# Introduction

This workshop is designed to improve your skills using Microsoft Excel. This workshop will cover: • Spreadsheet Design • Managing the Data • Analyzing the Data • Financial Functions • Financial Analysis

These three topics are covered in this workbook These two topics are covered in the Financial Model workbook

Workbook Contents
Tab 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Title Spreadsheet Design - Some Basic Rules to Follow Spreadsheet Design - File Properties Spreadsheet Design - Data Validation with Drop Down Menus Spreadsheet Design - Password Protection Managing the Data - Fill Handle Managing the Data - Paste Special Managing the Data - Error Checking Managing the Data - Tracking Changes Managing the Data - Lookup Tables Analyzing the Data - Audit Tool Analyzing the Data - Filtering Analyzing the Data - Pivot Tables Analyzing the Data - OLAP Some Additional Tips Listing of Financial Functions Listing of Keyboard Short Cuts Excel Add-Ins

Point of Contact: Matt H. Evans, CPA, CMA, CFM Excel Spreadsheet Page: www.exinfm.com/free_spreadsheets.html Download this spreadsheet and other files used in this presentation from: Each worksheet can be printed by hitting Ctrl-P

www.exinfm.com/vscpa

Some basic rules to start with include: (1) Organize your data so that you: ■ Have a different panel or worksheet for constants vs. variable inputs. ■ Enter contants only once and reference downstream in other worksheets. ■ Use error checking formulas next to your cells. You can flag with conditional formatting. ■ Minimize embedding values and amounts into your formulas. This cuts down on errors. ■ Try to make your formulas point up and to the left, logical flow of how people see things. ■ Try to place your formulas in close proximity to the inputs for easy review and validation. ■ Add light grey to cells that are constants and formulas to minimize inappropriate changes. (2) Try to minimize the use of merging cells since this makes it difficult to navigate, print or change your spreadsheets. Merged Cells Non Merged Cells

(3) Place the larger range of data down by rows and the lesser range of data across by columns (4) Use comments and navigation links to assist the end-user. TIP ► Format your comments by clicking on the border edge:

The example below brings up an image file as the comment: 1 Select the edge of the comment box and right click 2 From the Format Comment dialog box, select Colors and Lines 3 In the Fill section, open the Color box and choose Fill Effects 4 Click the Picture tab and select the Picture you want to use TIP ► Insert comments into formulas 1 At the end of the formual, insert a plus sign "+" followed by the letter N 2 Add your comment within parentheses and within quotation marks. 5,609 6.70% 376 \$5.60 \$2,104.50

TIP ► Insert an audio file into your spreadsheet 1 Select a cell where you want to place the audio comment (you can move it later if you want); 2 From the Insert menu select Object; 3 On the Create New tab scroll down and select Wave Sound (the Windows Sound recorder will appear); 4 When you are ready, click the record button and record your message. When you are finished, click the stop button; 5 Close the Sound recorder window. A sound object (speaker icon) will appear on your worksheet; 6 To listen to the message, double click the speaker icon.

(5) Include instructional clips of other worksheets or cell ranges 1 Make sure the camera button appears on the toolbar: From the main menu, select View > Toolbars > Customize Click the Commands tab Select the Tools category Drag the Camera button onto the toolbar 2 Select the range you want to make into an image 3 Click on the Camera button 4 Now go to where you want the image to appear - the cross hair is the is the upper left corner for placement of the image. (6) Include a Purpose Statement, Point of Contact, and Main Menu if you are developing a workbook. ■ Use a modular design - different worksheets for inputs, analysis, and outputs.

File Properties
A good internal control for managing files on your computer TIP ► Have the Properties Dialog Box pop up when you save files for the first time Steps 1 From the main tool bar, select Tools > Options and choose the General tab 2 Click on the Prompt for Workbook Properties TIP ► Insert keywords in the Summary tab to help locate files on your computer. Steps 1 From the main tool bar, select File > Properties > Properties tab 2 Enter Keywords that will help locate this file on your computer TIP ► Make Your Files Read-Only to Protect Files from Accidental Deletion Steps 1 From Windows Explorer, locate the file and right click on the file name 2 Select Properties at the bottom of the pop up box: 3 Check the Read-only attribute box and click Apply

Tab 2 - File Properties

Data Validation:
Useful when you have to enter the same data over and over again into a spreadsheet. This "error proofs" the spreadsheet based on the parameters you set for a specific cell range or table. Product Steps Input Range Codes 1 Create a list of valid entries for the cell range FP-005 XG-004 2 From the main menu, select Data > Validation HG-009 3 Click on the Settings tab and select the type of validation you want and enter the values LW-010 4 Click on the Input Message tab to show an instruction when you cursor over the range BN-003 5 Click on the Error Alert tab to show an error message FP-005 VS-009 QA-011 You can also validate numberic values: Steps 1 Select the range of cells you want to validate 2 From the main menu, select Data > Validation 3 From the Allow drop down list, select Whole or Decimal 4 From the Data drop down list, select Between 5 In the Minimum box, enter the low range of the validation 6 In the Maximum box, enter the high range of the validation 7 Click OK

Tab 3 - Data Validation

Allows you to restrict access to your file, workbook, cells, graphics, charts, or other attributes. TIP ► Password Protection of Files is better than Password Protection of Work Sheets, Ranges and Cells. Several Utilities are available for cracking passwords once the file is open. TIP ► Excel 97 has very weak features when it comes to Password Protection. Recommend users upgrade to Excel 2003.

A. Password Protect Your File: Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Options > Security > Password to open: B. Password Protect Work Sheets: Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > Password to unprotect sheet: C. Allow editing of selected Cells: Steps 1 Select the Cells you want to remain unprotected (the worksheet should already be protected - see B above) 2 From the main menu, select Format > Cells > Protection tab and uncheck the Locked box Hidden - Prevents any formulas in the cell(s) from being displayed in the Formula bar after the worksheet has been protected. TIP ► It's also a good idea to highlight the unprotected cells D. Restrict Cursor Movement: Steps Follow Steps 1 and 2 in C above 4 Change the worksheet properties: EnableSelection by selecting View > Toolbars > Control Toolbox > Properties 5 Click on the cell labeled: xlNoRestrictions (to the right of EnableSelection) 6 From the drop down list, change this to: xlUnlockedCells xlNoRestrictions: In a protected worksheet, selection is allowed for both locked and unlocked cells. xlUnLockedCells: In a protected worksheet, selection is allowed for unlocked cells only. xlNoSelection: In a protected worksheet, selection is not allowed for either locked or unlocked cells. E. Hide Work Sheets:

Steps 1 From the main menu, select Format > Sheet > Hide F. Password Protect VBA Macro's: Steps 1 Press Alt and F11 to activate the VBA Editor 2 Select your project from the Project Window 3 Select Tools > VBA Project Properties > Protection tab 4 Check the box: Lock project for viewing and enter a password twice 5 Click OK to save the workbook

Excel 2003 Feature Information Rights Management You can designate who can read, revise, or forward confidential information using the Information Rights Management (IRM) feature. This can be easier than password protection, but you will have to install the IRM component on your network server. Authenticode - Digital Signatures Microsoft Office 2003 uses Microsoft Authenticode to create a digital signature. A digital signature is used to confirm that the document originated from the signer and no changes have been made. For example, when you run macro's, you can enable only those macro's that are on your list of trusted sources with digital signature certificates. H. Protect Worksheet with a Digital Signature: Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Options > Security 2 Click Digital Signatures and add the signer's Digital Signature NOTE: To create a digital signature, you first must create a digital certificate from a commercial source such as verisign

Fill Handle and Smart Tag - Auto Fill Options
An easy way to copy and paste with or without auto fill or just paste a format (same as the Paint Brush) Fill Handle: The "+" sign that appears in the lower right corner of the cell you have selected.

Smart Tag: A small icon that appears in the lower right corner of the range that you copied to. This is the Auto Fill Options Smart Tag: Copy Cells - Copy the cell content as is to the other cell(s) Fill Series - Copy the cell content and auto fill to the other cells in a series Fill Formatting Only - Copy the cell format only to the other cell(s) Fill Without Formatting - Copy the cell content as is, but do not include the format

TIP ► Moving the Fill Handle Up will erase the cell contents Examples: Copy Cells 10 Fill Series 10 Fill Fill W/O Format Format 10 10

TIP ► Custom Fills - You can setup your own custom fills for a spreadsheet: 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Options > Custom Lists > NEW LIST 2 In the box labeled "List entries" enter all of your entries for your fill list OR select the cells for your list 3 Click Add and Click OK Evans

Tab 5 - Fill Handle

Paste Special
Can be very useful for editing and altering data in a spreadsheet A. Convert Formulas to Values: Steps 1 Highlight the cells you want to convert to values and select Copy 2 Move to the home position where you want to paste 3 Select Paste Special and check Values Store A 1,050.00 755.00 890.00 1,175.00 Store B Store C 950.00 680.00 250.00 552.00 195.00 265.00 480.00 805.00 Total 2,680.00 1,557.00 1,350.00 2,460.00

B. Convert Text Values into Real Values or positive values to negative values Steps 1 Select an empty cell and enter 1 or -1 2 From the main menu, select Edit Copy for the cell with 1 in it 3 Highlight the text values you need to convert 4 Select Edit Paste Special and select the Multiply option 5 Under Paste, click Values and then click OK -1 118 122 135 144 174

C. Use Paste Special to Copy a Format: (Very useful for tables and chart formatting differences) Steps 1 Select the cell range / chart / table you want to use as your format 2 Control-C to Copy or from the main menu, select Edit > Copy

Tab 6 - Paste Special

3 Select the cell range / chart / table you want to change in terms of formatting 4 From the main menu, select Edit > Paste Special > Formats Chart 1 has this format:
Comparison of Store Sales 1,400.00 1,200.00 1,000.00 800.00 600.00 400.00 200.00 0.00 1 Store 2 3 Row 19

Sales 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1 2

Tab 6 - Paste Special

Error Checking
Used to check formulas for errors. Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Error Checking 2 Error Checking dialog box will appear to show potential errors. If you are re-checking the worksheet again, click Options, click Reset Ignored Errors and click OK 3 The potential error appears in the formula bar. The text describes the potential error 4 Click on the button on the right side of the dialog box. Depending upon the error, you may elect to Ignore. 5 Continue until errors have been reviewed. 6 Select Tools > Options > Error Checking tab to control what gets checked. 78 99 35 #DIV/0!

TIP ► Quickly trace the formula by inserting the I Bar into the open toolbar view of the formula.

Types of Errors: ##### — Column is not wide enough, or a negative date or time is used Possible Solutions Widen the column to fit the contents Double-click the boundary on the right side of the column heading. Shrink the contents to fit the column Select the column, and on the Format menu, click Cells. Change the formatting The contents may fit with a different formatting. If dates or times are negative, check your data and formulas.

#VALUE! — The wrong argument or operand is used How to Fix Use the Trace Error tool to check your arguments, such as cell references, numbers and operands. Click on the cell that contains the #VALUE error On the Forumula Auditing toolbar, click Trace Error

#REF! — The formula contains an invalid cell reference

Tab 7 - Error Checking

Possible Solutions Change the formulas or restore the cells that reference the formula. Make sure formula links are still valid Verify that macros are referring to valid cells

#NAME? — The formula contains an invalid cell reference Possible Solutions Misspelled function name or text in formula Make sure formula links are still valid Edit errors in formulas, such as double quote marks, parenthesis, etc.

#DIV/0! — A number is divided by zero (0) Possible Solutions Check the division in your formula - should not divide by 0 Make sure your formula does not reference a blank cell or a cell that contains 0 Enter a value other than 0 as your divisor

Tab 7 - Error Checking

Track Changes
Useful when you need to understand who is making changes to a spreadsheet and why.

Tracking Changes Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Track Changes > Highlight Changes 2 In the Highlight Changes dialog box, select Track changes while editing 3 Select Highlight changes on screen 4 Open the When menu and select All 5 Open the Who menu and select Everyone. This makes your file shared. 6 Click OK TIP ► You can track changes with only certain cells by using the Where option. If you leave this option blank, all changes are tracked in the workbook. TIP ► Changed cells have a triangle in the left corner, surrounded by a blue line around the cell. Accepting or Rejecting Changes Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Track Changes > and select Accept or Reject Changes option. 2 In the Dialog Box, select "Not yet reviewed" to see all changes or "Since date" to see changes after a certain day. 3 Click OK 4 In the Accept or Reject Changes dialog box, review the edits to the cell. 5 Select the Reject or Accept button for each edit. NOTE: Rejecting your changes will erase the change and restore the cell back to the original entry. TIP ► If you want to make changes but not see them on screen (useful if you're making a lot of changes), don't select the "Highlight changes on screen" option. Select the option later to see the changes you made. TIP ► To review your changes later, select Close in the Accept or Reject Changes dialog box. \$2,050.00

Note: When you track changes, the workbook is now [Shared] and some functions may not work. Remove sharing by unchecking the box from Tools > Share Workbook

Tab 8 - Track Changes

Lookup Functions:
Very useful for looking up information from tables and working with worksheets that are split between a master file (permanent type records) and data files (regularly updated records). You can lookup values or text.

1 Start with your Data Table - this will be used as the Array in your Lookup formulas <- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - array - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - > ID Last Name First Name Age Function Points IF Statement 2306 Evans Matt 50 Consultant 1,050 Bonus 1788 Frazier John 43 Manager 980 1568 Johnson William 56 Executive 1,175 Bonus 1477 Frazier Charlotte 35 Administrator 750 1896 McDonald Shelley 39 Administrator 610 1962 Bissell Carmen 32 Staff 885 2077 Alexander Stewart 37 Manager 1,305 Bonus 2 Use basic lookup functions in conjunction with your array =LOOKUP("value or text you want to lookup", range name of the table, column or row index number, FALSE if you want an exact match, TRUE is the default for closet match) Example - Vertical Lookup (most data tables are organized by columns with column headings) Typical Accounting Files are full of codes Setup and use a Lookup Table to make codes meaningful: 1568 Johnson 1962 Bissell 1788 Frazier 2306 Evans Example - Match (locate the position of a record) How far down is the record Bissell? 6 Note: Use the vector and not the full array name to avoid getting the #N/A Example - Index (what value resides in this postion) What value shows up in row 5, column 4? Administrator Note: Use the vector and not the full array name to avoid getting the #N/A

Tab 9 - Lookup Tables

Audit Tool Bar
Useful for understanding the sources that feed a dependent cell in your spreadsheet. Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Formula Auditing > Show Formula Audting Toolbar

Precedent 1.15 Precedent: A cell which feeds or drives the formula in question. Dependent: A cell which depends on the formula for its value. Both Precedent Precedent Dependent 1050.00 1,150.00 1,260.00 3,979.00 1 Trace Precedents - if the current cell contains a formula, arrows will be drawn leading back to the source cells. 2 Remove precedents arrows 3 Trace Dependents - arrows will be drawn from the current cell to any other cells that incorporate it into their formulas. 4 Remove dependents arrows 5 Remove all arrows 6 Trace errors - if the current cell is displaying an error (e.g. #DIV/0!), an arrow will be drawn leading back to the cause of the error. 7 Trace errors - if the current cell is displaying an error (e.g. #DIV/0!), an arrow will be drawn leading back to the cause of the error. 8 Circle invalid data - highlights any cells which fail Data Validation rules that have been defined for the current range 9 Remove circles around data

Tab 10 - Audit Tool Bar

Data Filtering
The Data Filter option is very useful for sorting through data with simple drop down menus. Steps 1 Move your cursor over the column heading row. 2 Turn on the Data Filter - From the main menu, select Data > Filter > Auto Filter. Down Arrow Boxes should appear for each column heading. 3 Single column filtering - Click the drop down menu for the column heading 4 Turn Off Filter - Select Data > Filter > Auto Filter to turn off the option and the Drop Arrow Boxes will disappear.

Empl No. Last Name 00035 Bingers 00039 Anderson 00046 Yuller 00048 Daad 00055 Landry 00059 Willis 00063 Morrison 00079 Mackle 00081 Walters 00088 Jenkins 00092 Bissel 00101 Jackson 00106 Keyes 00108 Alden 00111 Bartolla 00115 Sutton 00117 Easton 00128 Gardner 00155 Yen 00158 Ruston 00160 Hollinford 00162 King 00177 McDonald 00188 Lattimer 00206 Leopold 00218 Hills

First Name Alice Carol Joseph Mostaf Martha Paul Donald Jerome Bill Paula Harold Sherry Louis Pam Frank Ralph Russell Jeff Sei Sam Bradley Susan Gerald Mark Karen Terry

Location Charlotte Pittsburgh Columbia Charlotte Columbia Pittsburgh Richmond Pittsburgh Columbia Pittsburgh Charlotte Pittsburgh Richmond Richmond Columbia Charlotte Charlotte Charlotte Columbia Richmond Richmond Richmond Columbia Richmond Charlotte Charlotte

Date of Birth Pay Grade Department 6/28/1947 6 Production 4/6/1950 8 Corporate 3/27/1948 7 Distribution 8/11/1949 7 Production 3/17/1951 7 Production 1/19/1951 6 Corporate 12/2/1953 6 Engineering 7/17/1946 9 Corporate 2/3/1949 6 Accounting 11/8/1951 6 Accounting 9/3/1941 7 Engineering 8/2/1958 8 Administration 12/15/1954 8 Engineering 8/11/1956 6 Administrative 10/4/1967 7 Logistics 1/15/1955 8 Accounting 11/29/1957 8 Engineering 4/19/1960 8 Engineering 10/29/1955 5 Administrative 4/17/1962 5 Distribution 4/3/1964 7 Sales 10/11/1956 8 Logistics 11/13/1960 6 Logistics 6/29/1959 6 Sales 2/27/1962 6 Sales 9/4/1963 6 Logistics

Tab 11 - Data Filtering

00233 Studdlemeyer 00236 Jones 00239 Sellers 00241 Ingle 00262 Kelley

Peter Tammy Jim Motley Janet

Richmond Charlotte Pittsburgh Richmond Columbia

8/16/1977 7/7/1963 5/29/1958 2/20/1969 3/22/1966

4 Distribution 6 Production 7 Marketing 6 Marketing 9 Sales

Filtering using Custom Criteria 1 Click on the drop down menu for the column that you want to customize for filtering and select (Custom . . .) 2 From the Custom AutoFilter dialog box, select your first criteria for filtering and click Or or And 3 From the second operator drop down list, select the comparison operator.

Filtering Operators: = > < >= <= <> Wild Cards * ?

Equal to Greater than Less than Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to Not equal to

Any string of characters: S* would find Smith, Sculley, Sull, Sal, Steinberger, . . Any character in this position: B?t would find Bat, But, Bet, . .

Tab 11 - Data Filtering

Pivot Tables
One of the most popular features of Excel for data analysis. Allows you to easily view and understand data in different ways by moving data attributes between sections of the table - simply drag and drop.

Steps 1 List out your data, including the column headings 2 From the main tool bar, select Data > PivotTable and PivotChart Report. Follow the Wizard EXAMPLE Sales Month September September October October November November November November December December December January January January Product Sales Year Type 2005 Soap 2005 Paper 2005 Mix 2005 Paper 2005 Mix 2005 Paper 2005 Mix 2005 Mix 2005 Soap 2005 Paper 2005 Mix 2006 Mix 2006 Mix 2006 Soap Sales Lead Smith Jones Keane Stiles Carlson Jones Stiles Keane Keane Stiles Smith Carlson Jones Keane Sales Region East East Central North Central East North Central Central North East Central East Central < - Note: Column Headings Units Sold 1,255 755 2,105 1,005 950 890 1,860 1,330 2,550 1,240 2,250 3,275 1,470 3,025 23,960

To show a table of product type sales by Sales Leads: 3 Drag / Drop the Sales Lead into the left column portion of the Pivot Table Panel 4 Drag / Drop the Product Type into the horizontal top panel section. 5 Drag / Drop the Units Sold into the Data center panel NOTE: The Pivot Table is showing a "Count" as our data; change to "Sum" by selecting the Field Setting Sales Year Table >

Tab 12 - Pivot Tables

Count of Units Sold Sales Lead Carlson Carlson Total Jones Keane Smith Stiles Grand Total

TIP ► Pivot tables may insert a blank column and row for future changes. You can hide these blanks by placing your cursor in the table and right click your mouse, select Hide. TIP ► When you make changes to your source data, don't forget to refresh

!

30 Minute On-Line Introduction to Pivot Tables: http://office.microsoft.com/training/training.aspx?AssetID=RC010136191033

Tab 12 - Pivot Tables

Column Headings are in single cells

2005

Tab 12 - Pivot Tables

Product Type Mix Sales Month November Carlson Total Jones Keane Smith Stiles Grand Total Central 1 1 2

3

Tab 12 - Pivot Tables

Importing Data
Excel includes certain features, allowing you to import data into the spreadsheet from other applications. EXAMPLE: You have sales data from another system that you produces a text file. You need to analyze the sales data in Microsoft Excel. You can use Excel to Query the data and place it in a set of Cubes, allowing you to analyze the data. Steps A. Select the Data Source 1 From the main menu, select Data > Import External Data > New Database Query 2 In the Choose Data Source box, click the Database tab, select New Data Source > OK 3 In the Create New Data Source dialog box, type a name for the data source file and select Microsoft Text Driver, click Connect. 4 In the ODBC Text Setup dialog box, clear the Use Current Directory box and click Select Directory. 5 In the Select Database dialog box, locate the folder that contains the data source file. Do NOT select the file, just the FOLDER. 6 Click OK twice and return to Choose Data Source dialog box. B. Create the Query (pulls in the data) 7 From the Choose Data Source dialog box, select the data source file as created per the previous steps. Make sure Use the Query Wizard to create / edit queries is selected. Click OK 8 In the Query Wizard - Choose Columns dialog box, select the data source file you want to query. Move the columns from the Available tables and columns pane to the columns in your query. Click Next in the next two dialog boxes 9 In the Query Wizard - Finish dialog box, select Create an OLAP Cube from this query and click Finish. C. Create the Cube (allows you to analyze the data in different ways) 10 Click Next in the Welcome to the OLAP Cube Wizard dialog box. 11 Select the source fields you want to use, check the box in the Source field column. Also make sure the "Sum" is selected for those fields you want summarized - Summarize by column. Click Next. 12 Move the fields that you want to use in your analysis from the Source fields pane to the Dimensions pane. Click Next. 13 Select Save a cube file containing all data for the cube. Enter the path name and file name. Click Finish. 14 In the Save As dialog box, type a file name that corresponds to the query you have created. Click Save. D. Analyze the Query Definition File - "oqy" file 15 Once the OLAP Cube has been completed, the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard will appear. You can now create a pivot table report or chart. You can also use Data Analyzer to analyze the Cube file TIP ► Look for this icon to find the "oqy" file:

Tab 13 - OLAP Analysis

SAMPLE SOURCE FILE: Download the "Sales" file from: www.exinfm.com/vscpa Use this as your source file to practice on how to do what has been described above.

MICROSOFT INSTRUCTIONS: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/assistance/HA010127121033.aspx

Tab 13 - OLAP Analysis

Other Tips
TIP ► Zooming Only Selected Cells rather than the entire worksheet Steps 1 Select the range of cells you want to appear in the screen 2 From the main menu, select View > Zoom > Fit Selection 3 Select 100% or the appropriate % from the Custom option.

TIP ► Displaying Cell Formulas Rather Than Results Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Options > View tab > Window options section and check Formulas 5,609 6.70% 376 \$5.60 \$2,104.50

TIP ► Line Break Within a Cell - Useful when you have text wrapping within a cell Steps 1 Move your cursor over the cell and select Format > Cells > Alignment > check the Wrap Text 2 Enter your text and hit Alt - Enter where you want the break to occur North North Park Park A more complicated version of this is to split the contents of the cell and insert an angle border within the cell: Month Town

TIP ► Conditional formats applied to color different amounts Steps 1 Determine and enter the values you want to use for triggering the different formats 2 Highlight the range of cells you want to format 3 From the main menu, select Format > Conditional Formatting

Tab 14 - Other Tips

4 For Condition 1, select Cell Value Is and greater than and the value per Step 1 5 Click Format and select Font and from Color, select the color you want to use, click OK 6 Click Add to apply the next condition in formatting, repeat steps 4 and 5.

Jan Feb Mar

Bill \$650 \$1,100 \$960

Jeff \$1,350 \$1,780 \$880

Chris \$1,940 \$860 \$750

Lisa \$1,290 \$720 \$1,190

Barbara \$1,305 \$2,050 \$2,550

Monthly Bonus % + Trip % only Gift

\$2,500 \$1,500 \$1,000

\$2,499 \$1,499

TIP ► Change the default worksheets that loads when you create a new workbook - Default is 3 Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Options > General tab 2 Change the number that appears in the Sheets in new workbook box

TIP ► Change the default path where you open and save files Steps 1 From the main menu, select Tools > Options > General tab 2 Type in the desired path in the Default file location box.

Tab 14 - Other Tips

Financial Functions
ACCRINT ACCRINTM AMORDEGRC AMORLINC COUPDAYBS COUPDAYS COUPDAYSNC COUPNCD COUPNUM COUPPCD CUMIPMT CUMPRINC DB DDB DISC DOLLARDE DOLLARFR DURATION EFFECT FV FVSCHEDULE INTRATE IPMT IRR ISPMT MDURATION MIRR NOMINAL NPER NPV ODDFPRICE ODDFYIELD ODDLPRICE Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient Returns the depreciation for each accounting period Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double-declining balance method Returns the discount rate for a security Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments Returns the effective annual interest rate Returns the future value of an investment Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows Returns the interest paid during a specific period of an investment Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100 Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates Returns the annual nominal interest rate Returns the number of periods for an investment Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period

Tab 15 - Financial Functions

ODDLYIELD PMT PPMT PRICE PRICEDISC PRICEMAT PV RATE RECEIVED SLN SYD TBILLEQ TBILLPRICE TBILLYIELD VDB XIRR XNPV YIELD YIELDDISC YIELDMAT

Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period Returns the periodic payment for an annuity Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity Returns the present value of an investment Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill Returns the yield for a Treasury bill Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a declining balance method Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity

Tab 15 - Financial Functions

Key Board Short Cuts
Key Strokes F2 F5 F7 F11 Shift + F5 Ctrl + A Ctrl + K Ctrl + F6 Ctrl + Page Up Ctrl + Page Down Ctrl + ' Ctrl + Shift + ! Ctrl + Shift + \$ Ctrl + Shift + % Ctrl + Space Shift + Space Action Invoked Edit the Selected Cell Go to the Selected Cell Spell Check the Selected Text Create a Chart Bring up the Search Box Select all worksheet contents Insert a Link Switch between workbooks or windows Move between worksheets in the same Excel File Move between worksheets in the same Excel File Insert the value above into the currently selected cell Format numbers with comma's and two decimal places Format numbers in currency format and two decimal places Format number in percent format Selects the entire column Selects the entire row

Tab 16 - Keyboard Short Cuts