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JAMMU AND KASHMIR GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES Geology Jammu and Kashmir, the northern most state of






northern most state of the

c o u n t r y ,

h a s

t h e

n e i g h b o u r i n g

s t a t e s












Tibet (China), Pakistan and








222,236 sq km,

has been

classified into five distinct geomorphic units based on well-marked orographic and geomorphic features. Traversing from south to north they appear as Terai Zone, Outer Himalayan Zone or Siwalik Foothills, Lesser Himalayan Zone, Great Himalayan / Higher Himalayan Zone and Trans-Himalayan Zone.

The state preserves almost a complete geological succession from Proterozoic to Holocene. Most of the rocks occurring in Lesser and Higher Himalayan terrains are Proterozoic in age. The Early Proterozoic rocks comprise a complex suite of gneisses and schists with interstratified bands of marble and calc-silicate rocks and quartzite with igneous intrusives. The Middle Proterozoic rocks are represented by carbonates, calc-arenites, slate, flaggy limestone and stromatolitic limestone/ dolomite whereas the Neoproterozoic rocks are mostly calcareous, arenaceous and graphitic carbonaceous shale.

The Palaeozoic starts with Lolab Formation (Lower Cambrian) and is followed successively by argillaceous Nutnus Formation (Middle Cambrian) containing Trilobites Anomocare sp., Tonkinella sp. and Conocorphe sp., argillo-calcareous Trahagam Formation, Kunzum La Formation (Cambrian, Zanskar area), Watarkhai Formation (Ordovician) representing volcanic flows and ash beds, Marhaum Formation (Ordovician-Silurian) / Thango (Thaple) and Takche Formations (Ordovician-Silurian, Zanskar area), areno-argillaceous Aishmuqam Formation (Late Devonian) comprising plant fossils viz., Sphenopteridium, Psyllophytalians, Paracalamites and Rhacopteris and capped by Syringothyris Limestone and Fenestella Shale Formations (late Carboniferous, Liddar valley), rich in plant fossils.

The Permian rocks are classified into Agglomeratic Slate, Nishatbagh, Panjal Volcanics, Mamal and Zewan Formations in ascending order. The Agglomeratic Slate Formation has a complex lithology of slate, quartzite, diamictite and pyroclastics with charecteristic marine fauna Eurydesma, Deltopecten, gastropods and fenestellids indicating Late Carboniferous to Early Permian in age.

In Kashmir basin, Panjal Volcanics (Lower Permian) overlies Agglomeratic Slate with or without the intervention of Nishatbagh Formation. These volcanic, covering over 20% of the exposed hard rock areas in Kashmir valley, comprise lava flows of acid,

intermediate and basic composition. In many parts of Kashmir,

Panjal Volcanics are succeeded by Gondwana plant bearing beds

('Gangamopteris beds') of Mamal Formation which comprises an

assemblage of chert, siliceous and carbonaceous shale, thinly

bedded limestone, gritty sandstone, tuffs and novaculite. The Zewan

Formation (Upper Permian) comprises marine fossiliferous

argillaceous rocks with remains of Protoreteporaampla at the basal

part and calcareous with intercalations of shale containing

Cyclolobus at the upper part.

Triassic-Jurassic rocks are represented by Lilang Group

conformably overlying Kuling Group (Late Permian). The

Cretaceous rocks are mainly confined to Indus Suture Zone and Cretaceous - Eocene rocks are exposed in Shyok-Nubra belt of Ladakh region in the Trans-Himalaya.

In the Inner Tertiary belt of Jammu region, Jangalgali Formation (Cretaceous – Eocene) is unconformably overlain by Subathu Formation (Palaeocene-Eocene) which, in turn, is overlain by the Murree Group (Upper Eocene to Lower Miocene age). The Siwalik Supergroup is exposed in Mansar-Uttar Bani-Dughor section, east of Jammu. It has been identified as the reference section for study of Siwalik rocks in the Indian sub-continent. The Lower Siwalik Group conformably overlies Upper Murree Formation. Karewa Group represents the rocks of Pliocene-Pleistocene age in Kashmir region.

Quaternary deposits are present along the vast alluvial tracts, flood plains, river terraces, talus, scree, fan deposits of major rivers and their tributaries and fluvio-glacial deposits in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh regions. These have been classified into Older Alluvium (Middle to Late Pleistocene) and Newer Alluvium (Holocene).

Some basic volcanic suites present in the area are Trans-Himalayan Basic Volcanic Suite including Dras volcanic and Shyok volcanic, Tethyan Basic Volcanics (Lower Permian), and Window Zone Basic Volcanics represented by Sauni Volcanics. Ultramafic rocks also occur in Indus and Shyok-Nubra belt.

