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- Part XIII Hydraulics
- Simulation of Existing Water Distribution Network by using Epanet: A Case Study of Surat City
- 9.Explicit Equations for Pipe Flow- Swamee and Jain
- Friction Loss
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You are on page 1of 23

pipe_02

A homeowner plans to pump water from a stream in their backyard to water their lawn. A schematic of the pipe

system is shown in the figure.

Details of the system are given in the following table. The design flow rate for the system is 2.5*10

-4

m

3

/s.

Item Value

water density 1000 kg/m

3

water dynamic viscosity 1*10

-3

kg/(m.s)

inlet pipe length 2 m

inlet pipe diameter 2.5 cm

inlet pipe material drawn tubing

hose length two 15.25 m lengths

hose diameter 1.3 cm

hose roughness smooth

pipe inlet loss coefficient 0.8

inlet pipe-to-pump coupling loss

coefficient

0.1

pump-to-hose coupling loss coefficient 0.2

hose-to-hose coupling loss coefficient 0.5

pressure drop across the sprinkler 210 kPa at 2.5*10

-4

m

3

/s flow rate

sprinkler nozzle exit diameter 4 mm

1. What is the loss coefficient for the sprinkler at design conditions? Base the sprinkler loss coefficient on the

velocity just upstream of the sprinkler. K

sprinkler

=118

2. What is the friction factor for the hose? f

hose

=0.0244

3. What is the velocity head, including the kinetic energy correction factor, at the sprinkler exit?

2

sprinkler

exit

20.2 m

2

V

g

o =

For the next two questions, assume that the loss coefficient for the sprinkler is 100 and the friction factor for the

hose is 0.01.

4. What is the total minor head loss in the system? H

L,minor

=21.5 m

5. What is the total major head loss in the system? H

L,major

=10.4 m

For the next question, assume that the velocity head at the sprinkler exit, including the kinetic energy correction

factor, is 10 m and the total head loss is 10 m.

6. What is the shaft head required to operate the system at the design flow rate? H

S

=55.1 m

For the next question, assume that the shaft head required to operate the system at the design flow rate is 100 m.

7. What power must be supplied to the pump if the pump is 65% efficient?

into

pump

35 W W =

sprinkler

hose-to-hose coupling

pump

stream

re-entrant

pipe inlet

3 m

1 m

2 m of 2.5 cm

diameter drawn tubing

two 15.25 m lengths of 1.3

cm diameter garden hose

pump-to-hose coupling

inlet pipe-to-pump

coupling

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 2 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_03

It rains during the construction of a building and water fills a recently excavated pit to a depth, h=0.5m. In order to

continue construction, the water must first be pumped out of the pit. A hose with a length of L=50m, a diameter of

D=2.5*10

-2

m, and a surface roughness of c=5.0*10

-5

m is attached to a pump. Note that the kinematic viscosity of

the water is v=1.005*10

-6

m

2

/s and the density is =1000 kg/m

3

.

a. If the pump is placed at the pits surface (figure a), what is the maximum depth of the pit, H, for which water

can be pumped out at a velocity of V=1 m/s without causing cavitation in the pipe? The vapor pressure of water

for the current temperature is p

v

=2.337 kPa (absolute pressure) and atmospheric pressure is p

atm

=101 kPa

(absolute pressure).

b. If the pump is placed at the bottom of the pit (figure b), what is the maximum depth of the pit, H, for which

water can be pumped out at a velocity of V=1 m/s? Assume that the pump supplies a power of P=200 W to the

fluid.

Answer(s):

7.55 m, 39.0 m

H =?

hose of length, L,

diameter, D, and

surface roughness, c

h

pump

H =?

hose of length, L,

diameter, D, and

surface roughness, c

h

water velocity, V

pump

water velocity, V

Figure a

Figure b

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 3 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_04

Determine the power, in W, extracted by the turbine in the system shown below. The pipe entrance is sharp-edged

and the volumetric flow rate is 0.004 m

3

/s. The density of water is 998 kg/m

3

and the kinematic viscosity is 1.005e-

6 m

2

/s.

