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LITERATURE REVIEW

The literature review of any field forms the foundation upon which all future research work will
be built. A literature review is a description of the literature relevant to a particular field or topic.
This is often written as part of a thesis proposal, or at the commencement of a thesis. A critical
literature review is a critical assessment of the relevant literature.

Consumer Perception
Perception is defined as the special interpretation that individual pays attention to objects or
ideas searched or brought to the consumers sensory (Walters, 1989). Other authors defined that
perception is a kind of explanation how individuals choose and organize various information
they are going to expose and perception is a set of attitude, motivations, experience and learning,
particularly correlated with a previous purchase (Middleton & Clarke, 2001). Perception is a
series of progress of people choose, form, and interpret information to gain an understandable
picture of the world (Kotler, 2004). Perception is identified as the progress of an individual
chooses, arranges, and interprets stimuli to be meaningful and logical frame of the world
(Schiffman & Kanuk, 2004). Solomon and Stuart (2005) defined that three basic aspects of
consumers perception are exposure, perceptive selection and interpretation.

Product Quality
Quality is perceived. Perception about the quality of the product may be different for
different consumers. Quality is a desirable characteristic of a product to be believable, useful
and sought after for consumers. As per Zeithhaml (1987), the qualitys concept is an abstract
evaluation or judgment which associates with a product physical standards and attributes, and
also relates to the intrinsic cue that sets standards in the consumers minds. According to Crosby
et al., (2003), first impression of any product is very important as something is established in the
consumers minds because of their first impression. Consumers form perceptions about the
quality of a product after purchasing and using it.

Product Design
According to Howard (1994), product design includes four elements: product dimension,
branding, packaging and product services. As per Frings (2005) product design is the external
visual things which are line, shape, and everything related to the brand.

Price
Kotler (2000) stated that price is the major important factor for buyer to determine to choose a
product. Nevertheless, consumers always compare the pervious price when buying the same
brand so that choosing the brand pricing format should be based on consumers perception.
According to (Lichtenstein et al., 1993) price has been defined as an informative factor that the
consumers usually use to evaluate the quality of products. Price is often used by buyers as a
measurement whenever they compare the intrinsic productwith its quality Zeithaml 1988).
According to Kotler (2000), there are five pricing structures based on different locations;
Geographical pricing, Price discounts and allowances, Promotional pricing, Discriminatory
pricing, Product-mix pricing.

Promotion
As per Kotler (2000) promotion involves all activities that companies communicate to the target
market. He also implied that the marketer must communicate promotional tools based on the
targeted audience reaction by searching a cognitive, affective, or behavioral response. There are
five major tools in the marketing communication mix; advertisings, sales promotions, public
relations, personal selling. Walters and Bergiel (1989) stated that promotion is any form of
transmitted information about the products and services of the firm to remind or encourage the
potential customers.
Kolter (2000) stated that perception of the repople differs on the basis of demographic factors
which consist of age, gender, family life cycle, income etc.
According to Wang et al., (2010) demographic variables are influenced by marketing mix
variables and are easy indicators for use in marketing. Demographic factors are important to
consider for business process regarding consumer behaviors in making their purchase such as
what, how, where and when (Reddy, 2010).
Age is one of the factors often used to segment for two purposes as age is the most helpful
substitute variable to determine perception, motivation, and interest (Engel, 1993). Kotler (2000)
has also supported Engel by stating that consumer wants and abilities change with age.
Different groups of age affects different needs and wants. According to (Kanuk & Schiffman,
2004) variables of age may be used for market segmentation especially for niche market. It is
one of the factor according got which consumer preferences change. Gidwani Devika (2002) in
her paper titled Branded Gold Jewellery Market in India mentioned that there is definitely a
market for branded jewellery especially if something is aimed at the younger generation, which
wants to buy fashionable real jewellery.

Consumers thoughts, values, wants and the decision to buy are influenced by gender related
behaviour (Kotler, 1997).Gender is named by society in terms of the aspects of biological sex
(Jafari, 2000). This study is focused on consumer perceptions regarding jewellery with respect to
gender too as jewellery department belongs mostly to women. Kotler again supported this
statement by putting forward the fact that some manufacturers are designing certain features to
appeal to women (Kotler, 2000).
According to Kanuk & Schiffman (2004), income is a strong ability to be able to pay for a
product or service. Purchasing power is based on current income, prices, savings, debt, and
available credit (Kotler, 2000). He also said that Purchasing power is based on current income,
prices, savings, debt, and available credit. He was supported by Peter and Olsen, 1986 by their
statement that different levels of income affect individuals values, behaviors and life style. As
per (Henslin, 2002) income is money received as wages, rents, interest, royalties, or proceeds
from business. Different levels of income affect individuals values, behaviors and life style
(Peter and Olsen, 1986).

Skinner (1994) stated that education also influences how decisions are made. Reedy (2010),
supported his view by saying that Education influences consumers choices.
Branding
The Indian jewellery market witnessed a shift in consumer perceptions of jewellery.
Instead of being regarded as the only investment option, it was being valued for its aesthetic
appeal. In other words, the focus seemed to have shifted from content to design. Trendy,
affordable and lightweight jewellery soon gained familiarity. Branded jewellery also gained
acceptance forcing traditional jewellers to go in for branding. To draw a conclusion from the
above literature review one can observe that there is immense scope for the growth of branded
jewellery.

Craig Symons (2004) the director of Osjag, a wholesaler of Gold jewellery, mentioned in his
paper that Branding gives customers more confidence in their purchasing decision as they can
identify with the brand and therefore feel theyve made a good purchase which they can show
their friends and family. This brand recognition gets retailers half the way through making a
sale before a customer even walks into their store. As per Mckinsey (2005) the branded
jewellery industry is still in its infancy, but increasing growth rates show that in a short time it
will corner a significant chunk of the market. The best compliment to the branded segment is that
traditional jewellers have also begun to design jewellery lines under a brand name. Osjag, (2009)
termed branding as an irreversible trend. According to him it gives clients a certain degree of
confidence that theyre buying a genuine product. Branded jewellery has arrived and earned its
place on world jewellery retail shelves. Shah Vipul (2012) , stated that as the branded jewellery
market came into trend, the number of gold retailers in the country increased sharply. Branded
players such as Tanishq, Oyzterbay, DDamas, Gili and Carbon opened outlets in various parts
of the country. Traditional jewellers also began to bring out lightweight jewellery, and some of
them even launched their in-house brands.