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12 Department of Mechanical & Automobile Engineering

Vol. 2, 2006
Introduction Introduction Introduction Introduction Introduction
With the explosive growth of the middle class in the
developing world, comes growth in the demand forecast
for all vehicles. Worldwide vehicles sales are expected
to double in fifty years and most of the sales growth
will take place in the developing world. With more
emphasis on sustainability we must find solution to
the energy, environmental, safety and congestion
impact of automobiles- while enhancing the passion,
fun and affordability they offer.
To realize sustainable mobility, our goal must be to
eliminate motor vehicles from the environmental
debate. The ways to do that is:
To design them to have no impact on the
environment.
They must emit no pollution. No green house
gases.
Consume little fuel-and what they consume should
come from renewable sources.
Production should create no waste and at the end
of its useful life a vehicle should be completely
recyclable.
The industry is in for some big changes and the further
into the future we look, the more clouded our vision
becomes. But we can look at today's trends and make
some educated estimates of what to expect in the near
future, keeping in view the benefits and challenges of
sustainable advanced technologies and mirroring what
many in the industry are working towards. Here is a
synopsis.
V VV VVehicle Design: ehicle Design: ehicle Design: ehicle Design: ehicle Design: As a system becomes integrated in
all facets of engineering, vehicles of the future will be -
smarter smarter smarter smarter smarter, more adaptable, safer and more reliable , more adaptable, safer and more reliable , more adaptable, safer and more reliable , more adaptable, safer and more reliable , more adaptable, safer and more reliable.
Product design decisions and trends will be more
heavily influenced by:
Emissions and safety legislations.
Development of new materials will
help reduce.
Weight
Add strength,
Ease service and repair and
Reduce cost.
P PP PPowertrain: owertrain: owertrain: owertrain: owertrain: Although steady gains have been made in
fuel economy and emissions in recent years, most
automakers are scrambling to do more and quickly in
the face of:
Escalating fuel prices.
Growing environmental concerns.
To meet the challenges of sustainable advancement
power trains technologies are working towards
advanced gasoline engines, advanced technology diesel,
hybrid electrics, hydrogen internal combustion engine,
fuel cells. The general consensus is that in the short-
term work will:
Emerging T Emerging T Emerging T Emerging T Emerging Trends in A rends in A rends in A rends in A rends in Automobile Engineering utomobile Engineering utomobile Engineering utomobile Engineering utomobile Engineering
Prof. J Prof. J Prof. J Prof. J Prof. J.K .K .K .K .K. Gera . Gera . Gera . Gera . Gera
Associate Professor, Mechanical and Automobile Engg. Deptt.
Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
The trend in design & development of automobile to realize sustainable mobility, while enhancing the comfort fun and
excitement has been highlighted. The benefits and challenges of sustainable advanced technologies are discussed. To meet the
huge sustainability challenge the industry must become more proactive. This paper presents an account of the emerging trends
in vehicle design, power train, hybrid vehicles, fuel cells, the use of electronics/electrical systems, safety, infrastructure, after
marketing & service.
Department of Mechanical & Automobile Engineering 13
Vol. 2, 2006
Continue to improve the internal combustion
engines efficiency with wider availability of diesel
power plants.
Hybrid offerings will bridge the gap in the mid
term.
Until the long-term solution of hydrogen powered
fuel cells become practical.
A AA AAdvanced Electronics / Electrics dvanced Electronics / Electrics dvanced Electronics / Electrics dvanced Electronics / Electrics dvanced Electronics / Electrics
Market forces driven by the consumer and regulatory
demands, coupled with advances in technology, have
created tremendous opportunities for engineering
innovations. Advanced electronics are at the heart of
these changes. Electronic components provide better
control, higher efficiencies, not prone to wear as
mechanical devices, allows improvements that could
otherwise not be possible.
In addition to the introduction of new systems,
traditional systems are changing. There will be more
networks, semiconductors, motors, and sensors. The
continuous push for safer; more fuel efficient and
environmental-friendly vehicles will be achieved by
replacing traditional mechanical systems with By-wire
systems with faster, lighter, intelligent actuators.
First wave of electronics into the vehicle was in the
area of power train (M.P.F.I. electronic ignition), the
second in safety, the third in body, the fourth in driver
information system, fifth in conversion of mechanical
and hydraulic based systems to electronic based ones.
Electronic replacing mechanical and hydraulic
components for safety, fuel economy, performance,
packaging and environmental impact. The technology
such as throttle by wire, electronic power steering and
integrated remote start already have moved into the
automobile main stream. As we advance into 21st
century:
The use of electronics / electrics will continue to
grow into the new areas of the vehicle with
increasing level of sophistication and capability.
Eventually most mechanical and hydraulic system
will be replaced by electrical / electronic solutions.
This will present the opportunity to re-engineer
and simplify operators control and display
interfaces, dramatically improving their ease of use.
Hybrid Electrics: Hybrid Electrics: Hybrid Electrics: Hybrid Electrics: Hybrid Electrics: They have shown significant
improvement in fuel efficiency, use existing fueling
infrastructure and can achieve near zero emission
levels.
Drawbacks include:
Incremental cost for the hybrid option.
An under developed components supply base.
A general lack of across the board customer
acceptance based on perceived value.