Mineral Resources

Several occurrences of metallic minerals and deposits of non- metallic minerals and construction material are reported from the state. Incidences of gold mineralization has been reported in quartz veins in Kupwara district, in shear zones traversing Ladakh Granitoid and as sporadic placers in Kargil district. Some old workings developed for copper have been reported from Anantnag and Baramulla districts. Stibnite mineralization has been reported from quartz veins traversing limestone in Zanskar valley of Ladakh. Veins and stringers containing asbestos are observed traversing Panjal Volcanics exposed in Baramulla district. The famous sapphire mines of the state, situated at an altitude of 4,418 m northwest of Sumjam in the Padar area, Doda district have been investigated from time to time. The area is snow bound for a major part of the year. The sapphire bearing rocks classified under Padar Formation comprises interbedded sequence of metasediments and metabasics intruded by a number of pegmatite and quartz veins. Sapphire occurs in syenite pegmatite veins in actinolite-tremolite rock.

Geological and Mineral Map of Jammu and Kashmir




HIMACHAL PRADESH GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES Geology The state of Himachal Pradesh, sprawling over an area


The state of Himachal Pradesh,

sprawling over an area of 55,673

sq km is bounded in the north and

northwest by Jammu and

Kashmir, in the east by Tibet

(China), in the southeast by

Uttarakhand, in the south by

Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and

in the southwest by Punjab. It's

physiography can be divided into

five distinct parallel zones. Traversing from south to north, these are Alluvial Plains - the southernmost zone developed at the foothills of Siwalik Range, the Siwalik foothills or Sub-Himalayan zone, Lesser Himalayan zone, Central Himalayan/Great Himalayan zone and Trans- Himalayan/Higher Himalayan zone.

The state is covered by rocks ranging in age from Proterozoic to Recent. Lesser Himalayan terrain is mainly of Proterozoic rocks. The Palaeoproterozoic rocks are represented by Jeori-Wangtu Banded Gneissic Complex, Rampur and Kulu Groups. The Kulu Group is one of the three principal crystalline nappes of Himachal Pradesh. The Mesoproterozoic rocks are represented by Shali (Deoban) and Larji Groups. The Deoban Group mainly consists of carbonate rocks in association with slate and quartzite. The Shali Group represents a shallow stable platform type of sedimentation. The Lower Neoproterozoic rocks are classified under Jaunsar, Simla and Haimanta Groups. The onset of Palaeozoic age is indicated by arenaceous sediments of Tal Group occurring in the core of Nigali Dhar and Korgai synclines. In the Spiti/Kinnaur and Higher Himalaya, Cambrian rocks are represented by Kunzam La and Parahio Formations. The Sanugba Group represents the Ordovician- Devonian suite of rocks in the Spiti area. The Devonian period is represented by Muth Formation, comprising medium to fine grained white to mottled, locally grey quartz-arenite. Carboniferous rocks are represented by Kanawar Group, exposed in the Spiti Basin. It has been divided into Lipak, Po and Ganmachidam Formations. The Kuling Group in the Spiti / Kinnaur area is of Permian comprising Salooni Formation in Chamba area and Kukti Formation of Tandi Group in Chandra-Bhagha valley of Lahaul. The Linag Group representing Triassic in Spiti valley lies over Kuling Group. The Gushal Formation of Tandi Group represents the Triassic-Jurassic sequence. The Lagudarsi Group of Cretaceous age is divisible into Giumal and Chikkim Formations. The Palaeocene - Eocene sedimentary sequence in Lesser Himalayan Tectogen is represented by Kakra Formation and Subathu Formation, mostly occurring as outliers over diverse pre-Palaeogene formations. The Dagshai Formation (Late Eocene to Oligocene) overlies the Subathu Formation. The Early Miocene Kasauli Formation exhibits normal and transitional contact with Dagshai Formation. The Middle Miocene to Middle Pleistocene rocks are represented by Siwalik Supergroup which is divisible into Lower, Middle and Upper Siwalik

Groups. The Lower Siwalik Group consists of sandstone - clay

alternation and has yielded a rich mammalian fauna including

Hipparion sp., Giraffoid genera, Crocodilus sp. and Cheloniceras sp.

