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AIRCRAFT RECOGNITION

INDUCTION






Australian

Air Training Corps

Cadet / Instructor Notes




1
ST
Edition, December 2000


Amendment No 2 dated 24 October 2001





ARI - 1

COMPULSORY SERVICE TRAINING (INDUCTION)

AIRCRAFT RECOGNITION (ARI)

7 Periods + visit

ARI 1 Aircraft Recognition Features AL:A Period(s): 1

Describe the systematic approach to aircraft identification: WETFUS

(1) Wings
(2) Engines
(3) Tailplane
(4) Fuselage
(5) Undercarriages
(6) Special Features

ARI 2 RAAF Aircraft AL: B Period(s): 2

Identify, using WETFUS. the current aircraft of the RAAF in the following
categories:

(1) Strike Reconnaissance
(2) Airlift / Ground Support
(3) Fighter
(4) Maritime
(5) Trainer

Note: The current list of RAAF aircraft can be found in the Induction List contained as
Annex A to the ARI syllabus within the Manual of Cadet Training.

ARI 3 Australian Major Civilian Aircraft AL:B Period(s): 2

Identify, using WETFUS, a minimum of ten (10) aircraft found in the Induction
(secondary) List contained in Annex A to the ARI syllabus.

ARI 4 Airport Visit AL: Period(s): As Reqd

Visit a RAAF Base or local airport with the view to reinforcing the WETFUS
system of recognising aircraft.

ARI 5 Examination Period(s): 1

ARI 6 Examination Review Period(s): 1


ARI - 2

ANNEX A
TO ARI (NOV 00)

AIRCRAFT RECOGNITION INDUCTION (ARI)

BASIC LIST



RAAF List







Secondary List

Select a minimum of
10 aircraft

Aircraft
F/A 18 Hornet
F111 Aardvark
DHC-4A Caribou
Hercules C.130
Pilatus PC-9a
BAe Hawk 127

Boeing B717
Boeing B727
Boeing B737
Boeing B747
Boeing B767
Dash 8
DHC Twin Otter 300
Metroliner 23
Brasilia 120
BN Islander

Aircraft
Orion P.3
Boeing 707-338c
Falcon 900
HS 748 Series 2A
Super King Air A200


Gates Learjet
Airbus A320
Fokker F28
Fokker F50
BAe 146
Bandeirante 110
Beech 1900D
Bombardier CRJ 200
SAAB 340

ARI - 3

COMPULSORY SERVICE TRAINING (INDUCTION)

AIRCRAFT RECOGNITION (ARI)

ARI 1 - AIRCRAFT RECOGNITION FEATURES

1 PERIOD

Objective. a. Describe the systematic approach to aircraft identification: WETFUS.

(1) Wings
(2) Engines
(3) Tailplane
(4) Fuselage
(5) Undercarriage
(6) Special features

IDENTIFYING AN AIRCRAFT USING "WETFUS"

1001. When examining an aircraft for the purposes of determining its make, model and role, it
is necessary to look at the various aspects of the aircrafts size, shape and features.

1002. It is important to make a quick decision on the aircraft by using the WETFUS system.
This will enable you to look at the aircraft systematically and allowing you make the recognition.
You may not be able to see all the aircraft, only its silhouette', so you must memorise the
important features.

1003. The WINGS are the most prevalent, then the ENGINES, followed by the TAILPLANE.
The FUSELAGE can be particularly distinguishable eg the Boeing nose and shape while the
UNDERCARRIAGE is helpful if the aircraft is in a dirty configuration. The SPECIAL
FEATURES assist to complete the recognition of the aircraft.

1004. The list below describes the features that should be examined so as to determine the
type of aircraft:

a. Shape and size of the WINGS
b. Position and number of ENGINES
c. Shape and size of the TAILPLANE and RUDDER
d. Shape and size of the FUSELAGE
e. Type and style of UNDERCARRIAGE eg fixed, retractable, tricycle or
taildragger
f. Shape and size of the FIN and TAILPLANE
g. Position of WINGS and TAILPLANE in relation to the FUSELAGE
h. Type of ENGINE/s eg jet, turbo prop, or incline or radial piston engine.
i. Position, size and shape of such additional parts as DORSAL and VENTRAL
FINS, WING FENCES etc
j. Position, size and shape of such additional parts as BULGERS, PODS, BOOMS,
ANTENNAE and PROBES.

1005. If all the factors in the above list are taken into account then a positive identification of
the aircraft is capable of being made.
ARI - 4

IDENTIFYING AN AIRCRAFT USING "WETFUS" (cont)

1006. Concentrate on the Airframe, Wings and Engine areas of the aircraft, as external features
should not be as a means of identifying any aircraft. Items such as tip tanks, radomes, or aerial
may not always be fitted to a particular aircraft due to changes in roles or missions.

1007. Some aircraft which have the same profile layout from underneath have different styles of
cockpit layouts and different roles and uses, eg either single or dual cockpit canopies, glass-
house or solid noses.

IDENTIFYING THE VARIOUS TYPES OF RECOGNITION FEATURES

1008. Aircraft come in many types and sizes, from small single engine propeller driven light
aircraft to large multi-engine transports and bombers.

1009. The diagrams following, (a) Propeller Types and (b) Gas turbine types show the common
names given to the various parts of these types and, in general, are common to all aircraft. It is
necessary to know these names, as it will help you understand aircraft recognition terms.

1010. Learn the names of the various components, and their purpose and this will greatly
improve your ability to recognise the different types of aircraft in the following lessons.


ARI - 5

a. Propeller Driven Types


ARI - 6

b. Gas Turbine Driven Types








ARI - 7

COMPULSORY SERVICE TRAINING (INDUCTION)

AIRCRAFT RECOGNITION (ARI)

ARI 2 - ROLES OF RAAF AIRCRAFT

2 PERIODS


Objective: (a) Identify, using WETFUS, the current aircraft of the RAAF and
their primary roles in the following categories:

(1) Strike reconnaissance
(2) Airlift / Ground Support
(3) Fighter
(4) Maritime
(5) Trainer

ARI - 8

NAME: MacDONNELL DOUGLAS F/A.18 HORNET

ORIGIN: United States of America

ROLE: Multi role Fighter, air interception. air combat, close air support of ground
troops, interdiction of enemy supply lines (including shipping).
Technology allows it to strike land or sea targets in any weather.

CREW: 1 pilot

SQUADRONS: RAAF Williamtown NSW Nos 3 & 77 Sqn
RAAF Tindal NT No 75 Sqn

FEATURES: a. Fixed anhedral mid wing, tapered leading edge, and light taper on
trailing edge.
b. Wing leading edge extensions extend from wing roots to front of
cockpit.
c. Intakes mounted under wing leading edge on fuselage.
d. Twin outward canting vertical stabilizers.
e Slab type stabilators.
f. Oval fuselage section, with pointed nose, single or dual bubble
cockpit.
ARI - 9

NAME: GENERAL DYNAMICS F.111 AARDVARK

ORIGIN: United States of America

ROLE: Strike and Interdiction, can fly at supersonic speeds day or night, hugging
the ground or sea in all kind of weather.

CREW: 1 Pilot, 1 Navigator side by side

SQUADRONS: RAAF Amberley Q Nos 1 & 6 Sqn


FEATURES: a. Variable geometry wing in high set boxes pivoting from fuselage
b. Slab elevators and single fin and rudder assembly
c. Intakes mounted under leading edge of wing.
d. Low profile cockpit, sharp pointed radar nose cone.
ARI - 10

NAME: DE HAVILLAND (CANADA) DHC-4A CARIBOU

ORIGIN: Canada

ROLE Short-range troop and equipment transport for ARMY. Has a STOL
capability

CREW: 2 Pilots and 1 flight engineer

SQUADRON: RAAF Townsville Q 38 Sqn
RAAF Darwin NT also No 38 Sqn

FEATURES: a Fuselage cross-section is a rounded box shape.
b. High straight wing with tapered outer wing trailing edges.
c. Large radial engines mounted on wings.
d. Wings inverted gull type.
e. High fin. tailplane set mid-fin.
f. Rear fuselage upswept to help facilitate rear loading door.
g. Bulbous nose with glass house (multi section windows) cockpit.
ARI - 11

NAME: LOCKHEED C.130 HERCULES

ORIGIN: United States of America

ROLE: Medium/long range combat transport

CREW: 1 pilot, 1 co-pilot, 1 navigator, 1 flight engineer, and 1 loadmaster

SQUADRON: RAAF Richmond NSW Nos 36 & 37 Sqn




FEATURES: a High tail fin with low horizontal tailplane
b. High upsweep of rear fuselage, two large rear loading doors.
c. Large wheel housing bulges on either side of fuselage.
d. High, straight wing with slight dihedral.
e. Nose radome bulge.
f. Multi section cockpit windows.
g. Engines mounted on leading edge of wings.

ARI - 12

NAME: PILATUS PC-9a

ORIGIN: Switzerland (Produced by Hawker De Havilland (Aust) (under license)

ROLE: 2 seat trainer and also forward air controller.

CREW: 1 instructor, 1 trainee pilot as trainer, or
1 pilot, 1 observer in FAC role.

SQUADRON: RAAF Pearce WA No 2 Flying Training School
RAAF East Sale Vic Central Flying School




FEATURES: a. Low wing monoplane.
b. Dual in line cockpit.
c. Nose mounted engine.
d. Box fuselage.
e. Long nose area forward of wing section.
f. High tailplane and dorsal fin, tailplane extends past tailfin.
ARI - 13

NAME: LOCKHEED P.3 ORION

ORIGIN United States of America

ROLE: Long range maritime patrol aircraft, anti-submarine, anti-shipping
reconnaissance escort and rescue duties.

CREW 2 Pilots, 2 Flight Engineers, Tactical co-ordinator,
navigator/communicator, & 6 Airbourne Electronic Analysts.

SQUADRONS: RAAF Edinburgh SA Nos 10 &11 Sqn


FEATURES: a. Low wing monoplane, dihedral wings, with tapered trailing edges
b. Tubular fuselage, large radome nose, MAD boom extending from
tail.
c. Large tailfin dihedral tailplane assembly
d. Engines mounted on leading edges of wings.
e. Searchlight pod fitted under starboard wing.
f. Armament fitted under both wings
ARI - 14

NAME: BOEING 707-338c

ORIGIN. United States of America

ROLE: Long range VIP, troop/cargo with in-flight refuelling pods.

CREW: 3 Flight crew plus cabin crew

SQUADRON: RAAF Richmond NSW No 33 Sqn


FEATURES: a Four turbofan engines in forward slung underwing pylons.
b. Low, sweptback wings with slight dihedral.
c. Low set dihedral tail plane.
d. Large set back fin.
e. Cigar shaped fuselage.
f. Tanker aircraft have a small pod near the wing tip.
ARI - 15

NAME: DASSAULT-BREGUET FALCON 900

ORIGIN: France

ROLE: V.l.P. Transport (RAAF)

CREW: 2 Pilots , flight steward

SQUADRON: RAAF Fairbairn ACT No34 Sqn




FEATURES: a. Cigar shaped fuselage.
b. Large cockpit windows.
c. Low swept back wings.
d. Three engines at the rear of the fuselage. No. 2 engine intake in
front of tailfin.
e. Tailplane with slight dihedral mounted above No 2 engine intake
on tailfin.
ARI - 16

NAME: BRITISH AEROSPACE (HSA) 748 SERIES 2A

ORIGIN: UK by Hawker-Siddley

ROLE: General purpose transport, navigation, and STOL capabilities.

CREW: 2 Pilots, navigator plus cabin crew as required

SQUADRON RAAF East Sale VIC No 32 Sqn



FEATURES: a. Low wing monoplane.
b. Low set tailplane.
c. Wings and tailplane both equal taper.
d. Wings have dihedral
e. Engines mounted above and forward of wings.
f. Straight tapered fin with dorsal fin.
f. Cigar shaped fuselage.
ARI - 17

NAME: BEECH SUPER KING AIR A200

ORIGIN: USA

ROLE: General purpose transport, navigation.

CREW: 2 Pilots, cabin crew as required

SQUADRON RAAF East Sale VIC No 32 Sqn
RAAF Edinburgh SA ARDU






FEATURES: a. Low wing monoplane with variable taper.
b. High set tailplane T Tail.
c. Stabilizing strakes mounted lower rear of fuselage.
d. Wings are swept back, tapered, with dihedral
e. Turboprop engines mounted above and forward of wings.
f. Straight tapered vertical stabilizer with dorsal fin.
ARI - 18

NAME: BAe HAWK 127

ORIGIN: USA

ROLE: Lead in fighter training & fast jet training

CREW: 2 Pilots

SQUADRON RAAF PEARCE WA No 76 SQN
RAAF WILLIAMSTOWN NSW No 76 SQN

































FEATURES: a. Backward Tapered Wings to rear of centre.
b. Side air intakes (for single jet engine) under rear cockpit.
c. Backward tapered tailplane with anhedral.
d. Large 2 seat bubble canopy set high. Rear seat higher than front.
e. Tricycle trailing arm undercarriage.

.
ARI - 19

COMPULSORY SERVICE TRAINING (INDUCTION)

AIRCRAFT RECOGNITION (ARI)

ARI 3 AUSTRALIAN MAJOR CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT

2 PERIODS


Objective: To identify using WETFUS, a minimum of 10 aircraft, and their roles,
from the list below.

Airbus A320
Bandeirante EMB 110
BAe 146
Beech 1900D
Bombardiare CRJ 200
Britten-Norman (BN) Islander
Boeing 717
Boeing 727
Boeing 737
Boeing 747
Boeing 767
de Havilland Dash 8
DHC-6 Twin Otter Series 300
Embraer EMB120 Brasilia
Gates Learjet
Fokker F28
Fokker F50
Metroliner 23
SAAB 340

ARI - 20

NAME: BOEING 717-200

Origin: United States of America

ROLE: Commercial airliner short stages

CREW: 2 flight crew with 90-110 passengers

AIRLINES: Impulse Airlines





FEATURES: a. T-tail assembly,
b. Two engines mounted on rear fuselage forward & below fin.
c. Low swept back wings.
d. Narrow body, circular section fuselage.
ARI - 21

NAME: BOEING 727-200

Origin: United States of America

ROLE: Short - medium haul freighter

CREW: 3 flight crew

AIRLINES: Australian Air express, Air Cargo Australia, Independent Air Freighters



FEATURES: a. T-tail assembly, engine intake in front of tailfin and exhaust
protruding rear of fuselage.
b. Two other engines mounted on rear fuselage forward & below fin.
c. Low swept back wings.
d. Narrow body, circular section fuselage.
ARI - 22

NAME: BOEING 737

ORIGIN: United States of America

ROLE: Short - medium haul commercial airliner

CREW: 2 flight crew and 100 - 149 passengers

AIRLINES: Ansett flies 337s, Qantas flies 33As, Virgin Blue flies 400s



FEATURES. a. Low dihedral sweptback wings, two engines underslung on
forward protruding pylons.
b. Narrow body, circular section fuselage.
c. Swept dorsal fin and conventional tailplane.

ARI - 23

NAME: BOEING 747-400

ORIGIN: United States of America

ROLE: Wide body ultra-long haul commercial airliner

CREW: 2 flight crew and 375-500 passengers

AIRLINES: Ansett, Qantas. Singapore, British Airways.

FEATURES: a. Low dihedral sweptback wings with four engines underslung on
forward protruding pylons and winglets
b. Wide body, circular section fuselage.
c. Sweptback fin and tailplane.
d. Distinctive 'upper deck' hump on forward fuselage.
e. 18 wheels on five sets of undercarriage.
ARI - 24

NAME: BOEING 767-200

ORIGIN: United States of America

ROLE: Wide body, medium haul commercial airliner

CREW: 2 flight crew and 211-235 passengers

AIRLINES: Ansett, Qantas

FEATURES. a. Low dihedral wings with two engines underslung on forward
protruding pylons.
b. Wide body, circular section fuselage.
c. Sweptback fin and tailplane
d. Similar to A300, but with a more rounded nose section.
ARI - 25

NAME: AIRBUS INDUSTRIES A320-200

ORIGIN: European Consortium.

ROLE: Short-medium haul commercial airliner.

CREW: 2 flight crew and 150-179 passengers.

AIRLINES: Ansett


FEATURES. a. Low dihedral sweptback wings with two engines underslung on
forward protruding pylons.
b. Narrow body, circular section fuselage.
c. Sweptback fin and tailplane.
d. Small dual winglets.

ARI - 26

NAME: BRITISH AEROSPACE 146-200

ORIGIN: United Kingdom

ROLE: Short haul commercial airliner

CREW: 2 flight crew and 92-112 passengers

AIRLINES: Ansett, Aust Air Express, Qantas, National Jet Systems, Southern Airlines



FEATURES. a. High anhedral slightly sweptback wings with four engines
underslung on forward protruding pylons.
b. Narrow body, circular section fuselage.
c. T-Tail assembly with dorsal fin.
d. Only airliner with high main and tail planes with underslung jet
engines.

ARI - 27

NAME: FOKKER F28-4000 FELLOWSHIP

ORIGIN: Netherlands

ROLE: Short haul commercial airliner

CREW: 2 flight crew and 65-85 passengers

AIRLINES: Flight West



FEATURES: a. Low sweptback clean wings.
b. T-tail assembly with dorsal fin.
c. Two engines mounted on rear fuselage below the fin
d. Air Brakes located at rear of fuselage below the fin

ARI - 28

NAME: FOKKER F50

ORIGIN: Netherlands

ROLE: Short haul commercial airliner

CREW: 2 plus cabin crew

AIRLINES: Ansett, Skywest Airlines
















FEATURES: a. High wing, tapered with high aspect ratio.
b. Twin turboprops mounted under wing.
c. Small wingtip winglets.
d. Conventional tail with tapered tailplane and large dorsal fin.
e. Circular fuselage with pointed nose.



ARI - 29

NAME: EMBRAER EMB120 BANDEIRANTE

ORIGIN: Brazil

ROLE: Short haul commuter airliner

CREW: 2 flight crew and 21 passengers

AIRLINES: Airlines of South Australia



FEATURES: a. Low dihedral square wings with two engines moulded with
narrow body, square section fuselage.
b. Narrow body square section fuselage.
c. High sweptback tailfin with long dorsal fin.
d. Has a ventral fin under rear fuselage.



ARI - 30

NAME: EMBRAER EMB120 BRASILIA

ORIGIN: Brazil

ROLE: Short haul commuter airliner

CREW: 2 flight crew and 30 passengers

AIRLINES: Hazelton, Air North &
Skippers Aviation

















FEATURES: a. Leading edge variable tapered wings.
b. Twin turboprops mounted above and forward of wing
c. T-Tail with long dorsal fin.
d. Circular section fuselage.
e. Forward retractable undercarriage.

ARI - 31

NAME: BRITTEN-NORMAN (BN) ISLANDER

ORIGIN: United Kingdom

ROLE: Lightweight feeder-line transport.

CREW: 1 or 2 pilots, up to 17 passengers.

AIRLINES: Used extensively by parachute clubs as it has short field ability.
National Jet Systems uses this aircraft for coastal watch

















FEATURES: a. Rectangular wings with tips bent up.
b. Fixed tricycle undercarriage with large fairings over the main
oloes protruding from under the engines.
c. twin piston engines mounted under wing.
d. Box shaped fuselage tapered up from behind the wing.

ARI - 32

NAME: BEECH 1900D

ORIGIN: USA

ROLE: Lightweight feeder-line transport.

CREW: 1 or 2 pilots, up to 19 passengers.

AIRLINES: Impulse Airline




















FEATURES: a. Variable Taper Wings with vertical winglets.
b. Twin turboprop with engines above wing and 4 bladed propellors.
c. T-Tail with thick dorsal fin and vertical stabilizing fins under
tailplane.
d. Ventral fin at rear of fuselage.
e. Small stabilizing winglets on rear of fuselage.
f. High extended fuselage roof.
g. Tricycle undercarriage with dual wheel mains.
ARI - 33

NAME: CANADAIR CRJ 200

ORIGIN: Canada

ROLE: Short haul commercial airliner

CREW: 2 Pilots, plus Flight Steward plus 50 passengers

AIRLINES: Kendall Airlines





FEATURES: a. Swept back wings with winglets, mounted low.
b. Two turbofan engines, mounted rear mid-upper fuselage.
c. T-tail, swept tapered surfaces.
d. Cylindrical fuselage.
e. Inward retracting main undercarriage, with forward retracting twin
nose gear.

ARI - 34

NAME: de HAVILLAND (Canada) DASH 8

ORIGIN: Canada

ROLE: Q-STOL, Short haul commercial airliner

CREW: 2 pilots plus 35-40 passengers

AIRLINES: National Jet Systems, Sunstate Airlines, Eastern Airlines,
Southern Airlines, Skippers Aviation.
Lads Corporation for laser airborne, and depth sounder survey work
(contracted to RAN)




FEATURES: a. Wings high aspect ratio, mounted atop fuselage.
b. Two turbofan engines mounted forward & below wing in nacelles
with main undercarriage.
c. T-tail, swept fin with prominent fillet, upswept & tapered
horizontal planes.
d. Long rear retracting twin wheel mains (NB Nacelles extend
beyond trailing edge), rear retracting twin nose gear.
e. CT 142 large bulbous nose for radar (Role: nav trainer)
E.9A large radar array on starboard lower fuselage &
radar/telemetry ventral dome. (Role: Missile range monitor).

ARI - 35

NAME: DHC-6 TWIN OTTER SERIERS 300

ORIGIN: Canada

ROLE: Lightweight feeder-line transport.

CREW: 1 or 2 pilots, up to 18 passengers.

AIRLINES: Aeropelican, Sunstate Airlines



















FEATURES: a. High mounted, strut braced square wing.
b. Turbo prop engines mounted in leading edge of wings
c. Mid mounted tailplane on square swept fine of wings.
d. Long square fuselage with forward mounted canopy.
e. Fixed tricycle undercarriage mounted on fuselage.
ARI - 36

NAME: GATES LEARJET 35

ORIGIN: USA

ROLE: Medical retrievals and repatriations.

CREW: 2 pilots plus medical team

AIRLINES: Medijet Australia
Pel Air (Nowra, NSW) for target towing & missile duties with RAN


































FEATURES: a. Low mount wings, slight sweep, wing-tip tanks.
b. Two turbofan engines, mounted rear mid upper fuselage sides.
c. T-tail, broad fin, swept horizontal surfaces.
d. Slim fuselage, steeply raked nose/cockpit profile.
f. Tricycle undercarriage, mains inward retracting, nose forward
retracting.

ARI - 37

NAME: FAIRCHILD METROLINER 23

ORIGIN: USA

ROLE: Lightweight feeder-line transport.

CREW: 2 pilots, up to 19 passengers.

AIRLINES: Kendall, Hazelton, Skippers Aviation












FEATURES: a. Tapered wings, with slight dihedral, mounted low on fuselage.
b. Two turbofans, mounted well forward of leading edge.
c. Tailplane all surfaces swept, dorsal fin fillet, horizontal surfaces
mounted low on fin.
d. Long & slim cylindrical fuselage, small ventral fin.
e. Twin nose wheel & single wheels main all retract forward, mains
into extensions of engine nacelles.
ARI - 38

NAME: SAAB 340

ORIGIN: Sweden

ROLE: Lightweight feeder-line transport.

CREW: 2 pilots, 1 Flight Steward, up to 36 passengers.

AIRLINES: Kendall, Hazelton, Skippers Aviation



























FEATURES: a. Low mount wing, slight dihedral, tapered.
b. Two turbofan engines mounted forward of leading edge.
c. Swept fin with prominent dorsal fillet, tapered horizontal surfaces
have marked dihedral extending from upper fuselage.
d. Cylindrical fuselage.
f. All twin wheel & forward retracting, mains into extended engine
nacelles.