W08 – Residential environments and people

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC ART FOR IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF PUBLIC SPACES IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT

Ahsen Özsoy

ahsenozsoy@gmail.com
Bahar Bayram

mimbabay@gmail.com

The Role of Public Art for Improving the Quality of Public Places in the Residential Environment

Ahsen Özsoy Faculty of Architecture Istanbul Technical University ahsenozsoy@gmail.com Fax: +90 212 2514895 Bahar Bayram mimbabay@gmail.com Keywords: public art, quality of public space, residential environment

Abstract People have deep feelings about a place or strongly connect with a community when they are in contact with the environment and with other people. From this point of view, public places, with the feature of being a life’s platform by creating the image of the environment and identifying the properties of the community, are the residences of social-cultural activities. With the effects of globalism, technology, economic dynamics and modernity, the design of public places has changed. Nowadays, governments and NGOs are working to improve environmental quality and place satisfaction. When organizing public places, the role of art cannot be disregarded during this quality research with its image of the place and the creation of its environmental identity. The aim of this paper is to identify the usage of art in public places, the different experiences that are presented and the role of art for improving the quality of public places by recognizing the contributions of physical and social interaction. With this aim, the quality of public places and the criteria that identify that quality will be investigated. Various approaches for improving the quality of public places and the role of public art will be discussed. The concept of public art, public art projects and organizations that support artistic activities will be discussed, including examples from all over the world, and the effect of art activities on public places will be investigated from the standpoint of quality improvement. With the case study conducted in a very special residential setting (in one of the big cities of Turkey - Bursa), the effect of an international public art activity for the improvement of environmental quality will be examined.

1

Introduction
Public spaces, which allow the interaction of various groups having different socio-economic characteristics, have special importance as areas that meet the differing social and physical needs of people. One of the most important problems in public spaces today is the dissatisfaction of users from various characteristics of the environment. Places, which meet basic human needs and allow for different activities, are not necessarily quality and attractive environments that give a sense of place to their users. The concept of spatial quality and the criteria which define quality spaces have increasingly been studied in recent years. Successful public spaces have generally been planned and designed in an integrated way, creating variety for different life styles. The role of art and artistic activities for the quality improvement of the urban environment has been gaining more importance. The paper aims to identify the usage of art in public places, the different experiences that are presented to the citizens and the role of art in improving the quality of public places by recognizing the contributions of physical and social interaction. With this aim, various approaches to the improvement of the quality of public places and the role of public art will be discussed. The concept of public art, public art projects and organizations that support artistic activities will be examined including examples from all over the world, and the effect of art activities on public places will be investigated from the standpoint of quality improvement. In the case study conducted in a very special residential environment, the effect of an international public art activity for the improvement of environmental quality will be examined.

Approaches to Quality Improvement in Existing Environments
In parallel with the developments related to the quality concept in all sectors, various approaches on various scales can be seen for a solution to quality problems in the urban environment. Some of the examples, ranging from the urban scale to the street scale, include quality improvement studies in urban residential environments, mixed use developments, gentrification of declining urban patterns, transformation of waterfront areas, and improvement of public space quality (Gülersoy, Özsoy, Tezer, Yiğiter, Günay, 2005). To create high quality environments on various scales of the urban areas, adoption of a holistic approach is necessary. One of the most important characteristics of image and identity of a place is the existence of a common language that is reflected by environmental components. Therefore, in renewal, maintenance and improvement processes for the parts that compose the urban environment (such as buildings, sidewalks, signals, street furniture) and their effects on the visual quality of the city should be considered. However, quality improvement is not the only important aspect for the urban built environment; it has also considerable positive or negative social outcomes, such as an increase of living conditions, or a tendency to leave the existing environment because of the problem of affordability. Quality improvement of individual buildings also affects public space quality. However, attention should be paid to more effective planning systems and their availability for improving the quality of public spaces. Increasing the awareness of the legal system related to this process is very important. It is necessary to have sustainable improvement approaches for historic areas, careful placement of tall buildings for the urban silhouette, search for high design quality. The useless and characterless plazas and avenues need to have improvements carried out in integrated programs (Tibbalds, 1992). Urban public space with all its physical elements and users is an entity unto itself. Quality improvement attempts can be successful only if they are integrated. The treatment effort in
2

Ortaköy, one of the historical locations of Istanbul, is a very good example. In the scope of the operations started in the early 1990s, all buildings have been restored; and with a design guideline for all kinds of quality improvement works, the area has regained its quality and attractive identity.

