5: Network Addressing, (6) Module
6: Network Services, (7) Module 7: WirelessTechnologies, (8) Module 8: Basic Security, and
(9) Module 9: Troubleshooting Your Network.
e. Data Analysis Techniques
(1) Quantitative Data Analysis
In the test phase and validation, the significance of differences in the results / effects of
application of the model of treatment between the experimental groups and control groups
were analyzed using a statistical formula t-test and test-F. While the analysis of pretest and
post-test score differences between the experimental and control groups used analysis of
covariance (Anacova).
(2) Descriptive Analysis of Qualitative
In the preliminary study phase, description pendahluan analyzed interactively (interactive
models of analysis) means that the five components, namely the analysis of data reduction,
triagulasi, presentation of data, verification and inference take place simultaneously and
interact with each other since the data collection process.

Conclusion
Discussion of research results obtained in the form of the effectiveness and the efficiency of
the certification test the model developed in the experimental group with the certification test
models in the control group.

References
Anggoro. (2007). Jaringan komputer data link, network dan issue. Bandung: Express Media.
Billett, S., Developing Vocational Expertise: Guiding vocational learning. Allen & Unwin: Crows
Nest Australia.
Borg, W.R & Gall, M.D. (1989). Educational research: An introduction fourth edition. New York:
Longman.
Christian, M. (2006). General education versus vocational training: Evidence from an economy in
transition. Columbia: University of Chicago Press.
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1806

Cumming, Joy J. and Maxwell, Graham S. (2004). Assessment in education: principles, policy
and practice. Queensland, Australia: Griffith University Press.
Dedering, H. (2008). Vocational guidance and work orientation, handbook of technical and
vocational education and training research. Germany: Springer Science+Business Media
B.V.
Depdikbud. (1997). Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor
0490/1992, tentang Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan.
Depdikbud. (1997). Ketrampilan menjelang 2020 untuk era global.
Depdiknas. (2003). Undang-undang RI Nomor 20 Tahun 2003, tentang Sistem Pendidikan
Nasional.
Depdiknas. (2004). Direktori lembaga sertifikasi profesi dan tempat uji kompetensi. Jakarta:
Ditektorat Jendral Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah.
Depdiknas. (2004). Kurikulum SMK edisi 2004. Jakarta: Direktorat Pembinaan SMK.
Depdiknas. (2004). Kurikulum SMK edisi 2004, bagian 2: Pedoman pelaksanaan penilaian hasil
belajar peserta diklat SMK. Jakarta: Direktorat Pembinaan SMK.
Depdiknas. (2004). Pedoman pelaksanaan penilaian hasil peserta didik SMK. Jakarta: Direktorat
Pembinaan SMK.
Depdiknas. (2005). Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesla Nomor 19 Tahun 2005, tentang
Standar Nasional Pendidikan Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan/BSNP.
Depdiknas. (2005). Sistem standardisasi kompetensi dan sertifikasi. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal
Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah, Direktorat Pembinaan SMK.
Depdiknas. (2007). Model penilaian kelas, kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan SMK. Badan
Standar Nasional Pendidikan/BSNP.
Depdiknas. (2008). Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 251/C/KEP/MN/2008, tentang Spektrum
Keahlian Pendidikan Menengah Kejuruan.
Depnaker. (2004). Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2004, tentang
Badan Nasional Sertifikasi Profesi/BNSP.
Djojonegoro, W. (1999). Pengembangan sumber daya manusia: Melalui sekolah menengah
kejuruan (SMK). Jakarta: PT Balai Pustaka.
Gonczi, A. (1998). Developing a competent workforce: Adult training strategies for vocational
educators and trainers. Leadbrook SA: National Centre for Vocational Education Research
Ltd.
Kemdiknas. (2010). Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 17 Tahun 2010, tentang
Pengelolaan dan Penyelenggaraan Pendidikan.
Nurhadi, B.Y., dan Agus, G.S. (2004). Pembelajaran kontekstual dan penerapannya dalam KBK.
Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang Press.
Parry, S.B. (1996). The quest for competencies: Competency studies can help you make HR
decision. Journal of Training, 33, 48-55.
Pavlova, M. (2009), Technology and vocational education for sustainable development
empowering individuals for the future. Australia: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Raelin Joseph A. (2008). Work based learning: Bridging knowledge and action in the workplace.
San Francisco: Jossey-Pass A Weley Company.
Samsudi, dkk. (2007). Peningkatan kualitas dan hasil uji kompetensi siswa dalam rangka ujian
nasional SMK. Makalah disajikan dalam Seminar Internasional APTEKINDO, di Padang.
Samsudi, dkk. (2007). Uji kompetensi siswa SMK dalam rangka ujian nasional. Jakarta:
Direktorat Pembinaan SMK.
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education

1807

Sawchuk Peter and Taylor Alisan. (2010). Challenging transitions in learning and work.
Netherland: Sense Publishers.
Spencer, Lyle M., and Spencer, Singe M. (1993). Competence at work: Models for superior
performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Stevan M.Chan. (1979). Education and the democratic idea. Chicago: Public Affair Press Nelson-
Hall. [Penyadur: Abdul Munir Mulkan dan Umi Yawisah].
Stoof, Angela; Marten, Rob, L; Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G. (1999). What is competence?: A
constructivist approach as a way out of confusion. Netherland: Open University.
Winch, C. (2000). Education, work and social capital: Towards a new conception of vocational
education. London: Vocational Education and Vocational Training.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.