It succeeds to the Middle Siwalik Group with a gradational contact

and comprises a thick succession of coarse micaceous sandstone

with interbeds of earthy clay. The significant vertebrate fossils

present in these rocks include Bramapithecus sivalensis Lewis,

Dryopithecus punjabicus Pilgrim, Ramapithecus brevirostris Lewis

and Sivapithecus sivalensis Lydekker. Other fossils present are

Hipparion theobaldi, Stegodon cautleyi, Hippopotamus sp. and

Girrafokeryx sp. The Upper Siwalik Group consists of thick coarse sandstone, grit and conglomerate with local clay beds. These have yielded faunal assemblages – Stegodon ganesa, Hypselphas sp., Equus cautleyi, Hexaprotodon sp., Rhinoceros platyrhinus, Hemibos triquetricornis, Leptobos sp., Hippopotamus sp., Crocodylus biporcatus and Gavialis browni. The fresh water Siwalik rocks were deposited in the foredeep formed in front of the Himalayan range. Thick pile of fluvial, fluvio-glacial, glacial, lacustrine and gravitational sediments represents post-Siwalik Quaternary deposits, which are divided into Older Alluvium and Newer Alluvium. The Older Alluvium comprises multi-cyclic sequence of brown to grey silt, clay with kankar and reddish brown to grey micaeous sand with pebbles. The Newer Alluvium has been sub-divided into Fan Alluvium, Terrace Alluvium and Channel Alluvium. The undifferentiated Quaternary deposits of Spiti valley have been classified into glaciogenic, glacio- fluvial, lacustrine and mass wasting deposits. A number of granitic rocks ranging in age from Proterozoic to Tertiary era are widely exposed in the Himachal Himalaya. These can be broadly grouped as: (i) Mandi - Darla volcanics (ii) volcanic rocks of Manikaran - Rampur area and (iii) the traps associated with the Salooni Formation.

HIMACHAL PRADESH GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES Geology The state of Himachal Pradesh, sprawling over an area

Angiospermous fossil flower (~4 mm), Kasauli Formation, Solan

Mineral Resources

A variety of minerals are known from the Himachal Pradesh but except for limestone / dolomite, baryte and gypsum, none has economic significance. Small occurrences of asbestos have been reported from Kangra and Mandi districts and in north of Shimla town. Small occurrences of iron ore as pockets, lenses, veins and disseminations have been reported from Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Shimla and Sirmaur districts. Rock salt reserve of 7.5 million tonnes has been reported from Mandi district. Stibnite reserves of 10,582 tonnes have been located in Lahaul and Spiti districts.

Geological and Mineral Map of Himachal Pradesh






The state of Punjab with an area

of 50,362 sq km and the Union

Territory of Chandigarh with an

area of 114 sq km lie in Indo-

Gangetic plains. The two broad

geomorphic entities, the Siwalik

foothills in the northeastern part

of Punjab and alluvial fills

of Indus drainage basin

physiographically characterize the area. The dominant physiographic highs are Lahore-Sargodha ridge in west, Delhi- Jagadhari ridge in east, series of Siwalik ridges in northeast and the Delhi-Lahore ridge in south.

The area is covered by the rocks of Siwalik Supergroup (Tertiary) and Quaternary Alluvium and Aeolian Deposit.

The Siwalik Supergroup is classified into three groups, namely Lower Siwalik, Middle Siwalik and Upper Siwalik. The rocks of Lower and Middle Siwalik Groups are exposed as NW-SE trending ridges in the northeastern part of Gurdaspur district, while Upper Siwalik rocks are exposed in Ropar, Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur districts. The Lower Siwalik Group, represented by the Chinji Formation, is chiefly composed of fine to medium grained, sporadically pebbly sandstone and chocolate to maroon claystone. The Middle Siwalik Group comprises Dhok Pathan and Nagri Formations. The former consists of poorly sorted massive, grey, coarse grained and micaceous sandstone with minor conglomerate. The Nagri Formation comprises alternating conglomerate and red clay. The Upper Siwalik Group is made up of coarse gravel and boulder conglomerate alternating with clay bands and sandstone. Its contact with the overlying Quaternary sediments is unconformable.

The Quaternary sediments are about 4,500m thick pile. The basin configuration indicates that the Punjab basin is deeper in the northern side and shallower southward, deepest being towards NW. The Punjab Basin is parallel to the general trend of Siwalik hills i.e. NW-SE. The Quaternary alluvium has been divided into three chronostratigraphic units- The Older Alluvium, formed by the deposition of the pre-existing palaeodrainage system of Middle to Late Pleistocene period, the Newer Alluvium, formed of Holocene/Recent streams and the Aeolian deposits. Based on the degree of consolidation, dunes can be divided into three categories - stabilized and consolidated older dunes, intermediate and semi- consolidated dunes, and mobile and reversible newer dunes.

Mineral Resources

Gold occurs as placers in the present day streams draining the rocks of Siwalik Supergroup. Some minor occurrences of mineral deposits viz. alkaline soil/ kallar/ reh, calc-tufa, foundry sand, glass sand, kankar, potash, salt peter, clay and sand are also recorded.