Answer(s):

-807 W (807 W extracted)

fluid discharges into

the atmosphere

water

turbine fully open globe valve

cast iron pipe

diameter =5 cm

length =125 m

40 m

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 4 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_05

For straightening and smoothing an air flow in a 50 cm diameter duct, the duct is packed with a honeycomb of 30

cm long, 4 mm diameter thin straws. The inlet flow is air moving at an average velocity of 6 m/s. Estimate the

pressure drop across the honeycomb. The density of the air is 1.2 kg/m

3

and the kinematic viscosity is 1.5e-5 m

2

/s.

You may neglect inlet and outlet minor losses.

Answer(s):

Ap =-64.8 Pa

30 cm

6 m/s

50 cm

thousands of straws

air

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 5 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_08

A train travels through a tunnel as shown in the figure. The train and tunnel are both circular in cross section. The

tunnel has a diameter of D=3 m, a total length of L=2000 m, and walls comprised of concrete. The clearance

between the train and the tunnel wall is small so that it may be assumed that the air in front of the train is pushed

through the tunnel with the same speed as the train, V=20 m/s.

1. Determine the pressure difference between the front and rear of the train when the train is a distance, x, from the

tunnel entrance.

2. Determine the power, P, required to produce the air flow in the tunnel when the train is a distance, x, from the

tunnel entrance.

Answer(s):

Ap =2560 Pa, 360 kW

p

atm

p

atm

V

train

x

L

D

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 6 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_09

Gasoline at 20 C is being siphoned from a tank through a rubber hose having an inside diameter of 25 mm. The

roughness for the hose is 0.01 mm.

1. What is the volumetric flow rate of the gasoline through the hose?

2. What is the minimum pressure in the hose and where does it occur?

You may neglect minor losses. The kinematic viscosity of gasoline is 4.294e-7 m

2

/s.

Answer(s):

1.57e-3 m

3

/s; 75.9 kPa (abs)

discharge into atmosphere

1.5 m

1.5 m

1 m

5 m

gasoline,

SG=0.6

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 7 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_10

According to an appliance manufacturer, the 4 in diameter galvanized iron vent on a clothes dryer is not to contain

more than 20 ft of pipe and four 90 elbows. Under these conditions, determine the air flow rate if the gage pressure

within the dryer is 1.04 psi. You may assume the following:

kinematic viscosity of air: 1.79e-4 ft

2

/s

density of air: 2.20e-3 slugs/ft

3

K

90 bend

=1.5

K

entrance

=0.5

K

exit

=0 (discharges into atmosphere)

Answer(s):

0.882 ft

3

/s

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 8 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_11

Water at 10 C (kinematic viscosity of 1.307*10

-6

m

2

/s) is to flow from a roof-top reservoir to a tanker truck through

a cast iron pipe (roughness of 0.26 mm) of length 20 m at a flow rate of 0.0020 m

3

/s. The roof-top tank water level

is located 2 m above the tanker truck fluid level. The system contains a sharp-edged entrance, six threaded 90

elbows, and a sharp-edged exit. Determine the required pipe diameter for the given flow conditions.

Answer(s):

0.045 m

tanker truck

rooftop reservoir

2 m

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 9 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_12

Water flows from a container as shown in the figure. Determine the loss coefficient needed in the valve if the water

is to bubble up a distance h above the outlet pipe.