F FF FFuel Cells: uel Cells: uel Cells: uel Cells: uel Cells: Though demonstration projects are
underway, commercial readiness is not expected until
2015. This zero emission power train should enable
breakthrough performance in energy efficiency, and
hydrogen can be derived from multiple sources while
promoting long-term renewable fuel vision. Among the
many challenges are;
The extremely high cost of the technology.
On board hydrogen fuel storage.
A hydrogen infrastructure still in its infancy.
Sourcing of hydrogen from renewable energy.
Safety: Safety: Safety: Safety: Safety: Active safety will usher in an era where fatalities
are reduced by as much as an additional 50%. We are
in the midst of a revolution in smart vehicle
technologies. Tomorrow's automobile will have
"anticipatory" qualities that enable it to provide
operating recommendations and active support to the
driver. It will do this by monitoring ambient traffic
situation, recognizing upcoming circumstances that
require a drivers response, and-if necessary-taking
action.
Building upon the success of passive safety systems,
such as Antilock Braking System (ABS) and then
advanced by introduction of electronic stability control
system. Our next technological milestone will feature
the cross linking of today's many, varied, and largely
stand along chassis control units. Additional
functionality will come by connecting existing
14 Department of Mechanical & Automobile Engineering
Vol. 2, 2006
equipment electronically, adding software, and having
the various pieces of equipment communicate with
each other. In fact the car will have electronic reflexes
that, with each step, will enable the next.
Portfolio of active safety technologies design to make
individual mobility safer, preventing many rollovers
and crashes from occurring. Advance system such as
lane-departure warning, distance control, and pre-crash
sensors can identify a potential hazardous situation and
keep the vehicle on course, on the road and in control.
By looking at safety in terms of avoiding accidents in
the first place-and then protecting occupants when a
crash is unavoidable- we can prevent more accidents,
save more lives, and reduce insurance and medical costs
to society.
The vision of accident free driving eventually will be
realized with:
Active vehicles safety systems taking control in
critical situations
Networking and wireless technologies will allow
all systems on a vehicle to "talk" to each other.
Tomorrow' s vehicles will be capable of
communicating with one another to improve safety
and convenience.
Eventually safety related technologies such as
rollover prevention, night vision, lane departure
warning, and drowsy-driver monitoring will
proliferate from the high to low end auto makers
ranges.
Infrastructure: Infrastructure: Infrastructure: Infrastructure: Infrastructure: If mobility trends were to continue
social, economic, and environmental cost would be
unacceptably high. To reduce the significantly
transport related death and serious injuries-program
should focus on improvement in infrastructure, better
technologies for crash avoidance, and injury mitigation,
mitigate traffic congestion, reduce mobility, preserve
and enhance mobility opportunity for the general
population.
A comprehensive improvement of road traffic flow
eventually will revolutionalize individual mobility.
The infrastructure will become smarter, warning
drivers on travel conditions, delays, and closures
to prevent accidents and congestion.
After Mark After Mark After Mark After Mark After Market and Service et and Service et and Service et and Service et and Service
As with all manufactured products:
The relentless need to engineer more cost effective
solutions will continue unabated.
The need to extend (or potentially eliminate)
service intervals.
To reduce total cost of ownership.
Prognostics technologies will notify operators and
maintenance technicians of potential service
problems via communication links to enable
service prior to vehicle failure.
Several years ago the engineers at General Motors were
challenged to start with clean slate and reinvent the
automobile. They responded with a concept vehicle
combining fuel cell and by-wire technology on an
innovative vehicle architecture consisting of a six inch
(150mm) thick skateboard- like chassis with electronic
motors at all four wheels and the fuel-cell stack,
hydrogen storage system, controls, and heat exchanger
embedded within. The concept vehicle shown at
International auto show at Detroit with the following
description: There is no I.C. engine, no There is no I.C. engine, no There is no I.C. engine, no There is no I.C. engine, no There is no I.C. engine, no
transmission, no drive train, no ex transmission, no drive train, no ex transmission, no drive train, no ex transmission, no drive train, no ex transmission, no drive train, no excel, no exhaust cel, no exhaust cel, no exhaust cel, no exhaust cel, no exhaust
system, no radiator and no mechanical steering, system, no radiator and no mechanical steering, system, no radiator and no mechanical steering, system, no radiator and no mechanical steering, system, no radiator and no mechanical steering,
braking, and accelerating linkages. In fact the only braking, and accelerating linkages. In fact the only braking, and accelerating linkages. In fact the only braking, and accelerating linkages. In fact the only braking, and accelerating linkages. In fact the only
thing moving other than electrons, protons, water thing moving other than electrons, protons, water thing moving other than electrons, protons, water thing moving other than electrons, protons, water thing moving other than electrons, protons, water, ,, ,,
and air are the wheels and suspension. and air are the wheels and suspension. and air are the wheels and suspension. and air are the wheels and suspension. and air are the wheels and suspension.
The greatest education in the world is the education
which helps one to be able to do the right thing at the
time it has to be done. I have great confidence that
working together now and into the future, automotive
industry and automotive engineers will do the right
thing at the time they have to be done.
R RR RReferences eferences eferences eferences eferences
1. AutomotiveEngineering International-SAE
International
2. SAE 100 Future Look SAE International
3. Mechanical Engineering Magazines, ASME.