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## RBI Corrosion Calculation Training

T. Illson, S. Abdollah & A. Hilmi 16 th December 2008

### Overview

Natural Gas
&
Glycol
Amine
Condensate
Yes
Algorithm 3
See
Algorithm 2
See
Algorithm 1
See
Dryness factor
Final Theoretical
Inspection Corrosion Rate
Corrosion Rate
Calculation
FINAL CORROSION RATE (Refer Table 1)
No
Material = Other?
Material = Stainless
Steel?
Yes
Material = Carbon
Steel?
Start
Representative Fluid?
Yes
Amine?
 Yes CONTACT CORROSION SPECIALIST

No

No

CORROSION RATE =
0.01 mm/yr

Natural Gas & Condensate Corrosion Measurement

If the product temperature is less than T(scale) then
no correction to the corrosion rate should be made.
log F ( pH ) = 0.13( pH (act ) − pH ( sat ))
log F ( pH ) = 0.32( pH ( sat ) − pH ( act ))
No
Yes
Apply pH
correction
factor
Theoretical Corrosion Rate Calculation
− ⎛ ⎜ 1710 ⎟ ⎞ + 0.671 log(
Natural Gas or
Condensate
Calculate base corrosion rate
(de Waard & Milliam)
Apply scale
factor
Start
If pH(sat) > pH(act),
If pH(sat) < pH(act),
Is water pH
known?
0.6 log fCO
F scale =
T scale
T scale
2400
fCO
6.7 +
2400
⎛ 1 ⎞
V =
log
log
5.8
⎟ − ⎜
) =
⎞ ⎞
⎠ ⎠
2 )
1.6
2 )
T
T
(
)
(
)
1
(
(
Glycol Corrosion Calculation
Start
Based on de Waard & Milliams
equation
Glycol
Glycol correction factor for TEG
(1.2 log
W −
2.4 )
F t =
( )
10
Calculate base corrosion rate
(de Waard & Milliam)
Apply glycol
where
F(t) = reduction factor for TEG
factor
W
= wt% brine in glycol/brine solution
Apply scale
factor
NOTE:
Applicable for glycol above pH6.
Theoretical Corrosion Rate Calculation
Below pH6, detailed calculation required
carried out by subject expert.

### Glycol Corrosion

Corrosion occurs in glycol units for two reasons:

Breakout of acid gas dissolved in the glycol, this leads to conventional CO 2 /H 2 S attack which can be predicted using a modified DeWaard approach

Degradation of the glycol by oxygen contamination or overheating. This forms organic acids which then cause acid attack. This can be detected by monitoring glycol pH.

The following slide shows the theoretical prediction for the first mechanism, if acid attack is suspected then specialist advice should be sought and process changes undertaken.

Amine Corrosion Calculation
Start
Materials - Carbon
Steel?
No
Material = Stainless
Steel?
No
Material = Other?
Yes
Yes
MDEA concentration
Determine corrosion
Determine corrosion
Heat Stable Amine
Salts (HSAS)
Yes
rate using
rate using
Table 3
Table 4
CONTACT
Estimated corrosion rate

### Amine Corrosion

Carbon steel can corrode in gas treatment amines

Amines in themselves are not very corrosive but corrosion rates are increased by:

Contaminants such as heat stable salts, bicines and organic acids

Increases in temperature

Increases in velocity that remove protective films

Increased amine concentration

### Amine Calculation – Table 3

Corrosion Rate (mm/yr)

Acid

Temperature (ºC)

Gas

HSAS

< 87.78

87.78 - 98.89

99.44 - 110.00

110.56 - 121.11

Velocity (m/s)

251.67 - 132.22

> 132.22

(mol/mol)

(wt %)

6.096

> 6.096

6.096

> 6.096

6.096

> 6.096

6.096

> 6.096

6.096

> 6.096

6.096

> 6.096

< 0.1

0.5

0.025

0.076

0.025

0.076

0.076

0.254

0.127

0.381

0.254

0.635

0.381

1.016

0.051

0.152

0.051

0.152

0.152

0.508

0.381

1.016

0.508

1.143

0.762

2.032

0.51 - 4.0 > 4.0

0.127

0.254

0.127

0.381

0.381

1.016

0.762

1.524

1.016

2.286

1.524

3.048

Velocity (m/s)

1.524 > 1.5024 1.524 > 1.5024 1.524 > 1.5024 1.524 > 1.5024 1.524 > 1.5024 1.524 > 1.5024