Answer(s):

5.9

L

1

L

2

H

1

H

2

h

H

1

=45 in

L

1

=18 in

L

2

=32 in

H

2

=2 in

h =3 in

The pipe is in diameter

galvanized iron pipe with threaded

fittings.

rounded entrance

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 10 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_13

A liquid with a specific gravity of 0.95 flows at an average velocity of 10 m/s through a horizontal smooth tube of

diameter 5 cm. The fluid pressure is measured at 1 m intervals along the pipe as follows:

x [m] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

p [kPa] 304 273 255 240 226 213 200

a. Estimate the average wall shear stress, in Pa, in the fully developed region of the pipe.

b. What is the approximate wall shear stress between stations 1 and 2? State any significant assumptions you

make.

Answer(s):

163 Pa; 388 Pa

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 11 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_14

The tailrace (discharge pipe) of a hydro-electric turbine installation is at an elevation, h, below the water level in the

reservoir:

The frictional losses in the penstock (the pipe leading to the turbine) and the tailrace are represented by the loss

coefficient, k, based on the mean velocity, U, in those pipes (which have the same cross-sectional area, A). The flow

discharges to atmospheric pressure at the exit from the tailrace. The water density is denoted by and the

acceleration due to gravity by g.

a. What is the drop in total head across the turbine?

b. What is the power developed by the turbine assuming that it is 90% efficient?

c. What is the optimum velocity, U

opt

, which will produce the maximum power output from the turbine assuming

that h, k, A, , and g are constant?

Answer(s):

( )

2

1

2

S

U

H k h

g

= +

( )

2

extracted

0.9 1

2

U

P UAg k h

g

(

= +

(

( )

opt

2

3 1

gh

U

k

=

+

penstock

tailrace

reservoir

turbine

T

h

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 12 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_15

In the water flow system shown, reservoir B has variable elevation, x. Determine the water level in reservoir B so

that no water flows into or out of that reservoir. The speed in the 12 in diameter pipe is 10 ft/sec. Assume the pipes

are constructed of cast iron and that the entrances are sharp-edged.

Answer(s):

97.7 ft

67 ft

100 ft

100 ft

50 ft

10 ft/s

12 in diam

6 in diam

x

B

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 13 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_16

Consider the process of donating blood. Blood flows from a vein in which the pressure is greater than atmospheric,

through a long small-diameter tube, and into a plastic bag that is essentially at atmospheric pressure. Based on fluid

mechanics principles, estimate the amount of time it takes to donate a pint of blood. List all assumptions and show

calculations.

Answer(s):

---

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 14 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_17

Consider a flow nozzle installation in a pipe. Apply the basic equations to the control volume indicated, to show

that the permanent head loss across the meter can be expressed in dimensionless form, as the head loss coefficient,

1 3 2 1

1 2 2 1

1 /

1 /

l

p p A A

C

p p A A

= =

+

Plot, C

l

, as a function of diameter ratio, D

2

/D

1

.

Answer(s):

---

1 2

3

CV

x

flow

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 15 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_18

The turbine shown in the figure develops 400 kW. Determine the volumetric flow rate if:

a. head losses are negligible

b. head loss due to friction in the pipe is considered.

Assume f =0.02. Discuss your results. Neglect minor losses.

Answer(s):

a. 14.4 m

3

/sor 2.1 m

3

/s

b. no solution exists

120 m of 0.30 m

diameter cast iron pipe

reservoir

diffuser

T

20 m

1 m

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 16 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_19

A hydraulic jack supports a load of 20,000 lb

f

. The following data are given:

diameter of piston 4.0 in

radial clearance between piston and cylinder 0.002 in

length of piston 4.8 in

Estimate the rate of leakage of hydraulic fluid past the piston, assuming the fluid is SAE 30 oil at 80F.

Answer(s):

---

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 17 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_20

A hypodermic needle, with an inside diameter of 0.1 mm and a length of 25 mm is used to inject saline solution with

a dynamic viscosity five times that of water. The plunger diameter is 10 mm and the maximum force that can be

exerted by a thumb on the plunger is 45 N. Estimate the volume flow rate of saline that can be produced.

