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CHAPTER 2

WATER QUALITY

Water Quality Standards


and
Parameters

1
Content
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
i) Beneficial Water Use
ii) Water Resources

PART 2:WATER QUALITY


i) Definition
ii) Objectives
iii) Water Quality Parameters

PART 3: WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS


i) Physical
ii) Chemical
iii) Microbiological

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PART 1
INTRODUCTION

(i) Beneficial Water Use


(ii) Water Resources

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Beneficial Water Uses

• Municipal Uses
• Agricultural Uses
• Industrial Uses
• Rural Uses

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Water Resources
1. Snow / Rain
2. Surface Water
(i) Watershed Management
(ii) Lake /River /Reservoir
(iii) Intake Structure
(iv) Pump
(v) Treatment Facilities

5
Cont8.
3. Imported water
(i) Transmission Pipeline
(ii) Treatment Facilities
4.Groundwater
(i) Basin Management
– Natural and artificial recharge
– Quality Control

(ii) Wells

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PART 2
Water Quality

i) Definition
ii) Objective
iii) Water quality parameters

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Water Quality Definition

Is the technical term that is based


upon the characteristics of water in
relation to guideline values of what is
suitable for human consumption and
for all usual domestic purpose

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Objective of Water Quality

To control the discharge of


pollutants so that water quality is
not degraded to an unacceptable
extent below the natural
background level

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Water Quality Parameters

• Are the natural and man-made


chemical, biological and
microbiological characteristics of
rivers, lakes and groundwater.
• It provides important information
about the health of a water body.

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Water Quality Parameters
• Are used to find out if the quality
water is good enough for drinking
water, recreation, irrigation and
aquatic life.
• These include chemical, physical
and biological parameters

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PART 3
WATER QUALITY
PARAMETERS

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Water Quality Parameters

1. Physical 2. Chemical
parameters parameters

3. Biological
parameters

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Physical Parameters
• This parameters respond to the sense of
sight, touch, taste or smell

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• Total Solids (TS)
• TSS (Total Suspended Solids - TSS)
• Dissolved Solids (DS)
• Volatile Solids (VS)
• Volatile Disolved Solids (VDS)
• Unit: mg/l

15
16
Classification of Solids in Water
and Wastewater
Suspended (> 1mm)

Solids Colloid (1mm – 0.01mm)


Dissolved (<0.01mm)

Organic

Solids
Inorganic

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Filterable
Solids
Non-filterable

Settleable
Solids
Non-settleable

Volatile
Solids
Non-Volatile

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• Suspended solids (SS)
– SS contain
• Organic matters
–Plant Fibers
–Biological Solids
• Inorganic matters
–Clay (size less than 2 µm)
–Silt (size 2-60 µm)

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Determination of
Suspended Solids

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Analysis of Solids
• The following test were obtained for a wastewater taken from a headwork
to a WTP. All the test were performed using sample size of 50 mL.
Determine the concentration of total solids (TS), total volatile solids (TVS),
suspende solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total dissolved
solids (TDS) and volatile dissolved solids.
• Data:
Tare mass of evaporating dish = 53.5433 g
Mass of evaporating dish + residue after evaporation at 105oC =53.5794 g
Mass of evaporating dish + residue after ignition at 550oC = 53.5625 g
Tare mass of Whatman GF/C filter after drying at 105oC = 1.5433 g
Mass of Whatman GF/C filter + residue after drying at 105oC = 1.5554 g
Mass of Whatman GF/C filter + residue after ignition at 550oC = 1.5476 g

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• Caused by foreign matters such as organics compounds,
inorganic salts, bacteria, algae and dissolved gases
• Measurement: Threshold Odor Number (TON)
• Examples:
(i) addition of ammonia in the pipes
(ii)excessive manganese & iron present in the finished
water.
** manganese & iron often found in groundwater
supplies where the overall quality of the water is good but
there is a high amount of soluble salt. These metals then
react with O2 in the distribution system to produced the
reduced and insoluble form of the metal**

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• Taste problems relating to water
could be indicators of changes in
water sources or treatment process
• Inorganic compound such as
magnesium, calcium, sodium, copper,
iron and zinc are generally detected
by taste of water.

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• It is due to the presence of dissolved and
suspended matter (metallic ions, chemical
pollutants, plankton and plant pigments from
humus and peat).
• These substance do not threaten stream
water quality, but indicate INCREASED
DEVELOPMENT in watershed.