0.1 - 0.2

0.5

0.025

0.076

0.051

0.152

0.127

0.381

0.254

0.762

0.381

1.143

0.508

1.524

0.051

0.152

0.102

0.305

0.254

0.762

0.508

1.524

0.762

2.286

1.016

2.032

0.51 - 4.0 > 4.0

0.127

0.381

0.203

0.635

0.508

1.524

1.016

2.032

1.524

3.048

3.048

3.809

0.21 - 0.3

0.5

0.051

0.152

0.076

0.229

0.178

0.508

0.254

0.762

0.508

1.524

0.635

1.905

0.102

0.254

0.152

0.508

0.381

1.016

0.508

1.269

1.016

2.032

1.269

2.539

0.51 - 4.0 > 4.0

0.203

0.635

0.381

1.143

0.762

1.524

1.016

2.032

2.032

3.048

2.539

3.809

0.31 - 0.4

0.5

0.051

0.152

0.102

0.254

0.178

0.508

0.381

1.016

0.635

1.778

0.762

2.032

0.102

0.254

0.203

0.635

0.381

1.143

0.762

1.524

1.269

2.539

2.539

3.809

0.51 - 4.0 > 4.0

0.203

0.635

0.381

1.016

0.889

1.778

1.524

2.539

2.539

3.556

3.809

4.572

0.41 - 0.5

0.5

0.076

0.229

0.127

0.381

0.254

0.762

0.381

1.143

0.889

1.778

1.143

0.254

0.152

0.381

0.254

0.762

0.508

1.524

1.143

2.286

1.778

3.302

2.286

3.809

0.51 - 4.0 > 4.0

0.254

0.762

0.508

1.016

1.016

2.032

2.286

3.048

3.048

3.809

3.809

4.572

0.51 - 0.6

0.5

0.076

0.229

0.178

0.508

0.254

0.762

0.635

1.905

1.016

2.539

1.269

3.048

0.152

0.508

0.381

1.143

0.508

1.524

1.269

2.539

2.032

3.556

2.539

3.809

0.51 - 4.0 > 4.0

0.254

0.762

0.762

1.524

1.143

2.286

2.539

3.809

3.556

4.572

4.063

5.078

0.61 - 0.7

0.5

0.102

0.254

0.229

0.762

0.381

1.016

0.762

2.539

1.269

3.048

1.524

3.809

0.203

0.381

0.508

1.016

0.762

1.524

1.524

2.539

2.286

3.556

2.539

3.809

0.51 - 4.0 > 4.0

0.381

0.889

1.016

2.032

1.524

2.539

2.539

3.809

3.556

4.572

4.063

5.078

> 0.7

0.5

0.127

0.381

0.254

0.762

0.508

1.524

1.016

2.539

1.524

3.048

1.778

3.809

0.254

0.762

0.508

1.524

1.016

2.032

1.778

3.048

2.539

3.809

3.048

3.809

0.51 - 4.0 > 4.0

0.508

1.143

1.016

2.032

1.524

2.539

2.539

3.809

3.809

4.572

4.317

5.588

### Amine – Table 4

Temperature ºC

(mol/mol)

148.89

<0.1

0.00254

0.1 - 0.2

0.00254

0.21

- 0.3

0.00254

0.31

- 0.4

0.00508

0.41

- 0.5

0.00508

0.51

- 0.6

0.00762

0.61

- 0.7

0.01016

> 0.7

0.01270

Estimated Corrosion Rates (mm/yr) for Stainless Steel for all Amines

Corrosion in deadlegs can be different from active pipe

systems Require active monitoring (thickness monitoring locations

– TML) Prime location for corrosion in oil or condensate systems

Location

Factor

Condensate system

0.33

Amine system

1.00

Dry hydrocarbon gas systems

0.10

Wet hydrocarbon gas systems

1.33

Glycol service

1.00

### Stress Corrosion Cracking

Three factors needed for stress corrosion cracking

Susceptible material

Tensile stress (may be residual)

Corrosive environment

Remove any of the factors and cracking will not occur

Three types

Active path dissolution where corrosion follows a line of susceptibility typically a grain boundary

Film induced cleavage (amine cracking) where cracks occur in a passive film, corrosion occurs at the crack tip – directed corrosion

Hydrogen embrittlement (SSC) – hydrogen atoms dissolve in the metal reducing its tensile strength and fracture toughness – cracks then initiate at defects

### Wet Hydrogen Cracking

Natural Gas /
Condensate / Amine
H 2 S ?
Material =
Yes
No
NACE?
Yes
MEDIUM
HIGH

No

LOW

Different types – hydrogen blistering, hydrogen induced cracking, stress oriented hydrogen induced cracking, SSC

Based on ISO 15616-2

### Amine Cracking

Carbon Steel / Amine
> 60 degC

Cracking of steels under combined tensile stress + aqueous alkanolamine

systems

Factors include

Yes
PWHT?

temperature & PWHT

No

Based on API RP 945

Yes

LOW

HIGH