Answer(s):

Q =1.13e-8 m

3

/s =11.3 mm

3

/s

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 18 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_21

The average flow speed in a constant-diameter section of the Alaskan pipeline is 8.27 ft/s. At the inlet, the pressure

is 1200 psig and the elevation is 150 ft; at the outlet, the pressure is 50 psig and the elevation is 375 ft. Calculate the

head loss in this section of pipeline.

Answer(s):

,1 2

2940 225 ft 2720 ft

L

H

= =

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 19 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_22

Consider the pipe system shown below in which water (with a density of 1.0E3 kg/m

3

and a dynamic viscosity of

1.3E-3 Pas) flows from the tank A to tank B. If the required flow rate is 1.0E-2 m

3

/s, what is the required gage

pressure in tank A?

Answer(s):

6.8E5 Pa

A

p =

90 regular

threaded elbow

14 m

15 m

6.0 m

0.5 m

90 regular

threaded elbow

gate valve

(

1

/

2

closed)

p

A

=?

p

B

=280 kPa

(gage)

B

A

flow

5.0 cm diameter commercial steel

pipe with a total length of 40 m

re-entrant inlet

gravity

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 20 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_24

You purchase a cottage at a lake and need to install a pump to feed water to the house. You plan to pump water at

night to fill a storage tank youve installed next to the cottage. The pipes and fittings you have chosen to use for the

installation are listed in the table below.

a. What is the minimum head rise across a pump that is capable of providing a flow rate of 18.93 liters per

minute (=5 gpm) of water to the tank?

b. What power should be supplied to the pump assuming the pump efficiency is 65%.

System Component Amount

straight, smooth plastic pipe, 5.08 cm (=2 in.) diameter 28.96 m (=95 ft)

re-entrant inlet 1

regular 90 flanged elbow 10

union 8

fully open globe valve 1

fully open gate valve 4

Answer(s):

,1 2

15.28 m

S

H

=

supply

72.7 W W =

pump

15.24 m

(=50 ft)

3.05 m

(=10 ft)

0.61 m

(=2 ft)

tank

lake

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 21 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_25

Water at 70 F flows steadily through a venturi. The pressure upstream from the throat is 5 psig. The throat area is

0.025 ft

2

and the upstream area is 0.1 ft

2

. Estimate the maximum flow rate this device can handle without cavitation.

Answer(s):

1.37 ft

3

/s

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 22 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_system_01

In the five-pipe horizontal network shown in the figure, assume that all pipes have a friction factor f=0.025. For the

given inlet and exit flow rate of 2 ft

3

/s of water at 20 C, determine the flow rate and direction in all pipes. If

p

A

=120 lb

f

/in

2

(gage), determine the pressures at points B, C, and D.

Answer(s):

Q

AB

= 1.19*10

0

ft

3

/s

Q

AC

= 8.13*10

-1

ft

3

/s

Q

BC

= 9.90*10

-1

ft

3

/s

Q

CD

= 1.80*10

0

ft

3

/s

Q

BD

= 1.97*10

-1

ft

3

/s

p

B

=1.08*10

2

psig

p

C

=1.03*10

2

psig

p

D

=7.57*10

1

psig

C

A

B

D

4000 ft

3000 ft

6 in dia.

8 in dia.

9 in dia.

3 in dia.

8 in dia.

2 ft

3

/s

2 ft

3

/s

Practice Problems on Pipe Flows

C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 23 of 23 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 15

pipe_system_02

Two water reservoirs are connected by galvanized iron pipes. Assume D

A

=75 mm, D

B

=50 mm, and h =10.5 m.

The length of both pipes is 100 m. Compare the head losses in pipes A and B. Compute the volume flow rate in

each pipe.

Answer(s):

the head loss in each pipe is the same and equal to 10.5 m

2

2 3

1.04*10 m/s

4

A

A A

D

Q V

t

= =

2

3 3

3.65*10 m/s

4

B

B B

D

Q V

t

= =

h

pipe A

pipe B

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