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1) When light strikes a flat mirror at a certain angle, predict the path of the

reflected light.
Reflects at the same angle but in the opposite direction
2) When you view your image in a plane mirror, how far behind the mirror
is your image compared with your distance in front of the mirror?
Same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front.
Object distance = image distance.

3) Describe the reflection of light from a rough and a smooth surface.
Rays of light striking this surface encounter many different flat surfaces facing
in all directions so light rays are reflected in many different directions.
Rays of light strike at all the same angle and therefore reflect at all the same

4) How are reflection and refraction alike? How are they different?
occur when waves reach a boundary of a new medium.
involve change in direction of a wave.
reflection occurs when the waves do not go through the new medium
but bounce back, refraction occurs when the wave goes into the new
refraction: waves change in speed
reflection: waves travel at the same speed.

5) What mean Pivot?
Wave pivots occur because of the part of the wave that reaches the new
medium first changes peed while the rest of the wave does not.

6) What are 3 conditions that could cause refraction?
Light waves change speed (refract) when light passes:
from one medium to another
through different temperatures of the same medium
through different densities of the same medium

7) If light had the same speed in air and in water, would light be refracted
in passing from air into water?
No, because refraction is caused by change in speed, so...
No change in speed = no refraction

8) If you can see the face of a friend who is underwater, can she also see
Yes, because the light paths are reversible for reflection and refraction.

9) Explain how a prism separates white light into colors.
Blue light slows down more than red so blue light is bent more than red. When
this happens twice (at the two non-parallel glass surfaces of a prism) the
effect is enough to see the rays dispersed.

10) Describe the sky conditions necessary for a rainbow. Where must you
be to see the rainbow?
The sun must be shining in one part of the sky and water droplets from a
cloud or falling rain in the opposite part of the sky. You must be standing with
your back to the sun.

11) Give 3 specific examples of uses for optical fibers.
Mechanics use them to look inside engines.
Physicians used them to look inside a patient's body.
Communications: replace copper telephone wires and undersea cables.
(more information can be carried on by high frequency light than by low
frequency electric current.)