Figure 1: Ortaköy The enhancement of user satisfaction is the main aim for public spaces while increasing the quality of urban public environment. Dilapidated, crumbling and characterless building blocks have a negative effect on the users of public spaces and reduce their quality. In addition, urban transformation and gentrification concepts started in the 1970s are the models for improving the quality of urban public spaces. When looking for the role of art for the improvement of public space quality, one should first provide the methods and models for this quality improvement and determine how and in which forms the art is to be involved. The development of pedestrian traffic, diversification of activities, personalization, reduction of the disorganization of the urban furnishings, signalization and direction, and maintenance and repair are quality improvement methods in existing urban environments. And, public art is effective in the constructive treatment and the urban transformation-gentrification process, components that directly affect the quality of a public space. Development of Pedestrian Traffic Intercommunication solutions for crowded city centers play an important role in making these areas appropriate for urban life. Avenues and streets are the public places used by all walks of life, starting from youth, but the quality of this experiment is wide ranging The crowded traffic of an avenue makes this experiment actually formed by the vehicles, and it is thought that it is only for fast intercommunication. When infrequent traffic is the case, then usage by pedestrians increases and there are possibilities for a wide range of activities (Woolley, 2003). Pedestrian areas make art activity accessible for the masses. These areas can host various art activities as well as be exhibition grounds. As a reaction to reducing trade level in city centers, there are efforts to improve pedestrian areas on different scales. Specific avenue views are improved by qualified design (street furnishings, illumination, etc.) (Fieldhouse, www.rudi.net). Copenhagen is a good example of development of pedestrian projects in public spaces. Due to changes in urban design approaches in 1962, many avenues have been prepared for the use of pedestrians and so urban life has become lively. Many cultural festivals and huge, popular carnivals are organized. When compared with previous figures, street life in Copenhagen has become very rich over many years (Gehl, Gemzoe, 2001).
3

Figure 2: Copenhagen Street Life Diversification of Activities The more urban places present a diversification of activities, the more they become quality, because users and visitors demand choice and variety; they want to visit new areas and shops and be aware of what is happening around them. People seek an environment to meet with one another. Visitors and tourists look for quality places that take them far away from their normal life (Tibbalds, 1992). Thus places should provide variety and be individually unique in their historical and cultural mediums.

Figure 3: Public Space Activities The characteristics of public places may have attributes that increase or reduce social activities that are optional or obligatory (Gehl, 1987). For example, quality improvement processes in Copenhagen are diversified, thereby increasing the usage of activities in public places. Research conducted in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia in 1978 indicates that there is a direct interconnection between public place quality and public place activities (Gehl, 1987). Personalization Public places mostly have specific characteristics. Highlighting these characteristics and making a place special are important factors for quality improvement. Designing the signs and signboards in an integrative way and representing the same character everywhere in the city supports the identity of the city in the mind of its users. Likewise, well-designed urban furnishings, which have high functional and aesthetic values, are factors that increase the users’ satisfaction in urban public space (Glover, www.rudi.net).
4

Reducing the Chaos of Urban Furnishings Locating urban furnishings such as traffic signs, cleaning materials, parking lots, along with the chaotic visual composition of the avenues, causes a kind of environmental pollution and negatively affects total quality. Therefore, every furnishing category in a public place requires the consideration of an alternative that can perform its function. Reducing complexity also has a dramatic effect on crowded avenues. Peripheral buildings can be easily discerned, and the city becomes more attractive (Davis, 1997). Signals and Orientation City centers are the places where different activities exist together. Appropriate signals and correct orientation affect the quality by increasing the decipherability of an urban setting. A well designed signal and orientation system, better perception of urban public places and a good impression of these places (mental memory) are targeted (Sangha, www.rudi.net). There should be various and interesting signals for pedestrians in urban public places. There is not yet an obligation for standardization of pedestrian signals different from traffic signals (Davis, 1997). Private sector firms and big shopping entertainment and festival centers collaborate with consulting firms for artistic support in the areas of concept development, design and application. Today, this topic has become an important creative platform for artists and designers. Maintenance and Management Services The quality of urban public places depends on the quality of maintenance services as much as their physical features. An effective maintenance program should be provided. Cooperation between local and private authorities to provide resources and implement solutions has an importance that makes public places cleaner and more livable. This problem is approached differently in city centers around the world (Davis, 1997). The maintenance and protection of artistic works that serve aesthetic or functional purposes are also important for providing a positive continuity of an urban outlook. Thus, implementation should be performed with the collaboration of private and local sectors. Some private and semi-private organizations have been established in city centers that are rich in artistic works. The Use of Public Art The dissatisfaction of users is an important problem observed in newly created residential areas. In such an environment, users cannot perceive themselves as a part of a whole and start to be alienated (Atabek, 2002). In this respect, the environment that is aesthetically of high quality and motivates the people who live there is important along with responding to the needs of the users. Displaying public art is important for its aesthetic quality and for increasing the satisfaction of the users. The quality improvement of a public place and the function of public art to create more livable places are important concerns of local and central administrations. The local and private organizations, which support public-centered artistic works and training programs with the aim of enriching public places, protecting and improving artistic and urban values are numerous in the USA and Europe. Including public art as a part of urban transformation projects aimed at creating a place feeling and a place identity helps to create a definable urban pattern, which in turn creates a permanent impression related to the city that visitors have traveled to.
5

Transforming daily objects into extraordinary ones through the interventions of artists, such as considering a bus stop or a sitting element as a work of art, are features that enrich the urban environment, empower the urban identity and increase the variety of public space. Training programs conducted with the collaboration of artists and the locals, new applications that are to empower the public and environment, show important potential for the quality improvement of public space (Gülersoy, Özsoy, Tezer, Yiğiter, Günay, 2005). Many institutions that are active and successful in the design of public places support public art activities because they contribute to urban life, ensure the use of public space and create pleasure. Public art will be successful only if included as a catalyst in design strategy at the planning stage (Public Art and Amenities: Art in Public Places, www.pps.org, access: 2.1.2007). Enhancing pedestrian areas with art objects is useful for providing mental relaxation created from visual interconnections and cultural satisfaction (Şenliyer, 1995). Temporary art or functional art works may ensure the possibility of the existence of a visual aesthetic that creates charm and excitement on squares and plazas. Temporary art studies create a positive effect on the success of public art programs. Moreover, they help to increase the quality of space by providing various activities focusing on the arts (Public Art and Amenities: Art in Public Places, www.pps.org, access: 2.1.2007).

Public Art
Public spaces must have a prototypical character; they are instruments of change for a society. They are unique, they create an identity, and they must be able to stimulate the evolution of all parts of a society. The singularness of public spaces remains a key attractor for a variety of people, events, collective expressions and programs, but what comes out constantly changes, adapts to new trends, forces, desires, and multiplies in its adaptations over time. The use of public space proliferates increasingly in the ways that they are used and the ways that they give form to a society and its dynamic mechanisms (Bunschoten, 2002).

Figure 4: Different Kinds of Public Art All types of arts in public spaces, such as murals, statues and graffiti, attract a lot of attention. In observations and interviews with people standing near murals and statues, a warm interest in public art is apparent (Carr, 1992). The most effective method to make art a meaningful part of life is to integrate it into public spaces. In this way, art work reaches the masses giving an opportunity for the masses to benefit from the physical, cultural, social and economic features of art work. Public art, generally, is art that performs in public places such as avenues, parks and fronts of buildings (Parfect, Power, 1997). When the concept of public art and its position in a specific architectural area is examined, it can be concluded that this concept is not related to physical restrictions but rather to accessibility to the art. If one tries to find a parallel between this concept and public places, it can be concluded that museums, considered to be public places are not really open to the public due to their physical restrictions. Galleries, which have lost their feature of being a
6

metaphor of the politic systems that they belong to, have been transformed into a closed institutional form, and because of this have become concepts that are not public. Art institutions, such as museums and galleries, should not be considered public places, and the art exhibited in those places should be considered apart from public art (Salgado, 2002). According to Rendell (2006), to develop as critical practice, architecture must look to art, moving outside the traditional boundaries of its field and into a place between disciplines. As a mode of cultural production that enjoys a greater degree of separation from economic and social concerns, art can offer architecture a chance for critical reflection and action. There is much gallery-based art that provides cultural and political critique, but once outside the gallery, as ‘public art’, art is better positioned to initiate critical spatial practices that can inform the activity of architectural design and the occupation of buildings (Rendell, 2006). Public art can be encountered in three forms: historical, aesthetic and functional (Carmichael, http://www.geocities.com/Paris/1555/public_art.html). Art works that are related with important people or events help to link the public with its history and create a collective memory. Various art works that respond to the aesthetic needs are also the components of a place. In addition, functional objects that serve as bus stops, information boards, etc. in urban spaces and produced by a designer or artist can be considered in this group.

Figure 5: Public Art Forms, Historical, Aesthetic and Functional Public art projects can also be seen in three groups: created for a special place, social art projects and temporary art projects (Design Review Criteria for Public Art, www.pps.org). The “Cows and Pigs on Parade” project is one of the most striking examples of a temporary art project. This project was first in Switzerland and then in other cities such as Chicago, New York and Cincinnati, Ohio. Through the summer of 1999, within the context of the “Cows on Parade” project, the streets of Chicago were adorned with a colorful show of 340 cows painted by local artists.

Figure 6: Cows and Pigs on Parade

7

Art in Public Places
Installation The most frequently observed form of public art in cities are sculptures located in front of highrise office buildings, on plazas and in shopping areas in the city centers. Traditional paintings and sculptures have been installed in new and abstract forms in urban open public spaces, parks, streets and on building façades. Lighting in urban public spaces is also frequently used as a way of creating a special environment. It can be used to empower the identity of a public place or historic site. “A Last Parting Look” by Joseph Kossuth in 2006, London, which is on the façade of a building, is a contemporary example of using light to produce public art.

Figure 7: A Last Parting Look, Joseph Kosuth (www.axisweb.org) Painting Wall – Building Façades – Ground Today, the growing tendency is to paint the façades of the existing buildings, using relief, colors and calligraphic techniques. Instead of adding these elements to the architecture, collaboration between architects and artists in the design phase will create more quality urban residential environments., As a widespread and strong way of expressing creative potential, graffiti in New York in the early 1970s gave the opportunity to articulate the hopes and demands of the young people living in difficult conditions (Ögel, 1997). Public Place Exhibitions Exhibitions organized in open areas of urban residential environments aim to attract the masses, to broaden the limits of the arts and to get people involved. Participation and interaction are the main goals of today’s arts (Ögel, 1997). Urban Furniture Creating worthwhile environments that enhance the quality of life necessitate the overall value of each component of the total environmental design. Urban furniture, from pavements to baskets and lighting elements, needs to be considered as artistic creativity. In Hanover, Germany, within the context of the “Bus Stops Project”, 9 designers designed 9 different and interesting bus stops. In this way, art reached all categories of citizens using public transportation.

8

Figure 8: Bus Stops Project, Hanover Interactive Art Thanks to festivals, carnivals and activities that are performed by artists in interactive ways with people in public places, participation has been possible. For example, in Santa Maria Maggiore, one of Rome’s most important churches, the celebrations on the 5th of August have today become an art activity. Holiday celebrations are seen as opportunities to present various interactive activities in an urban environment. With efforts started months before, Christmas activities are conducted and brochures handed out. Cities, such as Vienna, Rome and Paris, are in competition to hold the most successful program. In Vienna, streets and avenues are dressed up, and kiosks to obtain information are built. In Rome, several concerts, skits and shows are held, and its streets are full of people coming to see them. The Borgo Festival in Fiano Romano is an important activity that interacts with its participants. Within the context of a historical festival, many performances start there in the afternoon and go until midnight for 5 days. Street artists performance is another form of interactive public art. Urban areas that are used for festivals, concerts and ceremonies have a potential for street artists’ activities and performances (Carr et al., 1992). Today, public art works are acquiring different characteristics with the effects of globalization and the reflection of technological developments on the arts. Art works and activities moving to public places from enclosed spaces have raised the limits of art in human life. In the art practices of today’s artists can be found historical, environmental, spatial and political clues. In this context, public art activity is improved in a social perspective rather than as a symbolic phenomenon.

Figure 9: Examples of Interactive Art Inclusion of Arts and Artists in Gentrification Process In gentrification and urban transformation processes that cause positive physical, social and economic changes in urban public spaces, art is involved in the process through the works of
9

artists, architects and designers as a catalyst that increases the cultural interactivity. The gentrification process previously based on economic facts has currently become a transformation process which mostly considers cultural functions as its main point. Producing high-brow and popular culture products such as music, cinema and opera, and the gentrification process that is in public places socio-culturally are important processes that make clear the effect of artistic activities in public places. Culture and art industries also make important contributions to the urban economy. Through the concurrency of institutions such as theaters, galleries, artist studios and art schools, a special synergy is created in architecture, advertising, photography, fashion design and other artistic sectors (Özdemir, 2005). This is an important economic factor that fires up the competition between the cities. When reviewing the transformations and renewal processes in urban public places, it is possible to say that artistic activities play an effective role. However, in gentrification processes, it is observed that artists transform their living and working places affecting social values. As gentrification and urban transformation are models for increasing quality, and the actors (gentrifiers) and activities that start the process are art-centered, art is considered to have an effect on public space quality.

The Importance and Effects of Public Art for Public Space Quality
User needs and requirements (lifestyles) in urban residential environments have their own dynamics that have certain effects on the use of space. Today, vitality is an important element for the prestigious urban environment. To make an urban residential environment more vital necessitates conducting programs and projects of revitalization and rehabilitation on various scales using works from many initiatives, with art being the most important element (Carmichael, http://www.geocities.com/Paris/1555/public_art.html). Art can be considered as a way to increase the value of an environment and its quality of life (Longini, 2006). Public art can serve many objectives simultaneously, such as pleasing the people, creating a well ordered world, making necessary interventions to boring building façades, using wall murals and graffiti, and bringing prestige to a neighborhood. Art works and artistic activities in public open spaces have various characteristics in terms of strengthening public relations, creating aesthetic experiences, and leaving environmental clues in the people’s minds. The effects of art works and artistic activities on the quality of public space can be examined under the following topics: identity, public communications, cultural continuity, aesthetic experience and economic benefits. Identity Creating identity in an urban and residential environment has become a requirement in the globalizing world to emphasize the differences from the ordinary. Art, as an element giving an identity to the settlement, makes the public open space different, special and attractive (Carr et al., 1992). It awakens spatial feelings, reflects the social and cultural characteristics of a place and creates a style that symbolizes a space. Art in the public space/arena is generally carried out to make a place interesting and to add beauty, gaining character. As with the Statue of Liberty in New York and the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, works of art can be symbols for cities, reminding people of the uniqueness of these places due to the art objects. The planning and design process of public spaces should have short and long term effects and consider future developments of the area. Buildings and public open spaces have to reflect the vision of the city and its inhabitants, creating an individual identity.
10

Art in the urban setting exists mainly for the sake of the community, joining utility and beauty, and often historic meaning. Public art gives the community an identity – a character that can be representative of the city and its people. Sculpture, memorials, monuments, fountains and murals are located in public places to display historic meaning, cultural significance and city beautification. Plazas offer pedestrians a place to gather, relax, enjoy the sights and play. These places often incorporate art, decoration and landscape features to make a place beautiful and give it character. Art gives the urban area a sense of place (Carmichael, http://www.geocities.com/Paris/1555/public_art.html). Public communications The social contribution of art happens by changing our way of understanding art and our way of looking at the world (Aydınlı, 1993). In public places, artistic activities (festivals, carnivals, events) performed interactively with the people have gained importance for public communications. These kinds of activities, bringing people together, create a synergy and increase shared experiences and communications. Cultural continuity The main criticism about 21st century public space is the loss of vitality and dynamics of public life in the urban residential environment. This may be the result of a decrease in cultural activities or a loss of importance for the community (Uygur, 1996). Art, as a direct reflection of culture and its components, has undeniable importance for the development of a social structure. Culture exposes itself through art and its tangible objects. Art, in some respects, is the outcome of culture transformed into a usable form (Şenliyer, 1995). Public art, on the other hand, is different from classic art approaches and processes, and deals with many kinds of cultural phenomena. Public art, reflecting people and facts with historic monuments and sculptures, defines a city, while informing people about important events in its history, encouraging them to think about their past (Lynch, 1972). Aesthetic experience The use of art in public spaces is an important factor which meets the aesthetic needs of people, increasing their motivation and creative abilities. The environment that is aesthetically of high quality and motivates the people who live there is important along with responding to the needs of the users. Economic benefits It is obvious that public art activities, festivals and carnivals conducted in the urban setting attract a great number of people to the cities. The “Animals on Parade” project is a wellknown case of an economic contribution of the arts for cities. During the “Cows on Parade” contemporary art installation in Chicago, an extra 2 million tourists visited the city and spent 500 million dollars for accommodation, food, shopping and sightseeing over a 3-month period. The same exhibit increased the tourist population in New York by 3-4 million people, creating an extra 1 billion dollars in retail income and over 1 million dollars in income for charity organizations (http://cowparade.net).

A Case Study: Gölyazı Contemporary Art Park Project
Developing technologies, marketing strategies and sponsorships today make possible very different and new artistic activities. These types of activities conducted in public spaces 11

different from classical art approaches - are becoming platforms that express the problems of social life, bring people together, and make participation possible. Gölyazı is a settlement, connected to Bursa’s Ulubat Lake by bridge, having traces of civilization from the 7th century BC. Fish and crawfish are the main means of livelihood for the people. The population which was 2240 according to the 1990 census, decreased to 1806 in the last census (Yünkuş, 2006). This can be explained by the migration of people to the big cities of Turkey to have better living conditions.

Figure 10: Gölyazı Settlement (Municipality Archive) An international artistic project activity was conducted in Gölyazı between 15 August-15 September 2006, with participation of 21 artists from Turkey, Germany, Greece, Cyprus, Canada, Mexico, Brazil and the US. The project aimed at transforming the settlement into an international open air art park. During the project the artists who came to Gölyazı stayed a month with the local people and created art works inspired from the social and cultural life and physical and spatial characteristics of the settlement. They organized workshops and seminars, created various art works in the public square, on the streets and the bridge and on the walls of houses. At the end of the project they left their art works as gifts to the town.

Figure 11: General Views Mainly as installations, these 23 art works were created in the most popular part of the town, each referring to its social, economic and / or physical characteristics. During the project local people participated in the process and were very active in choosing places and material, and then naming the art works. In order to determine the spatial and social effects created by the Gölyazı Contemporary Art Park Project, to examine the attaining of objectives of the project and to analyze the effects of the project on spatial quality, a case study was implemented, a survey and a series of observations were conducted. The population mostly consisted of middle-aged people, having primary school education. Although fishing had been economically sufficient for their livelihood in the past and education had not been necessary for better living conditions, young people are increasingly leaving the town with the aim of getting an education.

12

Figure 12: Examples from the Project The main starting point of the “Gölyazı International Contemporary Art Park Project” was the idea of making Gölyazı an attractive tourism center with its historical, natural and archeological values, while increasing its spatial worth and quality of life so as to draw attention through artistic events. During and after the project, advertisements related to the artistic activities made the Gölyazı settlement a more attractive, popular and lively place for tourists, especially during the weekends. Because of its archeological and historic values, Gölyazı is a listed conservation site having very restricted construction potential, but without enough places for visitor accommodations. Another benefit of the Project was to create economic support for the local people in the settlement. Observations and interviews conducted show that commercial activities have been improved and the number of cafés and restaurants has increased. Survey results show that 25% of the local people became interested in painting and handicraft activities after this event. For a relatively less educated community, art and artistic activities have become a focus of interest, creating an important cultural development. In terms of the effects of the Gölyazı Project on the public space quality of the settlement, identity, social communication, cultural continuity, aesthetic experience and economic benefits are the most important results observed. During this international project, the name of the settlement (as host) was mentioned with these artistic events in various media (in newspapers, on TV, in documentaries), drawing attention to the historical, natural and cultural characteristics which give the settlement an international identity.
Primary objective
To create an attractive place To attract tourists To build hotels and pensions To create additional financial support for people To have more social atmosphere To integrate local people with art

Assessment
Published and presented in media Increasing number of tourists Economic development of local people Social atmosphere Individual development Increasing interest in art Increasing participation

Problem
Transportation Limited land Daily tourist visit because of lack of tourism facilities

Lack of information for local people Percentage of old aged population

Table I: Assessment of the project objectives according to survey results

13

Residents got an opportunity to have face-to-face communication with the project leader and participants. Dialogues of the artists coming from different cultures with the residents created an agenda and a global vision for the community. Artists spent their time in Gölyazı during the Project and learned about the social and cultural characteristics of the town, resulting in art works designed to reflect these values. The Project also activated restoration studies and archeological activities in the settlement. Gölyazı gained a new face with the Contemporary Art Park Project and transformation conducted during the process. Public places, where the art works are located, have been renovated, and this process has positively affected the spatial quality. Low-income and lesseducated people of Gölyazı were introduced to the arts by means of the project and have become interested in artistic activities. The demand of the people for a cleaner, better maintained and more beautiful environment is another positive outcome of this art project.

Conclusion
The Gölyazı project, conducted in a relatively small scale settlement, affected the area, the local people and also the social life in a very positive way. It is clear that an art object or an artistic activity in a public space is an important touch that directly influences the quality of a place. A variety of the artistic production in public spaces widens the sphere of influence in the city. Public art is the outcome of society reflecting its culture, lifestyle and history. Artists transfer their own values, visions and ideas and reach the masses, creating stronger interaction between the arts, the environment and the people. The influences of art on the quality of a public place show the importance of this factor for the design of new settlements and quality improvement studies of the existing environments. To increase the positive effects of the process, it is clear that interdisciplinary studies of artists with planners, architects, etc. are necessary, where integrated planning and design approaches are inevitable.

References
Atabek, E. (2002), Kamusal Mekanlarda Kalite, Yıldız Teknik Universitesinde Kullanıcı Görüşlerine Dayalı Kalite Değerlendirmesi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Istanbul. Aydınlı, S. (1995), Kentsel Mekanda Estetik Algılama, Mimari ve Kentsel Çevrede Kalite Arayışları Sempozyumu, pp. 320-327, Istanbul, ITU Press. Bunschoten, R. (2002), Public Spaces, Serial Books, Architecture & Urbanism 4, London, Black Dog Publishing Limited. Carmichael, J. L., The Use of Urban Art in Public Art [Online]. Available: http:/geocities.com/Paris/1555/public_art.html. Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivling, L. G., Stone, A. M. (1992), Public Spaces, Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press. Davis, C. J. (1997), Improving Design in the High Street, Royal Fine Art Commission, Oxford, Architectural Press. Fieldhouse, P., ‘This Town Ain’t Big Enough...’, The Route to Pedestrianisation in Caring for our Towns and Cities [Online]. Available: www.rudi.net Gehl, J. (1987), Life between Buildings, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
14

Gehl, J. & Gemzøe, L. (2001), New City Spaces, Copenhagen, The Danish Architectural Press. Gehl, J. & Gemzøe, L. (2004), Public Spaces Public Life, Copenhagen, The Danish Architectural Press. Glover, A., Urban Design and Streetscape, Adding a Touch of Personality in Caring for our Towns and Cities[Online]. Available: www.rudi.net Gülersoy, N. Z., Özsoy, A., Tezer, A., Yiğiter, R. G., Günay, Z. (2005), Mevcut Kentsel Dokuda Çevresel Kalitenin Iyileştirilmesi, Istanbul, ITU. Lynch, K. (1972), What Time is this Place?, Cambridge, M.I.T. Press. Longini, S. J. (2006), Public Art Contributes to City's Prestige, Defines its Image, Oakland Tribune. Ögel, S. (1997), Çevresel Sanat, Istanbul, ITU, Mimarlık-Mühendislik Fakültesi Yayınları. Özdemir, D. (2005), Kent Merkezinde Kültür Eksenli Bir Dönüşüm Projesi: Temple Bar, Dublin. Mimarlık, pp. 98-105. Parfect, M. and Power, G. (1997), Planning for Urban Quality: Urban Design in Towns and Cities, London & New York, Routhledge Publishing. Rendell, J. (2000), Public Art: Between Public and Private, Advances in Art and Urban Futures Volume 1, Locality, Regeneration and Diversities, ed. Sarah Bennet and John Butler, Intellect Books, Wiltshire Cromwell Press. Rendell, J. (2006), Art and Architecture, A Place Between, London, I. B. Tauris. Salgado, M. A. (2002), Kamusal Alanda Sanat, Istanbul Yaya Sergileri 1, ed: Amado, L., Kumcuoğlu, I.; Istanbul, Stil Matbaa. Sangha, S., Access, Signage and Car Parking, ‘Getting from A to B’ in Caring for our Towns and Cities[Online]. Available: www.rudi.net Şenliyer, N. (1995), Yaya Mekanlarında Sanat Objelerinin Çevre Yaşam Kalitesine Etkisi: Paris’ten bir M A örneği, Mimari ve Kentsel Çevrede Kalite Arayışları Sempozyumu, 5-6-7 Haziran, pp. 133-139, Istanbul, ITU Press. Tibbalds, F. (1992), Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the Public Environment in Towns and Environment, London, Longman. Uygur, N. (1996), Kültür Kuramı, Istanbul, Yapı Kredi Press. Woolley, H. (2003), Urban Open Spaces, London, Spon Press. Yünkuş, R. (2006), Interview with a representative of the Gölyazı Municipality (24 January 2006). www.pps.org, Public Places www.axisweb.org

15

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful