You are on page 1of 33

Usage & copying is permitted according to the

Site Licence Conditions only


Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water
Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science

1
but first, an introduction...
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3
WATER
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1. THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER
2. STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES OF WATER
3. THE CHEMISTRY OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
4. HEAT CAPACITY & CALORIMETRY
...all in the context of waters vital role in the natural world
Water... Amazing Stuff!
Its seems very strange to devote an entire topic
to just one simple compound.
But water is so important in so many ways...
WATER...
covers most of the Earth
controls weather and climate
carves landscapes
makes up 75% of all living things
dissolves things
absorbs heat
...and much more
all life on
Earth
depends on
WATER
WATER
is involved
in our
life &
leisure
Chemically...
You already know several different ways to
describe and visualise the water molecule...
H
2
O
H
H O
H
H
O
In this topic you will learn more about the
Chemical Bonding
within and between water molecules, and how
this is responsible for waters
many unique properties.
You will learn about the
Chemistry of Solubility
and how we measure concentrations, and
calculate with
Molarity of solutions.
Finally, as a lead-in to Topic 4, you will learn
about waters quite remarkable Heat Capacity,
and how we use it in the technique of
Calorimetry
for measuring energy changes
during chemical processes.
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water
Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science

2
Temperature,
Heat Energy
&
Specific
Heat Capacity
Roles
of Water
on Earth
Basic Properties:
Density,
m.p. & b.p.
Polar
Covalent
Bonding
Calorimetry
& Calorimeters
Waters
Heat Capacity
& Life on Earth.
Endothermic
&
Exothermic
Changes
Heat
of
Solution
Measuring
Concentration;
Molarity
Ionic Solutions
&
Equations
How
Ionic & Polar
Substances
Dissolve
Bonding in Water
and Similar
Molecules
Dipoles
&
Hydrogen Bonds
Water as a
Solvent
Precipitation Reactions
WATER
Importance of
Water
Structure, Bonding
&
Properties
of Water
Chemistry of
Aqueous
Solutions
Heat Capacity
&
Calorimetry
CONCEPT DIAGRAM ( Mind Map ) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and
remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic,
come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole.
At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this Mind Map to practise on.
Dynamic Equilibrium
in a
Saturated Solution
Water in the
Spheres of the Earth
In the Atmosphere, water is present as water
vapour, and as tiny liquid droplets in the clouds.
In percentage terms, water makes up between
1% and 5% of the air, varying with time, place
and weather.
In the Lithosphere, water makes up about 10%
of the solid Earth. Although solid rock and
minerals seem perfectly dry, there is often water
incorporated into the crystal lattice structure of
many minerals. When volcanoes erupt, a huge
amount of steam is released as the rocks are
melted.
The Hydrosphere is, of course, nearly all water.
Oceans contain about 3% dissolved salt, but the
ice caps, rivers and lakes are virtually 100%
water.
In Living Things, water makes up about 75% of
every life-form, but jellyfish or watermelons are
more like 95%
The Many Roles of Water on Earth
Water is essential in all living things because it is
a solvent for all the chemicals in a living cell, and
the medium in which all the chemical reactions occur.
a reactant or product in many biological reactions,
such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
a transport medium for carrying substances, such
as when food, oxygen, etc. are carried in the blood.
a shock-absorber and support structure. Many
plants and simple animals (e.g. worms) rely on water
pressure in their tissues to hold their body in shape.
Our brain and other body parts are cushioned by
water-based body fluids.
a habitat (place to live) for many species. Water
habitats have very stable temperatures because of
waters ability to absorb heat with little temperature
change.
Water is a major
factor in global
climate, weather
and the shaping of
landforms.
The water-cycle produces all rain, hail and
snowfall.
Water is the main agent of erosion, carving out
the valleys and wearing down the mountains,
creating the landscapes.
Water can absorb, transport and release vast
amounts of heat energy. The ocean currents
largely control global climates by
re-distributing heat world-wide.
For humans & civilization, water is a major
resource:
for drinking, cooking, washing and recreation.
for crop irrigation and farming.
in industry as a solvent, cleaning and
cooling agent.
for transport by boat and ship.
for generating hydro-electricity.
3
1. THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Glacier
Water in the landscape
W
a
t
e
r
f
a
l
l
Lake
Revision
Solutions, Solute and Solvent
A SOLUTION is a mixture, usually of a solid (the
SOLUTE ) and a liquid (the SOLVENT ).
The solute and solvent particles are
intimately associated so that the mixture
cannot be separated by filtration, and the
solute will never settle to the bottom. We say
the solute is dissolved in the solvent.
clouds
snow
eroded
valley
Belinda
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
4
Basic Properties of Water
You may have done some practical work to investigate some of the basic properties of water.
Waters Density Anomaly
For almost every pure substances the solid is
more dense than the l i qui d. Water i s the
opposite... liquid water has a higher density
than ice. How do we explain this?
In solid water (ice) the molecules form a molecular
lattice . Each molecule is held rigidly in place.
When ice melts to form liquid water, the molecules
have enough energy to move around freely.
However, they are still very close together, and in
fact they wriggle in even closer to each other
than when rigidly arranged in the solid lattice. Now
there is the same mass of particles crammed into
less space... higher density.
Since solid ice has a lower density,
it floats in liquid water.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Density of Liquid & Solid Water
Density is the ratio between the mass of a
substance and the space (volume) it
occupies. All pure substances have a fixed
and characteristic density.
Density changes with temperature.
Water achieves its highest density at 4
o
C.
This value is 1.00 g/mL
Density = Mass
Volume
D = m
V
A simple method
is to weigh an
empty, dry
measuring
cylinder, then fill
with water. Read
the volume of
water accurately
then re-weigh to
get the mass of
water.
Ideally, you would
repeat these
measurements
with different
volumes of water.
For ice, you need to weigh it quickly before it
melts. If the ice cubes really are cubes or
rectangul ar pri sms, you mi ght measure
length, width and height, then calculate the
volume.
Typical Results
Liquid water: Mass = 245 g Volume = 250mL
D = m = 245 = 0.98 g/mL
V 250
Ice: Mass = 33 g Volume = 36mL
D = m = 33 = 0.92 g/cm
3
V 36
Note:
When measuri ng vol ume, we normal l y
measure liquids in millilitres (mL) and solids
i n cubi c centi metres (cm
3
). For practi cal
purposes these are equal volumes.
Melting & Boiling Points
Pure water melts at 0
o
C, and boils at 100
o
C, under
normal 1 atmosphere of pressure.
(As you may know, the celsius temperature scale is
based on the m.p. & b.p. of water.)
Under different pressures, or if impure, the m.p.
and b.p. will change. For example, on a high
mountain water boils at a much lower temperature
because of the lower air pressure.
You may have done experiments to find out the
effect of impurities on the boiling point. A common
experiment is to boil water with, and without, an
additive such as salt and measure the boiling
temperature. It will usually be found that the boiling
temperature rises by several degrees with solute
dissolved in it.
Longer Response Questions
Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to
give you an idea of how detailed an answer is
appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.
5. (6 marks)
List 2 important roles of water:
a) in living things.
b) as a factor in weather , climate & geography.
c) as a resource for human civilization.
6. (4 marks)
a) What is meant by saying that water has a
density anomaly ?
b) Explain, in terms of bonding and particle
arrangements, why water has a densi ty
anomaly.
Water i s i mportant i n control l i ng
p)............................ and weather, and is a major
agent of q)................................
For human society, water is a major resource for
dri nki ng, r)........................, washi ng and
s).......................... and i s used for crop
t).................................. in farming. In industry it is
a u).......................... and cleaning and cooling
agent.
Water i s i mportant for generati ng
v)...................................................
At normal atmospheric pressure, pure water
melts at w).........
o
C and boils at x)..........
o
C. Its
density is y)...............g/mL, but (very unusually)
the densi ty of i ce i s z)..........................
(more/less) than liquid water. This is because in
the l i qui d, the mol ecul es actual l y get
aa)............................ to each other than when
ri gi dl y l i ned up i n the mol ecul ar
ab)............................. of ice.
5
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
In the atmosphere, water i s present as
a)............................. and as tiny liquid droplets in
the b)........................... In the lithosphere, water
makes up about c)..........% of sol i d rock,
embedded as part of the d)................... structure
of many minerals. The e)........................................
is almost 100% water, most of it liquid in the
f)...................., but some as solid ice in the polar
g).................. and glaciers. In living things, water
makes up about h)......% of every living cell.
Water is essential to all living things because it
is the i)............................ for all the chemicals of
l i fe and i t i s i nvol ved i n many i mportant
j)......................................... Water k).......................
substances around the body and it l)....................
and ............................. body organs.
Water is a m)............................. for many plants &
animals to live in. Water environments have
very n).......................... temperatures, because of
waters ability to o)......................... ......................
without much temperature change.
Practice Problems on Density
Use D = m/V
1. Complete the table of values
Sample Mass Volume Density
(g) (mL or cm
3
)
A 150 17 (a).............
B 22 18 (b).............
C 65 (c)............. 13.5
D 210 290 (d).............
E (e)............. 85 3.1
F 6.8 f)............... 1.2
2. a) Which 2 samples in the table might be the
same substance? Explain your answer.
b) Which substance in the table would float in
water? Explain.
Multiple Choice
3. The water content of the lithosphere is mainly
in the form of
A. water vapour
B. liquid water
C. solid ice
D. water of crystallisation in minerals
4. The density anomaly of water is that:
A. the density of ice is higher than liquid water.
B. the density of water is exactly 1.00 g/mL.
C. ice floats in water.
D. waters density is extremely high.
Worksheet 1 Water: Importance & Basic Properties
Fill in the blank spaces Student Name..........................................
Worksheet 2 Practice Questions & Test Questions section 1
Student Name..........................................
Water the Weirdo!
We are so familiar with the everyday properties
of water that we do not realize how unusual and
strange water i s, unti l we make a careful
comparison with other, similar compounds.
Some of these properties will be studied in this
topic, but heres a preview:
The Strange Properties of Water
Abnormally high m.p. and b.p.
Abnormally high viscosity and surface tension
Abnormally high Heat Capacity
Unusual Density anomaly (already described)
... when compared to similar sized molecules.
Why? Its all a matter of bonding...
Bonding in Molecular
Compounds of Hydrogen
To understand water, we need to compare it to
other, si mi l ar si zed, coval ent mol ecul es
containing hydrogen:
Methane CH
4
Structural formula
Lewis Formula
The Lewis Formula, and the structural formula,
would suggest that the molecule is a flat, box-
shape. However, the pairs of electrons in each
covalent bond always try to get as far away from
each other as possible, and in 3-dimensions this
results in a tetrahedron shape (a regular, triangular
pyramid with 4 points as far apart as possible).
Each point of a tetrahedron is
as far away from the other 3
as it can get.
In the methane molecule,
each covalent bond (and
therefore each hydrogen
atom) is as far away from
the other 3 as it
can get.
Ammonia NH
3
Structural
formula
Lewis Formula
In this molecule, the 4 pairs of electrons
surrounding the nitrogen atom are also at the
points of a tetrahedron.
However, one pair is not
involved in a covalent
bond... it is an unbonded
pair , but still occupies a
point of the tetrahedron.
The result is that the ammonia
molecule is a triangular
pyramid shape.
Water H
2
O
Structural
formula
Lewis Formula
In the water molecule there are two
unbonded pairs occupying 2 of the
points of the tetrahedron.
Therefore, the water molecule
is bent. The diagrams
suggest a 90
o
right angle
between the hydrogen atoms, but in
3-D it is more like 105
o
.
Hydrogen sulfide H
2
S
has exactly the same bonding geometry as
water. The central sulfur atom is larger than
oxygen, but otherwise the molecules are very
similar.
Lewis formula
Structural
formula
6
2. STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES OF WATER
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
H
H
H
H C
H
H
H H C
Covalent bonds
(shared pairs of
electrons)
H
H H N
H
H H N
H
H O
H
H S
H
H O
H
H S
7
Comparing the Properties
of These Compounds
The 4 compounds CH
4
, NH
3
, H
2
O and H
2
S are of
comparable size and bonding. Now we compare
their melting and boiling points, and how these
are related to their relative molecular weights .
Compound Molecular m.p. b.p.
Weight (
o
C) (
o
C)
CH
4
16 -183 -162
NH
3
17 -78 -33
H
2
O 18 0 100
H
2
S 34 -86 -60
Usual l y, the m.p.s & b.p.s of comparabl e
substances show a steady increase as the
atomic or molecular weight increases.
This graph shows that both water and ammonia
have unusually high melting and boiling points.
Water especially has values way above those of
comparable molecules.
Why? Whats going on?
In Topic 1 you learned how the properties of
m.p. & b.p. are controlled by the bonding within
substances.
Covalent molecules are held together internally
by strong coval ent bonds ( i ntra-mol ecul ar
bonds ). These however, are not the bonds that
must be overcome to melt or boil the substance.
Its the forces between the molecules ( inter-
molecular bonds ) that must be overcome to
melt or boil a molecular substance.
In water, it these forces are
unusually strong!
Polar Covalent Bonding
To understand water better, you must learn more
about covalent and ionic chemical bonding.
Up to this point, you have seen these types of
bonding as quite different things. Now you must
realize that they are really different degrees of the
same thing.
An analogy might help... Imagine 2 people sharing
some lollies. If both people are very fair about it, and
nei ther domi nates or i nti mi dates the other, the
sharing will be equal:
An ionic bond can be thought of as the lolly-
sharing between a hungry bully and a wimp who
hates lollies:
Now you must learn that there is also a situation
(or a whole heap of situations) in between these
extremes, where the lollies will be shared, but
perhaps not evenly.
Sharing,
but not
evenly.
In chemical bonding, this kind of sharing is
called a Polar Covalent Bond and occurs
when electrons are shared between 2 atoms
with quite different values for Electronegativity.
(This was introduced in Topic 2... revise)
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
15 20 25 30 35
Molecular Weight
M
e
l
t
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t
s

&

B
o
i
l
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t
s

(
o
C
)
-
2
0
0
-
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
CH
4
NH
3
H
2
O
H
2
S
m
e
l
t
i
n
g

p
o
i
n
t
s
b
o
i
l
i
n
g

p
o
i
n
t
s
Graph of m.p. & b.p.
for these compounds
E
x
p
e
c
t
e
d

t
r
e
n
d

l
i
n
e
This is like a pure
covalent bond
where electrons
are shared evenly
My Share Your Share
Bullys Share Wimps Share
Gimme everything I didnt want them
anyway
When electrons are
shared so unequally,
the result is
(+ve) and (-ve) ions
being formed.
A Pure Covalent Bond
occurs when electrons are
shared evenly.
In a Polar Covalent Bond
the sharing is not even.
The electrons are
attracted more to one
atom than the other.
This causes the bond (and perhaps the entire molecule) to
become electrically polarised. The electric charge is not
evenly distributed. One end has a greater concentration of
electrons and has a slight negative charge (), while the
other end becomes slightly positive (+). The Greek letter
delta () is used to denote a small amount of something,
in this case electric charge. The molecule is called a
dipole, meaning it has 2 poles.
+
This is a dipole
It has 2 opposite poles
8
Polar Bonds
Create Inter-Molecular Forces
The charges on each end of a molecular dipole
are only a fraction of the size of the charges on
an ion, but they do cause electrical forces to
occur between nearby molecules.
These forces
are called
Dipole-Dipole
Forces
It is these forces which are the inter-molecular
forces that hold the molecules together in the solid
state. These are the forces which must be overcome
with thermal energy in order for the solid to melt.
These are the forces which determine the m.p. and
b.p. of a molecular substance.
The strength of the dipole-dipole force varies
accordi ng to the degree of pol ari ty of the
covalent bond (how evenly or unevenly the
electrons are being shared) and also varies
according to the shape of the molecule. In some
substances the forces are very weak, in others
quite strong.
The strongest dipole-dipole forces are about 1/3
as strong as a full-scale ionic bond. These occur
whenever hydrogen atoms are bonded to
Oxygen, Nitrogen or Fluorine, and are called...
Hydrogen Bonds
Oxygen, Nitrogen and Fluorine are all small,
strongly electronegative atoms. Hydrogen is
even smal l er, and once the el ectrons are
sucked away from it in the polar bond, the
hydrogen atom is really a naked proton.
The result is an especially strong set of partial
charges, a powerful dipole, and strong inter-
mol ecul ar force, whi ch attracts nearby
mol ecul es to each other. These especi al l y
strong dipole-dipole attractions are called
Hydrogen Bonds .
Hydrogen Bonding in Water
In the water molecule the covalent bonds are
very polar, so the atoms develop especially
large partial charges. Each molecule is a dipole,
and strong inter-molecular Hydrogen Bonds
attracts each molecule to its neighbours.
It is this network of hydrogen bonds that holds
the molecules in a rigid lattice in the solid state.
The Hydrogen Bonding is the reason that ice
has such a high melting point, compared to
other molecules. (Ammonia also has relatively
high m.p. & b.p... same reason!)
Once melted to a liquid, the molecules can move
around, but cling to each other because of the
hydrogen bonds. The molecules even wriggle
closer to each other and the density increases.
To boil water to a gas, the molecules must be
able to totally break free from the hydrogen
bonds. This requires considerable energy, so
water has an unusual l y hi gh boi l i ng poi nt,
compared to other molecules.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
+
+

+
+

+

+

+

+

O, N or F atom
H atom
Polar Covalent Bond
Hydrogen Bond
Intra-molecular
Covalent Bonds
within molecules
Inter-molecular
Hydrogen Bonds
between
molecules
It is the
HYDROGEN BONDING
between water molecules
which explains all of waters
weird and unusual properties
9
As well as the Density Anomaly and the very
high m.p. and b.p., water has other properties
whi ch, compared to other si mi l ar si ze
molecules, are quite extraordinary.
You may have done simple practical work to
demonstrate these:
Surface Tension is a phenomenon where
a liquid acts as if it has a skin at the surface.
In most liquids the effect is small, but water has
a relatively strong surface tension.
Technically, the metal is NOT floating.
The explanation is, as usual, hydrogen bonding.
Water mol ecul es have a network of forces
attracting them to each other. At the surface,
this network of force resists penetration and
can support objects. They will sink if pushed
through the skin .
Surface tension is also the reason that water
forms droplets.
The surface tension network of forces tries to
pull the droplet into a spherical shape. Gravity
often squashes them to form the typi cal
teardrop shape.
Viscosity is another phenomenon you may
have experimented with.
Vi scosi ty i s a measure of how sti cky or
thick a liquid is. Technically it is measured as
the resistance of a liquid to flowing through a
thin tube, but it can be thought of as how easy
or difficult it is for things to move through the
liquid.
You may have dropped
marbles into various liquids
and compared the rates at
which they fell, as a way to
observe viscosity differences.
Liquids like oil are very
viscous, so you may get the
idea that water has a low
viscosity. Yes it has,
compared to oil, but thats not
really a fair comparison.
In fact, when the viscosity of
water is compared to liquids
with similar size molecules,
waters viscosity is very high.
Why?
Its that hydrogen bonding
again...
The hydrogen bonds between
water molecules cause them
to cling to each other, and
make it much more difficult
for a moving object to move
through the liquid.
The high viscosity of water has had a major
impact on the evolution of any aquatic animals
who need to move quickly to catch food or
escape predators.
Fast moving aquatic animals are always
streamlined in shape and equipped with
powerful tails or flippers for propulsion.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
A piece of metal
being supported
on the surface
tension of water
More of Waters Unusual Properties
Beads of dew
in a spiders web
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water
Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science

10
Water has a number of unusual
a)............................... including abnormally high
m.p & b.p. and the density anomaly . These are
all due to the b)................................. between the
molecules.
When an atom has 4 pairs of electrons around it
(as is the case in most covalent molecules) each
pai r tri es to stay c)........................
...................................... as possible. The result is
that each pair lies at one of the points of a
d).................................. This is why methane is a
tetrahedral shaped molecule. In ammonia, the
central e)........................... atom is bonded to 3
f)............................. atoms but al so has an
g)............................ electron pair occupying one
poi nt of the tetrahedron. Therefore, the
molecule is a h)................................. shape. In
water, the oxygen atom has 2 pai rs of
i)........................................ occupying 2 points of
the tetrahedron. This results in the molecule
being j)........................ (shape)
In a pure covalent bond, the electrons are
shared k)............................... An i oni c bond
occurs when the sharing is totally uneven so
that ions form. In between these extremes there
are l ).............................. coval ent bonds i n
which the sharing is m).................................. The
result is that n)............................ electric charges
(denoted by the greek letter ) are produced
on the mol ecul e because of the uneven
distribution of electrons.
The molecule is said to be a o).............................
because it has 2 electric poles.
The small charges on the o)..............................
are not as large as the charge on an ion, but do
create forces of p)............................. between
each mol ecul e and i ts nei ghbours. These
q)................. - .................... forces tend to hold
molecules together. These are the r)..............-
molecular forces which must be overcome for a
substance to change s)...........................
When hydrogen i s bonded to atoms of
t)......................., ....................... or ..........................
the forces are especially strong. These are
called u)................................ Bonds .
Water is such a molecule. The molecules are
strongl y attracted to each other by the
u)............................. bonds. This means that the
m.p. & b.p. are abnormal l y v)..................
compared to similar sized molecules.
Another result of the hydrogen bonding is that
water has a very strong
w)........................................ whi ch acts l i ke a
skin and can support small objects which will
x)............................. if placed under the surface.
Water al so has a rel ati vel y hi gh
y)........................... due to the way the molecules
cling to each other. Because of this, many
aquatic animals are z)........................................ to
allow easier movement through the water.
Worksheet 3 Structure & Bonding in Water
Fill in the blank spaces Student Name..........................................
Worksheet 4 Test Questions section 2
Student Name..........................................
Multiple Choice
1. The compound H
2
Se
can be represented by
the Lewis Formula shown.
The covalent molecule contains 2 unshared pairs of
electrons. You would expect its shape to be:
A. linear
B. tetrahedral
C. triangular pyramid
D. bent
2. Hydrogen Bonds are likely to occur within
substances i n whi ch hydrogen atoms are
bonded to atoms of:
A. oxygen, chlorine and carbon.
B. nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine.
C. sulfur, oxygen and chlorine.
D. fluorine, chlorine and bromine.
3. Water tends to form droplets because of its:
A. high viscosity.
B. high surface tension.
C. density anomaly
D. high boiling point.
H H Se
Longer Response Questions
Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to
give you an idea of how detailed an answer is
appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.
4. (6 marks)
The diagram
represents 2 water
molecules.
a) Add labels to identify:
i) a covalent bond.
ii) a hydrogen bond.
iii) the partial charges (+ , -) on one molecule.
b) Explain what is meant by a polar covalent
bond .
c) Explain how the presence of hydrogen bonds
is responsible for waters relatively high m.p. &
b.p.
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water
Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science