Geotechnical Projects

The Ranjit Sagar Dam, a multipurpose project over river Ravi is a fine

embodiment of inter-state relationship and cooperation between the

states of Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir. Located near Pathankot in

Gurdaspur district of Punjab, the project comprises 160m high and

600m long rockfill dam with a surface Power House of 600 MW

capacity. The association of Geological Survey of India with the

Project stems way back to the time of its conception. The foundation

gallery below the clay core running all through the dam foundation is

a unique feature and first of its kind in a rockfill dam in India.

The project is located on the southwestern limb of regional anticline comprising 4m to 40m thick sandstone and 4m to 30m thick claystone / siltstone bands of Lower Siwaliks in the Outer Himalaya. The disposition of various lithounits is about 45° askew to the dam axis with traceable continuity of different litho-bands from left to right abutment. The lithounits are dissected by two major joint sets, parallel to bedding and striking NE-SW with sub-vertical to vertical dips. The rocks are traversed by two faults in the left spillway area and by a group of more prominent, approximately WNW-ESE trending faults, in the inlet portal area of diversion tunnels. Development of shears and fractures in rocks, mainly parallel to the bedding plane, are common. Rock creep was observed in the bucket portion of the spillway.

The dam area is located in active Seismic Zone-V as per the Seismic Zoning Map of India (ISI 1895-1970), on the western fringe of Kangra Seismic Block, which is demarcated by Ravi Tear in the west and Sundernagar Fault in the east. Hence, suitable seismic co-efficient have been provided for safe design of the dam.

The project has immensely benefitted the nation, more particularly the states of Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir by providing the much needed electricity and water for irrigation to the farmers besides flood moderation.


A view of Rangit Sagar Dam

Geological and Mineral Map of Punjab and Chandigarh



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES Geology The state of Haryana, having an area of 44,212 sq km,


The state of Haryana, having an

area of 44,212 sq km, is bounded

by Punjab in the northwest,

H ima c h a l P r a d e s h a n d

Uttarakhand in the north and

northeast, Delhi and Uttar

Pradesh in the east and

southeast and by Rajasthan in

the west and southwest. Three

major geomorphic units, viz.

Structural and Denudation hills, Alluvial Plains and Aeolian Plains have been identified. The Structural and Denudation hills are a series of rugged parallel ridges composed of Siwalik rocks in the northern part and widely spaced isolated ranges of Delhi Supergroup in southern parts. The Alluvial plains representing the Late Quaternary sediments are sub-divided into three zones, namely, piedmont, central alluvial plains and marginal alluvial plains. The Aeolian plains are the northeastern extension of the Thar Desert and comprise sand dunes and sand sheets. The dunes are up to 0.410 m high, upto 5 km long and stabilized to active in nature. The stabilized dunes are longitudinal and oval in shape while the active dunes are transverse and barchans type. The latter shows easterly, westerly and southeasterly trends of sand migration. Sand sheets are present in the dunal plain areas adjoining the Thar Desert. These very fine- grained sand sheets are up to 0.52 m thick

Nearly 95% area is covered by Quaternary Alluvium and Aeolian sediments and the rest represents the Proterozoic rocks by the Delhi Supergroup and the Tertiary rocks. The Delhi Supergroup is divided into an older Alwar Group and a younger Ajabgarh Group. The former is dominantly arenaceous with argillaceous intercalations while the latter is mainly argillaceous with arenaceous and calcareous components. The Alwar Group is represented by Bayal-Pachnota Formation comprising quartzite with well preserved sedimentary structures like bedding, cross bedding, ripple marks and load casts. The Ajabgarh Group comprises slate, phyllite, pelitic schist, limestone and quartzite, grading upward from calcareous to argillaceous facies. It is divided into five formations, viz. Golwa- Gangutana Formation, Deota-Dantal Formation, Thanaghazi Formation, Asarwas Formaion and Tasing Formation. The rocks of Delhi Supergroup are intruded by acidic and basic intrusive rocks.The acid intrusive are granite, granodiorite, tonalite, aplite, pegmatite, hypabyssal feldspar porphyry and quartz veins while the volcanic phase is represented by basalt, rhyolite and tuff. Occurrences of ultrabasic rocks like albitite have also been reported. The northeastern part of Haryana exposes rocks of Subathu, Dagshai and Kasauli Formations and Siwalik Supergroup. The Subathu Formation consists mainly of calcareous and argillaceous rocks including thick beds of gritty clays. The impure limestone is highly fossiliferous. This is succeeded by Dagshai Formation characterising thicker beds of sandstone with purplish tint. The top of the Dagshai Formation is marked by purple and green sandstone

and subordinate clays. It passes conformably into overlying Kasauli Formation which comprises essentially sandstone with minor

argillaceous bands. These standstones are grey to greenish, soft,

coarse and more micaceous than the sandstone of Dagshai

Formation. The shales are soft and green. Grey clay slates also

occur in these rocks.

A tectono-stratigraphic domain comprising Neogene-Quaternary

molasses sediments, known as Siwalik Supergroup, sub-divided into

Lower, Middle and Upper Siwalik Groups, occurs in the northern part

of the state. The undifferentiated rocks of Lower Siwalik Group

collectively referred to as Nahan Formation is in contact with the boulder conglomerate of the Upper Siwalik Group along the Nahan Thrust. The Middle Siwalik Group, on the basis of frequency of sandstone and mudstone deposits, has been divided into lower Nagri Formation and upper Dhok Pathan Formation. The Upper Siwalik rocks are represented by Saketi, Pinjor and Kalar Formations.

The Quaternary deposits thickening from south to north are mainly

alluvial with minor incursions of aeolian and lacustrine lenses.


have been classified into Older Alluvium, comprising mainly brownish silt-clay, clay, and grey micaceous sand, calcretised at several levels, Newer Alluvium and Aeolian deposits. The Newer Alluvium comprises mainly Holocene deposits consisting of gravels and sand near mountain exits and grey micaceous sand and silt in the downstream (Terrace Alluvium). The Aeolian deposits are brown, fine sand dunes and sheets. The sand belongs to at least three episodes of deposition.


Erosional Structure in Polycyclic Sequence of Sandstone and Mudstone, Tatrot Formation, Upper Siwalik Group

Mineral Resources

Mineral occurrences include both metallic and non-metallic deposits, but only the latter have been economically exploited so far. The tin- tungsten mineralization occurs near Tosham, Bhiwani district in an alteration-environ of acid magmatic rocks, viz. the granites and the rhyolites associated with metasediments showing quartz-muscovite- sericite assemblage of greisen type. The zone of tin mineralization with fine dissemination of cassiterite occurs with altered rocks. Wolframite occurs as sporadic, coarse, anhedral intergrowth with gangue and copper-iron sulphide (chalcopyrite). Total resource of tin

and tungsten are estimated to be 86,220 tonnes and 3,568 tonnes respectively. The incidence of gold from rocks hosting sulphide mineralization in Ajabgarh Group of rocks in Mahendragarh district and also from Yamuna Nagar and Ambala districts have been reported. Nitre occurs as natural efflorescence at a number of places in the districts of Gurgaon, Faridabad, Bhiwani, Hissar, Sirsa, Ambala, Rohtak, Jind, Sonepat and Kurukshetra. Pegmatite veins in the rocks of Delhi Supergroup have given rise to workable clay deposits in Faridabad and Gurgaon districts. The clay comprises kaolinite and little amount of quartz and is of refractory type.

Quartzite occurs as good quality building material in Faridabad, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Mahendragarh districts. It is extensively used as rail ballast and in concrete aggregates whereas fissile quartzite is used for roofing and as masonry blocks. The sandstone beds of Ambala district provide large source of good quality building material. Limestone and dolomite, found in Mahendragarh and Ambala districts, are also suitable for building material. Unwashed samples of quartzite from Faridabad district contain more than 95% SiO2. The quartzite from Bhiwani district is suitable for the manufacture of window glass and bottle glass. The foundry sand in Sonepat district has high (79%) silica.

Geological and Mineral Map of Haryana




DELHI GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES Geology The state of Delhi covers an area of 1,483 sq


The state of Delhi covers an area of 1,483 sq km and is bounded on

its north, west and south by Haryana and on its east by Uttar

Pradesh. It exhibits more or less

flat terrain except for a NNE- SSW trending Delhi Ridge that

occurs in the southeastern part.

The flat portions are occupied by

Quaternary sediments, while ridge comprises hard rocks. The eastern side of ridge has an undulating topography and the area on west is dotted with isolated sand dunes. The main drainage is Yamuna River. A few palaeo-channel scars have been manually canalized and drain into Yamuna River. There is considerable anthropogenic influence on the present topography. A number of small seasonal rivulets descending from the ridge disappear in the plains. Geomorphologically, Delhi has been classified into following four geomorphic units, based on dominant land forming processes responsible for their genesis. Denudational hills or rocky surfaces are structurally controlled relict, linear ridges and isolated hillocks representing rocks of Delhi Supergroup whose Mehrauli-Fatehpur Beri Ridge with trellis/sub-trellis/sub-dendritic drainage has the overall slope towards southwest and NE-SW trending Masudpur- Wazirabad Ridge, popularly known as Delhi Ridge, shows steep slopes on both flanks. The Older Alluvial Plain is a gently undulatory terrain with soft Quaternary sediments and occurs on either side of the rocky surface except the low-lying tract along Yamuna. The Flood Plain of Yamuna River is a low-lying belt of Khadar along Yamuna River in the eastern part of Delhi and is marked by a 3m to 4m high bluff. The flood plain is characterized by abandoned channels, cut-off meanders, meander scrolls, ox-bow lakes, crevasse splays, point bars and channel bars. Presence of a number of cut-off meanders suggests oscillatory shifting of river. The lakes near Bhalsawa, Kondli and Khichdipur are remnant of such large meanders. The flood plain has been sub-divided into an older flood plain and active flood plain. Aeolian surface is characterised by brown sediment deposits of fine to medium grained yellowish sand with minor salt content.

The Delhi Supergroup is represented by the rocks of Ajabgarh Group covering nearly 15% area of state mainly in the southeastern part while the rest is covered by Quaternary to Recent sediments.

Ajabgarh Group

The Ajabgarh Group in Delhi is referred to as Bharkol Formation (equivalent to Asarwas Formation in Haryana). It is essentially an arenaceous sequence with thin argillaceous bands. This formation is dominantly represented by quartzite with interbands of phyllites, tuffs and schists. The quartzites are grey to light blue, massive, hard and

highly jointed assuming boulder nature because of its spheroidal weathering. The oxidation of pyrites imparts a reddish tinge. The primary sedimentary structures like ripple mark, cross bedding, convolute lamination and load casts are preserved. The asymmetrical ripple marks are the most prominent sedimentary

features. The quartzites contain very thin interbands of quartz-mica

schist, muscovite-biotite schist, staurolite-garnet schist and garnetiferous-mica schist. At some places within the quartzites there are bands of very fine grained, grey to greenish-grey, compact,

soapy to rough ash and tuffaceous rocks. These are interbedded with friable feldspathic quartzites and schists. In the vicinity of pegmatite intrusions, garnet and pyrite are found within these bands giving rise to amygdaloidal appearance.

Post-Delhi Intrusives

The pegmatites have intruded into the rocks of Ajabgarh Group along joints of varied orientations, shears and fault zones. It comprises quartz, K-feldspar and mica with tourmaline and rarely beryl. The alteration of K-feldspars in pegmatites has resulted in the formation of kaoline deposits.

Quaternary Sediments

Most of the area of Delhi state is covered by unconsolidated younger Quaternary sediments, which unconformably rest over the hard rocks of Delhi Supergroup. Based on the sediment characters, these can be classified as Older Alluvium which is a thick sequence of brown oxidized fluvial sediments comprising silt, clay and micaceous sand with disseminated nodules and bands of kankar, clay and sand are its two major components and Newer Alluvium which is about 25 m thick sequence of loose sediments deposited by Yamuna River. It occurs as terrace deposit (Terrace Alluvium) as well as channel deposits (Channel Alluvium). The Terrace Alluvium disconformably lies over the Older Alluvium, and is composed of grey to light brown silt, clay and fine to coarse-grained micaceous sand. The Channel Alluvium occurs along the active channels of Yamuna and comprises grey, fine to coarse-grained micaceous sand constituting point and channel bars and overbank sediments. The Aeolian Deposits are minor sandy deposits occurring as isolated, stabilized mounds and humps. However, in most of the cases characteristic dune features have been obliterated due to cultivation. The disposition of these dunes indicates predominant wind direction from west to east.

Mineral Resources

Quartzite, occupying a fairly large area along Delhi Ridge provides a large source of good quality building material and road metal. Weathering of quartzite produces reddish brown morrum and angular sand, suitable for building purposes (mortar & plaster etc.) and is found to accumulate in the numerous rivulets traversing the quartzite hills. The alluvial sand suitable for masonry work is being extracted at various places from the Yamuna bed.

China clay (Kaolin) is the only major mineral produced in Delhi state. The total resource of china clay deposits are of the order of 5289 thousand tonnes, out of which 857 tonnes are in measured category. Kaoline found in this belt is generally high in iron oxide and is suitable for ceramic industry. Fire clay resource available in Delhi is estimated at 64,000 tonnes, out of which 6,000 tonnes are in measured category. The fire clays are used in manufacturing bricks, crucibles

and the low grade variety is used in manufacturing sanitary wares, such as pipes, bath tubs etc.

Large quantities of silica sand (white variety) are being mined at Mahipalpur, Badarpur, Masudpur and the areas between Dhaula Kuan and Chanakyapuri. It is used in glass industry, foundry, ferro- alloys and refractory industries and as building material.