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• Dissolved organic material from
humic substances generally lend a
brown or ‘tea’ color to water
• Dissolved organic material from
vegetation and certain inorganic
matter may cause color in water

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• Is a measure of the amount of particulate
matter that is suspended in water.
• Unit-NTU (Nephlometric Turbidity Unit)
• Water that has HIGH turbidity appears
CLOUDY/ OPAQUE.
• HIGH turbidity can cause INCREASED of
water TEMPERATURE and DECREASED
DO

WHY???

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It is because8
• More suspended particles will absorb
more heat which in turn lowers dissolved
O2 levels.
• Such particles (SS – clay, silt, finely
divided organic material, plankton) can
also prevent sunlight from reaching plants
below surface hence DECREASE the rate
of PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
• So, LESS O2 is produced by plant
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• It is a major factor in determining which
species are present in the stream
• Temperature will impacts:
(i) the rates of metabolism and growth of
aquatic organism
(ii) rate of plant photosynthesis
(iii) solubility of O2 in water[0°C,
DO = 14.6 mg/l; 20°C, DO = 9.1 mg/l]
(iv) organism’s sensitivity to disease,
parasites and toxic materials
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• Cool water tastes better
• Temperature affects rate of chemical
and microbiological reactions
• The most suitable drinking waters are
consistently cool and do not have
temperature fluctuations of more than
a few degrees
• Groundwater and surface water from
mountain area generally meet these
criteria

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CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
pH Hardness Dissolved Oxygen
(DO)
Alkalinity

Nitrites and Nitrates


Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (BOD)
Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD)
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Chemical Parameters
• pH
pH
• It is a measure of the concentration of
hydrogen ions
• The term pH was derived from the
manner in which the hydrogen ion
concentration is calculated
• pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7
is considered to be neutral.
• Substances with pH of less than 7 are
acidic; substances with pH greater than
7 are basic
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pH
pH Continues ..

• Affects chemical and


biological reactions
• Low pH is corrosive
• High pH cause deposits

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pH Continues..
• Example 1
Calculate the concentration of hydrogen ion (H+) for a water sample with pH
of 10.
pH = -log [H+]
10 = -log [H+]
Therefore, [H+]= antilog -10
= 10-10 mol/liter
Example 2
Calculate the pH value of a water sample which has hydrogen ion
concentration of 1 x 10-6.4 mol/liter.
pH = -log [H+]
= -log (1 x 10-6.4)
= -[log 1 + log 10-6.4]
= -[0 + (-6.4)log 10]
= 6.4 34
Work Example
• Find the Hydrogen ion
concentration and the
hydroxide ion concentration in
tomato juice having a pH of 4.1.

• Concentration unit – mol/L then


mg/L

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Solution
pH = -log [H+]
4.1 = -log [H+]
Therefore, [H+] = antilog -4.1
= 10-4.1 mol/L
pH + pOH = 14
pOH = 14-4.1 = 9.9
pOH = -log [OH-]
9.9 = -log [OH-]
Therefore, OH-] = antilog -9.9
= 10-9.9 mol/L

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Conversionof Unit:
• Mol/L to mg/L
–H+ == atomic weight = 1 g/mol
–OH- == atomic weight = 17
g/mol

–Mol/L (conc. ) x g/mol (atomic


wt) x 1000mg/1g = mg/L
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Hardness
- Stream water hardness is the total
concentration of cations, specifically
calcium (Ca2+ ),magnesium (Mg2+), iron
(Fe2+), manganese (Mn2+) in the water.
- Water rich in these cations is said to be
‘hard’. Stream water hardness reflects
the geology of the catchment area.
- Sometimes it also provides a measure
of the influence of human activity
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Hardness
• For instance, acid mine drainage
often results in the release of iron into
a stream. The iron produces
extraordinarily high hardness is a
useful water quality indicator.
• Hardness is a reflection of the amount
of calcium and magnesium entering
the stream through the weathering of
rock such as limestone (CaCO3).

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Carbonate hardness
• Source: Combination of Ca and Mg
ions with ions of CO32-, or HCO3-.
• These carbonate components can be
eliminated by softening methods such
as boiling, or by adding lime
• When the carbonate components
settled then the water have become
soft water.

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Carbonate hardness

Ca 2+ Mg 2+ + HCO3- CO32-

Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 Mg(HCO3)2 MgCO3

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Noncarbonate Hardness
• Source: Combinations of Ca and Mg ions with ions of Cl-, SO42-,
or NO3-.
• The non-carbonate ions cannot be eliminated by ordinary softening
methods as done on carbonate hardness.
• Usually elimination of non carbonate hardness is done chemically by
adding softening soda (soda ash or sodium carbonate)
• Total hardness is measured in mg/L CaCO3:
Mg/L material X = Conc. of X (mg/L) × (50 mg CaCO3/meq)
as CaCO3 (Equivalent wt of X (mg/meq))

• Total Hardness as CaCO3 :


Total Hardness = Ca2+ + Mg2+

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Noncarbonate Hardness

Ca 2+ Mg 2+ + Cl- SO42- NO3-

Ca(NO3)2 MgCl2 MgSO4 Mg(NO3)2


CaCl2 CaSO4

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Keliatan Bukan Karbonat
(Noncarbonate hardness)

• Keliatan air dinyatakan dalam unit CaCO3 setara.


• Pengkelasan keliatan:
– Lembut (soft) 50mg/l CaCO3 setara
– Sederhana keras
(moderately hard) 50-150mg/l CaCO3 setara
– Keras (hard) 150-300 mg/l CaCO3 setara
– Sangat keras (very hard) >300 mg/l CaCO3 setara

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Calculation of Water Hardness
• Find the equivalent weight (EW) of each of the following:
Ca2+, CO32-, CaCO3.
Solution:
Equivalent weight was defined as

EW = atomic or molecular weight / n (valence)


units: grams/equivalent (g/eq) or milligrams/milliequivalent (mg/meq)

For calcium, n=2 (valence or oxidation state in water).


Atomic weight = 40.08, therefore the EW is then
EW = 40.08/2 = 20.04 g/eq or mg/meq

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Cont..
For carbonate ion (CO32-), the oxidation state of 2- is
used for n since the base CO32- can potentially
accept 2 H+. The molecular weight is 60.01.
Therefore,
EW = 60.01/2 = 30 g/eq or mg/meq

In CaCO3, n=2 since it would take 2H+ to replace the


cation (Ca2+) to form carbonic acid, H2CO3. the MW
is 100.
Therefore,
EW = 100/2 = 50 g/eq or mg/meq

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Calculation of water hardness
• A sample of groundwater has 100 mg/L of Ca2+ and 10
mg/L of Mg2+. Express it hardness in unit of mg/L as
CaCO3.
Solution:
recalled: Mg/L of X = concentration of X (mg/L) × (50 mg CaCO3/meq)
as CaCO3 (equivalent weight of X (mg/meq))

1. Convert Ca2+ and Mg2+ to mg/L as CaCO3


Ca2+ : MW = 40, n=2, EW=40/2 = 20 g/eq or mg/meq
Mg2+ : MW = 24.3, n=2, EW=24.3/2 = 12.2 g/eq or mg/meq

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Cont..

• Now, find the mg/L as CaCO3 of cations


– Ca2+ = 100 (50/20) = 250
– Mg2+ = 10 (50/12.2) = 41
Total Carbonate Hardness = Ca2+ + Mg2+
= 250 + 41
= 291 mg/L as CaCO3

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Alkalinity
• Is measured to determine the ability of a
stream to resist changes in pH.
• Alkalinity results from the dissolution of
calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from limestone
bedrock which is eroded during the natural
processes of weathering
• Alkalinity values of 20 -200 ppm are common
in freshwater ecosystems. Alkalinity levels
below 10 ppm indicate poorly buffered
streams.
• These stream are the least capable of
resisting changes in pH, therefore they are
most susceptible to problems which occur as
a result of acidic pollutants

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Kealkalian (Alkalinity)
• Mengukur kebolehan air menyerap (absorbs) ion
Hidrogen tanpa melibatkan perubahan pH yang
ketara.
• Jadi, kealkalian adalah ukuran kapasiti penimbal
(buffer capacity) bagi air.
• spesies Karbonat yang menyumbang kepada
alkaliniti adalah:
– Hydroksil (OH-), Ion Karbonat (CO32-), Ion
Bikarbonat (HCO3-),

Alkalinity (mol/L) = [HCO3-] + 2[CO32-] + [OH-] – [H+]


Alkalinity (mg/L as CaCO3) = (HCO3-) + (CO32-) +
(OH-) – (H+)
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Nitrates, Nitrites and
Ammonia
• Nitrogen is an essential nutrient that is
required by all plants and animals for the
formation of amino acids.
• In its molecular form, nitrogen cannot be used
by most aquatic plants, therefore it must be
converted to another form.
• One such form is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia
may be taken up by plants or oxidized by
bacteria into nitrate (NO3) or nitrite (NO2). Of
these two forms, nitrate is usually by the most
important.
• Nitrosomonas Nitrobacter

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Nutrients
• Nitrogen is often the limiting nutrient in
ocean waters and some streams
• Nitrogen can exist in numerous forms, but
nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), ammonia
(NH3) are most commonly measured
• Sources are primarily from fertilizers and
acid deposition

52
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(BOD)
• It is a measure of the quantity of oxygen
used by microorganisms (eg.aerobic
bacteria) in the oxidation of organic matter.
• In other words: BOD measures the change
in dissolved oxygen concentration caused
by the microorganisms as they degrade the
organic matter.
• High BOD is an indication of poor water
quality

53
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(BOD)

BOD bottles

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Biochemical Oxygen
Demand Measurement
• Take sample of waste; dilute with
oxygen saturated water; add nutrients
and microorganisms (seed)
• Measure dissolved oxygen (DO) levels over 5
days
• Temperature 20° C
• In dark (prevents algae from growing)
• Final DO concentration must be > 2 mg/L
• Need at least 2 mg/L change in DO over 5 days

55
Example 1
• A BOD test was conducted in the
laboratory using wastewater being
dumped into Lake Spartan. The
samples are prepared by adding 3.00
mL of wastewater to the 300.0 mL BOD
bottles. The bottles are filled to capacity
with seeded dilution water.

56
Example 1: Raw Data
Time Diluted Blank Seeded
(days) sample Sample DO
DO (mg/L) (mg/L)
0 7.95 8.15
1 3.75 8.10
2 3.45 8.05
3 2.75 8.00
4 2.15 7.95
5 1.80 7.90

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Example 1: Calculations
• What is the BOD5 of the sample?
[(DOi − DO f ) - (B i − B f )(1 − P)]
BODm =
P
P = dilution factor = volume sample/ total volume
B i , B f = initial and final DO concentrations of the
seeded diluted water (blank)
DOi , DO f = initial and final DO concentrations of the
diluted sample
• Plot the BOD with respect to time.

58
Example 1: Time – Concentration Plot
700

600

500
BOD (mg/L)

400

300

200

100

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time (days)
59
Modeling BOD as a First-order Reaction

6
Conc. (mg/L)

5
Organic matter oxidized
4
3
2
1 Organic matter remaining
0
0 10 20 30
time (days)
60
Modeling BOD Reactions
• Assume rate of decomposition of organic
waste is proportional to the waste that is left
in the flask.
dLt
= - kLt
dt
where Lt = amount of oxygen demand left after time t
k = the BOD rate constant (time -1 )
Solving this equation yields :
Lt = Lo e − kt
where Lo is the ultimate carbonaceo us oxygen demand
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Ultimate BOD
6L
o
5 Lo- Lt BOD exerted
Conc. (mg/L)

4
3
BODt
2
Lt
1 L remaining
0
0 10 20 30
time (days)

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Ultimate Biochemical Oxygen
Demand
Lt = amount of O2 demand left in sample at
time, t
Lo = amount of O2 demand left initially (at time 0,
no DO demand has been exerted, so BOD = 0)
At any time, Lo = BODt + Lt (that is the amount
of DO demand used up and the amount
of DO that could be used up eventually)
Assuming that DO depletion is first order
BODt = Lo(1 - e-kt)

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Example 2
• If the BOD5 of a waste is 102 mg/L and the
BOD20 (corresponds to the ultimate BOD) is
158 mg/L, what is k (base e)?

(
BODt = L0 1 − e − kt
)
BOD t − kt
1− =e
L0
 BOD t 
ln1 −  = −kt
 L0 
64
Example 2 (cont)
 BOD t 
− ln1 − 
 L0 
k=
t
 102 mg/L 
− ln1 − 
 158 mg/L 
k=
5 day

k = 0.21 day -1
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Biological Oxygen Demand:
Temperature Dependence
• Temperature dependence of biochemical
oxygen demand
As temperature increases, metabolism
increases, utilization of DO also increases
kt = k20θT-20
θ = 1.135 if T is between 4 - 20 oC
θ = 1.056 if T is between 20 - 30 oC

66
Example 3
The BOD rate constant, k, was determined
empirically to be 0.20 days-1 at 20 oC.
What is k if the temperature of the water
increases to 25 oC?
What is k if the temperature of the water
decreases to 10 oC?

67
Example 3 : Solution

(
k 25 = 0.20 day (1.056)
-1
) 25 − 20

k 25 = 0.26 day -1

(
k10 = 0.20 day (1.135)
-1
) 10 − 20

k10 = 0.056 day -1

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Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand

• So far we have dealt only with


carbonaceous demand (demand to
oxidize carbon compounds)
• Many other compounds, such as
proteins, consume oxygen
• Mechanism of reactions are different

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Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand
• Nitrification (2 step process)
2 NH3 + 3O2 → 2 NO2- + 2H+ + 2H2O
2 NO2- + O2 → 2 NO3-
– Overall reaction:
NH3 + 2O2 → NO3- + H+ + H2O
• Theoretical NBOD =

grams of oxygen used 4 x 16


= = 4.57 g O 2 /g N
grams of nitrogen oxidized 14

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Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand

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Nitrogenous oxygen demand
• Untreated domestic wastewater
ultimate-CBOD = 250 - 350 mg/L
ultimate-NBOD = 70 - 230 mg/L
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) = total
concentration of organic and ammonia
nitrogen in wastewater: 15 - 50 mg/L as N
Ultimate NBOD ≈ 4.57 x TKN

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Other Measures of Oxygen
Demand

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Example 5
• Theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD)
C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 →6 CO2 + 6H2O

If concentration of glucose is 10 mg/L what is the


theoretical oxygen demand (amount of DO
required?)

  
  6 mmol O2  32 mg O 2  
 mg glucose   mmol glucose  mmol O2   mg O 2
 10   = 10 .7
 L  mg glucose L
180 
 mmol glucose 
 
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Chemical Oxygen Demand
• Chemical oxygen demand - similar to BOD
but is determined by using a strong
oxidizing agent to break down chemical
(rather than bacteria)
• Still determines the equivalent amount of
oxygen that would be consumed
• Value usually about 1.25 times BOD

75
Thomas method: Graphical determination of
BOD rate Constants
According to Thomas,
(1-e-kt) = kt (1+kt/6)-3
Therefore
BODt=Lo(1-e-kt)
BODt=Lo(kt)[1+(1/6)kt]-3 .....(1)
• By rearranging terms & taking the cube root of both sides,
equation (1) can transformed to:

(t/BODt)1/3=(kLo)-1/3 + (k)2/3/6(Lo)1/3 (t) ....(2)

• A plot of (t/BODt)1/3 versus t is linear. The intercept is


defined as:

A = (kLo)-1/3 8.(3)

76
Cont..
a slope is defined by:
B = (k)2/3/6(Lo)1/3 8.(4)
y=(t/BOD) 1/3

a m=a/b = (k2/3/6Lo1/3)
b

C =(kLo)-1/3

x=t

• Recalled , y = c + mx

77
Cont..
• Solving Lo1/3 in Eq.(3) substituting into Eq. (4) and solving for k
yields:

k= 6(B/A) 8(5)
• Likewise, substituting Eq. (5) into Eq.(3) and solving for Lo yields:

Lo = 1/6(A)2(B) 8(6)

78
Example of determining BOD rate constant, k
and ultimate BOD, Lo
• The following data were obtained from an experiment to
determine the BOD rate constant and ultimate BOD for an
untreated wastewater:

Time (day) 2 4 6 8 10
BOD (mg/L) 125 200 220 230 237

79
Example of determining BOD rate constant, k
and ultimate BOD, Lo
Solution:
• Calculate values of (t/BODt)1/3 for each day.
Time (day) 2 4 6 8 10
BOD (mg/L) 125 200 220 230 237
(t/BODt)1/3 0.252 0.271 0.301 0.326 0.348

• Plot (t/BODt)1/3 versus t on graph paper and draw the line of


best fit by eye.

80
0.5

0.4

0.3 B= k2/3/6Lo1/3
0.2
=0.0125
A= 0.224
0.1

0
2 4 6 8 10 Time (t)

81
Cont..
• Determine the intercept (A) and slope (B) from the
plot.
A = 0.224
B = (0.348-0.224)/(10-0)
= 0.0124
• Calculate k and Lo using the following formula

k = 6 (B/A) Lo = 1/ 6(A)2(B)
82
Cont..
• Therefore:
k= 6(B/A)
= 6(0.0125/0.224)
= 0.335 / day
Lo = 1/6(A)2(B)
= 266 mg/L

83
WATER QUALITY
MEASUREMENT
ThOD – theoretical oxygen demand
(i) It is the amount of O2 required to
oxidize a substance to CO2 and H2O
(ii) Calculated by stoichiometry if the
chemical composition of the substance
is known
(iii) The ThOD of X in mg/L
= (amount of X in mg/L )( MW of O2 in g/
MW of X in g)

84
Example:

• Compute the ThOD of 108.75 mg/L


of glucose (C6H12O6)
• STEPS:
(i) write balanced equation for the
reaction
(ii) Compute the grams molecular
weights of the reactants
(iii) Determine ThOD
BFC 3103
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
85
Example:
The balanced equation for the reaction
C6H12O6 + O2 ⇔ CO2 + H2O
The molecular weights (grams) of the
reactants
Glucose =
Oxygen =
Thus, it takes ? of O2 to oxidize ? g of
glucose to CO2 and H2O.
The ThOD of 108.75 mg/L of glucose is
(108.75 mg/L glucose)( ? g O2/ ? g
glucose) =116 mg/L O2
86
Example:
The balanced equation for the reaction
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ⇔ 6CO2 + 6H2O
The molecular weights (grams) of the reactants
Glucose = 6C=72, 12 H=12, 6O=96, = 180
Oxygen =6(2)O=192
Thus, it takes 192 of O2 to oxidize 180 g of
glucose to CO2 and H2O.
The ThOD of 108.75 mg/L of glucose is
(108.75 mg/L glucose)(192 g O2/180 g glucose)
=116 mg/L O2

87
Exercise
(5.1, 5.2, 5.3-in the text book)

1. Glutamic acid (C5H904N) is used as one of


the reagents for a standard to check the BOD
test. Determine the ThOD of mg/L of glutamic
acid. Assume the following reaction apply:
C5H904N + 4.5O2 5CO2 + 3H2O + NH3
NH3 + 2O2 NO3+ H+ + H2O

88
Pathogenic Organisms
• Many organims that cause human or
animal diseases colonize the instinal tract
but can live for a period of time outside the
body
• Carriers (who may or may not exhibit
disease symptoms) excrete these
intestinal tract organims in very large
numbers
• When water is contaminated by excretia,
the organisms can be transmitted to those
who contact the water
89
Pathogenic Organisms

90
Pathogenic Organisms

91
Classification of Water
Associated Diseases

92
Disease Rates and Risk

93
Biological Parameters
• It is biomonitor: defined as an organism
that provides quantitative information on
the quality of the environmental around
it.
• It can be deduced through the study of
the content of certain elements or
compounds, morphological or cellular
structure, metabolic-biochemical
process behavior or population structure

94
Cont..
• There are several types of bioindicators:
(i) plant indicators
- the presence or absence of certain plant or other
vegetative life in an ecosystem can provide important
clues about the health of the environment
- lichens are organism comprising both fungi and algae.
Lichens are found on rocks and tree trunks, and they
respond to environmental changes in forest, including
changes in forest structure conservation biology, air
quality and climate
- The disappearance of lichens in a forest may indicate
environmental stresses, such as high level of sulfur
dioxide, sulfur-based pollutants and nitrogen oxides

95
Lichens

96
Cont…
(ii) Animal indicator and toxins
- an increase or decrease in an animal
population may indicate damage to the
ecosystem caused by pollutant. For eg; if
population causes the depletion of
important food sources, animal species
dependent upon these food sources will
also be reduced in number: population
decline
- Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV)
provides invaluable benefits to aquatic
ecosystems. It not only provides food and
shelter to fish and invertebrates but also
produces oxygen, trap sediment and
absorbs nutrients such as nitrogen and
phosphorus
97
Cont8
(iii) Microbial indicators and chemical
pollutants
- Microorganisms can be used as
indicators of aquatic or terrestrial
ecosystem health
- Found in large quantities, microorganism
will produce new proteins, called stress
proteins when exposed to contaminants
like cadmium and benzene
- These stress proteins can be used as an
early warning system to detect high
levels of pollution
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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
98
Cont8
(iv) Macroinvertebrate bioindicators
- Macroinvertebrate are useful and
convenient indicators of the ecological
health of a waterbody or river. They are
almost always present, and are easy to
sample and identify
- Benthic refers to the bottom of a
waterway. Example of benthic
macroinvertebrates include insects in
their larval or nymph form, crayfish,
claims, snails and worms. Most live part
or most of their life cycle attached to
submerged rocks, logs and vegetation.
99
Macroinvertebrata

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
100
101
Cont8
- The basic principle behind the
study of macroinvertebrates is that
some are more sensitive to
pollution than others
- Therefore, if a stream site is
inhabited by organism that can
tolerate pollution and the more
pollution-sensitive organisms are
missing a pollution is likely

102
Microbiological

• Bacteria( coliform test)


• Virus
• Protozoa
• Algae

103
Bacteria
• Pathogenic bacteria causing cholera,
typhoid fever etc
• Indicator bacteria
– Coliform
– Fecal Coliform( E. Coli)

104
Virus
• One virus can cause
illness
• Hard to detect
• Specify treatment
process ( disinfection
dose and contact time)
instead of measuring
virus concentration

105
Algae
• Taste and odor
• Some algae could be harmful to animals
– fish
– birds

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
106
EFFECTS ON WATER
QUALITY
1) Toxic inorganic
2) Nontoxic organic
3) Toxic organic

107
Toxic inorganic elements and
radicals
• Arsenic, Mercury, Cadmium,
Chromium, Lead-- accumulates in
body
• Industrial wastes and plumbing
• Nitrate--Blue baby
• Perchlorate ( ClO4-) --Thyroid
disorder, cancer

108
Nontoxic organics
• NOC ( Natural organic matter)
Decayed vegetation etc
• Form toxic disinfection by-products
with chlorine
• Lower concentrations up to 4 mg/l
may be removed by Enhanced
Coagulation.

109
Toxic organics
Causing cancer, mutation or
miscarriage
• chlorinated hydrocarbons
• Chlorophenoxy herbicides
• Trihalomethanes
• VOC’s and SOC’s.

110
Other Contaminants
• Asbestos
• Radionuclides
– Alpha and Beta radioactivity
– Uranium, Radium, Radon

111
Dissolved oxygen (DO)
• It is an essential for the survival of
nearly all aquatic life and measured
in mg/L
• If oxygen levels are high, it was
presume that pollution levels in the
water are low.
• Conversely, if oxygen levels are low,
one can presume there is a high
oxygen demand and that the body of
water is not of optimal health
112
Cont8
• Levels of DO vary depending on factors
including water temperature, time of day,
season, depth, altitude and rate of flow.
(i) water at higher temp and altitudes will have
LESS DO. so, demand O2 will increased
because at higher temp, the rate of
metabolisme is increased.
(ii) at night, DO decreased as photosynthesis
has stopped while oxygen consuming
process such as respiration, oxidation
(iii) DO reaches its peak (HIGH) during the
day

113
DO sag curve
• The concentration of DO in a river is an
indicator of the general health of the river.
• All rivers have CAPACITY for self purification.
(i) As long as the discharge of oxygen
demanding wastes is well within the self
purification capacity, the DO level remain HIGH
and a diverse population of plants and animals
(ii) As the amount of waste increase, the self
purification capacity can be exceeded, causing
detrimental changes in plant and animal life

114
cont….
(iii) then, the stream losses its ability to clean
itself and the DO level DECREASES.
(iv) when the DO drops below 4 to 5 mg/L,
most game fish will have been driven out.
(v) If the DO is completely removed, fish and
other higher animals are killed or driven
(v) The water become blackish and foul
smelling as the sewage and dead animal life
decompose under anaerobic condition
(without O2)

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
115
Dissolved Oxygen Depletion

(From: Environmental Science: A Global Concern, 3rd ed. by W.P


Cunningham and B.W. Saigo, WC Brown Publishers, © 1995)

116
Dissolved Oxygen Sag Curve

117
Mass Balance Approach
• Originally developed by H.W. Streeter and
E.B. Phelps in 1925
• River described as “plug-flow reactor”
• Mass balance is simplified by selection of
system boundaries
• Oxygen is depleted by BOD exertion
• Oxygen is gained through reaeration

118
Steps in Developing the DO
Sag Curve
1. Determine the initial conditions
2. Determine the reaeration rate from stream
geometry
3. Determine the deoxygenation rate from
BOD test and stream geometry
4. Calculate the DO deficit as a function of
time
5. Calculate the time and deficit at the critical
point
119
Selecting System Boundaries

120
Initial Mixing

Qw = waste flow (m3/s)


DOw = DO in waste (mg/L)
Lw = BOD in waste (mg/L)

Qr = river flow (m3/s) Qmix = combined flow (m3/s)


DOr = DO in river (mg/L) DO = mixed DO (mg/L)
Lr = BOD in river (mg/L) La = mixed BOD (mg/L)

121
1. Determine Initial Conditions
a. Initial dissolved oxygen concentration
Qw DOw + Qr DOr
DO =
Qw + Qr
b. Initial dissolved oxygen deficit
D = DOs − DO

where D = DO deficit (mg/L)


DOs = saturation DO conc. (mg/L)
Qw DOw + Qr DOr
Da = DOs −
Qmix
122
1. Determine Initial Conditions
DOsat is a function of temperature. Values
can be found in Table A-2.
c. Initial ultimate BOD concentration
Qw Lw + Qr Lr
La =
Qw + Qr

123
2. Determine Reaeration Rate
a. O’Connor-Dobbins correlation
1/ 2
3.9u
kr = 3/ 2
h
where kr = reaeration coefficient @ 20ºC (day-1)
u = average stream velocity (m/s)
h = average stream depth (m)
b. Correct rate coefficient for stream temperature
T − 20
k r = k r , 20 Θ

where Θ = 1.024
124
Determine the Deoxygenation Rate
a. rate of deoxygenation = kdLt
where kd = deoxygenation rate coefficient
(day-1)
Lt = ultimate BOD remaining at
time (of travel downdstream) t
b. If kd (stream) = k (BOD test)
− kd t
Lt = L0 e

and
rate of deoxygentation = k d L0 e − k d t
125
3. Determine the Deoxygenation Rate

c. However, k = kd only for deep, slow moving


streams. For others,
u
kd = k + η
h
where η = bed activity coefficient (0.1 – 0.6)
d. Correct for temperature
T − 20
k r = k r , 20 Θ
where Θ = 1.135 (4-20ºC) or 1.056 (20-30ºC)

126
4. DO as function of time
• Mass balance on moving element
dD
= k d Lt − k r D
dt
• Solution is

Dt = (
k d La − kd t
kr − kd
) ( )
e − e − kr t + Da e − kr t

127
5. Calculate Critical time and DO
1  kr  k r − k d 
tc = ln  1 − Da 
kr − kd  kd  k d La 

Dc =
kr − ka
e (
k d La − kd tc
−e − k r tc
)
+ Da e − k r tc

128
Example
• A city of 200,000 people discharges 37.0
cfs of treated sewage having an ultimate
BOD of 28.0 mg/L and 1.8 mg/L DO into a
river with a flow of 250 cfs and velocity of
1.2 ft/sec. Upstream of the discharge
point, the river has a BOD of 3.6 mg/L and
a DO of 7.6 mg/L. The saturation DO is
8.5 mg/L, kd = 0.61 day-1, and kr = 0.76
day-1. Determine a) the critical DO and
critical distance, and b) the DO at 10 miles
downstream.
129
1. Determine Initial Conditions
a. Initial dissolved oxygen concentration
Qw DOw + Qr DOr
DO =
Qw + Qr

DO =
(1.8)(37.0) + (7.6)(250)
= 6.85
mg
250 + 37 L
b. Initial dissolved oxygen deficit
D = DOs − DO
mg
Da = 8.5 − 6.85 = 1.6
L
130
1. Determine Initial Conditions
c. Initial ultimate BOD concentration
Qw Lw + Qr Lr
La =
Qw + Qr

La =
(28)(37.0 ) + (3.6 )(250 )
= 6.75
mg
250 + 37 L

131
Step 1. Variations
• Flow given in cfs, not m3/s – does not
matter for mixing calculations
• Saturation DO given – no need to look up
• Ultimate BOD given – no need to calculate
from BOD5

132
2. Determine Reaeration Rate
• kr = 0.76 day-1 given
• no need to calculate from stream
geometry
• assume given value is at the stream
temperature (since not otherwise
specified), so no need to correct

133
3. Determine the Deoxygenation Rate

• kd = 0.61 day-1 given


• no need to calculate corrections from
stream geometry
• assume given value is at the stream
temperature (since not otherwise
specified), so no need to correct

134
5. Calculate Critical time and DO
1  kr  k r − k d 
tc = ln  1 − Da 
kr − kd  kd  k d La 

1  0.76  0.76 − 0.61 


tc = ln  1 − 1.6 
0.76 − 0.61  0.61  (0.61)(6.75) 
tc = 1.07 day

135
5. Calculate Critical time and DO
• Problem asked for critical distance
 ft  s  hr  1 mi 
xc = (1.07 d)1.2  3600  24  
 s  hr  d  5280 ft 
xc = 20.9 mi

136
5. Calculate Critical time and DO
• Minimum DO

Dc =
kr − ka
e (
k d La − kd tc
−e − k r tc
)
+ Da e − k r tc

Dc =
(0.61)(6.75) −(0.61)(1.07 ) −(0.76 )(1.07 )
(e −e )
0.76 − 0.61
− (0.76 )(1.07 )
+ 1.6e
mg
Dc = 2.58
L 137
5. Calculate Critical time and DO
DOc = DOs − Dc
mg
DOc = 8.5 − 2.58 = 5.7
L

138
4. DO as function of time (at 10 miles)

 ft 
(10 mi) 5280 
t10 miles =  mi 
= 0.51 d
 ft  s  hr 
1.2  3600  24 
 s  hr  d

Dc =
(0.61)(6.75) −(0.61)(1.07 ) −(0.76 )(1.07 )
(e −e )
0.76 − 0.61
− (0.76 )(1.07 )
+ 1.6e
139
4. DO as function of time (at 10 miles)

mg
D10 miles = 2.58
L
mg
DO10 miles = 8.5 − 2.58 = 5.9
L

140
141
END

142