Water as a Solvent
Perhaps the mai n reason that water i s so
important to living things, and in the study of
Chemistry is that it is a great solvent.
This doesnt mean that everything will dissolve
in water... far from it. You may have done
experimental work to try to find any general
rules about which substances will, or will not,
dissolve in water. Generally, it all depends on
the type of bonding within the substance.
Ionic Compounds are (generally) soluble
in water, and all because water molecules are polar.
Ionic compounds are composed of a strong
i oni c crystal l atti ce. It requi res a hi gh
temperature to mel t thi s l atti ce, but water
mol ecul es can di ssol ve the crystal by
surrounding each ion and detaching it from the
lattice.
Notice how the the (+ve) ions are surrounded by
water molecules which are presenting the (-)
end of their dipole to the ion. The (-ve) ions are
surrounded by molecules presenting the (+)
end of the dipole.
With each ion surrounded by dozens of water
molecules, the attraction between the ions is
blanketed and the individual ions can no
longer get close enough to each other for their
charges to bond them together.
An ionic compound in solution is made up of
free moving, separate, hydrated ions.
Covalent Molecular Substances
may, or may not dissolve, in water depending on
their own polar nature, and on how large the
molecules are.
If the solute molecules are themselves polar,
they will generally dissolve, because the water
mol ecul es wi l l surround each mol ecul e,
attracted by dipole-dipole forces.
In the case of ethanol (CH
3
CH
2
OH) (alcohol) the
water molecules form hydrogen bonds with the
ethanol molecules which contain the highly
polar -OH chemical group.
There are many covalent molecules like this,
wi th -NH or -OH groups on the mol ecul e,
including all the alcohols and the sugars
such as sucrose (table sugar).
Small, non-polar covalent molecules such as
iodine (I
2
), oxygen (O
2
) and nitrogen (N
2
) will
dissolve in water, but only in small amounts...
we say they are sparingly soluble . These
molecules do not have any dipole charges to
attract a water mol ecul e and become
hydrated , but they are so small and have such
small dispersion forces holding them to each
other, that they can simply spread out, in small
numbers, among the water molecules.
Larger non-polar molecules will NOT dissolve in
water. They are too large to simply disperse
among the water molecules, and there are no
dipoles for the water molecules to associate
with or form hydrogen bonds.
These substances i ncl ude petrol , oi l s and
waxes, and are often descri bed as
hydrophobic (= water hating/fearing) because
they will not mix with water.
11
3. THE CHEMISTRY OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Na
+
Na
+
Cl
-
Cl
-
Na
+
Na
+
Cl
-
Na
+
Na
+
Cl
-
Na
+
Cl
-
Cl
-
Cl
-
Na
+
Ionic
Lattice
Lattice
disintegrating
Ions hydrated
(surrounded by water
molecules) and taken
into solution
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+

Ethanol CH
3
CH
2
OH
Water molecules form
hydrogen bonds and
hydrate the molecule
so it dissolves
Dispersion Forces
are extremely weak attractive forces that exist
within all substances. Among non-polar molecules
they are the only inter-molecular forces acting to
hold the molecules together. This is why such
substances have very low m.p. & b.p. Knowledge
of how and why these forces arise is
not required for this course.
12
A Special Case to Know About...
Hydrogen Chloride
In the pure state, the compound hydrogen chloride
(HCl) is composed of small polar molecules:
Despite the dipole-dipole attractions, the m.p. &
b.p. are quite low, so pure HCl is a gas at room
temperature.
You would expect that these molecules would
dissolve in water, but they do much more than
just dissolve... they interact so strongly with
water that the molecules ionise and become
separate H
+
and Cl
-
ions.
Hydrogen chloride dissolved in water is, of
course, hydrochloric acid. This is more than just
dissolving in water because the molecule has
ionised... what was a polar covalent bond has
become ionic, due the the influence of the polar
water molecule.
This equation describes the dissolving of HCl
gas to form hydrochloric acid.
Water as a Solvent (continued)
Covalent Network Substances
l i ke the el ements Si l i con and Carbon, and
compounds l i ke si l i con di oxi de Si O
2
(the
mineral silica), are crystal lattices of atoms
bonded together covalently.
Since the bonds are non-polar, or only slightly
polar, water molecules are not attracted, and the
substance will NOT dissolve.
Compounds with Very Large Molecules
Living cells produce many very large molecules,
each containing perhaps tens of thousands of
atoms. Some, like cellulose (in plant cell walls)
contai n many pol ar groups, and water
molecules will be attracted and form hydrogen
bonds. However, the cellulose molecules are
often linked together by their own hydrogen
bonding, and covalent cross-linking , and it is
impossible for the huge molecules to be taken
into solution.
Cellulose is therefore insoluble, but is described
as being hydrophilic (= water loving) because
water will cling to it, wet it and soak into it very
well.
Some protein molecules will dissolve if they
have a folded, globular shape that allows
water molecules to surround them. This is the
case with enzyme proteins, which are dissolved
in the water inside a cell, or in the blood.
Other proteins, like keratin (in hair and skin) are
in long chains that cross-link to others. They will
not dissolve, but are hydrophilic.
Plastics, such as polyethylene, are composed of
huge molecules too. Most are non-polar, and
may be cross-linked with each other. They tend
to be insoluble in water and are generally
hydrophobic.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
+
+
+
+
HCl molecules
Cl
-
+
+
+

+
+
HCl
(g)
molecule
Separate, hydrated ions
Cl
-
(aq)
and H
+
(aq)
HCl
(g)
H
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
(aq) means aqueous.
This is Latin for in water.
In an equation it means
dissolved and hydrated by
water molecules.
Molecules in the
gas state.
Like dissolves like ...
water is polar, so it dissolves:
ionic compounds
polar molecules (unless too large)
very small non-polar molecules (sparingly)
13
Ionic Solutions
When an ionic compound dissolves in water, the crystal
lattice disintegrates and the (+ve) and (-ve) ions become
separately hydrated to form the solution.
The positive (+ve) ions are collectively called
cations . Negative (-ve) ions are anions .
You need to be able to write an equation to
describe the dissolving of any ionic compound.
More examples:
Notice that the equation must balance in terms
of the ratio of the ions. In this case there are 2
nitrate ions for each magnesium ion. Notice
also that the total of (+ve) charges is the same
as the total of (-ve) charges.
Dilute, Concentrated, Saturated
If you dissolved a pinch of salt in a bucket of
water this is a dilute solution, meaning that it
contains very little solute compared to the
amount of solvent.
If you dissolved a heaped spoonful of salt in a glass
of water the solution is concentrated ... it has quite
a lot of solute compared to the amount of solvent.
There is a limit to how much solute can be dissolved
in a given amount of solvent. When this limit is
reached, and the solution contains as much solute as
it can hold, it is said to be saturated .
Different compounds have different solubilities,
and this can change with temperature, but as an
exampl e, at 25
o
C a sal t-water sol uti on i s
saturated when about 36g of salt have dissolved
in each 100mL of water. We say the solubility of
salt is 36 g/100mL, or simply 36 % m/v.
( % m/v means percentage mass to volume
and refers to the measurement of grams (mass)
in 100mL (volume).
This is not the only way we can measure the
concentration of a solution...
the Mole is Back!! (soon)
Dynamic Equilibrium
in a Saturated Solution
If you keep adding and stirring salt into water
until the solution is saturated, you reach a
dynamic equilibrium between the ions still in
an undissolved, solid, crystal lattice, and those
in the solution as separate, hydrated ions.
For si mpl i ci ty i n thi s di agram, the water
molecules have been left out.
Since dissolving and precipitating occur at the
same rate, the concentration of the solution
does not change, and the amount of
undissolved solid remains the same. At the
macroscopic level, it seems that nothing is
happening, but down at the atomic level things
are moving... ions constantly dissolving into
solution and precipitating back out of it again.
This is known as a Dynamic Equilibrium
This double-arrow symbol indicates that the
reaction is occurring in both directions, at the
same rate, in dynamic equilibrium.
Many chemical reactions
reach this state.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Dissolving of sodium chloride:
NaCl
(s)
Na
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
Dissolving of magnesium nitrate:
Mg(NO
3
)
2(s)
Mg
2+
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
Dissolving of aluminium chloride:
Al
2
Cl
3(s)
2Al
3+
(aq)
+ 3Cl
-
(aq)
Undissolved
solid
Ions in a
saturated
solution
Ions dissolve from the lattice into
solution, while dissolved ions leave
the solution and join the lattice
AT THE SAME RATE
Dynamic Equilibrium in a saturated salt solution:
NaCl
(s)
Na
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
This ion
dissolves
This ion
precipitates
WORKSHEET at end of section
14
Precipitation Reactions
Silver nitrate (AgNO
3
) is soluble:
Sodium chloride is soluble:
If you mix these 2 solutions together, you are
really mixing water containing 4 separate ions...
Na
+
, Cl
-
, Ag
+
& NO
3
-
.
However, silver chloride (AgCl) has an extremely
low solubility, so the mixture of ions may contain
Ag
+
ions and Cl
-
ions at concentrations way above
the saturation concentration of AgCl. The ions will
immediately form an ionic crystal lattice and solid
AgCl will precipitate from the solution, until the
correct dynamic equilibrium of solid and solution
is re-established.
This is an ionic equation describing exactly
what happened. On the left is the mixture of ions
that were brought together in the 2 solutions.
The Ag
+
and Cl
-
ions have combined to form
solid AgCl, while the other 2 ions have stayed in
solution, unchanged... they are spectators .
We can leave out the spectators to see the
essential change that occurred:
This is a net ionic equation.
Notice that it is simply the reverse of the
equation for the dissolving of silver chloride.
Ionic equations can be tricky to balance. If
insoluble PbCl
2
is formed by precipitation of ions,
the net ionic equation is:
Notice that 2 Cl
-
ions are needed. If these were
delivered in a sodium chloride solution, then to
balance everything, 2 Na
+
ions must be present in
the full ionic equation.
You may have done experi mental work as
suggested by thi s photo, to di scover any
patterns regarding which ions are often involved
in precipitation reactions, and which mostly stay
in solution.
The resul ts of such experi ments are often
summarised by a list of Solubility Rules . In keeping
with the K.I.S.S. Principle, here is a simplified version:
If you learn these rules you can predict what
will happen when 2 ionic solutions are mixed:
Example 1
Mix solutions of barium hydroxide & potassium
iodide.
Prediction: No reaction. There is no combination
of any of these ions which will form an insoluble
precipitate.
Example 2
Mi x sol uti ons of potassi um carbonate wi th
copper(II) sulfate.
Prediction: A precipitate of copper(II) carbonate
will form.
Net ionic equation:
Cu
+2
(aq)
+ CO
3
2-
(aq)
CuCO
3(s
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
AgNO
3(s)
Ag
+
(aq)
+ NO
3
-
(aq)
NaCl
(s)
Na
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
Precipitation of solid silver chloride:
Na
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
+ Ag
+
(aq)
+ NO
3
-
(aq)
AgCl
(s)
+ Na
+
(aq)
+ NO
3
-
(aq)
Cl
-
(aq)
+ Ag
+
(aq)
AgCl
(s)
2 Cl
-
(aq)
+ Pb
2+
(aq)
PbCl
2(s)
2Na
+
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
+ Pb
2+
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
PbCl
2(s)
+ 2Na
+
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
Ionic
Solutions
in dropper
bottles
Spot-Test
Plate
Solubility Rules
Mostly Soluble (and stay in solution)
Na
+
& K
+
always NO
3
-
always
Cl
-
Br
-
& I
-
(except with Ag
+
& Pb
2+
)
SO
4
2-
(except with Ag
+
Pb
2+
& Ba
2+
)
Mostly Insoluble ( and form precipitates)
CO
3
2-
(except with Na
+
& K
+
)
OH
-
(except with Na
+
K
+
Ba
2+
Ca
2+
)
WORKSHEET at end of section
15
Measuring Concentrations
With the Mole
Earlier, the idea of measuring the concentration
of a solution was introduced. One way to do this
is to measure the mass of solute in each 100mL
of solution (%m/v). However, although this is
fairly common, it is not the standard way to
express or measure concentrations.
The Mole is Back!
For reasons that will become obvious later, the
standard method for measuring concentrations
of solutions is in moles per litre (molL
-1
)
Why Have Different
Concentration Measurements?
Simple: its a matter of convenience, for the particular
task being done.
In an industrial situation it might be required to mix
up a salt solution for pickling olives (for example). To
make it easy and efficient, the instructions might be
1 kg of salt to every 10 litres of water
or some such.
In this case the units of concentration would be
kilograms per litre (kgL
-1
).
In another situation, it might be convenient to use
%m/v.
In Chemistry, it is usually best to measure in molL
-1
( molarity ) because this allows easy conversions of
mass, volumes of gases and volumes of solutions,
when chemical reactions are involved.
Technique For Making Solutions
One important laboratory technique is that of
maki ng up a sol uti on to a requi red
concentration.
The first step is to calculate the mass of solute
required to make the desired solution, as in
Example Problem 2, on the left of this page.
Once thi s exact mass i s wei ghed out, the
technique is:
Note that to make 500mL of solution you do NOT
add 500mL of water. You make the volume of the
sol uti on up to 500mL... yes, there IS a
difference!
Once a solution is prepared this way, other
sol uti ons can be made from i t by taki ng
measured quanti ti es, and di l uti ng them
appropriately.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Concentration = number of moles (of solute)
(of solution) Volume (of solution)
c = n
V
Units of measurement
c in moles per litre (molL
-1
)
n in moles (mol), and remember that n = m
V in litres (L) MM
Example Problem 1
If 12.00g of pure solid NaCl was dissolved in water,
and made up to 250.0mL (0.2500 L) of solution, what
i s the mol ar concentrati on ( mol ari ty ) of the
solution?
Solution:
Step 1. Find the number of moles.
MM(NaCl) = 58.44g
n = m/MM = 12.00/58.44
= 0.2053 mol
Step 2. Calculate concentration.
c = n/V = 0.2053/0.2500
concentration = 0.8214 molL
-1
Example Problem 2
What mass of potassium iodide is required to
prepare 150.0mL (0.1500 L) of solution with a
concentration of 0.2000 molL
-1
?
Step 1.
How many mol es are requi red to get thi s
concentration?
c = n/V so n = cV = 0.2000 x 0.1500
= 0.03000 mol
Step 2. What mass is this? MM(KI) = 166.0g
n = m/MM, so m = n x MM
= 0.03000 x 166.0
mass = 4.980g
Add water to flask to fill it to
the mark.
(Use a dropper to avoid over-
shooting)
Insert stopper & mix well.
Volumetric Flask
WORKSHEET at end of section
Dissolve Solute in a small
amount of (pure) water in a
clean beaker
Carefully transfer solution
into a Volumetric Flask.
Rinse beaker with small
amounts of water & add
washings to flask
16
Diluting
to a Desired Concentration
A common procedure in the Chemistry
laboratory is to have chemical solutions
al ready prepared to a known
concentration, and dilute them to new
concentrations as needed.
To calculate the new concentration, or
to calculate the volume needed to get a
desi red concentrati on, use the
following relationship:
Equipment for Diluting Solutions
You may have done practical work
in the laboratory to learn how to
carry out a dilution.
The required volume (calculated
as in Example Problem 2 on the
left) is measured by pipette and
transferred to a volumetric flask.
Pure water is added to the mark.
These are bulb
pipettes which
measure accurately
a single volume
e.g. 25.00mL
For odd amounts
(like 5.6mL) use a
graduated pipette.
Concentration of Ions in Solution
When an ionic compound dissolves in water the
ionic lattice disintegrates as the individual ions
are hydrated and taken into the solution. What is
the concentration of the individual ions?
If the compound contains ions in a 1:1 ratio this
is a very simple situation. For example, consider
the dissolving of salt, sodium chloride:
NaCl
(s)
Na
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
If the solution has a concentration of (say) 0.5 molL
-1
,
then the concentration of the Na
+
ions is 0.5 molL
-1
and the concentration of the Cl
-
ions is 0.5 molL
-1
as
well.
However, if magnesium chloride (MgCl
2
)dissolves
there are 2 chloride ions for every 1 magnesium ion.
If the concentration of the solution was 0.5 molL
-1
,
then the individual ion concentrations are:
MgCl
2(s)
Mg
2+
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
0.5 molL
-1
0.5 molL
-1
1.0 molL
-1
In a 0.5 molL
-1
solution of aluminium sulfate the
concentrations would be:
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3(s)
2Al
3+
(aq)
+ 3SO
4
2-
(aq)
0.5 molL
-1
1.0 molL
-1
1.5 molL
-1
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
c
1
V
1
= c
2
V
2
(or cV = constant)
c
1
= concentration of original solution, in molL
-1
V
1
= volume of original solution used, in L **
c
2
= concentration of diluted solution, in molL
-1
V
2
= volume of diluted solution made, in L **
** It actually doesnt matter what units you use, so long
as you are consistent throughout the calculation. In
the examples below, volumes are in mL.
Example Problem 1
If 25.00mL of a solution of concentration
0.3750molL
-1
was diluted to a new volume of
500.0mL, what is the concentration of the
diluted solution?
Solution
c
1
V
1
= c
2
V
2
, so c
2
= c
1
V
1
/V
2
= 0.3750 x 25.00/500.0
c
2
= 0.01875 molL
-1
(1.875 x 10
-2
)
Example Problem 2
It is required to make 250.0mL of a solution
with concentration 5.000x10
-3
molL
-1
, from a
stock sol uti on wi th concentrati on
0.2250mol L
-1
. What vol ume of the stock
solution should be measured for dilution?
Solution
c
1
V
1
= c
2
V
2
, so V
1
= c
2
V
2
/c
1
= 5.000x10
-3
x 250.0/0.2250
V
1
= 5.555 mL
(In fact, you would not be able to measure
such a precise volume by pipette. Appropriate
answer is really 5.6 mL)
Bulb Pipettes
Something worth knowing:
In Chemistry, square brackets around a formula is
shorthand for molar concentration of...
e.g. [NaCl] means molar concentration of NaCl
WORKSHEET at end of section
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water
Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science

17
Mass, Volume & Concentration in Precipitation Reactions
Armed with a knowledge of molarity you can now link calculations involving concentration of
solutions to masses and even gas volume quantities.
Example Problem 1
15.00mL of 0.3055 molL
-1
solution of lead(II) nitrate
was treated as follows:
An excess of potassium iodide solution was added,
causing a precipitate. The solid precipitate was
collected by filtration, dried and then weighed.
What substance, and what mass, was collected?
(Note: an excess of something means that the
quantity added was more than enough to ensure a
complete reaction)
Solution
Step 1: use the Solubility Rules to figure out what
substance preci pi tated, then wri te a bal anced
equation for the reaction.
Pb(NO
3
)
2(aq)
+ 2KI
(aq)
PbI
2(s)
+ 2KNO
3(aq)
Step 2: find how many moles of Pb(NO
3
)
2
were
present in the 15mL (0.015 L) of solution.
c = n/V, so n = cV = 0.3055 x 0.01500
n(Pb(NO
3
)
2
) = 4.5825 x 10
-3
mol
Step 3: fi nd how many mol es of PbI
2
were
precipitated.
The balanced equation shows the mole ratio is 1:1,
so n(PbI
2
) = 4.5825 x 10
-3
mol
Step 4: convert moles to mass. MM(PbI
2
) = 461.0g
n = m/MM, so m = n x MM
= 4.5825x10
-3
x 461.0
m(PbI
2
) = 2.113g
Note:
The working above assumes 100% precipitation of
the lead ions. Technically, a small fraction of the
lead ions would stay in the solution, so not quite all
of it would precipitate. However, the solubility of
PbI
2
is very low, so for simplicity (K.I.S.S.) were
assuming complete precipitation.
Example Problem 2
To measure the concentration of salt in a
40.0mL seawater sample, an excess of silver
nitrate solution was added to precipitate all
the chl ori de i ons. The preci pi tate was
collected by filtration, dried and weighed. Its
mass was 2.76g
a) What substance was precipitated?
b) Write a net ionic equation for the reaction.
c) Write a full ionic equation for the reaction.
d) Calculate the number of moles of
precipitate collected.
e) How many moles of chloride ions must
have been in the seawater sample?
f) Calculate the molar concentration of salt in
the seawater.
Solution
a) From Solubility Rules : Silver chloride, AgCl
b) Ag
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
AgCl
(s)
c) Ag
+
(aq)
+ NO
3
-
(aq)
+ Na
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
AgCl
(s)
+ NO
3
-
(aq)
+ Na
+
(aq)
d) n = m/MM MM(AgCl) = 143.35g
= 2.76 / 143.35
n(AgCl) = 0.0193 mol
e) Mole ratio in equation is 1:1
n(Cl
-
) = 0.0193 mol
f) c = n/V
= 0.0193 / 0.040 (40mL = 0.040 L)
c(NaCl) = 0.481 molL
-1
Example Problem 3 A little revision of Topic 2
What volume of hydrogen gas (measured at SLC)
could be produced from the complete reaction of
50.0mL of 1.50 mol L
-1
hydrochl ori c aci d wi th
magnesium?
Solution
As usual, start with a balanced equation:
Mg
(s)
+ 2HCl
(aq)
H
2(g)
+ MgCl
2(aq)
Moles of HCl present in the solution:
c = n/V, so n(HCl) = cV = 1.50 x 0.050 = 0.075 mol
Moles of H
2
: equation shows mole ratio = 2:1
n(H
2
) = 0.075/2 = 0.0375 mol
Volume of H
2
: (remember 1 mole = 24.8 L at SLC)
vol(H
2
) = 0.0375 x 24.8 = 0.930 L (930 mL)
WORKSHEET at end of section
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Write ionic equations (showing states) for the
dissolving of each compound in water.
a) potassium bromide
b) calcium sulfate
c) lithium nitrate
d) magnesium iodide
18
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Worksheet 5 Practice Problems
Ionic Equations for Dissolving Student Name..........................................
Worksheet 6 Practice Problems
Precipitation Reactions Student Name..........................................
e) aluminium nitrate
f) ammonium chloride
g) iron(II) nitrate
h) copper (II) sulfate
i) calcium hydroxide
1. Predicting Precipitates
Use the Solubility Rules to predict the result of
mixing each pair of ionic solutions.
To answer, write No Reaction , or name the
compound which would form a solid precipitate.
a) sodium sulfate & barium nitrate
b) potassium hydroxide & iron(II) chloride
c) calcium sulfate & sodium hydroxide
d) lead(II) nitrate & potassium chloride
e) magnesium bromide & silver nitrate
f) potassium chloride & sodium carbonate
g) sodium carbonate & magnesium chloride
h) copper(II) sulfate & sodium carbonate
i) barium nitrate & copper(II) sulfate
2. Ionic Equations
For each of the combinations in Q1 which would
react to form precipitates:
i) write the full ionic equation, and balance.
ii) write the net ionic equation
1.
What i s the mol ar concentrati on of each
solution? C = n/V
Mass of solute dissolved in Volume of Solution
i) 15.80g of potassium nitrate 0.200 L
ii) 3.66g of copper(II) sulfate 500mL
iii) 127g of sodium chloride 1.50 L
iv) 85.6g of lead(II) nitrate 3,000mL
v) 2.35g of lithium bromide 250mL
2. How many moles of solute are in
i) 2.00 L of a 0.400 molL
-1
solution?
ii) 0.450 L of a 1.25 molL
-1
solution?
iii) 50mL of a 0.025 molL
-1
solution?
iv) 2.00mL of a 0.0035 molL
-1
solution?
v) 0.050 L of a 2.25 molL
-1
solution?
19
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Worksheet 7 Practice Problems
Molarity Calculations Student Name..........................................
Worksheet 8 Practice Problems
Molarity & Mass Calculations Student Name..........................................
1. What is the molarity of a solution if:
i) 2.50 mol is dissolved in 0.750 L of solution?
ii) 0.025 mol is dissolved in 0.050 L of solution?
iii) 0.35 mol is dissolved in 100 mL of solution?
iv) 1.2x10
-3
mol is dissolved in 4.0 L of solution?
v) 0.95 mol is dissolved in 200mL of solution?
2.
What mass of solute is required to make each
solution?
Solute Concentration (molL
-1
) Volume
i) aluminium chloride 0.028 0.050 L
ii) sodium sulfate 0.400 250 mL
iii) calcium hydroxide 3.75x10
-5
2.50 L
iv) potassium bromide 1.50 25.0 mL
v) copper(II) nitrate 0.800 100 mL
1.
What is the concentration of the diluted solution
if:
i) 25.0 mL of 0.100 MolL
-1
solution was diluted to
1.00L?
ii) 5.00 mL of 1.25 MolL
-1
soln. diluted to 100mL?
iii) 2.5 mL of 0.025 MolL
-1
soln diluted to 0.50L?
iv) 8.6 mL of 0.500 MolL
-1
soln diluted to 50mL?
v) 10.0mL of 5.35x10
-3
MolL
-1
sol. diluted to
250mL?
2.
In each case, what vol ume of the stock
sol uti on i s needed to make up the gi ven
volume at the required concentration?
Stock Solution Volume Concentration
(molL
-1
) Required Required (molL
-1
)
i) 1.50 1.00L 0.250
ii) 6.00 100mL 0.500
iii) 0.250 250mL 1.00x10
-4
iv) 0.500 50mL 0.010
v) 0.875 10.0mL 0.500
20
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Worksheet 9 Practice Problems
Diluting Solutions Student Name..........................................
Worksheet 10 Practice Problems
Mass & Conc. in Reactions Student Name..........................................
1.
An excess of sodium sulfate solution was added
to 25.0mL of a 0.500 molL
-1
solution of barium
ni trate. Assumi ng compl ete preci pi tati on,
calculate the mass of dried precipitate which
could be collected.
2.
The same reaction as in (a) was used to analyse
the concentrati on of a sol uti on of sodi um
sulfate. A 10.0mL sample of the solution was
taken, and an excess of barium nitrate solution
was added. The mass of dri ed preci pi tate
collected was 1.27g.
What was the concentration of the sodium
sulfate solution?
3.
A precipitate of silver carbonate was collected
from 50.0mL of 0.500molL
-1
solution of silver
ni trate, by addi ng an excess of potassi um
carbonate solution.
i ) Fi nd the mass of dri ed si l ver carbonate
collected.
ii) (Some Revision!) If this silver carbonate was
heated and decomposed, what mass of silver
metal, and what volume of carbon dioxide gas
(at SLC) would be formed?
Multiple Choice
1. If small, non-polar molecules were mixed with
water, you would expect them to:
A. dissolve, as separate hydrated ions.
B. dissolve, hydrated by hydrogen bonding.
C. dissolve, dispersed at low concentration.
D. not dissolve at all.
2. The correct ionic equation for the dissolving
of solid aluminium chloride is:
A. AlCl
3(s)
AlCl
3(aq)
B. AlCl
3(s)
Al
3+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
C. AlCl
3(s)
Al
3+
(aq)
+ 3Cl
-
(aq)
D. AlCl
3(s)
3Al
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-3
(aq)
3. If solutions of potassium carbonate and calcium
nitrate were mixed together, you would observe:
A. no reaction.
B. a precipitate of potassium nitrate.
C. a precipitate of calcium carbonate.
D. a precipitate of potassium calcide.
4. A saturated solution of lithium bromide is in
the same beaker with solid crystals of lithium
bromide. The concentration of ions in solution
does not change over time because:
A. the rates of dissolving and precipitating
are the same.
B. there can be no further dissolving because
the solution is saturated.
C. all chemical processes have ceased
at equilibrium.
D. the lithium & bromide ions are at
equal concentrations.
5. The number of moles of sodium ions in
500mL of a 2.0 molL
-1
salt solution, is the same
as the number of moles of chloride ions in:
A. 500mL of a 2.0molL
-1
solution of MgCl
2
.
B. 1 L of a 1.0molL
-1
solution of MgCl
2
.
C. 2 L of a 1.0molL
-1
solution of MgCl
2
.
D. 250mL of a 2.0molL
-1
solution of MgCl
2
.
6. To make 2.0 L of potassium bromide solution
to a concentration of 0.1 molL
-1
would required
a mass of KBr closest to:
A. 2 g B. 10g C. 20 g D. 120g
7.
In the process of accurately preparing 250mL of
a solution to a specified concentration, you
would need to accurately:
A. measure 250.0mL by pipette.
B. add water to the mark in a 250mL
volumetric flask.
C. fill a 250mL measuring cylinder.
D. use a 250mL graduated beaker.
Longer Response Questions
Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to
give you an idea of how detailed an answer is
appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.
8. (6 marks)
Write ionic equations to describe:
a) the dissolving of calcium chloride in water.
b) the precipitation of calcium chloride from
water. (For exampl e, i f a sol uti on was
evaporated to dryness)
c) the si tuati on of a saturated sol uti on of
calcium chloride, in contact with solid calcium
chloride.
9. (10 marks)
a) Predict what would happen if solutions of
potassium carbonate and lead(II) nitrate were
mixed together.
b) Write a full ionic equation to describe the
reaction.
c) The l ead(II) ni trate sol uti on had a
concentration of 0.500 molL-1 and 20.0mL was
used. Calculate the mass of precipitate formed.
(Assume complete precipitation, after adding an excess of
potassium carbonate solution.)
d) Write a symbol equation to describe the
decomposition of the dried precipitate, given
that a pure metal is formed, and a mixture of 2
gases.
e) Calculate the total gas volume (measured at
SLC) formed by the decomposi ti on of the
quantity of precipitate formed in part (c).
10. (6 marks)
You have been given the task of preparing
500mL of a solution of potassium iodide (KI)
with a concentration of 0.250 molL
-1
, from the
solid pure chemical.
Describe the steps of the procedure, including
the exact mass you would use, and any points of
technique to ensure accuracy.
21
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Worksheet 11 Test Questions section 3
Student Name..........................................
Temperature, Heat Energy
& Heat Capacity
When heat is added to any substance, what
real l y happens i s that the parti cl es
(atoms/ions/molecules) move faster. In solids
the particles just vibrate more quickly, in liquids
or gases they actually move around faster.
What we measure and understand as temperature
is really a measurement of the average kinetic energy
(movement) of the particles.
Not all particles speed up equally when heat is added:
If you do the same thing to water:
The temperature of the water does not change
much when heat is added.
(Explanation: its those sticky polar molecules
agai n! Water mol ecul es cl i ng to each other by
hydrogen bonding. This means they are hard to
accelerate, and it takes more energy to make them
speed up.)
Specific Heat Capacity is a measure of
how much heat energy (in joules) is required to
change the temperature of 1 gram of a
substance, by 1
o
C.
The units of Heat Capacity are, therefore, joules
per degree per gram (J/
o
C/g)
Comparison of Some Specific Heat Capacities
Substance Heat Capacity (J/
o
C/g)
Water 4.18
Typical Metal 0.3 (approx)
Other Liquid Solvents
Ethanol (alcohol) 2.44
Acetone 2.17
Petrol (mixture) 2.2 (approx)
Note that waters Heat Capacity is
much higher than most other
substances.
This is another of waters weird
and unusual properties.
Measuring Heat Energy Changes
When any substance gains or loses heat, the
amount of heat energy involved depends upon:
the amount of substance. i.e the mass.
the Specific Heat Capacity of that substance.
the temperature change.
22
4. HEAT CAPACITY & CALORIMETRY
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
1000 joules
of
Heat Energy
Temperature rise
about
25
o
C
100 grams of Copper
1000 joules
of
Heat Energy
Temperature rise
about
2
o
C
100 grams of Water
H = - m C T
H = change in heat energy, in joules (J)
m = mass of substance, in grams (g)
C = Specific Heat Capacity, in J/
o
C/g
T = temperature change, in
o
C
Notes
The Greek letter delta () means change in...
Chemical Data Sheets may give Heat Capacities
for1 kilogram of substance instead of 1 gram.
No problem; just divide by 1,000.
Why is there a negative sign??
For techni cal reasons (expl ai ned l ater) i f the
temperature goes up, the energy change i s
considered negative. If temperature drops (negative
temp. ri se), the energy change i s consi dered
positive.
The negative sign in the equation takes care of this.
Example Problem 1
How much energy i s needed to rai se the
temperature of 50.0g of water by 12.0
o
C?
Specific Heat Capacity of water = 4.18 J/
o
C/g
Solution
H = - mCT
= - 50.0 x 4.18 x 12.0
= - 2,508 J
(In this non-chemical situation the (-ve) sign can
really be ignored.
The energy required is 2.51 x 10
3
J (2.51 kJ))
Example Problem 2
If 10,000 J of heat energy was added to 100g of
ethanol (Specific Heat Capacity = 2.44 J/
o
C/g) what
would be the temperature rise?
Solution
Since the temperature will rise, technically the
energy is a negative quantity, so H = - 10,000J
H = - mCT,
so T = H/(-m x C)
= -10,000/(-100 x 2.44)
= 41.0
o
C
i.e. Temp. will rise by 41
o
C
WORKSHEET at end of section
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water
Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science

23
Calorimetry
Calorimetry is a technique used to measure the
energy change occurri ng duri ng chemi cal
processes. The word i s deri ved from the
calorie , a unit for heat energy no longer in
use. The equi pment used to make energy
measurements is called a calorimeter .
(Since we now use joules for our energy unit,
maybe we should call it a joulemeter )
Since many chemical processes occur in water,
and because water has such a high Specific
Heat Capacity (i.e. it can absorb lots of energy
with little temperature change) calorimetry often
uses water as the working fluid or medium
used to absorb the heat energy.
Exothermic Reactions ( Exo = to go out)
are the reactions that produce and release
energy.
The amount of energy involved is the delta-H
for the process, and is measured per mole of the
substance(s) involved. When the chemicals lose
energy, the temperature in a calorimeter rises,
because the energy release heats up the water
i n the cal ori meter. Thi s i s why, when the
temperature ri ses, the energy quanti ty i s
considered negative... the chemicals involved
have LOST this amount of heat energy.
Endothermic Reactions ( Endo = to go in)
are the reactions that absorb energy... those
where you must suppl y energy to make i t
happen.
The delta-H for this change is considered
positive because the chemicals have gained
energy. The temp. change is negative, because
the calorimeter temp. drops.
Simple Laboratory
Calorimeter
Thermometer
measures
temperature change
Copper Beaker
reaction container
Polystyrene body
and lid prevents heat
loss/gain with the
surroundings
Prac. Work: Heat of Solution
You may have carri ed out experi ments to
measure the energy change that occurs when
ionic compounds dissolve in water.
General Method:
Use a calorimeter to measure the temperature
change in a measured mass of water, when a
measured mass of a solid dissolves.
You can then calculate:
the energy change occurring
(for the quantities used) and then
the energy change per gram of solute
and then
the energy change per mole of solute.
Typical Results for dissolving Potassium hydroxide.
Mass of water placed in calorimeter = 100g
Mass of potassium hydroxide dissolved = 4.50g
Initial temperature of water = 21
o
C
Final temperature of solution, after dissolving = 28
o
C
Temperature change, T = 7.0
o
C
Calculations:
H = - mCT
= - (100 + 4.5) x 4.18 x 7.0
= - 3, 058 J for the dissolving of 4.50g
Energy per gram: H = - 3,058/4.50 = -679 J per gram
Energy per mole: MM(KOH) = 56.1g
H = -679 x 56.1 = - 38,100 J per mole
Heat of Solution = - 38.1 kJmol
-1
(exothermic)
Total mass in calorimeter
Solution is mostly water
Reactants
Energy Level
E
n
e
r
g
y

C
o
n
t
e
n
t
Products have
MORE energy
Energy
absorbed by
chemicals
during
reaction
Reactants
Energy Level
E
n
e
r
g
y

C
o
n
t
e
n
t
Products have
LESS energy
Energy
released by
chemicals
during
reaction
= H
negative
= H
positive
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water
Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science

24
Thermal Pollution
Some i ndustri es, especi al l y coal -burni ng or
nuclear power stations produce large amounts
of waste heat.
In some places, these plants are situated beside
lakes or the sea so that the water can be used
for cooling the equipment. Typically, lake water
is pumped through the equipment, then hot
water discharged back into the lake.
This is
thermal
pollution,
and is very
destructive
to aquatic
habitats.
Effect of Extra Heat on Aquatic Life
The main problem is a matter of solubility.
Oxygen, and other gases, are only slightly
soluble in water. Aquatic organisms are totally
dependent on thi s l ow concentrati on of
dissolved gases for their survival.
The problem is, that the solubility of gases
decreases as the temperature rises. If the water
temperature ri ses by as l i ttl e as 5
o
C, the
dissolved oxygen concentration drops by 20%
and fish begin to suffocate.
Not only that, but increased temperatures can
interfer with the normal breeding cycles and
alter the delicate balance between populations
of food plants, disease microbes, parasites, etc.
Habitat destroyed!
Heat of Solution is the common name
for the energy change that occurs when 1 mole
of a solute dissolves in water.
H
sol
is negative if energy is released.
(exothermic: the calorimeter temperature rises)
Examples: soluble hydroxides (e.g. NaOH, KOH)
H
sol
is positive if energy is absorbed.
(endothermic: the calorimeter temperature falls)
Examples: ammonium nitrate (NH
4
NO
3
),
ammonium chloride (NH
4
Cl)
Limitations of Calorimetry
When you use a simple calorimeter to measure an
energy change in the laboratory, there are a number
of assumptions and approximations involved.
It is assumed that the calorimeter itself does not
absorb a significant amount of the heat energy of the
reaction. This source of error is minimised by using
a copper reaction vessel, since the very low Specific
Heat Capacity of copper means it absorbs little
energy.
It is assumed that there is no heat lost or gained
between the calorimeter and the surroundings. This
source of error can be minimised by good heat
insulation of the calorimeter.
It is assumed that the Specific Heat Capacity of the
solution reacting in the calorimeter is the same as
water. i.e. C = 4.18 J/
o
C/g. For many solutions this is
not quite true, but (generally) the error this causes is
very small.
A serious limitation of many calorimetry experiments
in school laboratories is the poor precision of the
usual lab. thermometers. Usually these can only be
read to the nearest 0.5
o
C, and if the temperature
change is only a few degrees, the % error is huge.
Seri ous cal ori metry needs thermometers wi th a
precision of at least 0.1
o
C.
Waters Heat Capacity
& Life on Earth
The fact that water has a remarkably high Specific
Heat Capacity is of enormous significance to weather,
climate and life on Earth.
It means that, on a hot day, the ocean or a lake
can absorb a large amount of energy from the
Sun without much temperature change. The air
and the land may get very hot, but the water
temperature changes very little. In cold weather,
the air and land can get really cold, but the water
changes only a little.
This means that water habitats have very stable
temperatures and do not change much from day
to night, or even summer to winter.
Aquatic
organisms do
not need
complex
temperature
control
mechanisms
because their
habitat remains
quite stable.
More i mportantl y, the oceans absorb and
transport (via ocean currents) huge quantities of
heat from the tropics towards the poles. This
has the effect of cooling the tropical areas and
warming the temperate regions, and generally
evening-out the Earths temperature.
Without water, very little of the Earth would
have l i veabl e temperatures. Wi thout the
moderating effect of water, the tropics would
be too hot for life, and the temperate regions
would be too cold.
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Temperature i s a measure of the
average a)........................... energy of the
particles within a substance. When heat
is added, the particles b)....................
....................
However, some substances requi re
more heat energy than others for the
same temperature change. Thi s
difference is measured by the property
of c)...........................................................
which has units of d)...............................
Water has a very e).............................
(high/low) value.
The amount of heat energy involved in
any change is given by the formula
f).......................................
A g).............................. is a device for
measuring energy changes. Water is
often used as the worki ng fl ui d
because of i ts hi gh h).................
.................... Capacity.
i )............-thermi c changes rel ease
energy, so the temperature i n the
cal ori meter j ).......................... The
chemi cal s i n the reacti on have
k).......................... energy, so the energy
value is considered l)........................ (+/-)
m)..........-thermi c changes absorb
energy, so the temperature i n the
cal ori meter n).......................... The
chemi cal s i n the reacti on have
o)........................ energy, so the energy
value is considered p)...................... (+/-)
The energy change i nvol ved i n
di ssol vi ng a sol uti on i s cal l ed the
q).............................................................
25
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Worksheet 12 Heat Capacity & Calorimetry
Fill in the blank spaces Student Name..........................................
Calorimetry has a number of limitations
and sources of error; the calorimeter
itself may r)....................................... This
error is minimized by using a reaction
container with a very low s)..............
..........................
Heat may be lost or gained between the
calorimeter and the t)...............................
Thi s error i s mi ni mi zed by
u)..................................... the calorimeter.
It is assumed that the reacting solution
has the same v).................
.................................. as water. This is an
approxi mati on, but onl y causes a
w)........................ error.
Experimental error often comes from the
l ack of preci si on of the
x)............................................
Waters very high S.H.C. is of great
si gni fi cance to the Earths
y).......................... and .....................
Water habi tats have very
z)............................. temperatures, and
the ocean currents aa).............................
huge amounts of heat,
ab).............................. the tropi cs and
warmi ng the ac)..............................
regions.
Thermal pol l uti on i s the rel ease of
ad)............................... i nto aquati c
habi tats. Thi s i s destructi ve, mai nl y
because the ae)......................................
of gases (such as af)..........................)
becomes much ag)............................. at
higher temperatures.
WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES
The +/- signs may be ignored in these questions.
1. Calculate the amount of heat energy involved to:
i) heat 50.0g of water from 20
o
C to 50
o
C.
C(water) = 4.18 J/
o
C/g.
ii) cool 400g of water from 95
o
C to 10
o
C.
iii) heat a swimming pool containing 560 tonnes
of water (1 tonne = 1x10
6
gram) from 12
o
C to
28
o
C.
iv) heat 100g of copper (C = 0.39 J/
o
C/g) from
10
o
C to its melting point, 1,085
o
C.
v) cool a 100 kg car engine (steel, C = 0.45
J/
o
C/g) from 120
o
C to 20
o
C.
2. Calculate the Final Temperature
(to the nearest degree) if:
i) 250g of water at 20
o
C absorbs 72,000 J of heat.
ii) 5.00 kJ of energy was extracted from 80.0g of
water at 25
o
C.
iii) 1 L of water (= 1kg mass) at 4
o
C absorbs
10,000J.
iv) a 5.00kg lump of steel at -25
o
C absorbs
20,000J.
v) 20.0g of ethanol (C = 2.44 J/
o
C/g) at 30
o
C
loses 1.2kJ.
26
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Worksheet 13 Practice Problems
Heat Calculations Student Name..........................................
Worksheet 14 Practice Problems
Heat of Solution Student Name..........................................
(+/- sign important!)
1. Find the Molar Heat of Solution
i) When 5.85g of ammonium nitrate dissolved in
100mL of water (100mL water = 100g) in a calorimeter,
the temperature went from 24
o
C to 11
o
C.
ii) 8.42g of sodium carbonate was dissolved in
100mL of water i n a cal ori meter. The
temperature increased by 9.5
o
C.
2. Find the Final Temperature
i) The heat of solution for sodium hydroxide is
listed as H
sol
(NaOH) = -41.6 kJmol
-1
.
If 10.0g of NaOH was dissolved in enough water
to make 250g of solution, what would the final
temperature be? The initial temperature = 18
o
C.
ii) The heat of solution for ammonium chloride
is listed as H
sol
(NH
4
Cl) = +15.2 kJmol
-1
.
If 18.5g of NH
4
Cl was dissolved in 150mL of
water (initially at 22
o
C) what would be the final
temperature?
Multiple Choice
1.
The Speci fi c Heat Capaci ty val ues for 4
substances are shown.
Substance S.H.C.(J/
o
C/g)
A 0.95
B 2.5
C 1.2
D 2.1
Which substance (A, B, C or D) would have the
largest temperature rise, if equal amounts of
heat energy were added to equal masses of
each substance?
2.
An exothermic process is considered to have a
negative value for the energy change, because:
A. the temperature in the reaction container
drops.
B. you need to put energy into the system.
C. it is the opposite of an endothermic change.
D. the chemicals have lost energy in the change.
3.
Thermal Pol l uti on damages ecosystems
mainly because:
A. living things cannot tolerate the
temperature rise.
B. less oxygen can dissolve in warmer water.
C. the extra heat speeds up plant growth.
D. more dirt dissolves in warm water,
so erosion increases.
Longer Response Question
Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to
give you an idea of how detailed an answer is
appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.
4. ( marks)
Using a polystyrene cup as a simple calorimeter,
a student added 50.0mL of water and measured
its temperature to be 18
o
C. She weighed out
4.27g of lithium hydroxide and dissolved it in the
water. The water temperature rose to a
maximum of 45
o
C.
a) Showing all working, calculate the molar Heat
of Sol uti on (i ncl udi ng si gn) for l i thi um
hydroxide.
b) Later, she looked up a Chemical Data Book
and found the accepted value for H
sol
(LiOH).
It was a significantly larger amount of energy
than the experimental results gave.
Suggest 2 reasons why.
27
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Worksheet 15 Test Questions section 4
Student Name..........................................
FOR MAXIMUM MARKS
ALWAYS SHOW
FORMULAS & WORKING,
APPROPRIATE PRECISION & UNITS
IN ALL CHEMICAL PROBLEMS
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water
Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science

28
CONCEPT DIAGRAM ( Mind Map ) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and
remember the concepts and important facts. Practise on this blank version.
WATER
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
29
Answer Section
Worksheet 1
a) water vapour b) clouds
c) 10% d) crystal
e) hydrosphere f) oceans
g) ice caps h) 75%
i) solvent j) biological chemical reactions
k) transports l) supports and cushions
m) habitat n) stable
o) absorb a lot of heat p) climate
q) erosion r) cooking
s) recreation t) irrigation
u) solvent v) hydro-electricity
w) 0
o
C x) 100
o
C
y) 1.00 g/mL z) less
aa) closer ab) lattice
Worksheet 2
1.a) 8.8 g/cm
3
b) 1.2 g/cm
3
c) 4.8 cm
3
d) 0.72 g/cm
3
e) 264g f) 5.7 cm
3
2.
a) Substances B & F, because they have the same
density.
b) Substance D, because density is less than water.
3. D 4. C
5.
a) It is the solvent for life chemicals.
It transports substances in blood.
b) Main agent of erosion.
Ocean currents distribute heat... controls climate.
c) Crop irrigation
Making hydro-electricity
6.
a) For most substances, the solid has a higher
density than the liquid. Water is the opposite.
b) Water ice is a molecular lattice in which the
molecules are held in a regular array by hydrogen
bonding. When ice melts, the molecules can move
around, but the strong hydrogen bonds still act.
Mol ecul es are attracted so strongl y that they
wriggle in even closer to each other than in the
solid lattice arrangement. This results in a smaller
volume, and a higher density.
Worksheet 3
a) properties b) forces/bonding/H-bonds
c) as far apart d) tetrahedron
e) nitrogen f) hydrogen
g) unshared h) pyramid
i) unshared electrons j) bent
k) evenly l) polar
m) uneven n) partial
o) dipole p) attraction
q) dipole-dipole r) inter-
s) state
t) oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine
u) Hydrogen v) high
w) surface tension x) sink
y) viscosity z) streamlined
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Worksheet 4
1. D 2. B 3. B
4. a) diagram labels
b) Polar covalent bond
is formed when a pair of
electrons is shared
unevenly.
c) Hydrogen bonds attract the
molecules to each other very
strongly, so it requires a lot of heat
energy to break up the solid lattice (melting) or to
allow particles to fly freely in the gas state. Hence
the m.p. & b.p. are relatively high.
Worksheet 5
a) KBr
(s)
K
+
(aq)
+ Br
-
(aq)
b) CaSO
4(s)
Ca
2+
(aq)
+ SO
4
2-
(aq)
c) LiNO
3(s)
Li
+
(aq)
+ NO
3
-
(aq)
d) MgI
2(s)
Mg
2+
(aq)
+ 2I
-
(aq)
e) Al(NO
3
)
3(s)
Al
3+
(aq)
+ 3NO
3
-
(aq)
f) NH
4
Cl
(s)
NH
4
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
g) Fe(NO
3
)
2(s)
Fe
2+
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
h) CuSO
4(s)
Cu
2+
(aq)
+ SO
4
2-
(aq)
i) Ca(OH)
2(s)
Ca
2+
(aq)
+ 2OH
-
(aq)
Worksheet 6
1.
a) barium sulfate b) iron(II) hydroxide
c) no reaction d) lead(II) chloride
e) silver bromide f) no reaction
g) magnesium carbonateh) copper(II) carbonate
i) barium sulfate
2.
a) i) 2Na
+
(aq)
+ SO
4
-2
(aq)
+ Ba
+2
(aq)
+2NO
3
-
(aq)
BaSO
4(s)
+ 2Na
+
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
ii) Ba
+2
(aq)
+SO
4
-2
(aq)
BaSO
4(s)
b) i) 2K
+
(aq)
+ 2OH
-
(aq)
+ Fe
+2
(aq)
+2Cl
-
(aq)
Fe(OH)
2(s)
+ 2K
+
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
ii) Fe
+2
(aq)
+ 2OH
-
(aq)
Fe(OH)
2(s)
c) no reaction
d) i) 2K
+
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
+ Pb
+2
(aq)
+2NO
3
-
(aq)
PbCl
2(s)
+ 2K
+
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
ii) Pb
+2
(aq)
+2Cl
-
(aq)
PbCl
2(s)
Covalent
bonds
Hydrogen
bond
+
+

Usage & copying is permitted according to the


Site Licence Conditions only
30
2. i) moles required: n = cV
= 0.028 x 0.050 = 0.0014 mol
mass: m = n x MM MM(AlCl
3
) = 133.33g
= 0.0014 x 133.33 = 0.19g
ii) moles required: n = cV
= 0.400 x 0.250 = 0.100 mol
mass: m = n x MM MM(Na
2
SO
4
) = 142.05g
= 0.100 x 142.05 = 14.2g
iii) moles: n = cV
= 3.75x10
-5
x 2.50 = 9.375x10
-5
mol
mass: m = n x MM MM(Ca(OH)
2
) = 74.096g
= 9.375x10
-5
x 74.096 = 6.95 x10
-3
g
iv) moles: n = cV
= 1.50 x 0.0250 = 0.0375 mol
mass: m = n x MM MM(KBr) = 119.0g
= 0.0375 x 119.0 = 4.46g
v) moles: n = cV
= 0.800 x 0.100 = 0.0800 mol
mass: m = n x MM MM(Cu(NO
3
)
2
) = 187.57g
= 0.0800 x 187.57 = 15.0g
Worksheet 9
1. use c
2
= c
1
V
1
/V
2
in each case.
i) 0.100 x 25.0/1000
c
2
= 0.00250 (2.50x10
-3
) molL
-1
ii) 1.25 x 5.00/100
c
2
= 0.0625 (6.25x10
-2
) molL
-1
iii) 0.025 x 2.5/500
c
2
= 0.000125 (1.25x10
-4
) molL
-1
iv) 0.500 x 8.6/50
c
2
= 0.086 (8.6x10
-2
) molL
-1
v) 5.35x10
-3
x 10.0/250
c
2
= 0.000214 (2.14x10
-4
) molL
-1
2. Use V
1
= c
2
V
2
/c
1
in each case. (all vols in mL)
i) 0.250 x 1000/1.50 V
1
= 167 mL
ii) 0.500 x 100/6.00 V
1
= 8.33 mL
iii) 1.00x10
-4
x 250/0.250 V
1
= 0.100 mL
iv) 0.010 x 50/0.500 V
1
= 1.00 mL
v) 0.500 x 10.0/0.875 V
1
= 5.71 mL
Worksheet 10
(Equations written in molecular form to save space)
1.
Na
2
SO
4(aq)
+Ba(NO
3
)
2(aq)
BaSO
4(s)
+ 2NaNO
3(aq)
n(Ba(NO
3
)
2
) = cV = 0.500 x 0.0250 = 0.0125 mol.
n(BaSO
4
) = 0.0125 mol. (mole ratio 1:1)
m(BaSO
4
) = n x MM MM(BaSO
4
) = 233.37g
= 0.0125 x 233.37
mass BaSO
4
= 2.92g
2.
Na
2
SO
4(aq)
+Ba(NO
3
)
2(aq)
BaSO
4(s)
+ 2NaNO
3(aq)
mass(BaSO
4
) collected = 1.27g MM(BaSO
4
) = 233.37g
n(BaSO
4
) = m/MM = 1.27/233.37 = 0.00544 mol.
n(Na
2
SO
4
) = 0.00544 mol (mole ratio = 1:1)
c(Na
2
SO
4
) = n/V = 0.00544/0.0100 (10mL = 0.01 L)
Concentration Na
2
SO
4
= 0.544 molL
-1
.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Worksheet 6 (cont)
2. (continued)
e) i) Mg
+2
(aq)
+ 2Br
-
(aq)
+ 2Ag
+
(aq)
+2NO
3
-
(aq)
2AgBr
(s)
+ Mg
+2
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
ii) Ag
+
(aq)
+Br
-
(aq)
AgBr
(s)
f) no reaction
g) i) Mg
+2
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
+ 2Na
+
(aq)
+ CO
3
-2
(aq)
MgCO
3(s)
+ 2Na
+
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
ii) Mg
+2
(aq)
+ CO
3
-2
(aq)
MgCO
3(s)
h) i) Cu
+2
(aq)
+ SO
4
-2
(aq)
+ 2Na
+
(aq)
+ CO
3
-2
(aq)
CuCO
3(s)
+ 2Na
+
(aq)
+ SO
4
-2
(aq)
ii) Cu
+2
(aq)
+ CO
3
-2
(aq)
CuCO
3(s)
i) Cu
+2
(aq)
+ SO
4
-2
(aq)
+ Ba
+2
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
BaSO
4(s)
+ Cu
+2
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
ii) Ba
+2
(aq)
+SO
4
-2
(aq)
BaSO
4(s)
Worksheet 7
1. use c = n/V in each case.
i) c = 2.50/0.750 = 3.33 molL
-1
ii) c = 0.025/0.050 = 0.50 molL
-1
iii) c = 0.35/0.100 = 3.5 molL
-1
iv) c = 1.2x10
-3
/4.0 = 3.0x10
-4
molL
-1
v) c = 0.95/0.200 = 4.75 molL
-1
2. use n = cV in each case.
i) n = 0.400 x 2.00 = 0.800 mol
ii) n = 1.25 x 0.450 = 0.563 mol
iii) n = 0.025 x 0.050 = 1.25 x10
-3
mol
iv) n = 0.0035 x 0.00200 = 7.0 x10
-6
mol
v) n = 2.25 x 0.050 = 0.113 mol
Worksheet 8
1. i) n = m/MM MM(KNO
3
) = 101.1g
= 15.80/101.1 = 0.1563 mol
c = n/V
= 0.1563/0.200 = 0.781 molL
-1
ii) n = m/MM MM(CuSO
4
) = 159.62g
= 3.66/159.62 = 0.02293 mol
c = n/V
= 0.02293/0.500 = 0.0459 molL
-1
iii) n = m/MM MM(NaCl) = 58.44g
= 127/58.44 = 2.173 mol
c = n/V
= 2.173/1.50 = 1.45 molL
-1
iv) n = m/MM MM(Pb(NO
3
)
2
) = 331.22g
= 85.6/331.22 = 0.2584 mol
c = n/V
= 0.2584/3.000 = 0.0861 molL
-1
v) n = m/MM MM(LiBr) = 86.841g
= 2.35/86.841 = 0.02706 mol
c = n/V
= 0.02706/0.250 = 0.108 molL
-1
31
Worksheet 12
a) kinetic b) move/vibrate faster
c) Specific Heat Capacityd) J/
o
C/g
e) high f) DH = -mCDT
g) calorimeter h) Specific Heat
i) Exo- j) rises
k) lost l) negative
m) Endo- n) falls
o) gained p) positive
q) Heat of Solution r) absorb heat
s) specific heat capacity t) surroundings
u) insulating v) specific heat capacity
w) minor/very small x) thermometer
y) life forms and climate z) stable
aa) transport ab) cooling
ac) temperate ad) waste heat
ae) solubility af) oxygen
ag) lower
Worksheet 13
1. Simple Heat Calculations
a) Use H = mCT in each case.
i) H = 50.0 x 4.18 x 30 = 6270 J = 6.27 kJ.
ii) H = 400 x 4.18 x 85 = 142,120 J = 142 kJ
iii)H = (560 x 10
6
) x 4.18 x 16 = 3.75 x 10
10
J
iv)H = 100 x 0.39 x 1075 = 41,925 J = 42 kJ
v) H = 100,000 x 0.45 x 100 = 4.5 x10
6
J
2. Use T = H/mC
i) T = 72,000/(250 x 4.18) = 69
o
final T = 89
o
C
ii) T = 5,000/(80.0 x 4.18) = 15
o
final T = 10
o
C
iii)T = 10,000/(1000 x 4.18) = 2
o
final T = 6
o
C
iv)T = 20,000/(5000 x 0.45) = 9
o
final T = -16
o
C
v) T = 1,200/(20.0 x 2.44) = 25
o
final T = 5
o
C
Worksheet 14
1.
i) H = - mCT
= - (100 + 5.85) x 4.18 x (-13)
= +5,752 J for the dissolving of 5.85g
Energy per gram: H = +5752/5.85 = +983 J per gram
Energy per mole: MM(NH
4
NO
3
) = 80.05g
H = +983 x 80.05 = +78,691 J per mole
Heat of Solution = +78.7 kJmol
-1
(endothermic)
ii) H = - mCT
= - (100 + 8.42) x 4.18 x 9.5
= - 4,305 J for the dissolving of 8.42g
Energy per gram: H = - 4,305/8.42 = -511 J per gram
Energy per mole: MM(Na
2
CO
3
) = 106.0g
H = -511 x 106 = - 54,166 J per mole
Heat of Solution = - 54.2 kJmol
-1
(exothermic)
2.
i) H
sol
(NaOH) = -41.6 kJmol
-1
. MM=40.00g
Energy change for 10.0g = -41.6 x 10.0/40.00
= -10.4 kJ = -10,400 J
H = - mCT, so T = H/(-mC)
= -10,400/(- 250 x 4.18)
= + 9.95
o
final temp = 28
o
C (to nearest degree)
ii) H
sol
(NH
4
Cl) = +15.2 kJmol
-1
. MM= 53.49g
Energy change for 18.5g = +15.2 x 18.5/53.49
= +5.257 kJ = +5,257 J
H = - mCT, so T = H/(-mC)
= +5,257/(- (150+18.5) x 4.18)
= - 7.46
o
final temp = 15
o
C (to nearest degree)
Worksheet 10 (cont.)
3. 2AgNO
3(aq)
+ K
2
CO
3(aq)
Ag
2
CO
3(s)
+ 2KNO
3(aq)
i) n(AgNO
3
) = cV = 0.500 x 0.0500 = 0.0250 mol.
n(Ag
2
CO
3
) = 0.0125 mol. (mole ratio 2:1)
m(Ag
2
CO
3
) = n x MM MM(Ag
2
CO
3
) = 275.81g
= 0.0125 x 275.81
mass Ag
2
CO
3
= 3.45g
ii) 2Ag
2
CO
3(s)
4 Ag
(s)
+ 2CO
2(g)
+O
2(g)
from previous part,
moles of Ag
2
CO
3
decomposed = 0.0125 mol.
moles of silver formed = 0.0250 mol (ratio = 2:4)
m(Ag) = n x MM = 0.0250 x 107.9 = 2.70g
moles of CO
2
formed = 0.0125 mol (mole ratio = 2:2)
volume of CO
2
= 0.0125 x 24.8 = 0.310 L (310 mL)
Worksheet 11
1. C 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. C 7. B
8.
a) CaCl
2(s)
Ca
2+
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
b) Ca
2+
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
CaCl
2(s)
c) CaCl
2(s)
Ca
2+
(aq)
+ 2Cl
-
(aq)
9.
a) A precipitate of insoluble lead(II) carbonate would
form.
b) Pb
2+
(aq)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
+ 2K
+
(aq)
+ CO
3
2-
aq)
PbCO
3(s)
+ 2NO
3
-
(aq)
+ 2K
+
(aq)
c) Moles of PbCO
3
: n = cV
= 0.500 x 0.020
= 0.0100 mol.
Mass of PbCO
3
: m = n x MM (MM=267.21g)
= 0.0100 x 267.21
= 2.67 g
d) 2PbCO
3(s)
2Pb
(s)
+ 2CO
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
e) Moles of PbCO
3
decomposed = 0.0100 (from part c)
moles of gases: CO
2
= 0.0100 mol. O
2
= 0.0050 mol.
Total gas moles = 0.0150 mol.
Volume = 0.0150 x 24.8 = 0.372 L (372 mL)
10.
Moles of KI needed:
n = cV = 0.250 x 0.500 = 0.125 mol.
Mass KI needed: m = n x MM MM(KI) = 166.0g
= 0.125 x 166.0
= 20.75g
Procedure: Weigh out the solid and dissolve in pure
water i n a beaker. Transfer l i qui d to a 500mL
volumetric flask. Rinse beaker with several small
amounts of extra water and add washings to flask.
Add water to the 500mL mark, drop-wise near the end.
Insert stopper and invert flask to mix.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
Usage & copying is permitted according to the
Site Licence Conditions only
32
Worksheet 15
1. A 2. D 3. B
4.
a) H = -mCT
= -(50 + 4.27) x 4.18 x 27
= -6,125 J for 4.27g
Heat per gram = -6,125/4.27 = -1,434 J/g
MM(LiOH) = 23.95g
Heat per mole = -1,434 x 23.95 = -34,343 J/mol
H
sol
(LiOH) = -34.3 kJ mol
-1
.
b) The cal ori meter absorbs some of the heat
released, and this has not been included in the
calculation.
Some of the heat released may have been lost to the
surroundings, hence giving a lower measured value.
keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 3 Water


Copyright 2005-2009 keep it simple science
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
FOR MAXIMUM MARKS
ALWAYS SHOW
FORMULAS & WORKING,
APPROPRIATE PRECISION & UNITS
IN ALL CHEMICAL PROBLEMS
NOTICE ANY ERRORS?
Our material is carefully proof-read
but were only human
If you notice any errors, please let us know
ABN 54 406 994 557
PO Box 2575
PORT MACQUARIE NSW 2444
(02) 6583 4333 FAX (02) 6583 9467
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
mail@keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep it simple science
Need to contact us?

Topics Available
Year 11-12 Science Courses
Biology
Preliminary Core
Local Ecosystem
Patterns in Nature
Life on Earth
Evolution Aust. Biota
HSC Core
Maintain. a Balance
Blueprint of Life
Search for Better Health
Options
Communication
Genetics:Code Broken?
Chemistry
Preliminary Core
Chemical Earth
Metals
Water
Energy
HSC Core
Production of Materials
Acidic Environment
Chem.Monit.&Mngment
Options
Shipwrecks, Corrosion...
Industrial Chemistry
Earth & Envir.
Science
Preliminary Core
Planet Earth...
Local Environment
Water Issues
Dynamic Earth
HSC Core
Tectonic Impacts
Environs thru Time
Caring for the Country
Option
Introduced Species
Physics
Preliminary Core
World Communicates
Electrical Energy...
Moving About
Cosmic Engine
HSC Core
Space
Motors & Generators
Ideas to Implementation
Options
Quanta to Quarks
Astrophysics
Year 7-8 General Science
Disk Filename Topic Name
01.Energy Energy
02.Forces Forces
03.Matter Solids, Liquids & Gases
04.Mixtures Separating Mixtures
05.Elements Elements & Compounds
06.Cells Living Cells
07.Life Living Things
08.LifeSystems Plant & Animal Systems
09.Astronomy Astronomy
10.Earth The Earth
11.Ecosystems Ecosystems
Year 9-10 General Science
Disk Filename Topic Name
12.Waves Wave Energy (inc. Light)
13.Motion Forces & Motion
14.Electricity Electricity
15.Atoms Atoms & Elements
16.Reactions Compounds & Reactions
17.DNA Cell Division & DNA
18.Evolution Evolution of Life
19.Health Health & Reproduction
20.Universe The Universe
21.EarthScience Earth Science
22.Resources Resources & Technology
Site Licence Conditions
A school (or other recognised educational
institution) may store the disk contents in
multiple computers (or other data retrieval
systems) to facilitate the following usages of
the disk contents:
School staff may print unlimited copies on
paper and/or make unlimited photocopies at
one school and campus only, for use by
students enrolled at that school and campus
only, for non-profit, educational use only.
School staff may use the disk contents to
make audio-visual displays, such as via
computer networks, or by usi ng data
projectors or overhead projectors, at one
school and campus only, for viewing by
students enrolled at that school and campus
only, for non-profit, educational use only.
School staff may allow students enrolled at
that school and campus onl y to obtai n
copies of the disk files and store them in
each students personal computer for non-
profit, educational use only.
IN SUCH CASE, THE SCHOOL
SHOULD MAKE PARTICIPATING
STUDENTS AWARE OF THESE SITE
LICENCE CONDITIONS AND ADVISE
THEM THAT COPYING OF DATA
FILES BY STUDENTS MAY
CONSTITUTE AN ILLEGAL ACT.
In every usage of the disk files, the KISS
l ogo and copyri ght decl arati on must be
included on each page, slide or frame.
Please Respect Our Rights Under Copyright Law
Al l Topi c s Avai l abl e as PHOTOCOPY MASTERS and/or KCi C
Photocopy Masters (PDF files)
Black & White, A4 portrait-orientation
for clear, economical photocopying.
KCiC = Key Concepts in Colour
Full colour, formatted for on-screen study
and data projection. PDF + Powerpoint
Powerpoint is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.