Geological and Mineral Map of Delhi






The states of Uttar Pradesh (UP)

and Uttarakhand (UK) together

cover an area of 294,413 sq km

and have state boundary with

Himachal Pradesh, Haryana,

Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya

P r a d e s h , Ch h a t t i s g a r h ,

Jharkhand and Bihar while China

and Nepal mark international

boundary. Physiographically, the

terrain has broadly been divided into Extra-Peninsula, Gangetic Plains, and Peninsular Uplands. The northern mountains in Uttarakhand are a part of the Himalayan mountain chain known as Extra Peninsular Region. Various streams have cut through deep gorges to enter into the Ganga Plain. The higher Himalayan range is characterized by glaciers and lofty snow-covered peaks in the region. The Ganga Plain is the youngest Quaternary fluvial plain.

The area is made up of rocks ranging from the oldest Archaean metamorphites / granitoids to the youngest Quaternary deposits. Major part of Uttar Pradesh is covered by Alluvium which constitutes the Ganga Plain.

The Extra Peninsular Region

The Himalayan tectonogene comprising Late Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rocks has been sub-divided into four major morpho- tectonic belts from south to north namely, Sub or Outer Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Higher Himalaya and Tethys Himalaya. Higher Himalaya and most of the Lesser Himalaya comprise mainly Proterozoic weak- to un- metamorphosed sedimentary sequences, which host some stromatolites and records of early life. These metamorphic rocks and associated granite gneisses and migmatites of Palaeoproterozoic age have been referred as 'Crystallines'. Mesoproterozoic rocks are characterised by extensive development of quartzite with penecontemporaneous volcanic flows and carbonates. This sequence is succeeded by carbonate predominant lithounits of Deoban and Garhwal Groups. The carbonate zone passes upward into quartzite impregnated with volcanic flows forming the Berinag Formation in Garhwal-Kumaon region and Naugaon metavolcanics in Tons-Yamuna region. The Neoproterozoic sequences, that constitute a major part of the outer Lesser Himalaya, commences with the older Mandhali Formation, a conglomerate predominant rock, overlain successively by shaly / slaty Chandpur Formation and Nagthat Formation of quartzite with minor shale. These three formations together constitute the Jaunsar Group which is overlain by Neoproterozoic rocks of the Blaini-Krol- Tal sequence.

The Palaeozoic rocks are mainly exposed in Tethyan Himalaya and sporadically in the Lesser Himalaya. The contact of the Tethyan sedimentaries with the underlying crystalline sequence of the Higher Himalaya is tectonic. The beginning of Palaeozoic Era is marked by appearance of Redlichia sp. in Milam Formation (Late Proterozoic to Early Cambrian) that succeeds to Ralam Formation and Garbayang Formation (Ordovician) of Martoli Group. The Variegated Formation

(Silurian) is followed by quartzite of Muth Formation (Devonian) which has yielded brachiopod fossils viz. Pentamerus oblongus,

Pentamerifera sp. Seven metre thick white ferruginous quartzite

overlying the Muth quartzite has been assigned Late Devonian-Early

Carboniferous age. A thick sequence of predominant carbonates

overlying the Muth Formation in Kali valley has been named as Kali

Formation (early Carboniferous). This passes upward into Girthigal

Formation, which has yielded Upper Carboniferous brachiopods.

The Kuling Formation (Permian) is unconformably overlying the Kali

and Girthigal Formations and has yielded Marginifera himalayansis,

Cyclolobas oldhami of Upper Permian age. The Palaeozoic in Lesser

Himalaya is represented by the Tal Group followed by the lower Bijni Formation or Boulder Slate Formation. The Tal Group has been sub- divided into lower Deo-Ka-Tibba Formation and upper Dhaulagiri Formation. On the basis of discovery of Redlichia sp., and other fossil assemblages from upper part of the lower Tal, the Precambrian - Cambriam boundary has been placed between chert and arenaceous member of the Deo-ka-Tibba Formation. The Carboniferous period is represented by the Boulder Slate Formation. Lower part of overlying Bijni Formation has yielded fossils of Late Palaeozoic age.

The evidence of Mesozoic life is well preserved in rock sequences exposed in Tethyan Himalaya. The Chocolate Formation has yielded ammonoids and some vertebrate fossils of Early Triassic age. The argillaceous dominant facies passes upward into Kalapani Limestone which, in turn, is succeeded by Kuti Shale. On the basis of fossil records from underlying and overlying sequences, Late Triassic age has been assigned to this formation. The Kioto Limestone Formation, Laptal Formation and Spiti Shale represent Jurassic sediments while Giumal Sandstone, Chikkim and Sangcha Malla Formations in ascending order represent Cretaceous.

The Tertiary period is represented by two contrasting sequences exposed in Lesser Himalaya and Sub-Himalaya. In Lesser Himalaya, the marine facies Tertiary rocks have been grouped as Subathu Formation (Palaeocene-Middle Eocene). The younger fluvial sediments constitute the Siwalik Supergroup which is exposed in the Sub-Himalaya. The rocks of Dharamshala Group (Oligocene and Early Miocene) occupy a position between Subathus and Siwaliks and are only exposed in the western part of Uttarakhand. The Neogene (Middle Miocene to Lower Pleistocene), represented by a thick sequence of claystone, sandstone and conglomerate beds is commonly referred to as the Siwalik Supergroup, which is divisible into a basal sandstone-claystone sequence of Lower Siwalik Group overlain by grey coarse sandstone dominant sequence of Middle Siwalik Group and arenaceous to pebbly-conglomeratic facies interbedded with orange clay of Upper Siwalik Group. The upper part of the Upper Siwalik Group is of Lower Pleistocene age. Vertebrate fauna, larger and smaller bovideans etc. have been reported from Siwalik rocks of eastern Uttarakhand.

Unconsolidated glacial deposits occurring as lateral and terminal moraines of Lower Pleistocene age are present in Higher Himalaya. The fluvial deposits are represented by Dun Gravels (Middle to Late Pleistocene) and multi-level terraces, developed along major rivers. Lacustrine deposits are widely developed in the outer Lesser

Himalaya of Kumaon region. These glacial, fluvial and lacustrine deposits range in age from Middle Pleistocene to Holocene.

The granitoids of Uttarakhand are of foliated and nonfoliated types and occur at different tectonic levels; and both are associated with Central Crystalline rocks. The granitoids occur as klippe in the Lesser Himalaya and form parts of the Almora - Ramgarh, Baijnath-Askot and Garhwal nappes.

The Peninsular Region

The Peninsular region is represented by rocks of Bundelkhand

Granitoid Complex (BGC), made of a wide variety of plutonic and hypabyssal rocks dominated by porphyritic granite of several generations, gneisses, migmatites and leucogranites, Dudhi Gneissic Complex (DGC), consisting mainly of granite gneiss, migmatites and non-foliated granite with enclaves of metamorphites and veins of pegmatite, aplite and quartz, and Mahakoshal Group, Bijawar Group and Vindhyan Supergroup. Rocks of Mahakoshal Group, Bijawar Group and Vindhyan Supergroup constitute the Proterozoic sequence. Mahakoshal Group represents the Palaeoproterozoic period and includes metasediments with interlayered metavolcanics and granitic

Basemetal mineralisation is confined to the rocks of Proterozoic age. Tungsten mineralisation is known from Almora and Chamoli districts in Uttarakhand, and Sonbhadra and Hamirpur districts in Uttar Pradesh. Limestone occurs in Mirzapur and Sonbhadra districts of shield area and in almost all the districts of Uttrakhand. Important deposits are located in Dehradun, Nainital, Pauri Garhwal, Pithoragarh, Tehri Garhwal, Sonbhadra and Mirzapur districts. Phosphorite deposits occur in Lalitpur and Dehradun and Tehri Garhwal districts of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, respectively. Silica sand, suitable for glass industry, are found to occur in Allahabad, Banda, Chandauli, Lalitpur and Varanasi districts of UP, and Uttarkashi district of UK. The magnesite and talc deposits are reported from Almora, Pithoragarh and Chamoli districts. Mineable slates occur in Almora, Chamoli, Uttarkashi and Pithoragarh districts. Graphite is reported from Almora and Pauri Garhwal districts. Gypsum deposits are known from Dehradun, Nainital, Pauri Garhwal and Tehri Garhwal districts. Occurrences of Barytes have been reported from Almora, Chamoli, Dehradun, Nainital, Pauri Garhwal, Tehri Garhwal and Pithoragarh districts. Marble is found in Dehradun district.

bodies intruding it. The suite of igneous rocks was formed in the faulted troughs within Mahakoshal Group in the Jungel valley of Sonbhadra district and is called Jungel Volcanics of Palaeo- to Meso- proterozoic period. The Neoproterozoic is represented by the rocks of the Rewa and Bhander Groups of Vindhyan Supergroup.


roc k s




Supergroup occupy a small



So n b h a d r a

d i s tri c t

r e p r e s e n t

Palaeozoic time.

The Gangetic Plain

On the basis of lithology, the Quaternary sediments of the Gangetic plain have been broadly classified into Older Alluvium (Banda Alluvium and Varanasi Alluvium) and Newer Alluvium. The Banda Alluvium, which has provenance in peninsular/cratonic region rests over the Precambrian rocks. The sediments of Varanasi Alluvium of (Middle to Late Pleistocene age) derived from the Himalayan provenance overlie Banda Alluvium. The Newer Alluvium represents the youngest sequence. Generally, this sequence is confined within the flood plain limits of present day rivers.

Mineral Resources

Several gold occurrences have been reported from peninsular region and extra-peninsular regions as well as in the gravels and sand of Gangetic Plain.

Geological and Mineral Map of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand