I. Purpose of experiment
 To determine the density of fluid
II. Base Of Theory
Archimedes Principle
In physics, buoyancy is an upward acting force, caused by fluid pressure, that keeps things
afloat. The upward force exerted by water on any immersed object is called a buoyant force.
This can occur only in an accelerated frame of reference (such as gravity or a centrifugal forces)
defining a "downward" direction along the acceleration. The net upward buoyancy force is equal
to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body. This force enables the object to
float.
Law of buoyancy, discovered by Archimedes, which states that any object that is completely
or partially submerged in a fluid at rest is acted on by an upward, or buoyant, force. The
magnitude of this force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. The volume of
fluid displaced is equal to the volume of the portion of the object submerged.
Archimedes' principle, principle that states that a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a
force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. The principle applies to both floating and
submerged bodies and to all fluids, i.e., liquids and gases. It explains not only the buoyancy of
ships and other vessels in water but also the rise of a balloon in the air and the apparent loss of
weight of objects underwater.
Figure 1. The forces at work in buoyancy
The formula of measurement density of various shape object by Archimedess principle can be
derived by the equation as follow.
F
a
= W
b
F
a
= mg
y =
oil
gV
object
water
gV
object
= (
oil
g 
water
g) V
object
V
object
=
Z =
object
gV
object

oil
gV
object
= (
object
g 
oil
g) V
object
V
object
=
object

oil
=
object

water
object

oil

water
(
So, the equation to find density of various shape object by Archimedess principle is :
Where :
= Density of Object (
= Density of Water (
)
III. Apparatus
Spring Balance
Load (iron load)
Container for fluid
Balance
Ruler
Vernier caliper
Two different of fluid (water and cooking oil)
IV. Method
1. First, measure the mass of iron load using balance
2. Measure the side of iron load using vernier caliper, then find the volume
3. After that, now prepare the container and the fluid that we want to measure the density.
4. Place the spring with the load which in the end of the spring to the fluid that have been placed
in the container. Like figure below
Sprng Blance (F)
Fluid
I ron Load
5. Look at the scale of spring balance and put the result on the table.
Table for = liquid
Mass (kg) Side (m) F at spring balance
(N)
6. Repeat the measurement for five times and do for another liquid that we want to measure the
density.
V. Technique of data analysis (Calculation)
First of all by doing this experiment we fine the mass by using balance. After we fine the
mass (m) then enters in the table of measurements. The uncertainty in each measurement of
mass is half of uncertainly in balance smallest scale is 0.1 g.
SMS m
2
1
After that by doing this experiment we fine the ide of iron cube by using vernier caliper.
After we fine the side (s) then enters in the table of measurements. The uncertainty in each
measurement of side is half of uncertainly in vernier caliper with smallest scale is 0.1 cm.
Then, find the volume
At least we fine the force by using spring balance. After we fine the force (F) then enters in
the table of measurements. The uncertainty in each measurement of force is half of uncertainly in
spring balance smallest scale is 0.1 N.
When system in the equilibrium state we have to calculate the force.
Then, we calculate the force. For Y axis is F = W  F
a
So, to determine the density of fluid we use equation:
To find the uncertain is:

(
 
(
 
(
Sprng Blance
(F)
F
a
= gV
W =mg
VI. Experiment Results
For water fluid
No Mass (kg) Side (m
3
) F at spring
balance (N)
1
2
3
4
5
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
1,97 x 10
2
2,43 x 10
2
2,16 x 10
2
2,24 x 10
2
2,24 x 10
2
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
For oil fluid
No Mass (kg) Side (m
3
) F at spring
balance (N)
1
2
3
4
5
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
1,97 x 10
2
2,43 x 10
2
2,16 x 10
2
2,24 x 10
2
2,24 x 10
2
0,56
0,56
0,56
0,56
0,56
VII. Data Analysis
For water fluid
No Mass (kg) Side (m
3
) F at spring
balance (N)
1
2
3
4
5
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
1,97 x 10
2
2,43 x 10
2
2,16 x 10
2
2,24 x 10
2
2,24 x 10
2
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
Total 306,5 x 10
3
11,04 x 10
2
2,55
Average 61,3 x 10
3
2,2 x 10
2
0,5
Find the volume
Find the uncertainty of volume
Find the density of the water
Find the uncertainty of density
After we calculate, we will find
So, the density of water that we get from experiment is
For oil fluid
No Mass (kg) Side (m
3
) F at spring
balance (N)
1
2
3
4
5
61,4 x 10
3
61,4 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,3 x 10
3
61,4 x 10
3
2,20 x 10
2
1,60 x 10
2
1,60 x 10
2
2,00 x 10
2
2,20 x 10
2
0,56
0,56
0,56
0,56
0,56
Total 306,6 x 10
3
9,6 x 10
2
2,80
Average 61,36 x 10
3
1,92 x 10
2
0,56
Find the volume
Find the uncertainty of volume
Find the density of the oil
Find the uncertainty of density
After we calculate, we will find
So, the density of oil that we get from experiment is
VIII. Interpretation
Experiment measure density of water
From the experiment that we have done, we get the data for the value of fluid density.
First is we done the experiment for the water. From the experiment we get the value of water
density is 1.061,23 kg/m
3
and according to the theory, the value of water density is 1000 kg/m
3
.
No we can find the error, by following this formula:
The magnitude value of density of water that we that from experiment is 1.061,23 kg/m
3
.
Error in this experiment is 6.12%. Because the error less than 10%, so this experiment can be
accepted. Thus this experiment that we done by calculating analysis was a successful and
accurate determination density with relative error in this experiment just 0.03%.
Experiment measure density of oil
Second, from the experiment that we have done, we get the data for the value of fluid
density. First is we done the experiment for the oil. From the experiment we get the value of oil
density is 779,5 kg/m
3
and according to the theory, the value of water density is 800 kg/m
3
. No
we can find the error, by following this formula:
The magnitude value of density of oil that we that from experiment is 779,5 kg/m
3
. Error in
this experiment is 5.36%. Because the error less than 10%, so this experiment can be accepted.
Thus this experiment that we done by calculating analysis was a successful and accurate
determination density with relative error in this experiment just 0.043%.
IX. Comment
From the experiment that we have done, the result of the experiment is not exactly equal with
the theory, its caused by some error that we have when this experiment did. The error is
classified to three, there are:
1. Gross Error (error that caused by human):
among them is missreading when read the scale of vernier caliper, spring balance and fault
when we calculate the data in analysis the data.
2. Systematic errors (error that caused by instrument and environment):
a) Instrumental error: the error that occurs because of tools is broken or didnt work
properly, in this experiment the tool is spring balance. It is because the scale of spring
balance is too small, so it make difficult to read it
b) Enviromental error: the error that occur because of the disturbance of enviroment such as
the temperature not constant.
3. Random error : due to unknown causes and occur even when all systematic error have been
accounted for
X. Conclusion
In this experiment, we get that the value of waters density is 1.061,23 kg/m
3
with error is
6,12% and relative error is 0,03% and the value of oils density is 779,5 kg/m
3
with error is
5,36% and relative error is 0,043%.
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